Read Microsoft Word - PRA Nghia Tho Report 0704D.doc text version

QUANG NGAI RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (RUDEP) - PHASE 2

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

RUDEP

VIETNAM-AUSTRALIA

Prepared for

AusAID

Australian Embassy 8 Dao Tan Street Ba Dinh District, Hanoi, VIET NAM

19 July 2004

42443858

Prepared by

URS Sustainable Development in association with Kellogg Brown & Root and World Wide Project Management Services Project Managers and Consultants Adelaide Australia

DONOR AGENCY

AusAID Australian Embassy 8 Dao Tan Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi, Viet Nam Ph: +84 4 8317754/Ext 175 (Project Officer), Fax: +84 4 8317711

LEAD COUNTERPART AGENCY

Department of Planning and Investment 96 Nguyen Nghiem Street, Quang Ngai Town Quang Ngai Province, Viet Nam Ph: +84 55 825701

PROGRAM MANAGEMENT UNIT

No 4 Pham Van Dong Street, Quang Ngai Town Quang Ngai Province, Viet Nam Ph: +84 55 816261-6, Fax: +84 55 816260

AUSTRALIAN MANAGING CONTRACTOR

URS Sustainable Development 25 North Terrace Hackney SA 5069 Ph: +61 8 8366 1000, Fax: +61 8 8366 1001

Program Manager:

...................................... Dee Hartvigsen International Projects Manager

Program Director:

...................................... Ted A'Bear Vice President Sustainable Development

URS Australia Pty Ltd 25 North Terrace, Hackney South Australia 5069 Australia Tel: 61 8 8366 1000 Fax: 61 8 8366 1001

Date: Reference: Status:

19 July 2004 42443858 Final

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

i

CONTENTS

Executive Summary 1 2 Introduction PRA Tools 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 ii 1 2

Historical Calendars............................................................................... 2 Focus Group Discussions...................................................................... 2 Seasonal Calendars .............................................................................. 2 Matrix Scoring and Ranking................................................................... 2 Wealth Ranking ..................................................................................... 2 3

Results of PRA Exercises in Nghia Tho Commune

3.1 Historical Timelines................................................................................ 3 3.2 Seasonal Calendars .............................................................................. 4 3.2.1 Rice Cropping ............................................................................. 4 3.2.2 Livestock ..................................................................................... 4 3.2.3 Weather ...................................................................................... 5 3.2.4 Expenditure and Borrowing......................................................... 5 3.3 Matrix Scoring and Ranking................................................................... 6 3.3.1 Livestock ..................................................................................... 6 3.3.2 Crops .......................................................................................... 6 3.3.3 Community Education Problems................................................. 6 3.3.4 Community Health Problems ...................................................... 7 3.3.5 Community Social Issues............................................................ 7 3.4 Wealth Ranking ..................................................................................... 8 3.5 Focus Group Discussion........................................................................ 9 4 Conclusion 11

TABLES

Table 1: General Classes and Characteristics of Wealth/Well-Being in Nghia Tho Commune ....................................................................................... 8

ANNEXES

Annex 1: Historical Timeline Annex 2: Seasonal Calendars Annex 3: Matrix Scoring and Ranking

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

ii

Executive Summary

PRA exercises were conducted in 2003 in Nghia Tho Commune. These exercises were undertaken to assist RUDEP to gain a better understanding of household resources and farming systems and is used as a tool to support participatory planning processes. Five PRA exercises were conducted in the Commune: historical timelines; seasonal calendars; matrix scoring and ranking; wealth ranking; and focus group discussions. · Historical timelines revealed the impact that natural disasters, particularly floods and droughts, have had on people in the Commune. The close proximity of households to the local river leaves many households vulnerable to flash flooding. Livelihood Project provide opportunities to mitigate flood damage and develop community coping mechanisms to deal with future floods. · Seasonal calendars revealed that 2 crops of rice are cultivated in Nghia Tho. Most paddy production is rain-fed; irrigation exists in some areas but has been severely damaged in previous floods. Many households are forced to cultivate shortly after the typhoon season and risk inundation of rice crops should further flooding occur. RUDEP is currently supporting the upgrading of the main irrigation canal which aims to stabilise rice production for approximately 50 Ha of paddy during the summer season. This increased intensification will need to be supported with IPM and rice cultivation technologies. · Seasonal calendars revealed that households commonly raise cattle, buffaloes, pigs and chickens. Diseases are common throughout the calendar year and particularly serious in buffaloes and cattle during the typhoon season (September to November). RUDEP can support training and technologies for households covering animal health technologies and vaccinations for common diseases (e.g. Newcastle Disease). · Expenditure and borrowing calendars demonstrated that households borrow money for production and consumption purposes. RUDEP can support the demand for credit through the Program's VSCFs and training activities. The VSCFs can also provide households with an avenue to deposit savings to cover miscellaneous expenses throughout the year. · The borrowing of food highlights a lack of food security. Issues such as child malnutrition will be prevalent in the Commune. RUDEP Livelihoods Projects provide the opportunity to improve food security through nutritional and child malnutrition programs. Appropriate demonstration activities with need to be implemented that address food access, availability, quantity and quality whilst providing an additional income source. Home gardens and semi-scavenging chicken production models will support such an approach. · Low educational levels and illiteracy were raised as important community problems by women in Matrix Scoring and Ranking exercises. The positive correlation between poverty and illiteracy is well recognised. Functional literacy and numeracy training would contribute to improving the basic knowledge and skills of households, increase their marketing capacity and ultimately support them to generate income. · Many H're minority households face marketing problems when selling products. These problems are caused by a number of related factors and leave households with difficulties in generating income. Attention needs to be given to build marketing power and capacity of households in Nghia Tho Commune and further incorporate marketing components in income generating activities. · A Matrix Scoring and Ranking exercise of community social problems revealed alcoholism and domestic violence as important problems (though considered a low priority). RUDEP must ensure that these issues are not ignored and RUDEP's

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

iii

·

·

approach to empower women will need to cover these issues to provide a foundation for household and community resolution of such social problems. Wealth ranking exercises were conducted in all 5 Villages in Nghia Tho Commune. Household participants identified 3 general class of wealth: rich; medium and poor. Of the 87 households ranked, 56 % were considered `poor', 31 % were medium, and 13 % were rich. The proportion of households considered poor in wealth ranking exercises was higher than the DOLISA poor household figure (76 %). Poor households were considered those that: - Live in poor housing conditions (thatched house); - Have few productive/household assets (e.g. no motorbike and very few livestock numbers); - Have no disposable income; - Have children with very low levels of education (e.g. Primary School) or no education; and

·

- Have large families (many children). These results reveal that activities targeted towards poor households will need to take into account their resource constraints. These results will be used identify poor households that will participate in RUDEP activities to ensure active pro-poor targeting in the Commune.

The PRA exercises have provided a foundation for RUDEP to facilitate the application of participatory planning activities in Nghia Tho Commune. The analysed results of these exercises were fed back to households through Village Planning Meetings. It is anticipated that these PRA exercises will provide a foundation for RUDEP activities to respond to needs of the poor and will continue to involve them in planning, monitoring and evaluation of RUDEP activities.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

1

1

Introduction

RUDEP is a 10-year poverty reduction and rural development initiative funded by the Australian and Vietnamese Governments that aims to generate income for poor households in Quang Ngai Province. Participatory planning processes are key to implementing RUDEP activities and involve the active participation of poor households. Ultimately, PPP activities implemented by RUDEP identify problems faced by poor rural households and involve these households in developing and implementing activities to overcome these problems. PRA exercises are considered an important PPP tool that encourages households to identify, plan, implement and evaluate activities. Competency profile assessments identified PRA as being an important skill that staff, particularly RUDEP DDOs, should possess and would improve ability of the Program to respond to the needs of households and facilitate PPP. Consequently, training on PRA that included facilitation skills, conducting different exercises and analysing results was undertaken. The improved skill levels of RUDEP staff allowed the Program to conduct PRA exercises in all Communes. A range of PRA exercises were conducted with different groups of households in Nghia Tho Commune (Tu Nghia District) in 2004. These exercises were facilitated by the Tu Nghia District Development Officer and Commune Officials to develop a greater understanding of household resources, farming systems, production problems and opportunities. This report highlights the results of seven PRA exercises conducted in Nghia Tho Commune: · · · · · Historical timelines; Focus group discussions; Matrix scoring and ranking; Seasonal calendars; and Wealth ranking.

The report highlights the main findings and the implications of the results to RUDEP. The analysed PRA results were importantly fed back to households while conducting RUDEP's Village Planning Meetings and provided a foundation for identifying problems and activities at these meetings. PRA exercises will continue to be used by RUDEP in Nghia Tho Commune as a planning, monitoring and evaluation tool to support households and facilitate participatory planning processes.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

2

2

PRA Tools

This report highlights five PRA tools that have different uses and applications.

2.1

Historical Calendars

Historical timeline exercises are conducted to highlight trends and key points in the history of the Commune or Village that households considered had an impact on their livelihoods ­ either positively or negatively.

2.2

Focus Group Discussions

Focus group discussions facilitate discussion on a specific topic commonly related to a community problem or issues. The exercise ultimately encourages households involved to proposed solutions to these problems.

2.3

Seasonal Calendars

Seasonal calendars are conducted to illustrate important activities, problems or resource changes throughout a calendar year or production cycle. They can investigate communitybased activities, livestock production, cropping and cultivation, weather and climatic conditions, and expenditure and borrowing.

2.4

Matrix Scoring and Ranking

Matrix scoring and ranking are conducted to identify the various livestock or crop varieties in a Commune. Criteria are then identified and households score and rank each livestock or crop variety against the criteria. The exercise allows RUDEP and the households to understand why households prefer different livestock or crop varieties over others.

2.5

Wealth Ranking

Wealth ranking is conducted to allow households to define differing levels of wealth in a Commune and the households that belong to a particular class of wealth. The characteristics of each class of wealth are defined. The results of wealth ranking exercises facilitate an understanding of the characteristics and resources of households of a particular wealth class, particularly the poor.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

3

3

Results of PRA Exercises in Nghia Tho Commune

This PRA Report compiles the results from the PRA exercises conducted in Nghia Tho Commune. The Report importantly highlights the main findings and the implications of the results to RUDEP. Diagrams, figures and tables are attached as Annexes and present the results of the PRA exercises. Five PRA exercises were conducted in Nghia Tho Commune: · · · · · Historical timelines; Seasonal calendars; Matrix scoring and ranking; Wealth ranking; and Focus group discussions.

All PRA exercises were conducted with small groups of households that were identified by Village/Hamlet leaders and Commune officials. Attention was given to ensure that women and poor households were represented and participated. The PRA exercises were conducted in local people's houses.

3.1

Historical Timelines

The historical timeline exercise was conducted with 22 households from Village 1 and Village 2 in Nghia Tho Commune. The results are presented in Annex 1 and revealed that: · Households lived in traditional H're stilt houses before 1978. These were replaced in 1986 with constructed houses. The change to this style of housing was due to Government directives. Electricity was only recently connected to the Commune in 1996 and resulted in a Commune Health Centre being built and a radio being connected to the CPC office. This improved the health of people and their ability to access information. A serious malaria epidemic affected people in the Commune in 1997 and most households had a family member infected. District Health Officials spent one week in the Commune assisting local authorities in the Commune to treat and prevent further infections. A serious flood affected the Commune in 1999. Many houses, bridges and 2 hectares of paddy land were swept away. Many households live in close proximity to the river passing through the Commune and consequently are vulnerable to flash flooding. An epidemic disease of buffaloes struck the Commune in 2000 and most animals died. Most households did not have information on the disease or know any preventive methods or vaccines.

·

·

·

·

This exercise highlighted some of the difficulties that upland and remote H're communities face. Basic infrastructure (e.g. a Commune Health Centre, telecommunications and electricity) have only recently been connected to the Commune (mid- to late-1990s). This is in comparison to many lowland Communes which had similar infrastructure items built in the late-1980s and early 1990s.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

4

Flooding and livestock epidemics were also raised as important events that affected people's livelihoods. Households and agriculture are particularly susceptible to flooding. RUDEP has initiated activities to mitigate this potential damage through strengthening irrigation systems in the Commune and further opportunities exist to mitigate flood damage through livelihoods projects. Technical support for households is also justified to prevent the occurrence of livestock disease epidemics through implementing training activities in increasing awareness and the administering of vaccines.

3.2

Seasonal Calendars

Seasonal calendar exercises were conducted with household representatives from Village 1 and Village 2 in the Commune. These exercises were conducted for rice cultivation, livestock production, weather and seasonal activities. Diagrammatic representations of the results of these exercises are attached in Annex 2 of this report. 3.2.1 Rice Cropping The results of the seasonal calendar of rice production revealed that: · Two crops of rice are cultivated in the Commune and harvested in May and September. Fields are prepared and rice is sown in February/March and October/December each year. Rice production is influenced by limited water availability in summer (June to August) and floods in the typhoon season (September to November). Nghia Tho Commune two types of paddy; irrigated and rain-fed. Irrigated crops can sometimes be cultivated during the dry season (depending on water availability) whilst some non-irrigated paddy is cultivated during the typhoon season.

· ·

Irrigation influences the cropping cycle of rice cultivation in Nghia Tho Commune. Summer presents many difficulties for cultivating rice in rain-fed systems and forces households to cultivate rice during or shortly after the typhoon season. This leaves their crops vulnerable to damage should further flooding occur. RUDEP consequently identified the need for improved irrigation to reduce this vulnerability and is supporting the upgrading of the main irrigation system. This will allow the stable production of approximately 50 Ha of rice during the summer season and contribute to increasing rice yields. However, as rice production intensifies as a result of such activities, further introduction and expansion of rice cultivation and IPM technologies is justified. 3.2.2 Livestock The seasonal calendar for livestock production revealed: · Livestock are purchased from February to April for production (shortly after or during the Tet New Year period). · Disease outbreaks in cattle are most common during the wet season (October ­ November) and during winter for chickens (January ­ February). · Sale of livestock is most common in December with households in the Commune selling shortly before the Tet New Year period when prices are slightly higher. This exercise demonstrated that epidemic diseases of livestock occur annually. It is probable that these epidemics would impact heavily on household income. This issue is

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

5

compounded by no local paravet living and working in the Commune. Opportunities exist for RUDEP to support livestock producing households through awareness raising campaigns on the benefits of vaccinating animals. Vaccines exist in Quang Ngai Province for many of the diseases raised. It is likely that RUDEP, with support from the SubDepartment of Animal Health, could support training activities on the vaccination of animals and preventing livestock diseases. 3.2.3 Weather The Seasonal Chart of weather and climatic conditions revealed that: · Heavy rains and flooding occur from September to November and are associated with typhoons and tropical depressions. Much land is water-logged and not able to be cultivated during this period. June and July are the hottest months of the year. Little water is available for irrigation and production during this time. Rain and storms commonly occur in May and August when weather conditions change. These sudden changes in conditions and temperature are associated with diseases in livestock.

· ·

This exercise highlighted difficulties associated with cultivating crops during the typhoon season. The close proximity of the Commune to the river leaves households susceptible to flood damage. RUDEP's Livelihood Projects provide a opportunity to support households to prevent damage caused by floods and develop community coping strategies. Similar cultivation difficulties occur during summer and presents opportunities for households, with support from RUDEP, to trial the adaptability of drought-tolerant crop varieties. 3.2.4 Expenditure and Borrowing The seasonal expenditure and borrowing calendar revealed: · Rice is commonly borrowed from neighbours from July to October for household consumption purposes. · Money is borrowed in December to pay for Tet New Year expenses. The money borrowed is typically repaid in March and April when crops are harvested. Two types of borrowing are common in the Commune; borrowing funds to cover Tet Holiday and other expenses, and the borrowing of food (rice) for household consumption. Opportunities exist for RUDEP to support this demand for credit through the Program's VSCFs. Members would be supported with income generating activities and enables households with a locally available facility that allows households to deposit savings. This may contribute to reducing the need for borrowing for Tet Holiday expenses. The borrowing of food is a common characteristic of many poor households in upland ethnic minority Communes. This highlights a lack of food security and it is likely that health and nutritional problems would be prevalent (e.g. child malnutrition). Opportunities exist for RUDEP to support households to increase their food security through implementing appropriate demonstration and training activities that will increase food availability and access. Home gardens and similar activities will support this approach.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

6

3.3

Matrix Scoring and Ranking

A matrix scoring and ranking exercise was conducted for livestock, crops, and community education, health and social problems and issues. The results of these exercises are presented in Annex 3. 3.3.1 Livestock The livestock matrix scoring and ranking exercise was conducted in Village 2 and revealed that: · Cattle and buffaloes are the most preferred livestock variety to raise. This is because of their high profit, are easy to raise and have few diseases. · Dogs and ducks are the least preferred livestock variety to raise. Dogs are considered low profit and difficult to sell. Ducks obtain a low profit, are rather difficult to raise, and require high labour inputs. · Chickens and pigs obtain a moderate profit (less than cattle and buffaloes) and are easy to sell, but are commonly affected by diseases. This exercise demonstrated that households have a strong preference for raising buffaloes and cattle. This is largely due to their high profit, few diseases and they are easy to raise. Chickens and pigs are popular to raise among people in the Commune. However, household production of these varieties is affected by diseases and epidemics. This highlights opportunities to support households to reduce production risks through implementing animal health training. Such an initiative would need to incorporate information for households on the benefits of vaccines and vaccination procedures. 3.3.2 Crops The crop matrix scoring and ranking exercise was conducted in Village 2 and revealed that: · Cassava and `other industrial crops' are the most preferred crop varieties. Cassava is considered easy to sow, requires little insecticide, obtains a high profit and is easy to sell. `Other industrial crops' require little labour and insecticide; however they are not easy to sell. Rice and maize are the least preferred crop varieties. Rice is considered difficult to sow, and requires high levels of labour and pesticides. Maize is also considered difficult to sow and requires high labour inputs. Cassava and sugar cane have the highest profit levels while bananas and Eucalypts return low profit yields.

·

·

This exercise demonstrated that there are only 7 main cropping varieties cultivated in Village 2. Opportunities exist for RUDEP to support households to diversify crop production. It is clear that marketing and the sale of crops is a problem facing many households. Therefore, any cropping activities, including the introduction of new varieties, should be supported with marketing training and assistance. 3.3.3 Community Education Problems The matrix scoring and ranking exercise of community education problems was conducted with 6 women from Village 2. The results of the exercise revealed that:

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

7

· · ·

The low education level of parents and a lack of classrooms were considered the most serious community education problems. Illiteracy attributed to large families and poverty was ranked as the third most serious education problem in the Commune. A lack of transportation means to attend school or living a long distance away from schools were ranked as the least critical education problems.

This exercise highlighted education problems affecting both parents and their children. Parents typically have extremely low education levels and consequently are often lack sufficient literacy and numeracy skills. A strong correlation between poverty and illiteracy is well recognised within Viet Nam. Functional literacy and numeracy training would improve the basic knowledge of households in the Commune and assist them to generate income. 3.3.4 Community Health Problems The matrix scoring and ranking exercise of community health problems was conducted with 6 women in Village 1. The results of the exercise revealed that: · · · A lack of equipment and malaria were considered the most serious community health problems in the Commune. The lack of a doctor and medicine were also considered important community health problems. Gynaecological infections and the lack of an examining room in the Commune Health Centre were ranked as the least most serious health problems.

This exercise demonstrates that health facilities in the Commune are lacking and considered to impact on the health status of local people. The Health Centre lacks sufficient supplies, equipment and a Doctor. Malaria is considered a serious health problem in the community. Attention should be given to preventing future outbreaks of the infection. RUDEP has the opportunity to support such a prevention campaign through Livelihood Projects should households request the activity. 3.3.5 Community Social Issues The matrix scoring and ranking exercise of community social problems was conducted with 6 women in Village 1. The results of the exercise revealed that: · · · Living far away from markets and no kindergarten were considered the most important social issues in the Commune. Lack of information was identified as a community social issue. This related to a lack of information provided by either televisions, radio or newspapers. Alcoholism and domestic violence were identified as low ranked but prevalent community social issues.

The results of this exercise demonstrate that households generally lack information. This relates to information on markets (and the far distance from Nghia Tho Commune to markets) and general information provided through radio and television channels. Access to general information through radios and television will increase as households are

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

8

connected to electricity and can afford items such as televisions and radios. Integrating marketing training and information to households will support access to general information related to production and will assist households to increase income. Alcoholism and domestic violence are prevalent in the Commune but considered a low priority issue. RUDEP must ensure though that these problems are not ignored. The Program plans to initiate gender studies and issues such as domestic violence and alcoholism will need to be considered. RUDEP's approach of empowering women in poor households, particularly through increased recognition of the role women play in development, will provide a foundation for household and community resolution of such social problems.

3.4

Wealth Ranking

Wealth ranking exercises were conducted in both Villages in Nghia Tho Commune; Village 1 and Village 2. Three general classes of wealth/well-being were identified by households: rich/well-off; average; and poor and are presented in Table 1. Table 1: General Classes and Characteristics of Wealth/Well-Being in Nghia Tho Commune

Criteria Housing BetterOff/Medium House with a tiled roof Motorbike TV Household Assets Video Electric fan Wooden Sofa Table > 2 buffaloes Productive Assets Number of Children > 2 cattle Raise 5-7 pigs 2-3 children Secondary School Education 1-2 buffaloes 2-3 pigs 1 or no cattle Large family (many children) Primary/Secondary School (sometimes) Sometimes no schooling Available Wood collected from the hills and mountains 11 HHs (13%) Not available Wood collected from the hills and mountains 27 HHs (31%) Not available Wood collected from the hills and mountains 49 HHs (56%) 1-2 buffaloes No pigs No cattle Large family (many children) No schooling or up to Primary School Medium House with a tiled roof Motorbike or bicycle Television or radio Poor Thatched house None Sometimes a bicycle

Disposable HH Income Cooking Fuel General Proportion of HHs (per Village)

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

9

The results of the wealth ranking in Nghia Tho Commune revealed that of the 87 households ranked in the Commune: · · · 11 households (13%) were considered being `rich' or `well-off'; 27 households (31%) were considered being `average' or `medium'; and 49 households (56%) were considered being `poor'.

Table 1 demonstrates that poor households were those that: · · · · · Live in poor housing conditions (thatched house); Have few productive/household assets (e.g. no motorbike and very few livestock numbers); Have no disposable income; Have children with very low levels of education (e.g. Primary School) or no education; and Have large families (many children).

The majority of households in Nghia Tho Commune were considered being of `poor' and `medium' levels of wealth/wellbeing; very few households were considered being `welloff'. Wealth ranking provided an estimate of 56 % of households being poor. This result is lower than the official DOLISA figure of poor households in the Commune (76 % poor households). Wealth ranking exercises will be used in Nghia Tho Commune to target poor households (both poor according to DOLISA criteria and wealth ranking results). The results will also allow RUDEP to design activities for poor households that respond to their resource constraints. Wealth ranking will also be used to identify poor households to participate in VSCFs in order to support poor households to access credit.

3.5

Focus Group Discussion

A focus group discussion was held with a group of men and women from Village 1 and Village 2 in Nghia Tho Commune. The RUDEP DDO initiated a discussion between the participants on the most serious problem affecting livestock and agricultural production in the community. The majority of focus group discussion participants cultivate rice as an activity to generate income and for household consumption. However, the potential income generated from rice production is considered low. Compounding the problem is the degraded irrigation system in the Commune. The canal is broken in some sections meaning that some areas of land lack water for rice production. Households therefore are left susceptible to losing their rice crop because in summer some field can dry up affect the rice crop. Conversely, in the flood season when water is available, households are vulnerable to losing their crop due to flash flooding. A potential solution to this problem is the use of mobile water pumps to irrigate fields and stabilise rice production during summer. Livestock production is viewed as a potentially high profit income generating activity. However, households face many risks when raising livestock. There is no Commune

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

10

paravet and households have no knowledge on the prevention and control of livestock diseases. There is limited land now available for cattle and buffaloes to graze on and households lack knowledge on the cultivation of forage and fodder. Labour inputs to livestock are also high, especially for women. This is because many households live far away from the river passing through the Commune and are forced to bring water to the house for their animals. Participants involved in the exercised proposed that animal health training and forage/fodder planting technologies were needed to support livestock production in the Commune. Households source additional income through fire wood from the mountain areas in the Commune. This is largely sold to be used for cooking purposes; however the profit is low and labour inputs are high. Many households cultivate cassava and sugar cane which are considered high profit crop varieties. Harvest provides households with good income and allows some money to be saved. Further expansion of sugar cane, cassava and sweet potato production in the Commune, through the exploitation of forest areas, is now prohibited by the Government. This in turn has lead to a reduction in available feed for pigs. The households expressed that income has reduced as a result and left many households with few funds for general household expenditure. Consequently, many households lack food security for 2-3 months per year. The average income of a family of 3-4 people was estimated to be 15,000 VND per day; not enough to support general household expenditure throughout a year.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

11

4

Conclusion

The results of the PRA activities in Nghia Tho Commune revealed many opportunities for RUDEP to support households to generate income, improve their livelihoods and facilitate participatory planning processes. · Severe climatic events and livestock diseases have occurred throughout the history of the Commune and have impacted heavily on people's livelihoods. It is possible that similar events may occur in the future. Therefore, RUDEP could support activities that aim to mitigate against the potential effects of natural disasters (particularly flooding) and support activities that will improve the health and resilience of livestock to diseases. Households commonly raise cattle, buffaloes, chickens and pigs; however seasonal calendars reveal that serious livestock diseases occur and persist at the common times throughout the year (e.g. October ­ December in cattle). Consequently, RUDEP could support households with the provision of the introduction new livestock raising technologies and animal health training. Two crops of rice are cultivated in Nghia Tho Commune. Seasonal calendars revealed that most rice is cultivated in rain-fed irrigating systems; irrigation either does not exist or has been severely damaged in previous floods. This leaves many households and their rice crops vulnerable to damage. Many households are forced to cultivate shortly after the typhoon season and risk inundation of rice crops should further flooding occur. RUDEP is currently supporting the upgrading of the main irrigation canal which aims to stabilise rice production for approximately 50 Ha of paddy during the summer season. This increased intensification will need to be supported with IPM and rice cultivation technologies. Two types of borrowing occur in Nghia Tho Commune; borrowing money for Tet Holiday expenses, and borrowing food (rice) for household consumption. Opportunities exist for RUDEP to support this demand for credit through the Program's VSCFs and allow households to deposit savings. A lack of food security for many households is apparent. Opportunities exist for RUDEP to support households to increase their food security through implementing appropriate demonstration and training activities that will increase food availability and access. Home gardens and similar activities will support this approach. Matrix scoring and ranking exercises revealed that cassava and `other industrial crops' are the most preferred crop varieties. Opportunities exist for RUDEP to support households to diversify crop production. It is important that when RUDEP supports any cropping activities in the Commune, attention and technical advice is given to marketing issues. The low education level of parents was considered the most important community education problem. This was reflected in literacy being raised as a problem for poor households with many family members. Functional literacy and numeracy training is an activity that is justified to support empowering households, especially women, and increase their capacity to generate income. Health services in the Commune are poor with little equipment or medicines and no Doctor actively working in the Commune Health Centre. Diseases such as malaria are serious health problems and a concern for many households. RUDEP has the opportunity to support health campaigns that apply prevention-based approaches in the Commune to reduce the likelihood of diseases like malaria reoccurring.

·

·

·

·

·

·

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

12

·

RUDEP's gender equity approach and mainstreaming gender issues in Program activities is essential in Nghia Tho Commune. A number of social issues were raised by women including illiteracy, domestic violence and alcoholism. Activities to identify gender roles and relationships will importantly lay a foundation for empowering women. Wealth ranking exercises revealed that 56 % of households were considered poor. This figure is in contrast to the 76 % DOLISA poor household figure in the Commune. It is evident that there are high proportion of households in the Commune with few household and productive assets and little income. RUDEP will continue to use these results to design activities appropriate to the resource constraints of poor households and target poor households to encourage their participation in Program activities.

·

Results of the PRA exercises in Nghia Tho Commune have provided a foundation for understanding local farming systems and resources. These results will be used to support the design of RUDEP activities in the Commune. Efforts will be made to increase the use of PRA exercises to assist in the design, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all RUDEP activities.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Annex 1 Historical Timeline

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

Annex 1-1

Annex 1: Historical Timeline

Figure 1: Historical Timeline; Nghia Tho Commune

Historical Timeline; Nghia Tho Commune

1995 Some cattle were raised in the Commune The school was repaired and upgraded The Commune Health Centre was built The road to the Commune was still in poor condition 1999 Large flood swept away houses, bridges and paddy land No human fatalities in the flood 2003 Cattle, pigs and chickens commonly raised No market place in the Commune No factory in the Commune RUDEP and Madison (NGO) came to the Commune

Before 1978 Agriculture-based livelihoods Living in stilt houses Unsettled school (thatched with earthen walls) Nghia Tho was a Village of Nghia Thang Commune

1998 Drought lasting for 7-8 months causing crop failure and livestock disease epidemics The road into the Commune was widened

1986 Stilt houses in the Commune replaced with constructed houses

Before 1978

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 1977

1991 Nghia Tho Commune was established CPC Office was constructed 1978 All buffalo in the Commune died during a disease outbreak No cattle raised in the Commune

2004

1996 Electricity connected to the Commune Radio broadcast in the CPC

2002 Post Office built in the Commune Communication system in the Commune improved 2000 Most buffalo in the Commune killed by a disease epidemic

1997 Malaria outbreak in the Commune Most people affected District Health Centre staff spent 3-4 days in the Commune treating people

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Annex 2 Seasonal Calendars

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

Annex 2-1

Annex 2: Seasonal Calendars

Figure 1: Seasonal Rice Cropping Chart; Nghia Tho Commune

Seasonal Rice Cropping Chart; Nghia Tho Commune

Mar Sowing of Seed Feb Ploughing and raking Jan Fertiliser application Mar- Apr Weeding Fertiliser Application Jun - Jul Aug Field Preparation Weeding Planting Rice Irrigated paddy Fertiliser Application Oct Soil preparation Ploughing (2nd Non-Irrigated Crop

Dec Sowing of Seed

Feb Jan

Mar

Apr

May Harvest

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec Dec

Harvest (2nd Irrigated Paddy Crop) Jun - Aug Unused Fields Non-irrigated fields

Notes: Two crops of rice are cultivated in irrigated paddy fields; only one crop of rice is cultivated in non-irrigated paddy fields. Rice cultivation in Nghia Tho is heavily influenced by limited water availability during the dry season and high flood water levels during the wet season. A clear differentiation between irrigated and non-irrigated paddy production was evident; irrigated paddy crops can be cultivated during the dry season (June - September), whilst non irrigated paddy is cultivated in the wet season (October - January) when the risk of flood damage to crops is high.

Figure 2: Seasonal Livestock Production; Nghia Tho Commune

Seasonal Chart of Livestock Production; Nghia Tho Commune

Purchase of Cattle

Apr - Nov Good time for raising chickens Jun - Nov Good time for raising pigs Purchase of Ducks

Oct - Nov Raising of Ducks

Purchase of Pigs Purchase of Chickens

Dec Good time for selling pigs and chickens

Feb Jan

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec Dec

Mar Diarrhoea and constipation in pigs May Jan Disease in chickens Chicken disease epidemics

Oct - Nov Diarrhoea in cattle and buffaloes Dec Disease in chickens

Notes: Purchase of most livestock occurs shortly after the Tet Holiday period. Most selling of livestock is in December and January, shortly before the Tet New Year period when demand for meat is high. The best time for raising most livestock varieties is from April to November. Ducks are purchased in September and are raised during October and November; this is likely to be due to the high rain levels creating favourable conditions for duck raising. Disease occurs frequently throughout the year; however it is evident that specific diseases and epidemics commonly occur at specific times of the year.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

Annex 2-2

Figure 3: Seasonal Weather Chart; Nghia Tho Commune

Figure 4: Seasonal Expenditure and Borrowing Chart; Nghia Tho Commune

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Annex 3 Matrix Scoring and Ranking

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

Annex 3-1

Annex 3: Matrix Scoring and Ranking

Table 1: Livestock Matrix Scoring and Ranking Exercise; Village 2; Nghia Tho Commune

Livestock Buffalo Cattle Chicken Pig Duck Dog High Profit 6 5 3 4 2 1 Easy to Raise 6 6 5 3 2 4 Less Labor 4 4 5 3 2 6 Few Diseases 6 5 1 2 3 4 Easy to Sell 3 2 6 5 4 1 Total Ranking 25 22 20 17 13 16 1 2 3 4 6 5

Table 2: Crop Matrix Scoring and Ranking Exercise; Village 2; Nghia Tho Commune

Crop Rice Cassava Sugarcane Banana Maize Eucalyptus Other industrial crops Easy to Sow 1 7 3 6 2 4 5 Little Labour 1 4 3 7 2 5 6 Insecticide 1 6 5 4 3 7 7 High Profit 5 6 7 1 4 2 3 Easy to Sell 7 6 3 4 5 2 2 Total 15 29 21 22 16 20 23 Ranking 7 1 4 3 6 5 2

Table 3: Scoring and Ranking Matrix of Community Education Problems According to Women in Village 1; Nghia Tho Commune

Problems Parents at low level of education Lack Classrooms No means to go to School Books, notebooks and pens Far from Secondary Schools Illiteracy Caused by a Large Family and Poverty 1st woman 6 2nd woman 6 3rd woman 5 4th woman 6 5th woman 6 6th woman 6 Total Ranking 35 1

5 1 2

5 2 3

6 1 3

5 1 3

5 1 3

5 1 3

31 7 17

2 6 4

3

4

2

2

2

2

15

5

4

1

4

4

4

4

21

3

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Quang Ngai Rural Development Program (RUDEP) - Phase 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Report: Nghia Tho Commune; Tu Nghia District

Annex 3-2

Table 4: Scoring and Ranking Matrix of Community Health Problems; Village 2; Nghia Tho Commune

Problems Lack of Medicine Lack of a Doctor Lack Equipment Malaria Gynaecological disease) Health Centre Lacks a Room 1st woman 6 5 4 3 2 1 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Total Ranking woman woman woman woman woman 4 3 3 2 6 24 4 5 6 3 2 1 5 4 6 2 1 4 5 6 2 1 3 5 4 6 1 3 4 5 2 1 25 28 27 16 6 3 1 2 5 6

Table 5: Scoring and Ranking Matrix of Community Social Problems; Village 1; Nghia Tho Commune

Problems Far from Market Lack a Radio or Television No Kindergarten No Meeting or Entertainmen t Place Alcoholism Domestic Violence No Newspaper 1st woman 7 6 3 5 2nd woman 7 3 5 6 3rd woman 5 6 7 1 4th woman 5 6 7 3 5th woman 4 6 3 7 6th woman 7 3 6 5 Total Ranking 35 30 31 27 1 3 2

4 1 2

4 1 2

4 3 2

4 1 2

5 2 1

4 1 2

25 9 11

3 4 4

Note to Tables 1-5: Yellow represents the highest ranked activities, red the lower ranked activities `6' is the most preferred activity, `1' the least preferred activity.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Limitations URS Australia Pty Ltd (URS) has prepared this report for the use of AusAID Quang Ngai Rural Development Program in accordance with the usual care and thoroughness of the consulting profession. It is based on generally accepted practices and standards at the time it was prepared. No other warranty, expressed or implied, is made as to the professional advice included in this report. It is prepared in accordance with the scope of work and for the purpose outlined in the Program Design Document. The methodology adopted and sources of information used by URS are outlined in this report. URS has made no independent verification of this information beyond the agreed scope of works and URS assumes no responsibility for any inaccuracies or omissions. No indications were found during our investigations that information contained in this report as provided to URS was false. This report was prepared during July 2004 and is based on the conditions encountered and information reviewed at the time of preparation. URS disclaims responsibility for any changes that may have occurred after this time. This report should be read in full. No responsibility is accepted for use of any part of this report in any other context or for any other purpose or by third parties. This report does not purport to give legal advice. Legal advice can only be given by qualified legal practitioners.

J:\JOBS\42443858\6000 BMS AND DELIVERABLES\6.1 REPORTS\6.1.3 FINAL REPORTS\PRA\PRA NGHIA THO REPORT 0704D.DOC

Information

Microsoft Word - PRA Nghia Tho Report 0704D.doc

27 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

890753