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Reinforcement Worksheets

To jump to a location in this book 1. Click a bookmark on the left. To print a part of the book 1. Click the Print button. 2. When the Print window opens, type in a range of pages to print. The page numbers are displayed in the bar at the bottom of the document. In the example below, "1 of 151" means that the current page is page 1 in a file of 151 pages.

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Reinforcement

The Plane Truth

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Scientific Methods."

You plan to enter a paper airplane contest sponsored by Talkin' Physical Science magazine. The person whose airplane flies the farthest wins a lifetime subscription to the magazine! The week before the contest, you watch an airplane landing at a nearby airport. You notice that the wings of the airplane have flaps. The paper airplanes you've been testing do not have wing flaps. What question would you ask yourself based on these observations? Write your question in the space below for "State the problem." Then tell how you could use the other steps in the scientific method to investigate the problem.

1. State the problem.

2. Form a hypothesis.

3. Test the hypothesis.

4. Analyze the results.

5. Draw conclusions.

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48

Science in Our World

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Fresh Water in the United States

Complete this activity after you finish reading the section "The Active River."

Examine this map, and answer the questions that follow.

1. Sketch and label the following features using different colors: a. the Mississippi River and its major tributaries b. the Mississippi River drainage basin c. the Continental Divide d. the Mississippi Delta e. the Rocky Mountains 2. Why do you think the Continental Divide is located where it is?

3. The term delta comes from the Greek letter for D. The symbol for capital delta is . Why do you think this letter for this symbol is used as a symbol for such a formation?

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47

The Flow of Fresh Water

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Dig It!

Complete this activity after you finish reading the section "Water Underground."

Imagine that you are living in a frontier town called Dustville in the Wild West. It is 1905, and there is no available running water. All of Dustville's water must be drawn from a well or found in springs. The mayor of Dustville has asked you to survey the land and drill a well for the town. In the illustration below, choose a good spot for a well, and indicate how deep the hole should be drilled. Choose wisely because the whole town is counting on you.

Why did you chose to locate your well at this point? What issues did you consider in determining the well's depth? Use terms from the chapter to explain your answer.

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The Flow of Fresh Water

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The Ocean's Environment

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Life in the Ocean." Look at this illustration of an ocean environment, and answer the questions below.

1. Label the following zones of the benthic environment on the illustration.

intertidal zone neritic zone

benthic zone oceanic zone

2. Why do you think the dolphin was placed at that particular spot in the illustration?

3. Name three organisms you might find in the benthic zone.

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56

Exploring the Oceans

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Going with the Flow

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Currents."

It's the adventure of a lifetime--a trip around the world, entirely under sail. Here's your chance to take on the global sailing challenge without even getting wet. Use this map to plan your adventure. Answer the questions as you plan your route.

1. Choose the location from which you will set sail.

2. Which ocean current lies offshore from where you set sail?

3. If you float your boat on this current, where will it take you? List the currents whose flow will take you around the world. If the current is not named on the map, describe its direction.

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The Movement of Ocean Water

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The following questions will help you identify possible trouble on your journey. Use the names of ocean currents in your answers.

4. Which currents flow in different directions from the currents you will be riding? Where are these currents near your currents?

5. Where are the currents deflected by continents or chains of islands?

6. Where do currents form large circles that might take you for an unnecessary spin?

7. Where do currents coming from the poles make the sailing unusually cold?

8. Revise your route based on your answers to questions 4 to 7. Then write a short paragraph describing the route of your sailing adventure.

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The Movement of Ocean Water

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Mastering the Waves

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Waves."

After many weeks at sea, you've become a master at sailing on the open ocean. You are, of course, sharing your adventure with others by keeping a daily sailing record, or log. (Maybe your log is even online.) Add the name of your boat to the title of this log. Write in the dates. Then use the terms listed below to fill in the blanks and complete the information. breakers crest storm surges surf swell trough tsunamis undertow wave height whitecaps Log for the Voyage of the

1. Date:

. This was a glorious day for sailing. The

winds were steady. For the most part, the waves were only gentle, rolling . However, for a few hours in the afternoon the wind became quite brisk, the waves picked up, and we were treated to the sight of

2. Date:

splashing across the horizon. . The day began with no wind at all. But there

were dark clouds on the horizon, so we prepared for bad weather. Sure enough, the wind picked up and the sea got rough. Soon we were on a roller coaster ride. Down in the as if we were walled in by water. Up at the of each wave, it seemed , we

could see that these walls of water stretched into the distance. After four more hours of pitching and rolling, we had a brief rain, and then the seas calmed down.

3. Date:

. The seas were choppy today. From crest to was about 6 feet. Our decks were

trough, the

sprayed as we crested each wave. It rained just enough to give us much appreciated fresh water showers.

4. Date:

. Today we ran into our first bad weather in a

week and had some scary moments. The wind blew up very suddenly, and kept changing directions. We battled higher and higher waves. Then we saw land ahead. We got close enough to see the rows of

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42

The Movement of Ocean Water

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heading toward the shore. We were blown even closer, and we could see the white ribbon of the beach. I imagined our boat being driven into the and breaking to bits, and ourselves swept back out to sea by the . The worst didn't happen. We

managed to swing the sails around and catch a breeze that moved us back out to sea. But I knew then that I would never make a good surfer.

5. Date:

. The radio reported a mild earthquake,

thousands of miles to the north of us, but still across the same ocean. So we have kept the radio on for alerts of

6. Date:

. After several rough days in a row, we were

all exhausted. We voted to change our route and head for a short land break at this delightful tropical port. After we landed we heard that a serious storm had hit our original destinations, with of several

feet flooding the whole area. So we feel pretty lucky that we decided to change our route.

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The Movement of Ocean Water

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A Matter of Density

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Physical Properties."

Imagine that you work at a chemical plant. This morning, four different liquid chemicals accidentally spilled into the same tank. Luckily, none of the liquids reacted with one another! Also, you know the liquids do not dissolve in one another, so they must have settled in the tank in four separate layers. The sides of the tank are made of steel, so you can only see the surface of what's inside. But you need to remove the red chemical to use in a reaction later this afternoon. How will you find and remove the red chemical? By finding the chemicals' different densities, of course! The following liquids were spilled into the tank:

· · · ·

a green liquid that has a volume of 48 L and a mass of 36 kg a blue liquid that has a volume of 144 L and a mass of 129.6 kg a red liquid that has a volume of 96 L and a mass of 115.2 kg a black liquid that has a volume of 120 L and a mass of 96 kg

1. Calculate the density of each liquid.

Green liquid: _________________________________________________________ Blue liquid: __________________________________________________________ Red liquid: __________________________________________________________ Black liquid: _________________________________________________________

2. Determine the order in which the liquids have settled in the tank.

First (bottom): _______________________________________________________ Second: _____________________________________________________________ Third: _______________________________________________________________ Fourth (top): ________________________________________________________

______ 3. What kind of property did you use to distinguish among these four chemicals? a. a chemical property c. a liquid property b. a physical property d. a natural property

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The Properties of Matter

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4. Use colored pencils to sketch and label the position of the liquid layers in the tank on the diagram shown below.

5. Now that you know where the red chemical is inside the tank, how would you remove it?

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The Properties of Matter

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Make a State-ment

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Three States of Matter."

Each figure below shows a container that is meant to hold one state of matter. Identify the state of matter, and write the state on the line below the corresponding figure. Then write each of the descriptions listed below in the correct boxes. Some descriptions may go in more than one box. Particles are close together. Particles are held tightly in place by other particles. Particles break away completely from one another. changes volume to fill its container changes shape when placed in a different container

State of matter

has viscosity amount of empty space can change has definite shape Particles vibrate in place. does not change in volume has surface tension

Description

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States of Matter

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It's All Mixed Up

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Mixtures."

Label each figure below with the type of substance it BEST models: colloid, compound, element, solution, or suspension.

1. 4.

2.

5.

3.

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Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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6. Why did you label the figures on the previous page as you did?

PROFESSOR JUMBLE'S CONFUSION In her lab, Professor Jumble has four shelves labeled "Suspensions," "Solutions," "Compounds," and "Colloids," respectively. Last night, the professor set one beaker of clear liquid on each of the four shelves. When the professor walked into her lab this morning, all four beakers were on the same shelf, and she didn't know which was which. She tested each beaker, and the results are below.

7. Use the test results to help Professor Jumble unjumble the beakers, and write the identity of each liquid in the blanks.

Beaker A:

Beaker C:

· Light passes right through. · Particles do not separate in a

centrifuge or a filter.

· Liquid scatters light. · Liquid centrifuged into two

different-colored layers.

· Upon heating, the liquid

evaporates, and a crystal powder remains.

· Particles were left behind in the

filter.

Beaker B:

Beaker D:

· Light passes right through. · Particles do not separate in a

centrifuge or a filter.

· Liquid scatters light. · Liquid passes through a filter

without leaving a residue.

· Upon heating, the liquid

evaporates, but no residue remains.

· The particles could not be

separated by any other physical changes.

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Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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Placing All Your Elements on the Table

Complete this worksheet after you have finished reading the section "Grouping the Elements."

You can tell a lot about the properties of an element just by looking at the element's location on the periodic table. This worksheet will help you better understand the connection between the periodic table and the properties of the elements. Follow the directions below, and use crayons or colored pencils to color the periodic table at the bottom of the page.

1. Color the square for hydrogen yellow. 2. Color the groups with very reactive metals red. 3. Color and label the noble gases orange. 4. Color the transition metals green. 5. Using black, mark the zigzag line that shows the position of the metalloids. 6. Color the metalloids purple. 7. Use blue to color all of the nonmetals that are not noble gases. 8. Color the metals in Groups 13­16 brown. 9. Circle and label the actinides in yellow. 10. Circle and label the lanthanides in red. 11. Circle and label the alkali metals in blue. 12. Circle and label the alkaline-earth metals in purple. 13. Circle and label the halogens in green.

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The Periodic Table

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Answer the following questions using the periodic table on the previous page.

14. The alkaline-earth metals react similarly because they all have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level. Which group contains the alkaline-earth metals?

15. How many electrons are in the outer energy level of the atoms of alkalineearth metals?

16. Hydrogen is in a different color than the rest of the elements in Group 1. Give an example of how hydrogen's characteristics set it apart from other Group 1 elements.

17. What is the name of the group of unreactive nonmetals that includes argon?

18. Except for the metalloids, what do all of the elements on the right side of the zigzag line have in common?

Imagine you are a scientist who has just discovered a new element. The element has an atomic number of 113, and it has three electrons in the outer energy level of each atom.

19. Where would you place this new element in the periodic table?

20. Which element would have properties most similar to the new element?

21. What name would you suggest for this new element?

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The Periodic Table

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Is It an Ion?

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Ionic Bonds."

Answer the following questions based on the accompanying models. Protons are shown in gray, neutrons are shown in white, and electrons are shown in black. Answer Questions 1­6 based on Figure 1.

Figure 1

1. How many protons are shown? _________________________________________ 2. In the periodic table, elements are ordered by atomic number, the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. Using the periodic table in your textbook,

identify the element shown. ___________________________________________

3. How many electrons are shown? ________________________________________ 4. How many electrons are in the outermost energy level?

5. If the number of electrons equals the number of protons, then there is no charge, and the model shows a neutral atom. If the numbers are not equal, then you have an ion. Use this reasoning to determine if Figure 1 shows

an ion or a neutral atom._______________________________________________

6. To determine a particle's charge, you must compare the number of protons with the number of electrons. Use the spaces to the right to subtract the number of electrons from the number of protons. (Remember, if the number of electrons is greater than the number of protons, the charge will be negative.)

Number of protons Number of electrons

_____

_____

Charge of model

_____

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Chemical Bonding

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Answer Questions 7­11 based on Figure 2.

Figure 2

7. How many protons are shown? 8. What element is it? 9. How many electrons are shown? 10. How many electrons are in the outermost energy

level?

11. Is this an ion? If it is, calculate and record the charge.

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Chemical Bonding

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Interview With an Electron

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Covalent and Metallic Bonds."

The following descriptions are from the point of view of electrons that are participating in three different types of bonds--ionic, metallic, and covalent. Identify the type of bond that each electron describes. At the bottom of the page is a list of characteristics of bonds and substances containing the bonds. Match each characteristic with the corresponding bond, and write the characteristic in the space provided.

1. My buddies and I do not feel bound to the energy level of one atom in particular, so we can swim freely throughout the substance.

Type of bond: ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Characteristics: ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2. I might change sides at the start, but once I end up on one side or the other I stick to my decision.

Type of bond: ________________________________________________________ Characteristics: ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

3. I do not feel partial to either of the atoms in my bond. To be fair, the other bonding electron and I divide our time between the bonded atoms.

Type of bond: ________________________________________________________ Characteristics: ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ CHARACTERISTICS

· There's a transfer of electrons. · Two or more nonmetals are involved. · There's an attraction of positive ions

and free-moving electrons.

· Compounds have a crystal-lattice

structure.

· Substances are good conductors of

electric current.

· A metal reacts with a nonmetal.

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· There's an attraction between nuclei

and shared electrons.

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Chemical Bonding

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Fabulous Food Reactions

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Types of Chemical Reactions."

Dancers can be used to model different types of chemical reactions. Another way to model chemical reactions is to use food. In the spaces provided, write the type of chemical reaction that is modeled in situations 1­ 4 below. The possible chemical reactions are synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, and doublereplacement. Then answer question 5.

1. One day, Naomi packed a ham-on-wheat sandwich, and her friend Macha packed a salami-on-rye sandwich. At lunch, they decided to trade meats. Naomi ate a salami-on-wheat sandwich, while Macha ate a ham-on-rye sandwich.

2. Yasu went to an Italian restaurant. When asked for his order, he said, "I'd like the Pasta Extravaganza, but could I have meatball sauce instead of the alfredo sauce?"

3. Wei-lin asked for a side order of mixed vegetables with her meal. But before eating the side order, she separated the vegetables into different portions of peas and carrots.

4. Kevin went to the salad bar. He used lettuce and tomatoes to make his salad.

5. Hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water. How is this similar to one of the situations given above?

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Chemical Reactions

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Activation Energy

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Energy and Rates of Chemical Reactions."

Activation energy is the energy a reaction needs to get started. At the bottom of the page are two energy diagrams--one for an exothermic reaction and one for an endothermic reaction. Follow the directions below to label the energy diagrams.

1. In an exothermic reaction, the chemical energy of the reactants is greater than the chemical energy of the products. Write Exothermic reaction under the appropriate energy diagram. 2. In an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of the reactants is lower than the chemical energy of the products. Write Endothermic reaction under the appropriate energy diagram. 3. Exothermic reactions give off energy. The energy given off is the difference between the energy of the reactants and the energy of the products. Label the energy given off on the exothermic-energy diagram by writing Energy given off in the appropriate space. 4. Endothermic reactions absorb energy. The energy absorbed by a chemical reaction is the difference between the energy of the products and the energy of the reactants. Label the energy absorbed on the endothermic-energy diagram by writing Energy absorbed in the appropriate space. 5. The activation energy is the energy needed to start a chemical reaction. On the diagrams below, the chemical reaction begins at the top of the peak. Label the activation energy of each graph by writing Activation energy in the appropriate space.

ENERGY DIAGRAMS FOR AN ENDOTHERMIC AND AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION

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Chemical Reactions

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Future Archaeologist

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Natural and Synthetic Chemicals."

Imagine you are an archaeologist living far in the future, let's say the year 2575. As an archaeologist, you study historical cultures. You try to learn anything you can about historical cultures by studying artifacts that people have left behind. Artifacts are just stuff that's left over from a distant time, but as an archaeologist, you know you can learn something from the most insignificant items. Let's assume you are studying a site that you know dates from the early 21st century. You have located a number of artifacts, including a backpack, a computer monitor, a bottle of aspirin, and a T-shirt. You want to make and record observations in order to study these artifacts. To do this, follow the procedures below.

1. Describe the physical appearance of the items. Pretend you are describing each item to someone who may never have seen one before. At this point focus only on what the artifacts look like.

2. Describe the probable use of each artifact. Then, try to guess what materials were used to make each item, specifically which synthetic chemicals. You may not have a theory for all the artifacts.

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Chemicals and Our World

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3. What methods can you use to verify which synthetic chemicals were used to to make the artifacts?

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Chemicals and Our World

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Welcome to the Geology Rocks Café!

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Relative Dating: Which Came First?"

On the menu, you see a 24-layer sandwich called the Geologic Column. The normal price of this sandwich is $15. But the café has a special deal: If you can figure out how the other sandwiches have been overlapped to make the Geologic Column, you get the sandwich absolutely free! Hungry? Start with the clues and list the layers in the Geologic Column on the next page. Clues

· The small sandwiches represent sections of the large sandwich. · The layers on the bottom of each small sandwich were laid down before the

layers on top.

· Piece together the large

sandwich using the information from the small sandwiches, just like a geologist pieces together the layers of a geologic column using the smaller sections of rock layers.

Sandwich Menu

rye bread pickles tomatoes provolone cheese turkey mustard Cheddar cheese ham mustard sourdough bread relish provolone cheese mustard sourdough bread relish provolone cheese turkey mayonnaise tomatoes lettuce ham mustard rye bread

· Since the small sandwiches

overlap, many ingredients will be repeated.

· Remember, the top and

bottom layer of the sandwich should be bread.

1 2 3 4

provolone cheese turkey mayonnaise sourdough bread pickles tomatoes lettuce

5 6 7

tomatoes provolone cheese turkey mustard sourdough bread onions lettuce mustard sourdough bread onions lettuce Cheddar cheese ham

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The Rock and Fossil Record

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a. _______________________________ b. _______________________________ c. _______________________________ d. _______________________________ e. _______________________________ f. _______________________________ g. _______________________________ h. _______________________________ i. _______________________________ j. _______________________________ k. _______________________________ l. _______________________________ m. _______________________________ n. _______________________________ o. _______________________________ p. _______________________________ q. _______________________________ r. _______________________________ s. _______________________________ t. _______________________________ u. _______________________________ v. _______________________________ w. _______________________________ x. ________________________________

DESSERT BONUS! If someone ate one of the layers of your Geologic Column sandwich, what kind of unconformity would be created?

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The Rock and Fossil Record

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A Moving Jigsaw Puzzle

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "The Theory of Plate Tectonics."

The theory of plate tectonics explains that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates. These tectonic plates move in relation to one another. An area where two plates meet is called a boundary. There are three types of boundaries, and each defines the type of motion that takes place when two plates meet. Using the following hints, label each diagram below with the kind of boundary being shown. TYPES OF BOUNDARIES Convergent: This word is a form of the word converge. To understand the meaning of this word, pretend you and a friend are on opposite sides of a room and you both walk toward a chair that is at the center of the room. When you meet each other at the chair, you have converged on the chair. In other words, you have come together so that you meet at the same place. Divergent: This word comes from the word diverge, which means the exact opposite of the word converge. In this case, you and your friend stand back to back at the center of the room and walk away from each other. Transform: This word means "to change the form or appearance of something." It does not specify how the change occurs; it just tells that a change is taking place.

1.

2.

3.

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Plate Tectonics

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Building a Eukaryotic Cell

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Eukaryotic Cells." Below is a list of the features found in eukaryotic cells. Next to each feature, write P if it is a feature found only in plant cells and a B if it is a feature that can be found in both plant and animal cells.

______ 1. endoplasmic reticulum ______ 2. mitochondria ______ 3. nucleus ______ 4. cell membrane ______ 5. cytoplasm ______ 6. ribosomes

______ 7. Golgi complex ______ 8. cell wall ______ 9. vesicles ______10. DNA ______11. nucleolus ______12. chloroplasts

In the space provided, label the structures of the eukaryotic cell drawn below. Include only the structures that you labeled B.

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Cells: The Basic Units of Life

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Into and Out of the Cell

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Exchange with the Environment."

Each of the boxes below represents a different method cells use to bring small particles into the cell or to take small particles out of the cell. Add the notes at the bottom of the page to the appropriate box. Be careful--some notes can be used more than once.

Small Particle Transport

Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport

NOTES particles move from an · particles move from an · area area of low concentraCell of high concentration to an area of low tion to an area of high · sugar Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Exchange with the concentration concentration Environment." · requires ATP · does not require ATP · water

· particles move through proteins Into and Out of the

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The Working Cell

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Activities of the Cell

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Cell Energy."

1. Sketch and label a chloroplast and a mitochondrion in the space provided.

2. Chloroplasts use light energy during photosynthesis. Add a light source to your drawing, and an arrow from the light source to the chloroplast. 3. Chloroplasts give off oxygen and glucose during photosynthesis. Mitochondria use oxygen and glucose during cellular respiration. Add this information to your diagram. 4. During cellular respiration, mitochondria produce ATP. Add this information to your diagram. 5. Besides light energy, what do chloroplasts use to make glucose?

6. Besides ATP, what do mitochondria give off during cellular respiration?

7. Add the information from questions 5 and 6 to your diagram.

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The Working Cell

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2. Sometimes mistakes happen when the DNA is being copied. These mistakes, or mutations, change the order of the bases in DNA. There are three kinds of mutations that can occur in DNA: deletion, insertion, and substitution. a. Below are two sequences--an original sequence of bases in DNA and the sequence of bases after a mutation has occurred. On the original base sequence, show where the mutation has occurred by circling the appropriate base pair, and write what type of mutation it is in the space provided.

C T C C T A A A C C T G A G G A T T T G G A C T C C T A A A T C T G A G G A T T T A G A

____________

Base sequence in original cell DNA

Base sequence in a cell with mutated DNA

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Understanding DNA

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b. Below are two more sequences--an original sequences of bases in DNA and the sequence of bases where a mutation has occurred. On the original base sequence, show where the mutation has occurred by circling the appropriate base pairs and write what type of mutation it is in the space provided.

C T A C C G T A A C A T

G A T G G C A T T G T A

C T A C C G T A A A T

G A T G G C A T T T A

Base sequences in original cell DNA

Base sequences in a cell with mutated DNA

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Understanding DNA

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Reinforcement continued

3. Ribosomes "read" a complementary copy of DNA in order to make proteins. Each group of three bases forms the code for an amino acid. When mutations occur in DNA they can change the information that the DNA carries.

To understand this process better, look at the sentence below, which uses only three-letter words. AMY GOT THE RED HOT POT OFF THE LOG If one letter is deleted from the sequence, it can become: AMY GTT HER EDH OTP OTO FFT HEL OG How is this similar to what can happen when a mutation occurs in DNA?

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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Understanding DNA

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Skills Worksheet

Reinforcement

Protists on Parade

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Kinds of Protists." Term

1. Parasite 2. 3. Consumer 4. Flagella 5. Cilia 6. Pseudopodia 7. Spore-forming amoeba makes its own food, usually by photosynthesis slime mold

Definition

Example

Giardia lamblia

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Protists and Fungi

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Reinforcement

An Ode to a Fungus

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Fungi."

A science magazine has asked your friend, the well-known poet Madeline Molde, to write a poem about fungi. Madeline started her poem, but now she has writer's block. The poem is unfinished and her deadline is tomorrow! The poem needs to be at least 12 lines long (but it can be longer) and should contain factual information about fungi. Use the terms in the chapter to help Madeline finish her poem. Fungi Beautiful, black, fuzzy mold! You grow in my fridge on food that is old. Fungi! Yummy truffles that I love to eat.

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Protists and Fungi

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Reinforcement

Bacteria Bonanza

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Bacteria."

Complete the outline below using the following terms: spirilla, photosynthetic, methane makers, eubacteria, decomposers, bacilli, heat lovers, consumers, salt lovers, producers, archaebacteria, living organisms, cyanobacteria, and cocci.

Bacteria

I. Bacteria come in three shapes: A. B. C. are spherical. are rod-shaped. are spiral-shaped.

II. Bacteria make up two kingdoms: A. 1. concentration. 2. 3. B. 1. a. b. Other consumers feed on 2. a. Some are make their own food. . . are found in hot springs. are found in swamps. get food in two ways. obtain nutrients from other organisms. feed on dead organic matter. . thrive in unusual places. are found where there is a high salt

b. Plant predecessors may have contained

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Bacteria, Viruses, and Disease

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Skills Worksheet

Reinforcement

The Lytic Cycle

Complete this worksheet after you finish reading the section "Viruses."

The figure below shows the steps of the lytic cycle. At the bottom of the page are descriptions of each of the steps in the figure. Choose the description that best matches the step in the diagram, and write the letter that corresponds to each step on the blank provided. Not all descriptions will be used.

1. 2.

4.

3.

Descriptions A. The host cell undergoes cell division, producing new cells that each contain a copy of the virus's genes. B. The new viruses burst out of the host cell, destroying the host cell. C. The virus's genes turn the host cell into a virus factory. D. The virus remains inactive for a long period of time. E. The virus attaches itself to the host cell. F. The virus enters the cell, or genetic material of the virus is injected into the host cell.

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Bacteria, Viruses, and Disease

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25. Sample answer: The model is similar 2. Using SI units would be the best

to the real object in terms of structure and the relative sizes of different parts of the building. The model also shows the location of the windows and doors that will be built. 26. Sample answer: The model does not show the interior features, such as plumbing, furniture, or carpeting. It also has no electrical capabilities. 27. Sample answer: Without having to be built full size, this model shows what features the building would have.

Reinforcement

THE PLANE TRUTH

1. Accept all reasonable answers. Sample

method of describing the dimensions of the heater because SI units are used by scientists all over the world. You would use meters to describe the length and width. 3. A better method would be to use SI units: liters. 4. A better method would be to use SI units: kelvins or degrees Celsius. 5. Sample answer: I disagree. Using a model should save time and money. A model would help determine the accuracy of the science and how well the actual heater would work.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

2.

3.

4.

5.

answer: Will a paper airplane with wing flaps fly farther than one without wing flaps? Answers will vary. Sample answer: A paper airplane with wing flaps will fly farther than one without wing flaps. Accept all reasonable answers. Sample answer: I would make two airplanes, identical except that one has wing flaps and the other one does not. I would then launch both from the same spot several times and measure the length of each flight. Accept all reasonable answers. Sample answer: I would find the average distance for flights of airplanes with and without wing flaps. Accept all reasonable answers. Sample answer: If the plane with wing flaps had a longer average flight, I would assume that paper airplanes with flaps fly farther; if not, I would assume paper airplanes without flaps fly farther.

D C D B B D E A C

SECTION: SCIENTIFIC METHODS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

B C A B D D B A A

SECTION: SCIENTIFIC MODELS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Critical Thinking

A SIMPLE SOLUTION

1. The terms used to describe the length

and width are not exact measurements. An average adult's arm and a packing box can be different sizes and shapes.

C A B B D C D C

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Science in Our World

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12. C 13. A water table is the upper surface of 3. The Greek letter delta is shaped like a

underground water, and the upper boundary of the zone of saturation. 14.Aquifers are replenished in the recharge zone. The recharge zone is an area where a permeable rock layer allows water to percolate into the aquifer. 15. Limestone is made of calcium carbonate, which dissolves easily in water. Groundwater dissolves the limestone, producing caves. 16. An answer to this exercise can be found at the back of the Teacher Edition. 17. Water flows across a landscape, eroding, transporting, and depositing material. Water is an agent of erosion and deposition. 18. A river channel that has a steep gradient is straight and narrow with rapids, waterfalls, and V-shaped valleys. 19. Once groundwater becomes polluted, it is hard to clean up because it is not at the surface. Also, it moves very slowly and will therefore take a long time to clean up. 20. Water is a renewable resource when it can be replaced or recycled. Rain is a renewable resource. Water is nonrenewable when it is consumed faster than it can be replenished. An example is the Ogallala aquifer. 21. Answers will vary. Students should conclude that water loses energy during the process of condensation. As water cools and condenses it loses heat energy. 22. April and May 23. Accept all reasonable responses. Sample answer: Spring snowmelt from the mountains, high rainfall 24. Accept all reasonable responses. Sample answer: Winter storms or thaws

triangle, and the shape of a mountain is also triangular.

DIG IT!

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: I

chose that location for the town's well because it is a point with a lowered elevation. The lower the elevation, the less we have to dig to get to the water table. I chose to dig the well deep enough to reach below the dry-season water table, so the well won't dry up when we have a drought.

Well

Wet season wate r table Dry season wate r table

Critical Thinking

1. Many residents experienced a water

2.

3. 4.

5.

Reinforcement Activity

FRESH WATER IN THE UNITED STATES

1. Check student work on map. 2. A divide must be on higher ground than

6.

the drainage basins that it separates. The Rocky Mountains are the highest point west of the Mississippi River drainage basin.

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7.

shortage. Sometimes they have no water at all. New homes were being occupied and the golf course was beginning to be used. No; the northeastern part of the community runs out of water most often. Answer will vary: Sample answer: The wells in the northeastern part of Happy Acres are not deep enough to draw water consistently, because water use has lowered the table. Answers will vary: Sample answer: Measure the depth of the water table when water use is high and when water use is low. Compare the depth of the water table to the depth of the affected wells. Accept all reasonable answers. Sample answer: Answers may include recycling the community's waste water, deepening wells, piping in water from a nearby town, and using storage tanks. Answers will vary. Accept all reasonable answers. Look for logical, clear explanations of the investigation. Students should include all of the steps mentioned in the question.

The Flow of Fresh Water

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25. Sample answer: Nonpoint-source pol-

26. 27. 28. 29.

lution is pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site. Point-source pollution is pollution that comes from a specific site. An example of nonpoint-source pollution includes oil and gasoline that have leaked from cars onto streets. An example of point-source pollution is trash dumping from barges. Controlling ocean pollution is difficult, but many countries have taken legal action to protect oceans. For example, the United States passed the U.S. Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, which prohibits harmful dumping in the ocean. Beach cleanups run by citizens, such as the Adopt-a-Beach program, have been very successful in cleaning up polluted beaches. B E neritic zone Sample answer: sea stars

Critical Thinking

CHAIN REACTION

1. Answers may vary. Sample answer:

2.

3.

4.

5.

Reinforcement

THE OCEAN'S ENVIRONMENT

Because cold water and nutrients are not rising to the surface, plankton cannot grow, and fish have nothing to eat. Fish are moving to deeper water for food, and as a result, the birds have nothing to eat. Answers may vary. Sample answer: These three places have coasts on the eastern portion of the Pacific Ocean. plankton: less nutrients will rise to the surface, meaning fewer plankton benthos: little effect because they live on the ocean floor nekton: will die of starvation or move to deeper water Answers may vary. Sample answer: Because ocean currents affect coastal climates, El Niño could cause short-term temperature changes in these areas. The water cycle could also be affected, which might change rain patterns throughout coastal and inland regions. Answers may vary. Sample answer: Satellites could be useful by measuring the direction and speed of ocean currents and temperatures of surface waters.

2. Accept any reasonable answer. Sample

Section Quizzes

SECTION: EARTH'S OCEANS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

answer: The dolphin is in the neritic zone because there is plenty of food there. The dolphin is near the surface so it can get air to breathe. 3. worms, crabs, bacteria, sea urchins

C E B F D

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

A B C A D

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Exploring the Oceans

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17. 18. 19.

20. 21.

D C A C A When El Niño occurs, warm surface water remains along the Pacific Coast of South America. Therefore, upwelling does not occur along the coast. A crest is the highest point of a wave and a trough is the lowest point of a wave. The wavelength of a wave is the distance between two adjacent wave crests or troughs. Wave period is the time between the passage of two wave crests or troughs. Wavelength divided by wave period gives wave speed. During neap tide, the sun, the moon, and the Earth form a right angle, with the Earth in the middle. During spring tide, the sun, moon, and Earth align in a straight line. The breaker zone is where waves first begin to tumble downward. The surf is the zone between the breaker zone and the shore. In the surf, water moves toward the shore. The Gulf Stream, which is a warmwater current, creates a relatively mild climate for the British Isles. Deep currents form where the density of ocean water increases. Water density depends on temperature and salinity. An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of this book. Because the oceans are liquid, they flow more easily than land. It is important to study El Niño and La Niña because both affect climate, land, and organisms. 12:50 P.M. (The answer 1:15 A.M. is also acceptable.) Global winds blow across the Earth's surface, which creates surface currents in the ocean. The Coriolis effect is the apparent curving of moving objects from a straight path due to the Earth's rotation. Therefore the rotation of the Earth causes ocean currents to curve as they move across the Earth's surface. Continental deflections occur when a surface current

comes into contact with a continent. This causes the surface current to deflect, or change direction. 22. Answers may vary. Sample answer: Any two currents listed by red arrows are acceptable as warm-water currents. Any two currents listed as blue arrows are acceptable as cold-water currents. 23. Sample answer: The Labrador Current would most likely bring a cool climate to Canada and Greenland because it's a cold-water current.

Reinforcement

GOING WITH THE FLOW

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: San

Francisco, California

2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: the

California Current

3. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

California Current, North Equatorial Current, west along equator through islands to Indian Ocean, west across Indian Ocean to East Africa, south along coast, around tip of Africa, north on Benguela Current, west on South Equatorial Current, south along coast, around tip of South America, north on Peru current, north along California coast 4. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The Equatorial Countercurrent flows just south of the North Equatorial Current. There are countercurrents in the Indian Ocean and along the southeastern coast of South America. The Peru Current meets the Equatorial Countercurrent off the west coast of South America. 5. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The North Equatorial Current is deflected by a chain of islands in the southeastern Pacific. The South Equatorial Current is deflected by South America. 6. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Currents form large circles in the South Indian, South Atlantic, and South Pacific Oceans.

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The Movement of Ocean Water

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7. Currents coming from the pole cool 3. The cruise ship is in no danger

the water off southern Africa and southern South America (the Benguala and Peru Currents). 8. Answers will vary. Sample answer: I sailed west across the Pacific Ocean on the North Equatorial Current. When I reached the islands, I turned south toward Australia, then followed a westward current across the Indian Ocean. I turned south along the coast of Africa, then caught the Benguala and South Equatorial Currents across the South Atlantic Ocean. I battled my way down the coast and around South America, then caught the Peru Current North. I sailed close to the shore of North America and reached home.

4.

5.

6.

Reinforcement

MASTERING THE WAVES

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

7.

Date varies, swells, whitecaps

2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: 3. 4. 5. 6.

8.

Date varies, trough, crest Answers will vary. Sample answer: Date varies, wave height Answers will vary. Sample answer: Date varies, breakers, surf, undertow Answers will vary. Sample answer: Date varies, tsunamis Answers will vary. Sample answer: Date varies, storm surges

because the wave height in the open ocean is only 2m. As the waves approach the coast their amplitude will increase, creating huge, devastating breakers. When the waves move ashore, they could flood homes, wash boats ashore, uproot trees, and erode the coastline. After the waves of the tsunami hit the shore, they will create a giant undertow that will cause even more damage and danger. The waves of the tsunami will not push the ship ashore because the water in waves moves in vertical circles. Wave energy moves through the water, creating the troughs and crests of the waves. The wave simply raises and lowers the ship. When there is a tsunami warning, people in coastal areas should move inland. When there is a tsunami warning, ships at sea should move into deeper water.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: CURRENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A C C A B

6. D

7. B

8. C 9. B 10. C

Critical Thinking

1. As waves approach the shore, they

SECTION: CURRENTS AND CLIMATE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

increase in height. This happens because of interaction between the water and the ocean floor. As deepwater waves become shallow-water waves, the water particles slow down and build up. This change forces more water between wave crests, which increases wave height. 2. After a wave crashes into the surf, the water flows back to the ocean underneath incoming waves, creating an undertow.

B J H E A

6. I

7. D

8. F 9. C 10. G

SECTION: WAVES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C B B B C

6. C

7. B

8. D 9. A 10. C

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Reinforcement

A MATTER OF DENSITY

1. Green liquid: 0.75 kg/L; Blue liquid: 0.9

Section Quizzes

SECTION: WHAT IS MATTER?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2. 3. 4.

5.

kg/L; Red liquid: 1.2 kg/L; Black liquid: 0.8 kg/L First (bottom): red; Second layer: blue; Third layer: black; Fourth (top): green B The layers of the diagram should be shaded/labeled in the following order from the top: green, black, blue, red. Accept all reasonable answers. Sample answer: I could open the spigot at the bottom of the tank and let the red liquid out.

B F E D A

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

C B B A A

SECTION: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

E D F A C

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

B B D C A

SECTION: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Critical Thinking

1. The cube's volume increased, and its 2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

mass remained the same. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Because the cube's volume increased and its mass remained the same, the larger cube has less mass per unit volume. As a result, the cube's density decreased. The cube changed in volume, density, composition, and number. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The changes in volume, density and number are physical changes because the composition of the cube remained the same. The cube's transformation into a green paste is a chemical change because a new substance was formed. Answers will vary. Sample answer: An object's mass or volume cannot spontaneously change on Earth without a recognizable cause. An object's density remains the same at a given temperature and pressure. Answers will vary. Sample answer: An explosion caused by electricity could happen on Earth. Applying an electric current causes some chemical changes such as splitting water into the gases that make it up.

D C B E A

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

A D C D B

SECTION: USING THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER

1. 2. 3. 4.

D A C H

5. 6. 7. 8.

E F A B

Chapter Test A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

D A C B C A D C B A B A F

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

J E B H C D A A D A C B

Chapter Test B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

inertia density physical change chemical weight chemical change B

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The Properties of Matter

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Chapter Review

1. Solid is the state of matter in which

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 13.

Volume evaporated (mL)

14. 15.

the substance has a definite shape and volume. Liquid is the state in which the substance takes the shape of its container but has a definite volume. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. Thermal expansion is an increase in volume of a substance because of an increase in temperature. Evaporation is the change of a liquid to a gas at the surface of a liquid. Boiling is the change of a liquid to a gas throughout a liquid. Condensation is the change of a gas to a liquid. Sublimation is the change of a substance from a solid to a gas without becoming a liquid. B 9. B C 10. C B 11. A A 12. D Sample answer: The particles of liquid water can move past one another and take the shape of a container. particles in an ice cube are locked in place and cannot move past one another. An ice cube holds its shape no matter what container yo put it in. gases, liquids, solids

19.

20.

21. 22. 23.

and becomes a gas. When the gaseous water touches the mirror, the water releases energy to the mirror and condenses into drops of liquid water. Sample answer: Freezing is an exothermic change. As the water freezes, it releases energy. The oranges absorb some of this energy and warm up. (The ice also helps to insulate the oranges from the cold air.) Sample answer: Water has a stronger force of attraction between its particles; A higher temperature, and therefore more energy, is required to separate the water particles from one another than is needed to separate the methane particles from one another. 80°C, 20°C liquid The temperature of the liquid will rise.

Reinforcement

MAKE A STATE-MENT

Liquid: has surface tension; has viscosity; changes shape when placed in a different container; does not change in volume; Particles are close together. Gas: Particles break away completely from one another; changes shape when placed in a different container; has viscosity; changes volume to fill its container; obeys Boyle's law; amount of empty space can change. Solid: Particles are close together; Particles vibrate in place; Particles are held tightly in place by other particles; does not change in volume; has definite shape

Surface area (cm2)

The graph is linear. Both variables (surface area and volume evaporated) increase together. 16. An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of the Teacher Edition. 17. The splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen is not a change of state because the substance (water) does not keep its identity during the change. The water is changed into two new substances, hydrogen and oxygen. 18. Sample answer: As you take a shower, some of the liquid water evaporates

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: It

may be necessary to carry oxygen in portable containers because oxygen will probably not surround the planet evenly. 2. Yes; it would be possible to make a fire, but only for a short time. In areas where oxygen is not present, oxygen may have to be supplied to the fire manually. Also, the wood will sublime at high temperatures, leaving no fuel for the fire.

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States of Matter

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8. Sample answer: I would use a magnet

to separate the iron from the sawdust. The magnet will attract the iron but will not attract the sawdust. 9. The solute is helium and the solvent is oxygen. 10. about 60°C 11. about 120 g more sodium chlorate will dissolve.

Chapter Review

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21.

22.

23.

compound solubility suspension element nonmetal solute C B C B C A C A Elements cannot be separated into simpler substances, but compounds can be separated by chemical means. Nail polish is the solute, and acetone is the solvent. 50 g/200 mL = 0.25 g/mL 150 mL 0.6 g/mL 90 g An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of this book. Carbonated beverages should be stored in a refrigerator. Gases are more soluble at lower temperatures, so more gas will stay dissolved in the beverage if it is kept cold. The powder is a compound. The change in color and the formation of a gas imply that a chemical change took place. Compounds can be broken down by chemical changes. The exact concentration tells you exactly how much solute is dissolved in the solvent. Concentrated and dilute are descriptive terms that do not tell you the amount of solute. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Pass the mixture through a screen that allows the salt and pepper to pass

through but traps the pebbles. Mix the salt and pepper with water to dissolve the salt. Filter the mixture to trap the pepper. Evaporate the water to recover the salt. 24. (Teacher note: The graph should have dissolved solute on the y-axis and temperature on the x-axis. The curve will decrease from left to right.) You should decrease the temperature to increase the solubility. As the temperature decreases, more solute can dissolve. 25. 68 g 26. Because the solubility increases as the temperature decreases, the solute is most likely a gas.

Reinforcement

IT'S ALL MIXED UP

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

colloid element suspension compound solution Accept all reasonable answers. Sample answer: In Figure 2, the particles were identical and part of the same substance, so it had to be an element. Figure 4 was a compound because the particles were identical but made of two different substances. The other three figures were mixtures because each contained two different types of particles. Figure 3 had the largest clumps of the solute, so it was a suspension. Figure 1 had the nextlargest clumps of the second substance, making it a colloid. Figure 5 had the most homogeneous mix of the two substances, making it a solution. 7. A. solution, B. compound, C. suspension, D. colloid

Critical Thinking

1. They are both metals that resist

corrosion, and they have similar melting points. Platinum has a higher density and is a precious metal. Titanium is stronger than platinum.

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Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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Reinforcement

PLACING ALL YOUR ELEMENTS ON THE TABLE

1.­13. Make sure that students have

colored the table properly.

14. They are in Group 2. 15. 2 16. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

alkali metals are solids, while hydrogen is a gas at room temperature. They are called the noble gases. B Group 13 C Accept all answers.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Sodium is not found by itself naturally. Because of its reactivity, sodium always combines with other elements. Answers will vary. Sample answer: No; sulfur, a nonmetal, is a poor conductor of heat and energy. An electrical current could not travel along sulfur wire. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Yes; an explosion would result. Hydrogen reacts explosively when combined with oxygen in this manner. Answers will vary. Sample answer: No; the oxygen in the "Everlast Light Bulb" would react with the heating filament and cause it to burn out more quickly than a light bulb filled with a nonreactive gas, such as argon. Answers will vary. Sample answer: If the substance could not be broken down any further and if its chemical and physical properties were not identical to any other element, the claim would be true. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The element would be classified according to its chemical and physical properties.

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The Periodic Table

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10. Students should draw an N 18. a. 6 dots; 2 bonds; b. 5 dots; 3 bonds;

surrounded by 8 dots: 2 above, 2 on the right, 2 on the left, and 2 below. Three Hs should be drawn, one on each of three sides of the N. 11. The carbon atom needs to form another bond. The electron-dot diagram shows that carbon has only 7 valence electrons. It needs one more electron to have a filled outer energy level (8 valence electrons).

19.

20.

Chapter Review

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

16. 17.

chemical bond ions covalent bond metallic bond valence electron crystal lattice B C C A B Answers may include a low melting point, a low boiling point, and brittleness in the solid state. Metal atoms tend to lose electrons and form positive ions. Both iron and zinc are metals, and both form ions that are positively charged. Ions with the same charge repel one another, so an iron ion is not attracted to a zinc ion. Nonmetal atoms tend to gain electrons and form negative ions. Sulfur is a nonmetal, so a sulfide ion is negatively charged. The positively charged iron ion is attracted to the sulfideion. Ionic bonds involve the transfer of valence electrons between atoms. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of valence electrons between atoms. Metallic bonds involve the movement of valence electrons between many atoms within a metal. a. lose 2 electrons; 2+; b. gain 3 electrons; 3­; c. gain 1 electron; 1­; d. gain 2 electrons; 2 An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of this book. a. metallic; b. covalent; c. covalent; d. ionic

21. 22. 23.

c. 8 dots; no bonds; d. 7 dots; 1 bond; e. 4 dots; 4 bonds Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons. Each carbon atom must make 4 bonds to fill its outermost energy level with 8 electrons. Because each carbon atom can bond with up to 4 atoms (including other carbon atoms), carbon forms the basis of many different compounds. It contains ionic bonds because the substance is breaking into smaller pieces as the hammer hits it. The substance is brittle, so the bonds are more likely to be ionic. the metal band near the eraser graphite, wood, and rubber (eraser) Sample answer: The metallically bonded material is shiny, and the covalently bonded materials are not shiny. The metal can be bent without breaking, but the wood or graphite will break if bent.

Reinforcement

IS IT AN ION?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

17 chlorine 18 8 Figure 1 shows an ion. 17; 18; ­1 10 neon 10 8 No, this is not an ion because it has equal numbers of electrons and protons. It has no charge.

INTERVIEW WITH AN ELECTRON

1. Type of bond: The electron describes a

metallic bond. Characteristics: Substances are good conductors of electricity. There's an attraction of positive ions and free-moving electrons.

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Chemical Bonding

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2. Type of bond: This electron describes

SECTION: IONIC BONDS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

an ionic bond. Characteristics: Compounds have a crystal-lattice structure. A metal reacts with a nonmetal. There is a transfer of electrons. 3. Type of bond: This electron describes a covalent bond. Characteristics: There's an attraction between nuclei and shared electrons. Two or more nonmetals are involved.

A B D C B A

SECTION: COVALENT AND METALLIC BONDS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Critical Thinking

THE ROAD TO KNOWLEDGE

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The

2.

3.

4.

5.

atoms of the tires are sharing electrons, which form covalent bonds. The electrons are shared because too much energy is needed to form ions. Answers will vary. Sample answer: A tire made of particles joined by ionic bonds would shatter on impact with pavement. Ionic compounds tend to be brittle solids at room temperature. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Yes; a welded joint would form a metallic bond. The liquid metal would join the two pieces in a way that allows electrons to move freely between the pieces. The aluminum does not break because the positive ions in the metal can be rearranged. The positive ions shift position but are still attracted to the electrons. This allows the aluminum to bend. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Using cyanoacrylates can actually be stronger than bolts or welded joints. Cyanoacrylates can also reduce the weight of the bicycle.

B B D E B C A F

Chapter Test A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

A D D B A B C C G B H F

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

E A D C A B D C A C D

Chapter Test B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: ELECTRONS AND CHEMICAL BONDING

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A C B C D B A

covalent bond ions chemical bond valence electron molecule metallic bond B C A C B Answers will vary. Sample answer: The oxygen atom gains two electrons in its second energy level to have 8. 13. brittleness, high melting point, high boiling point 14. Write the symbol of the element and

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Chemical Bonding

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12. raise the temperature, increase the

ACTIVATION ENERGY

The left diagram should be labeled "Endothermic reaction," and the right diagram should be labeled "Exothermic reaction." Mark left side of curve on left diagram "Activation energy"; mark first half of upward curve "energy absorbed." Mark upper right half of right diagram "Activation energy"; mark lower half of left side of downward curve "Energy given off."

13. 14.

15.

16.

17. 18.

19.

20.

21. 22. 23.

concentration of a reactant, increase the surface area of a reactant, and add a catalyst gas formation, solid formation, color change, and energy change a. 4Fe 3O2 2Fe2O3 b. 2Al 3CuSO4 Al2(SO4)3 3Cu c. Mg(OH)2 2HCl MgCl2 2H2O a. Ca: 1, S: 1, O: 4 b. Na: 4, O: 4, Cl: 4 c. Fe: 1, N: 2, O: 6 d. Al: 4, C: 6, O: 18 An answer to this question can be found at the back of the Teacher Edition. The substance is H2O, water. Sample answer: Explosives need to absorb energy to begin the reaction. As long as precautions are taken to prevent the activation energy from being absorbed by the explosives, they should be safe to transport. Sample answer: No; the increased mass came from oxygen in the air, which was not part of the mass of the steel pipe when you measured it. The reactants are acetic acid and baking soda. The products are carbon dioxide, water, and sodium acetate. Gas is produced, and light is given off. Exothermic; energy is being given off. Diagrams may vary but both diagrams should show the energy of reactants and products with a "spike" between them. The diagram describing the photo should have the energy of the reactants higher than that of the products.

Critical Thinking

1. a. The protective clay cap is an

Reinforcement

FABULOUS FOOD REACTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

inhibitor because it slows down the decomposition reaction by keeping water, air, and light out of the landfill. b. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Sunlight would raise the temperature of a landfill. Trash decomposes more quickly at warmer temperatures. 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: When trash decomposes, methane gas is released. Mass is transferred from the solid waste to the methane gas. 3. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Gases are hard to control because they do not have a fixed volume. In addition, landfills usually cover a large area. Both factors would make it difficult to capture and control methane gas. 4. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Yes. This idea should be implemented but only if methane gas can be captured over the landfill and is not released into surrounding areas. Large amounts of methane gas may cause health problems. Methane gas may also cause a strong odor in the surrounding community.

double-displacement reaction single-displacement reaction decomposition reaction synthesis reaction When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, it is a synthesis reaction--two substances combine to form a new substance. This is like the salad bar situation above, in which two foods are combined to form a new food: a salad.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: FORMING NEW SUBSTANCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

C D A D A D

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Chemical Reactions

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9. Sample answer: I think my friend is

wrong because exposure to cigarette smoke can cause many health problems including heart disease, asthma, and cancer.

Reinforcement

FUTURE ARCHAEOLOGIST

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

Chapter Review

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

14. 15. 16.

17.

18. 19. 20.

medicine dose carcinogen chemical C D B A B D Fertilizers are chemicals that improve the quality of the soil to produce plants. They are helpful because they allow farmers to grow large, healthy plants that increase crop yield. The Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act are important because they help reduce people's exposure to chemical pollutants. Sanitation is the practice of providing sewage disposal and treatment, solid waste disposal, clean drinking water, and clean living conditions. Good sanitation is important because it helps prevent the spread of disease. a. 6.25 mg 2 12.5 b. 15 mg 2 4 120 mg An answer to this exercise can be found at the back of this Teacher Edition. Sample answer: The spray paint has a warning on it because the paint may give off dangerous fumes when it is used. Using it in a well-ventilated area will help reduce a person's exposure to the fumes. Sample answer: Warnings are necessary on over-the-counter medicines because all medicines have side effects. The warnings alert the person using the medicines about possible side effects. 31% 7% 38% Stroke affects the least number of smokers. 31% 20% 51%

physical description only of backpack, computer monitor, bottle of aspirin, and T-shirt 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Probable use of backpack is for carrying things on the back. Probable use of the computer monitor is to view images. Probable use of bottle of aspirin, contents probably a medicine, food or vitamin. Probable use of the Tshirt is clothing. The backpack might be made mostly of nylon. The computer monitor appears to be plastic and glass. The contents of the aspirin bottle could be a synthetic medicine. The T-shirt could be cotton or polyester. 3. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The backpack and T-shirt might have labels which tell whether nylon or polyester were used to make these items. The aspirin bottle probably tells what it is and how it is used on the side of the bottle. For the backpack, T-shirt, and computer terminal, comparing the materials to other examples of nylon, polyester, and plastic would help to verify which synthetic chemicals were used.

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The

student should understand that the idea of this book is unlikely, even farfetched. On the face of it, diagnosing illness seems to be much more complex than any information provided in a single book. 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The information shown in the table seems to be valid. In spite of this, the reader should be skeptical based on the exaggerated claims of the book's title and the ad. Even if the information in other tables throughout the book is valid, the concept of the application of the information is probably flawed.

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Chemicals and Our World

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Chapter Review

1. A heat engine is an engine that uses

14. Sample answer: The air conditioner

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

thermal energy to do work. An insulator is a substance that does not conduct thermal energy well. D A C B B When insulation is used in walls, ceilings, and floors of buildings, less heat passes into and out of the building. Insulation helps a house stay warm in the winter and cool in the summer. A building that uses passive solar heat has large windows on its south side. These windows receive a lot of sunlight, and energy enters through the windows into the rooms. Thick concrete walls absorb energy and keep the building warm at night or on cloudy days. Area of the attic: 4 m 3 m 12 m2 , number of rolls needed to cover area of attic: 12 m2 2.5 m2 4.8 rolls; Therefore, Leonardo has to buy 5 rolls of insulation. An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of the Teacher Edition. Both kinds of solar heating systems use energy from the sun to heat houses and buildings. A passive solar heating system does not have moving parts. It relies on a building's structural design and materials to use solar energy as a means of heating. An active solar heating system has moving parts. It uses pumps and fans to distribute the sun's energy throughout a building. no; A refrigerator would only expel the warmer air from the room back into the room, plus the thermal energy that results from running the refrigerator. Therefore, keeping the refrigerator door open would actually raise the temperature of the room. Sample answer: Air conditioners and heat pumps cool air in similar ways. However, unlike an air conditioner, a heat pump can also warm air.

would warm the air inside the house instead of cooling it. If you felt the air coming out of the air conditioner on the outside it would be cool. 15. January, February, and December 16. August, July, and September 17. Most energy is used for heating during the winter months. This is because in cold weather, thermal energy inside the house escapes more quickly as a result of the temperature difference between the inside and the outside.

Reinforcement

HOT OR COLD?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

hot cold both hot hot both cold both

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: No.

The home's walls are probably too thin; there is no insulation; the windows are too small; and trees block sunlight on the south side. 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The trees on the south side of the home are federally protected, meaning that it will be difficult or impossible to get permission to trim or remove them. This limits what I will be able to do. For example, I won't recommend the installation of large windows on the south side because sunlight would not be able to enter the home. 3. Answers will vary. Sample answer: I would propose building a second-level addition to the home. The second level would have a large window facing the south. The second level would be high enough to allow a lot of sunlight into the home. I would also recommend that the new addition have thick walls and heavy insulation.

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Heat Technology

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17. The sound produced by a record

18.

19. 20.

21.

player comes from an analog signal of the sound stored on the record. The sound from a CD player comes from a digital signal of the sound stored on a CD. Removing noise from a recording on a CD is easier than removing noise from a recording on a record. Sample answer: Digital signals are represented by a combination of pulses and missing pulses of electric current. Likewise, Morse code signals are represented by combinations of dots and dashes. electric current The current in the right side of the circuit varies in the same pattern as the current in the left side of the circuit; the current in the right side of the circuit is larger. The sound from the speaker is the same as the sound from the guitar except the sound from the speaker is louder.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

B A A D A C B

SECTION: COMPUTERS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

C D E A B C A A

Chapter Test A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Reinforcement

THE IN AND OUTS OF COMPUTING

1. input device, microprocessor, memory,

output device 2. ROM, RAM 3. application software, operating system software

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: He

may be awakened by a rooster crowing.

2. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

Buzz may press a button on his watch that will start the toaster while he's brushing his teeth. 3. Answers will vary. Sample answer: An alarm clock. Input: You set the clock for your wake-up time. Processing: Clock has to compare the actual time with your wake-up time. Storage: The clock remembers your wake-up time. Output: Clock's alarm goes off at right time.

A A B D C A C B C F I E H A D B E A C D

Chapter Test B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

computer Internet microprocessor digital signal software hardware A

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Electronic Technology

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the strength of the return signal is measured. A passive remote-sensing system measures the amount of electromagnetic radiation that is relected or emitted by objects on the Earth's surface. An answer to this exercise can be found at the back of the Teacher Edition. Sample answer: A date on a map is important because the Earth's surface is constantly changing. The date shows you how old the information is. It might also indicate what the landscape was once like. Sample answer: It is important that maps have scales because a map scale allows the user to determine distances on the map. Sample answer: A topographic map of the Grand Canyon would show contour lines close together, indicating steep slopes. Sample answer: A GIS system would allow the team of engineers to access information about current roads and streets, as well as power lines, sewer lines, and any other information they may need when building a highway. Sample answer: I would want to have a topographic map because this type of map shows the relief of the area rather than only roads and streets. 20 ft It has very large relief. Answers may vary. Sample answer: Two hills are shown on this map. 2,025 ft

INTERPRETING A TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

20. 21.

C B 7 450-499 m 700-749 m 2 1,050 m 8-10 km 50 m The V-shaped contour lines show that the river has cut a valley into the landscape.

22.

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

23.

2.

24.

25.

3.

4.

26. 27. 28. 29.

Reinforcement

WHERE ON EARTH?

1. a. Reno, Denver, and Philadelphia are

5.

all at about 40° north.

b. Reno: about 120° west

Denver: about 105° west Philadelphia: about 75° west 2. a. Charleston, Charlotte, and Buffalo are all at about 80° west b. Charleston: about 33° north Charlotte: about 35° north Buffalo: about 43° north

Posidonius was curious about the world around him and questioned everyone's theories, including his own. Answers will vary. Sample answer: People viewed the Earth in a distorted way because of their lack of technology. Although some scientists correctly calculated the size and shape of the Earth, there was no way to prove these theories with their limited technology. The map would be distorted at the North and South Poles and in areas to the extreme east and west of the center. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Columbus believed that the circumference of the Earth was smaller than it actually is. He also believed that Europe, Africa, and Asia took up a larger portion of the Earth than they do. Therefore, he though India was much closer to Europe than it is. Answers will vary. Sample answer: There was no way for people to communicate across the oceans. Before ships could sail long distances, it was easy for people to think that areas they had not seen do not exist.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: YOU ARE HERE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C E G A D

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

B F C B A

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Maps as Models of the Earth

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17. Answers may vary. Sample answer:

18.

19.

20.

21.

22. 23. 24.

25.

The compounds and gases trapped within glaciers and the polar ice caps record a continuous history of Earth's climate over hundreds of thousands of years. Ice cores are a way of retrieving that history. An answer to this exercise can be found at the back of the Teacher Edition. Changes in environmental conditions can change or eliminate a species' habitat, so a species cannot meet its basic needs. Hard-bodied organisms are more easily preserved, so more of these organisms have been studied. The tree is not made of wood because the wood tissue in the tree was completely replaced by minerals. younger an angular unconformity Intrusion A is younger than fault 10 because the intrusion is not disturbed by the fault. folding; Folding occurred, and then the fault occurred. After erosion and deposition of layers X and Y, the intrusion occurred.

tomatoes lettuce ham mustard rye bread Dessert bonus: disconformity

t. u. v. w. x.

Critical Thinking

¡ADIÓS ALAMOSAURUS!

1. a. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

Reinforcement

WELCOME TO THE GEOLOGY ROCKS CAFÉ

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s.

rye bread pickles tomatoes provolone cheese turkey mustard sourdough bread onions lettuce Cheddar cheese ham mustard sourdough bread relish provolone cheese turkey mayonnaise sourdough bread pickles

Like one current theory, Dr. Garza's hypothesis states that the extinction of the dinosaurs was due partly to the impact of a huge asteroid. b. Answers will vary. Sample answer: One current theory states that the asteroid struck the Earth, causing the dinosaurs to die from a lack of sunlight. Dr. Garza's hypothesis states that the asteroid crashed into the ocean, and that the dinosaurs died as a result of the destruction of their habitat. 2. Answers will vary. Sample answers: asteroid impact: tsunamis, debris in the air, blockage of sunlight, forest fires, death of plants and animals massive earthquake: tsunamis, flooding, destruction of habitat drought: death of plants and animals 3. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Dr. Garza should look for disconformities in rock layers and extra thick layers of sediment due to heavy deposition. Sediment layers should contain large numbers of fossilized plants and animals that were buried and preserved in sediment after the flood. 4. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Yes, these discoveries support Dr. Garza's hypothesis. Flowing water would cause dinosaur skeletons in low-lying areas to be disrupted. Skeletons on high ground would not be affected by flooding, so they would remain intact.

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The Rock and Fossil Record

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11. a reverse fault 12. a convergent boundary

Chapter Review

1. Sample answer: The type of

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

boundary--convergent boundary, divergent boundary, or transform boundary--that forms where two tectonic plates touch depends on how the plates move relative to one another. continental drift Folding Tension uplift C C B D A A An anticline is an upward-arching fold that is caused by horizontal stress. A syncline is a downward-arching fold that is caused by horizontal stress. A monocline is a fold in which both ends of the fold are horizontal. A monocline is caused by vertical stress. As oceanic crust spreads away from a mid-ocean ridge, the crust carries bands that contain minerals that were aligned with Earth's magnetic field when the crust was formed. The similar sequence of bands on both sides of a mid-ocean ridge, even at a large distance from the ridge, indicates that the sea floor is spreading away from a center. As new crust forms at mid-ocean ridges, plates on either side of the ridge move away from the ridge. Therefore, continents on those plates also move. Compression and tension are two types of stress that deform rock. Compression squeezes rock at convergent plate boundaries; tension stretches rock at divergent plate boundaries. The global positioning system is a system of satellites that orbit the Earth. Radio signals are continuously beamed from these satellites to

17.

18.

19.

20.

21. 22.

ground stations. The distance between satellites and ground stations is recorded. By recording the time it takes for ground stations to move a given distance, scientists can measure the rate at which tectonic plates move. An answer to this exercise can be found at the back of the Teacher Edition. Answers will vary. At a subduction zone, the lithosphere is denser than it is at a mid-ocean ridge. Convection causes oceanic lithosphere to move away from the mid ocean ridge. Oceanic lithosphere is also higher at a mid-ocean ridge, so oceanic lithosphere moves down toward the subduction zone because of gravity. Answers will vary. The amount of crust formed is roughly equal to the amount of crust destroyed globally. If this were not true, the Earth would either be expanding or shrinking. At the time they formed, the folded mountains must have been on the edge of a tectonic plate. New material was later added to the tectonic plate, causing the folded mountains to be located closer to the center of the continent. a reverse fault; compression a normal fault; tension

Reinforcement

A MOVING JIGSAW PUZZLE

1. divergent 3. convergent 2. transform

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The

single continent on Athena may be beginning to separate into two or more separate continents. 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Athena's ocean floor probably has submerged mountains where magma rises to the surface and cools. This may eventually cause mountains to form as tectonic plates move and collide. 3. The color of the sky and the smell of the air probably do not indicate anything about the planet's surface.

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Plate Tectonics

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20. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

21.

22.

23.

24. 25. 26.

The structure of a part is its shape and what it is made of. The function of a part is what that shape and material enable the part to do in the body. For example, alveoli are tiny sacs in the lungs that hold gases. They are made of a membrane that enables oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass in and out of the blood. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Not valid; some organisms are unicellular and have no tissues, organs, or organ systems. Ribosomes make proteins, which all cells and all organisms need to survive. If your ribosomes disappeared, you would die. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Achaebacteria are older because there are many types of methane-making archaebacteria, and because many types of archaebacteria live in very hot places. mitochondrion B C

Critical Thinking

1. mitochondria, energy generators--

Reinforcement

BUILDING A EUKARYOTIC CELL

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B B B B B B

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

B P B B B P

produce energy for work nucleus, director's office-- directs production lysosome, waste management-- collects and destroys wastes endoplasmic reticulum, materials delivery system--transports materials Golgi complex, packaging department-- processes and packages materials 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Both the architectural plans and DNA contain all the information needed for construction. The plans show how materials will flow through a factory. The DNA determines how materials will flow through a cell. 3. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Plant cells have rigid walls for protection. A factory with a more rigid wall around it would be more secure. Plant cells use vacuoles to store water and other materials. It would be useful to have such storage facilities in a factory. Plant cells make food from the sun's energy. A factory that could produce its own solar energy would be more self-sufficient and run more cheaply than a factory without solar energy.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: THE DIVERSITY OF CELLS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Diagram

Endoplasmic reticulum Vesicles

H J I B F B A D I J

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

E G C A D E H C F G

Nucleolus

Golgi complex

SECTION: EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleus

DNA

Mitochondria

Cell membrane

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Cells: The Basic Units of Life

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7. Answers will vary. Students' answers 16. The plant on the left was given pure

should reflect that learning a new skill involves a series of steps, and that what a person learns at one step may make them change what they do at another step.

Chapter Review

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane. Sample answer: A feedback mechanism is a cycle of events in which one event affects a previous event in the cycle. Feedback mechanisms help your body maintain homeostasis. photosynthesis cellular respiration Cytokinesis is the division of just the cytoplasm. Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cells in which the nuclear material splits to form two new nuclei. Active transport requires the cell to use energy to move substances. Passive transport does not require the cell to use any energy. Cellular respiration releases stored energy using oxygen. Fermentation releases stored energy without using oxygen. C A D C Endocytosis and exocytosis are examples of active transport. In both processes the cell must change shape, wrap around a particle, and make other movements that require the cell to use energy. Chloroplasts are needed for photosynthesis. Cellular respiration requires mitochondria. The first stage is cell growth and copying of DNA (duplication.) The second stage is mitosis, which involves separating the duplicated chromosomes. The third stage is cytokinesis (cell division), which results in two separate, identical cells. An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of the Teacher Edition.

17.

18.

19.

20. 21.

22.

water. The plant on the right was given salt water. Osmosis occurred in both plants. In the plant on the left, water moved into the plant because the concentration of water was lower in the plant than in the soil. So, the plant on the left did not wilt. In the plant on the right, the water in the plant moved into the soil, where the concentration of water was lower. The concentration of water in the soil was lower because the water contained salt. As a result, the plant on the right wilted. Sample answer: Your body uses feedback mechanisms to control changes in your body and maintain homeostasis. When you are frightened, your brain sends a message to your heart cells to pump more blood fast. This increased heart rate signals the brain that your body is ready to escape. Then, when you recognize your friend, your brain sends a message to your heart to return to normal. As your heart cells stop working so hard to pump blood, they send signals to the brain that your heart is returning to normal. a. The cell is a eukaryotic cell. It will go through mitosis and cytokinesis. Prokaryotic cells have only one chromosome. b. Each new cell will receive a copy of each chromosome, so each new cell will have 10 chromosomes. The cell is eukaryotic because it shows chromatids held together at a centromere. Prokaryotic cells do not have chromatids. The cell is in mitosis because the chromosomes have already duplicated. There are 12 chromatids. There are three pairs of homologous chromosomes. There will be six chromosomes in each new cell.

Reinforcement

INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL

Osmosis:

· particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration · water · does not require ATP

The Working Cell

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Passive Transport: 4. The salt will decrease the

· particles move through proteins · particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration · sugar · does not require ATP

Active Transport:

· particles move through proteins · particles move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration · requires ATP

concentration of water in the fluid outside the cells. This will cause dehydration as water leaves the cells by osmosis. 5. Answers will vary. Sample answer: He could destroy the cells by restricting their oxygen flow or by destroying their mitochondria.

Section Quizzes

SECTION: EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ACTIVITIES OF THE CELL

1.-4.

B E G F C

6. 7. 8. 9.

A D D A

SECTION: CELL ENERGY

5. Chloroplasts also need carbon 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

dioxide and water to make glucose.

6. Mitochondria also give off carbon

C B C C E

6. D 7. B 8. A

dioxide, water, and energy during cellular respiration.

SECTION: THE CELL CYCLE

1. 2. 3. 4.

THIS IS RADIO KCEL

Segment A: 3 Segment B: 1 Segment C: 4 Segment D: 2

D C E B

5. 6. 7. 8.

A B A C

SECTION: FEEDBACK MECHANISMS

1. 2. 3. 4.

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Yes.

When placed in fresh water, a typical cell will absorb water until it bursts. Because the concentration of water particles is higher outside the cell, water will flow into the cell by osmosis. 2. The S.C.A.M. scientists will have to discover a way of stopping the cells' absorption of fresh water before the cells burst. 3. a. food b. endocytosis c. active transport d. cellular respiration e. fermentation f. passive transport g. exocytosis

E B D C

5. 6. 7. 8.

A F D A

Chapter Test A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

D D A C B A A A B B C D C

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

D B D B D A E C B F A D

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The Working Cell

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5. A 6. About 139 million (3,200,000,000 7. 19. Sample answer: The government is

8.

9. 10. 11.

23 139,130,435) A sex cell (germ cell, sperm cell, or egg cell) because these cells contain the genes from which a new organism is formed. Sample answer: Genetic engineering is deliberately controlled by humans, and may involve processes that are rare or impossible in nature. 3 TGAGGACTT CTGAGGACTT

trying to protect people from the risk of mutagens causing harmful mutations in people's cells--mutations could cause a disease such as cancer. 20. C 21. B 22. B

Reinforcement

MUTATIONS

1. CATTGAGGA 2. a. substitution; in the 9th base pair:

CG changed to TA.

Chapter Review

1. A mutagen is a substance that can 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

b. deletion in the 10th base pair: CG

was dropped.

3. When a deletion mutation occurs in

13. 14.

15. 16.

17.

18.

cause a mutation in DNA. nucleotides ribosome D B B B A B GAATCCGAATGGT an insertion The DNA in genes codes for specific proteins, and proteins control cells and result in traits. because proteins do much of the work copying and handling the DNA DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid and exact copies of a set of DNA are found in each cell of an organism. RNA is ribonucleic acid, which is similar to DNA but is used to carry copies of DNA code around the cell and to build proteins based on this code. An answer to this exercise can be found at the back of the Teacher Edition. Student drawings should resemble the diagram of replication in their student text and should have appropriate labels. Student drawings should resemble the diagram of protein assembly in their student text and should have appropriate labels. This sequence codes for five amino acids.

DNA, the sequence of bases is changed and the resulting code is different.

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer:

Some people claim that genetically engineered food might resist pests better, grow bigger, produce more. A genetically engineered person might not have to endure sunburn or other problems. 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Genetically engineered crops could spread to other crops. They might out-compete other crops. If scientists engineered for problems such as sunburn, perhaps everyone would end up just the same. Fads such as wanting green hair might occur. 3. Answers will vary. Students should express an understanding that genetic engineering involves permanent changes to an organism and that there will be consequences due to those changes.

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Understanding DNA

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15. Both slime molds and amoebas are

16. 17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25. 26. 27. 28.

protists, and both move (slime molds move during certain phases of life) and feed by using pseudopodia. a structure that holds excess water and removes water from a protist cell Paramecium uses conjugation, P. vivax uses a complex cycle, and Euglena uses fission. Amoebas use pseudopodia to engulf food, phytoplankton produce their own food, and G. lamblia is a parasite that feeds on a host. Protists do not have specialized tissues, so they are different from fungi, plants, and animals. And unlike bacteria, they are eukaryotic. Sample answer: threadlike fungi: old bread; sac fungi: under the soil; club fungi: in the supermarket; imperfect fungi: in an animal as a parasite An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of the teacher's edition. Bread mold is a threadlike fungus. These fungi grow best in warm, moist conditions. The refrigerator's cool temperature keeps the fungi from growing. Sample answer: These protozoans are probably protected from danger by their shells because the shells are hard and their bodies are soft. These fungi may respond to the difficult environmental conditions by changing from asexual reproduction to sexual reproduction. They would likely form sporangia that would release spores when the environmental conditions improved. yeast (sac fungus) budding B was first; C was last; B, D, A, C The large cell in picture b is the original cell because it is the first to bud.

Reinforcement

PROTISTS ON PARADE

1. invades the body of another living

2. 3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

organism to obtain the nutrients if needs Producer; Answers will vary. Sample answer: brown algae feeds on dead organic matter or the body of another organism whiplike structures that produce movement; Answers will vary. Sample answer: Giardia lamblia tiny, hairlike structures used for movement and feeding; Answers will vary. Sample answer: paramecium structures that amoebas use to move; "false feet" a single parent that produces small reproductive cells; Answers will vary. Sample answer: Plasmodium vivax

AN ODE TO A FUNGUS

Answers will vary. Sample answer: When you are imperfect, you grow on my feet. Most fungi eat things that are dead, Except for the yeast that help me make bread. Some fungi are used to make cheese, And when I breathe them they can make me wheeze. Mushrooms are fungi, and some taste quite good, But others are poisonous--don't mistake them for food! Many shapes, sizes, and colors you can be Reproducing with your hyphae asexually!

Critical Thinking

1. Sample answer: Plantlike protists are

least likely to enjoy this group because they are photosynthetic and depend on light for survival. 2. Sample answer: Phytoplankton will relate to Al Gee's music because they are "very necessary." They provide food for most water-dwelling organisms, and they also provide most of the world's oxygen. Additionally, they are at the bottom of the food chain.

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Protists and Fungi

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9. Sample answer: A doctor who does not 23. Sample answer: Antibiotics would not

wear gloves might spread an infectious disease from one patient to another. 10. Sample answer: Some animal diseases, such as rabies, can also infect people. Preventing the spread of these diseases in animals makes the diseases less likely to be spread to humans.

24. 25. 26. 27.

help the person recover from influenza because influenza is caused by a virus, and antibiotics can't kill viruses because viruses are not alive. stage c stage b stage a stage b

Chapter Review

1. Sample answer: A pathogen is a virus,

Reinforcement

BACTERIA BONANZA

IA. Cocci IB. Bacilli IC. Spirilla IIA. Archaebacteria IIA1. Salt lovers IIA2. Heat lovers IIA3. Methane makers IIB. Eubacteria IIB1. Consumers IIB1a. Decomposers IIB1b. Living organisms IIB2. Producers IIB2a. photosynthetic IIB2b. cyanobacteria

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 14.

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16. 17.

18.

19. 20.

21.

22.

microorganism, or other organism that causes disease. binary fission 8. B antibiotics 9. C virus 10. D D 11. C A 12. D B 13. D Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and decomposers both perform functions that are critical for life on Earth. the lysogenic cycle; in the lysogenic cycle, the virus injects its genetic material into the host but does not immediately begin to reproduce. Viruses do not grow or eat like living things do. Pasteurization is the process of killing microorganisms in liquids by heating the liquids. Doctors can treat some viral infections with antiviral medicines that stop viruses from reproducing. An answer to this exercise can be found at the end of the Teacher Edition. Sample answer: Most bacteria would face no problems at all. The only bacteria that might have a problem are pathenogenic bacteria that only infect humans. Sample answer: Antibacterial soaps can prevent bacterial infection. But these soaps might also lead to bacteria changing and becoming harder to fight with antibiotics available today. Sample answer: Antibiotics kill all bacteria, even the good bacteria that live in your digestive tract. Your digestive system does not work properly without healthy colonies of beneficial bacteria.

THE LYTIC CYCLE

1. E 2. F 3. C 4. B

Critical Thinking

1. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Ian

Sistent does not realize that bacteria can be beneficial. He probably assumes that they only cause illness. 2. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Bioremediation could be used to change pollutants in the crops' soil into harmless chemicals. Cyanobacteria could be used as fertilizers for crops. 3. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Lactic acid bacteria could be used to preserve foods that contain lactic acid, such as milk. Bacteria could be genetically engineered to produce vitamins, fats, and proteins. 4. Answers will vary. Sample answer: Bacteria are a better long-term choice for space travel because they are lightweight, less expensive than machines, and take up little space.

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Bacteria, Viruses, and Disease

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