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AMI using PLC: a comparative study for Smart Grid Applications

Jean-Pierre Lobert CEO da Defidev

Analog or digital meter

· Analog meter needs internal pulse emitter or roller display external reader · Display reader shows total power consumption · Pulse provide differential consumption · Digital meter provides data covering a large number of features ( time of day indexes, peak intensity, quality of power delivery, usage information...)

Point to point communication or bus

· Analog meter usualy provides only analog point to point communication with a concentrator · Digital meters may support point to point communication or bus · Point to point requires star topology with concentrator as bus may support chain topology

Low rate PLC and BPL

· Low rate PLC is low power comsumption and cost effective but simplified protocol and low bit rate (some kbs) · BPL is supporting Mbps and IP protocols but requiring higher power consumption and a bit more expensive.

Key issues for decision maker

· Are meters analog, digital with p to p or bus connection? · Are current meters providing features required by services developpers? · Are meters concentrated in location easy to connect by wiring or spread over individual location without connection?

Some of many combinations

Analog concentrators For phone line or wireless connections AMI server

Digital gateways For PLC and or internet network

Individual combination

Pulse emitter

PSTN modem GSM/GPRS connections Analog concentrators For phone line or wireless connections AMI server

Collective analog combination

Pulse emitter

Analog concentrators For phone line or wireless connections AMI server

PSTN modem GSM/GPRS connections IP connection at building

Isolated digital combination

Digital Pt to Pt link RS232 ou ZVEI ou Flag PLC low rate bande A PSTN modem GSM/GPRS connections IP connection at building

AMI server

Collective digital combinations

Digital RS485 ou IEC Euridis bus low rate PLC bande A PSTN modem GSM/GPRS connections BPL DS2 PLC connection IP connection at building

Digital gateways For PLC and or internet network

AMI server

Full combination

Défidev proposal

Low rate band A PLC cloud Digital gateways For PLC and or internet network AMI server BPL IP cloud

Powerline Modem Applications

Utility/Industrial Performance Needs ­ Automated Meter Reading · Tariff and rate adjustments AMR · Change tariff commands SCADA · Load management Security Control And Data Acquisition Smart · Quality control of power Appliances delivery Voice HVAC · Prepayment monitoring... Multimedia

1kbps 10kbps 100kbps 1Mbps

Data integrity

Data rate

Powerline Modem

Concentrator

·

Performance ­ > 2,4 kbps user data rate (payload) ­ 12-bit address space (e-meters) ­ reach depending on network architecture (last-mile connection) improved by credit repetition protocol ­ Bit Error Rates (BER) better than 10-4 ­ Low Power Consumption · E-Meter ( 1.2-mW typ. active mode) · Modem Tx (< 0.2W)

Modem Specifications

· Adheres to CENELEC standard (EN50065) and FCC part 15 ­ Assigns frequency range to users ­ Limits power to 5-WRMS Frequency Range: Utility A-Band, fMOD 9kHz to 95kHz ­ 4 carriers between 9 kHz - 95 kHz

­ Protocol: PHY, MAC, DLMS IEC standard

·

·

·

­ 3rd-parties may provide higher level stacks (i.e. TCP/IP) Supported Interfaces: ­ RS-232 (test, legacy) ­ RS-485 (wired data-concentrators) Safety: ­ Dual high-voltage pick-up (HOT and NEUTRAL) ­ Transformers 4,000-V isolation tested

Full digital and PLC meter System architecture

· AMR modem to be included in the static meter design · Data concentrator with IP for data consolidation, meter management and IP interface with Utility and customer system · Utility SW for AMR data and eqipment management.

Static electricity meter with PLC interface

Embeded PLC modem

·Full static electricity meter ·PLC modem included ·DSM and multi tariff features

Static electricity meter with PLC interface

Reduces Time to Market

Startup current 8mA at 220V (0.1% of Ib=5A)

Single Point Calibration for Accuracy

Wide range operating temp (-40ºC to 85ºC)

350 micro-ohm shunt design (Ib=5A)

Wide Dynamic Range (40mA to 40A)

AMR concentrator

·Linux based concentrator with IP communications ·Three phases connection (400 V, 50/60 Hz) ·IEC compliant ·Standard protocols for Inf. System (FTP,HTTP...)

System schematic

IP PSTN link

DefiDev proposal for AMR architecture

Main features:

·Based on PLC back bone ·Index concentrator IP communication compliant ·Static meter with PLC modem included ·Data collector for pulse emitter conventional meters ·Completed with radio link for battery powered meters ·All télécommunication media based on IEC standard ·PLC communication range from 300 to 1200 m ·Radio communication range from 80 to 300 m

Having profit of broadband PLC to deploy AMR

HTA/BT Broadband PLC modems BGW HE

IP connection

Narrowband PLC modems

AMR concentrator linked to broadband PLC building gateway

·Linux based concentrator with IP communications ·Three phases connection (400 V, 50/60 Hz) ·IEC compliant ·Standard protocols for Inf. System (FTP,HTTP...)

Static meter with PLC interface for AMR architecture

IP

Featuring....

­ Measurement · Automatic Meter Reading (invoicing on real index) · Real time metering ( arrival or leaving a local ) · Quality of power delivery (sensitive customers) ­ Control (load management) · Change tariff commands · Tariff and rate adjustments · Prepayment monitoring · Load management · Security Control (for gas and water) ­ Communication · Customers information

Static electricity meter with PLC interface

Embeded PLC modem

·Full static electricity meter ·PLC modem included ·DSM and multi tariff features

Static electricity meter with PLC interface

Information

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