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Grammar Links 1

Second Edition

TEACHING NOTES

Linda Butler

M. Kathleen Mahnke, Series Editor

Houghton Mifflin Company

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Contents

INTRODUCTION TO THE GRAMMAR LINKS SERIES.................................. 3 Series approach ............................................................................................. 3 About the books ............................................................................................ 4 Overview of second edition changes ............................................................. 4 GRAMMAR LINKS 1 .............................................................................................. 7 The high-beginning language learner ........................................................... 7 Unit and chapter components ........................................................................ 7 Other components ......................................................................................... 9 General teaching suggestions ........................................................................ 9 UNIT-BY-UNIT OVERVIEW AND TEACHING NOTES ................................16 Introductory Unit: Useful Words and Expressions .......................................16 Unit 1: Present Tense of Be ..........................................................................18 Unit 2: Nouns, Articles, and Adjectives; Demonstratives, Possessives, and Conjunctions ..............................................................................25 Unit 3: Present Progressive Tense ................................................................32 Unit 4: Simple Present Tense ........................................................................37 Unit 5: Prepositions; There + Be ..................................................................45 Unit 6: Simple Past Tense .............................................................................50 Unit 7: More About Nouns and Pronouns; Quantifiers ................................56 Unit 8: Expressing Future Time ....................................................................64 Unit 9: Modals; Imperatives .........................................................................69 Unit 10: Adjectives and Adverbs; Comparisons ...........................................75 Unit 11: Verbs and Objects; Past Progressive Tense; Time Clauses ............80

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

INTRODUCTION TO THE GRAMMAR LINKS SERIES

Grammar Links is a comprehensive five-level grammar reference and practice series for students of English as a second or foreign language. The series meets the needs of students from the beginning through the advanced level: Grammar Links Basic........................... Grammar Links 1.................................. beginning high beginning

Grammar Links 2 .................................. intermediate Grammar Links 3 ................................. Grammar Links 4 ................................. high intermediate advanced

Grammar Links student texts are accompanied by a variety of ancillary materials, including an audiocassette or audio CD package and an assortment of Web-based materials. The Web ancillaries for each book include the teacher's notes, chapter-bychapter teacher's tests and student self-tests, vocabulary flashcards, tapescripts, answer keys, and other materials and activities. Grammar Links 1­4 are also accompanied by a workbook. Series Approach Recent research in applied linguistics tells us that when a well-designed communicative approach is coupled with a systematic treatment of grammatical form, the combination is a powerful pedagogical tool. Grammar Links is such a tool. Grammar Links' grammar explanations are clear, accurate, and carefully sequenced. All points introduced are practiced in exercises, and coverage is comprehensive and systematic. In addition, each grammar point is carefully recycled and reused in a variety of contexts. In Grammar Links Basic, the grammar is presented in small manageable chunks arranged with students' communicative needs in mind. Each unit in Grammar Links Basic also treats a general topic of easy accessibility. "Unit One: At School," for example, teaches language for the classroom along with the grammar. "Unit Four: Everyday Life" teaches the simple present in the context of the daily routines of people at home, at school, and at work. Books 1­4 in the Grammar Links series employ a theme-based approach, with the grammar contextualized in a variety of content areas. The content serves as more than a backdrop for communication; high-interest topics presented along with the target grammar help promote the development of students' cognitive and linguistic abilities. Thus, the exercises and activities in Grammar Links 1­4 are content-driven as well as grammar-driven. While learning about adjective clauses in Book 3, for example, students explore various aspects of the discipline of psychology. While they are practicing gerunds and infinitives in Book 2, they read about successful American entrepreneurs. And while practicing the simple present tense in Book 1, students learn about and discuss 3

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

North American festivals and other celebrations. Throughout the series, students communicate about meaningful content, transferring their grammatical training to the English they need in their daily lives. Complementing the communicative theme-based approach of the Grammar Links series is a range of successful methodological options for exercises and activities. In addition to more traditional, explicit rule presentation and practice, we have incorporated a number of less explicit, more inductive techniques. Foremost among these are our discovery exercises and activities, in which students are asked to notice general and specific grammatical features and think about them on their own, sometimes formulating their own hypotheses about how these features work and why they work they way they do. Discovery exercises are included in each unit opener. They are frequently used in chapter openers as well, and are interspersed throughout the Grammar Practice sections, particularly at the higher levels. In short, the Grammar Links approach provides students with a comprehensive, systematic treatment of grammar that employs a variety of methods for grammar learning within a communicative theme-based framework. About the Books Grammar coverage in the Grammar Links series has been carefully designed to spiral across levels. Structures introduced in one book are recycled and built upon in the next. Students not only learn increasingly sophisticated information about the structures but also practice these structures in increasingly challenging contexts. Themes show a similar progression across levels, from less academic at the beginning levels to more academic in Book 3 and Book 4. Grammar Links is flexible in many ways and can be easily adapted to the particular needs of users. Although its careful spiraling makes it ideal as a series, the comprehensive grammar coverage at each level means the individual books can also stand alone. The careful organization also makes it possible for students to use their text as a reference after they have completed a course. The units in a book can be used in the order given or can be rearranged to fit the teacher's curriculum. Books can be used in their entirety or in part. In addition, the inclusion of ample practice allows teachers to be selective when choosing exercises and activities. All exercises are labeled for grammatical content, so that structures can be practiced more or less extensively, depending on class and individual needs.

OVERVIEW OF THE SECOND EDITION CHANGES

The second edition of Grammar Links retains the original features that made the first edition a success: Clear and comprehensive treatment of grammar at the intermediate level. Attention to both form and function of grammar in all skill areas. Progression from more controlled practice exercises to more open-ended communicative activities.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Attention to grammar at the discourse level within a contextualized theme-based framework. Inductive "noticing" or "discovery" tasks to help students become independent grammar learners. Our special Grammar Hotspot feature, which gives extra focus to grammar trouble spots. Talking the Talk, another special feature, which relates to the differences between spoken and written, formal and informal grammar use. A number of modifications have been made and a number of new features have also been added as enhancements to the second edition: A reorganization and redistribution of material in order to provide maximum accessibility for learners. A fresh, new design with eye-catching art, realia, and a focus on ease of use. A new name and face for our unit introductory tasks - Grammar in Action. This title clearly reflects what these tasks accomplish ­ showing the unit grammar "in action," that is, in real use in authentic contexts. Simplification of content presentation. Some theme-based writings in each text have been simplified. Vocabulary glosses have been added throughout the books to aid students in focusing on grammar while learning about topics of interest. Simplification of grammar presentation and practice. Grammar has been broken down into shorter grammar briefings and practices. Streamlined, easy-to-read grammar briefings show structures at a glance. They incorporate: 1) More graphic representations (charts, time lines, etc.) and fewer written explanations. 2) An easy-to-understand side-by-side arrangement of explanations and their illustrating examples. An even greater number and variety of exercises and activities than before, now signaled with icons for easy reference. Exercises have been rearranged to match new grammar briefing divisions. Some exercises have been combined. Others have been divided up, and new exercises have been added. Thus, the total number of exercises per chapter sometimes differs from that of the first edition, but the coverage is as complete or more complete. At least one writing activity in every chapter. These assignments are carefully designed to encourage student to use the grammar of the chapter in extended written discourse. Assessment options. Practice tests, both self-check tests for student use and achievement tests for teacher use, are now available for each chapter of the book. These tests are on the Website. Other links to the World Wide Web. Icons in the text lead students to: 1) Models for writing assignments. 2) Links to interesting sites related to unit themes for further reading and discussion, along with activity sheets for some of these sites. 3) Vocabulary flashcards for review of the content-related vocabulary that is used in text readings and exercises.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Improved support for teachers. Expanded teacher's notes are available at the Instructor's Website. Also available on the Web are sample syllabi and lesson plans, the tapescript, and the answer key. Updated workbook. The Grammar Links workbooks have been updated and expanded to incorporate second edition changes. M. Kathleen Mahnke, Series Editor

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

GRAMMAR LINKS 1, 2ed

The high-beginning language learner

At the high-beginning level, learners of English need to build on their introduction to the language in ways that will lead to a solid understanding of English grammar and will help them develop strategies for analyzing grammatical information. They need guidance and encouragement to use what they already know and to expand their knowledge and use of English. They benefit from structured and guided practice that develops their skills and prepares them to engage in more communicative activities, especially those students who are hesitant to participate. Thus, instruction at this level needs to be more teacher-controlled than at the intermediate and advanced levels. While students need this guided practice, the controlled activities must also lead them to more open-ended tasks where they can put to use what they have learned in order to speak and write about themselves, to read and discuss topics of interest, and to ask for information they need.

UNIT AND CHAPTER COMPONENTS

Grammar Links 1 begins with an introduction to the alphabet, numbers, and some useful words and expressions. Eleven units follow, each with two or three chapters. The major unit and chapter sections are described below, as are the materials to be found at the back of the book. Unit Objectives. Each unit begins with a list of unit objectives so that teachers and students can preview the major grammar points covered in the unit. Objectives are accompanied by example sentences that highlight the relevant structures. Grammar in Action. To illustrate grammar use in extended discourse, a Reading and Listening selection introduces both the unit grammar and the unit theme in the unit-opener section, Grammar in Action. This material is followed by grammar consciousness-raising or "noticing" tasks in Think About Grammar. In Think About Grammar tasks, students figure out some aspect of grammar by looking at words and sentences from the Reading and Listening selection, often working together to answer questions about them. Students induce grammatical rules themselves before having those rules given to them. Think About Grammar thus helps students become independent grammar learners by promoting critical thinking and discussion about grammar. Chapter Introduction. Each chapter opens with a task. This task involves students in working receptively with the structures that are treated in the chapter and gives them the opportunity to begin thinking about the chapter theme. Grammar Briefings. The grammar is presented in Grammar Briefings. Chapters generally have three or four Grammar Briefings, so that information is given in manageable chunks. The core of each Grammar Briefing is its form and function 7

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

charts. In these charts, the form (the what of grammar) and the function (the how, when, and why) are presented in logical segments. These segments are manageable but large enough so that students can see connections between related grammar points. Form and function are presented in separate charts when appropriate but together when the two are essentially inseparable. All grammatical descriptions in the form and function charts are comprehensive, concise, and clear. Sample sentences illustrate each point. Grammar Hotspots. Grammar Hotspots are a special feature of the Grammar Links series. They occur at one or more strategic points in each chapter. Grammar Hotspots focus on aspects of grammar that students are likely to find particularly troublesome. Some hotspots contain reminders about material that has already been presented in the form and function charts; others go beyond the charts. Talking the Talk. Talking the Talk is another special feature of the Grammar Links series Our choice of grammar is often determined by our audience, whether we are writing or speaking, the situations in which we find ourselves, and other sociocultural factors. Talking the Talk treats these factors. Students become aware of differences between formal and informal English, between written and spoken English. Grammar Practice. Each Grammar Briefing is followed by comprehensive and systematic practice of all grammar points introduced. The general progression within each Grammar Practice is from more controlled to less controlled, from easier to more difficult, and often from more receptive to more productive and/or more structured to more communicative. A wide variety of exercises are included in each of the four skill areas: listening , speaking , reading, and writing . The exercise types that are used are appropriate to the particular grammar points being practiced. For example, more drill-like exercises are often used for practice with form. More open-ended exercises often focus on function. In many cases, drill-like practice of a particular grammar point is followed by open-ended communicative practice of the same point, often as pair or group work. The majority of exercises within each Grammar Practice section are related to the theme of the unit. However, some exercises depart from the theme to ensure that each grammar point is practiced in the most effective way. Unit Wrap-Ups. Each unit ends with a series of activities that pull the unit grammar together and enable students to test, further practice, and apply what they have learned. These activities include an editing task, which covers the errors students most commonly make in using the structures presented in the unit, as well as innovative open-ended communicative tasks, which build on and go beyond the individual chapters. Exercise Pages. On these pages at the back of the book are materials students need to do information gap tasks and other information related to exercises, such as the

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

answers to the Mystery Inventions activity on page 229. Appendixes. Extensive appendixes supplement the grammar presented in the Grammar Briefings. They provide students with word lists, spelling and pronunciation rules, and other supplemental rules related to the structures taught. The appendixes are a rich resource for students as they work through exercises and activities. Grammar Glossary. A grammar glossary provides students and teachers with definitions of the grammar terms used in Grammar Links as well as example sentences to aid in understanding the meaning of each term. Index. A helpful index to the grammatical structures covered is the final component of the book. Other components In addition to these teacher's notes, the following ancillary materials are available for Grammar Links. Audio Program. All Grammar Links listening exercises and all Grammar in Action reading and listening selections are recorded on audio CDs and cassettes. The symbol appears next to the title of each recorded segment. Workbook. The Grammar Links 1 - 4 student texts are each accompanied by a workbook. The four workbooks contain a wide variety of exercise types, including paragraph and essay writing, and they provide extensive supplemental self-study practice of each grammar point presented in the student texts. Student self-tests with TOEFL® practice questions are also included in the workbooks. Tapescript and Answer Keys. The tapescript and the answer key for the student text are also available at the Grammar Links Website. Links to the World Wide Web. As was discussed above, the Grammar Links Website <http://www.hmco.com/college/esl/> has been expanded for the second edition to include teacher tests, student self-tests, model writing assignments, content Web links, and other materials. Links are updated frequently, to ensure that students and teachers can access the best information available on the Web.

GENERAL TEACHING SUGGESTIONS

Grammar in Action Reading and Listening It is often a good idea to begin by talking about the illustration(s) that accompany the Reading and Listening passage. Sometimes the passage is followed by glosses for words

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that students may not know, and you may wish to offer further explanation of these words. The glosses give only the meanings of words as they are used in that context. Whenever possible, play the Reading and Listening passage on the Grammar Links I audiocassette or CD to give students the benefit of hearing the pronunciation and intonation of a variety of English speakers. For the early units of the book, you may want to play the recording more than once: for example, play it first after students have looked at the illustration(s) on the page but have their books closed, and then play it again while students read and listen. For Reading and Listening sections later in the book, you may wish to have the students do the reading first at home and then listen and reread in class. Ask follow-up questions to check the students' comprehension. (For specific suggestions, see the guidelines for a particular Reading and Listening in the Unit-by-Unit Overview and Teaching Notes.) Think about Grammar The goal of the Think about Grammar sections is to focus students' attention on a certain structure or structures used in the preceding conversation so that they begin to make observations and formulate rules for themselves. For example, the Think about Grammar tasks for Unit 1 (page 12) are designed to focus students' attention on the three present tense forms of the verb be and have them notice the subjects of these verbs. The Grammar Briefings that follow will confirm and build on what students have discovered about the grammar. For teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action, see the specific Reading and Listening and Think about Grammar notes in the Unit-by-unit overview and teaching notes that follow. Grammar Briefings (including Grammar Hotspots and Talking the Talk boxes) The Grammar Briefings present an introduction to basic English grammar by means of charts and explanations with examples. You will want to go over the information in these charts with your class. In some cases, it might be useful to copy a Grammar Briefing onto a transparency and show it on an overhead projector; in other cases, you can recreate the chart and/or examples on the board. Highlight the point you want to make by underlining or circling, or by using chalk or a whiteboard marker of a different color. Add examples to those shown, based on information that is familiar to your students (such as statements about your city, school, classroom, or people in the class). As the grammar point becomes clear to students, get them to contribute further examples. Often one or more students in the class will already know some or all of what you are trying to teach. The more you can elicit from students, the better. It will boost the confidence of students who can contribute and increase overall class participation and attention. You can do this by getting students to tell you how to fill in the blanks in a chart or sample sentence that you write on the board or say to the class. (One technique

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

for indicating the "blanks" in a sentence when you are speaking is to hold up a hand and touch one finger for each word in the sentence as you say it. Say something like mmm for a blank, as in Juan mmm from Nicaragua. Then repeat, pausing as you point to the "the mmm finger" for students to volunteer is.) Students are not expected to produce all the grammatical terms used in the Grammar Briefings. However, your use and repetition of the basic grammar terms will make them familiar to students, help students categorize information, and be especially useful when the time comes to contrast the form and function of a new structure with one learned previously. Options for varying the presentation of Grammar Briefings include: · · Begin with the examples and then look at the rule(s). This may work well with Grammar Briefings that present examples on the right and rules on the left (for example, see page 71). Start with the exercises and then return to the Grammar Briefing. This may work well in instances when you believe that most if not all of the grammatical information is already familiar to students.

The information presented in Grammar Hotspots can be handled in a similar fashion. These often highlight common student errors and can help students monitor their use of a structure. Both Grammar Hotspots and Talking the Talk boxes can occur immediately after a Grammar Briefing or later, within a Grammar Practice section, where they are followed by practice of that specific point. Note that some of the Talking the Talk boxes have been recorded on the Grammar Links 1 audio materials. For suggestions on presenting specific Grammar Briefings, see the Unit-by-unit overview and teaching notes that follow. Grammar Practice sections The exercises are designed to give students practice of all the points covered in the Grammar Briefings, the Grammar Hotspots, and the Talking the Talk boxes. Controlled exercises: These include a wide variety of exercise types (listening, matching, identifying forms, filling in blanks, deciding word order, building or transforming sentences, editing, etc.). Many of the form-based exercises are appropriate for homework, as the answers are usually straightforward and easy to check, but for the sake of added discussion or variety, you may want students to do them in class, working individually, with a partner, in a small group, or with the whole class. When students do exercises independently, either in class or for homework, there are several ways to go over their answers. For example:

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

· · · · · ·

have students work in pairs to check the answers in each other's books, while you circulate to check their work and answer questions ask students to read the exercise items with their answers aloud to the class read the items yourself while students supply missing information or answers write the exercise on the board or on an overhead with students calling out the answers for you to write have students write just the answers or the complete exercise on the board make an overhead transparency of the answers from the Answer Key for students to use in checking their own answers or a partner's

Open-ended exercises: These exercises generally follow controlled practice of grammar points and set up a context which naturally elicits the relevant structure(s). They may call for collaborating with a partner or a small group. They often involve multiple skills-- reading, listening, speaking, writing--and they include different types of activities, such as interviews and surveys, brainstorming, discussion, sharing personal information, and writing or telling stories. Pair work: When an exercise calls for students to work in pairs, make sure they understand what is expected of them. Go over with the class the directions and examples in the book. You may need to model the task with a student volunteer as your partner, or have two student volunteers demonstrate. Early in the course, you will want to be sure students understand the phrases take turns and switch roles. Some of the pair work exercises are very brief, and students should simply turn to the person seated closest to them. For other paired exercises, you may have students choose their own partners, or you may want to assign partners, taking into consideration factors such as students' first languages and proficiency in English. Pair work exercises can sometimes be done in groups of three, and you may want to put a weaker student with two stronger ones. Group work: As with pair work exercises, be sure that students understand clearly what is expected of them before they begin. Exercises that call for group work will generally be for three or four students only. Larger groups become cumbersome. For suggestions relating to specific exercises, see the Unit-by-unit overview and teaching notes that follow. Writing assignments: There are writing exercises in every chapter of the text, ranging from very controlled sentences to more open-ended assignments which ask students to write paragraphs, often about their own lives and experiences. Writing assignments may be best done as homework, particularly in classes where students differ markedly in how much time they need to compose a paragraph. Students often benefit from seeing a sample of how their paragraphs should look, so early in the course, you may wish to write a model on the board or hand out a sample handwritten paragraph. Examples of sentences, the beginnings of paragraphs, and complete model paragraphs are often provided in the text. Where a model for an 12

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

assignment can be found at the Grammar Links 1 Website, you will see an icon . The models at the website are set up so that students can highlight the target grammar to see it used correctly in extended discourse and so that students can turn off the highlighting, making the grammar blend in with the rest of the text. When a writing exercise is marked with a writing icon , students are asked to do it on a piece of paper, making it easy for you to collect them so that you can check the work and offer feedback. Students at this level are likely to make a great many errors. Some of these you may wish to ignore; others are best handled by simply supplying the student with the correct word or phrase. The errors that you will want to focus on, and have students correct for themselves, are those that relate directly to the grammar they have been studying. They can make those corrections either on the same paper or in a subsequent draft. For suggestions relating to specific writing assignments, see the Unit-by-unit overview and teaching notes that follow. Using the audio: The audio materials for Grammar Links 1 include: all the Grammar in Action Reading and Listening passages; recognition exercises that require students to listen and circle or write what they hear (for example, exercise 5, Ask a Travel Agent, in Chapter 2, page 33); and exercises that require students to listen and perform some other task (for example, Exercise 10, The Runaway Puppy, in Chapter 10, page 171). The audio program also includes material that is not required listening but which is highly recommended. For example, in several cases, the introductory task for a chapter includes a reading passage which students may understand more quickly and thoroughly if they can listen to the audio while they read. In these cases, using the audio may help the class accomplish the grammar tasks more efficiently. Unit Wrap-up Activities Activity 1 is for reading practice and also serves as a model for the writing assignment in Activity 2. Both of these activities incorporate the grammar targeted in the preceding chapters. Have the students do the reading on their own, either in class or at home. You may wish to read the paragraph aloud so that students can hear your pronunciation, phrasing, and intonation. You may want to ask for student volunteers to read aloud. Follow up the reading with comprehension questions. Activity 2 gives an assignment to write a paragraph. These writing assignments are designed to elicit use of the structures that students have worked on in the unit. At the start of the course, you may want to have students begin work on this activity in class so that you can circulate and make sure they understand the format of a paragraph. Sometimes it will be helpful to do Activity 3, the editing exercise, before assigning Activity 2 so that students can see another model. In other cases, you may want to have students write their paragraphs, do the editing of the paragraph in Activity 3, and then look for the same kinds of errors in their own paragraphs before handing them in to you. 13

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

When you correct these paragraphs, focus on the students' use of the structures studied in the unit. Mark any errors in those structures for students to correct and show you, either on that paper or by writing another draft of the paragraph. (Errors in structures previously studied should be treated in the same way, while errors of other types--for example, in the use of more advanced structures--you can either ignore or suggest revisions for, as you think best.) Activity 3 is an editing exercise (and also a model for the paragraph assigned in Activity 2). Tell students that they need to look for errors in the structures studied in the unit. After students have had time to make the corrections, in class or for homework, go over the paragraphs together. Particularly in the early units, it would be best for students to see, not just hear, where there are errors and how they should correct them. You can copy the page onto a transparency and show it on an overhead projector, or you can write the paragraph on the board, with students identifying errors and volunteering corrections either as you write or after you have finished. Ask questions to elicit the reasons for the changes that students suggest. Some errors can be corrected in more than one way. Activities 4 and 5 are interactive activities for students to do with a partner, in a small group, or mingling with the class at large. These more open-ended activities give students chances to use the grammar they have studied to communicate information about themselves or the world they know, to learn about their classmates, and to use their imaginations. In a sense, these activities are the payoff for all the preceding grammar work. Be sure to allow enough time for students to enjoy them. As you circulate to observe and answer questions, focus on facilitating effective communication rather than on correcting errors. For suggestions relating to specific Wrap-up activities, see the Unit-by-unit overview and teaching notes that follow. Links to the Web The World Wide Web has made an enormous amount of authentic material available to teachers and students. With this edition of the Grammar Links series, we have tapped the Web to add a new feature to the student texts. In two dozen locations throughout Grammar Links 1, you will see a Web icon directing you to links to Content Weblinks which further explore chapter themes. In Chapter 3, for example, after completing an exercise on using adjectives to describe cars and their owners, students can explore the Serious Wheels Website, with photos of classic, sports, and muscle cars. In Chapter 10, after an exercise on prepositions takes students up into a tree house, they can visit Websites devoted to tree houses and the people who design and build them. The content Web sites chosen for the Grammar Links Website have been carefully selected and graded. Some Web icons in the book lead students to more than one site. Multiple sites for the same icon are listed in order of increasing difficulty. That is, the #1 site link is, in most cases, easier for students than the #2 site link, etc. So, if you are concerned about site complexity, have your students start with site #1 and move on from 14

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

there. We encourage you, however, not to be intimidated by the more complex sites. You need not ask your students to produce information from the sites; instead, their goal can be exploration, of both grammar and topics of interest, in real-life contexts. They do not need to understand everything they see in order to benefit from exposure to the English used at the site. Hyperlinks to all of the content sites are provided at the Grammar Links 1 Website and can be accessed by both students and teachers. In addition, activities have been designed for selected sites. For example, in Chapter 26, there are links to sites with photos from the Paris-Dakar road rally, and there is an activity that gets students practicing direct object infinitives in statements that they write about what's happening in website photos of cars in the race. Each activity comprises two parts: downloadable directions to the teacher and a downloadable activity worksheet for the students. From the instructor's site, you can access your directions, the student activity sheet (to be copied and distributed in class), and the answers. From the student site, your students can access the worksheets and links to the Web. The Weblink activities are designed to be user-friendly and to practice chapter grammar while allowing students to have some fun with chapter themes. The Grammar Links 1 content sites and activities are designed to require only minimal keyboarding and Web navigation skills. You will want to plan on going through the steps for accessing the Grammar Links 1 Web materials with your class before sending them to do Web homework on their own. You may also want to ask students to work in pairs on the Web. Experienced students can guide those with less experience. The Weblinks can inspire your own supplementary materials and/or student projects. The content sites can also become springboards for class discussion. Many of them provide excellent visual reinforcement for topics discussed in the text. Others provide opportunities to move beyond what is discussed in the text and explore related topics, vocabulary, and grammar.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

UNIT-BY-UNIT OVERVIEW AND TEACHING NOTES

INTRODUCTORY UNIT: USEFUL WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

Overview

The purpose of this section of the text is to introduce students to each other and to some basic language for the classroom. Many of the exercises on these pages have been recorded, but as they are very short, you may prefer to read aloud for the class from the tapescript (also available for printing at this website).

Teaching Notes

Page 1 The Alphabet: Students need practice with the letters of the alphabet if they are going to be able to ask or explain how to spell words. Exercise 2: Have the students repeat the letters in each group after you. You might want to exaggerate them a bit to emphasize the similarity of sound among the names of the letters in each group. Have the students close their books, and write on the board: Group 1 a Group 2 b Group 3 f Group 4 i Group 5 o Group 6 q Group 7 r

Starting with c, say each letter of the alphabet, and get the class to tell you in which group to write it. The letters a, e, and i may be particularly difficult for your students to remember. You might write three familiar words such as day, she, and Hi in a corner of the blackboard. Have the students repeat the words and the names of the vowels in them. Leave the words on the board as reminders of how to say these three letters. Exercises 3 and 4: Also have the class practice the pronunciation of consonant and vowel. You can also call out the names of letters, one at a time, and ask the class to call out "Consonant" or "Vowel." Then you write them on the board (under the appropriate heading, Consonants or Vowels) to reinforce the idea. Exercise 5: Before having the students work in pairs, give the class lots of choral practice in asking Could you please repeat that?, breaking down the question into components (Could you, Could you please, repeat that). Show on the board how /d/ + /y/ = /j/, resulting in "Coodjou." Call on some volunteers to spell their names aloud. Then model the conversation with a student. You may want to have students write their partner's name as he or she spells it. If so, model this by writing on the board as you model the conversation.

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Page 2 Cardinal Numbers: Remember that you can read from the tapescript (which can be printed from this website) rather than using the recorded audio and thereby control the speed at which students hear the numbers. More cardinal numbers and some ordinal numbers can be found in Appendix 1. Page 3 Nouns: On the board, write a noun = a word for a person, place, or thing. Go over the examples shown and elicit more examples of nouns by pointing to people and things in the classroom. The examples shown include both common and proper nouns; the distinction will be taught in Unit 2. Page 4 Subject Pronouns: Have the class repeat the term subject pronouns as well as the pronouns and sentences in the chart. As you go over the pronouns, associate each one with a particular gesture. For example, you might use your hand flat on your chest to mean I, and a circling gesture can stand for us. For you, use an open hand toward a student and a direct look at him or her; move your hand to indicate more than one person for the plural you. Use an open hand toward someone at the side of the room while you look at the rest of the class for he or she; move your hand to indicate more than one person for the plural they. Touch several different objects while emphasizing the it in sentences with It is (IT is a book. IT is a pen.). Point to or touch two or more objects at once for they. As these gestures become familiar, they are useful in eliciting the pronouns from the class. Note that the illustration for you in the chart shows a man pointing his finger at the man to whom he is speaking. Some people may find the use of such finger-pointing offensive, so it is not recommended as a gesture to use in the classroom. Page 5 Singular and Plural: The concept of singular and plural is presented with nouns and subject pronouns. Note that the examples of singular and plural nouns include the irregular plural people. Have the class practice the pronunciation of singular and plural. Page 6 Adjectives and Prepositions: Students at this level are less likely to be familiar with the terms adjective and preposition than they are with verb and noun. Descriptive and possessive adjectives will be taught in Unit 2 and prepositional phrases in Unit 5, but both will be mentioned in Unit 1 as they occur after am/is/are.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

After going over the adjectives shown in the chart, elicit more examples of adjectives (such as more colors and words you can pantomime: tall, short, hot, cold) from the class and write them on the board. You might get more examples of prepositions by using gestures (under the table) or moving objects (between my books). Have the class practice the pronunciation of adjective and preposition. Page 7 Verbs: Some useful classroom verbs are presented on this page as the main verbs in sentences. Practice the pronunciation of the verbs with the class. Exercise 4: This exercise will give students practice in asking the question "What does ___ mean?".You can answer their questions about the six verbs given by acting them out: erasing something on the board, giving something to a student, taking something from a student, etc. Say what you are doing as you act it out. Ask students to write down other examples of verbs in their notebook and then elicit verbs to list on the board. Make sure they use "What does ___ mean?" to ask about new words in the list (rather than, for example, "What mean cry?" ).

UNIT 1: PRESENT TENSE OF BE

Topic Focus: People and Places

The Grammar

Unit 1 presents subject pronouns and the present tense forms of the verb be in affirmative and negative statements (Chapter 1) and in yes/no questions, short answers, and whquestions with who, what, and where (Chapter 2).

The Theme

The theme for this unit is People and Places. The unit opens with a TV game show on which contestants try to guess an American city based on a set of simple clues. The three contestants introduce themselves and tell where they are from. One is Sara Jordan, who will also appear in future units, as will her husband, the reporter Al Jordan. Other characters in the unit include an ESL teacher and students who are just getting to know each other. Your students will also introduce themselves and will see and hear the terms first name, middle name, last name, full name, and nickname. There is a focus on places throughout the unit as well. Various exercises, as well as maps in the unit and the appendices, present information about North American cities, U.S. states, Canadian provinces, and regions of these two countries. Nicknames for cities, such as "the Big Apple," are introduced. Students will also speak and write about the places they are from.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Teaching Notes

Page 10 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Reading and Listening: Have students listen to the dialogue as they read. Follow up with comprehension questions about the contestants: their names, where they are from, etc. You can find the places mentioned in the dialogue on the map in Chapter 1 or in Appendix . Have students do choral pronunciation practice of the place names and the words contestant and clue before having them read the dialogue in groups. If the groups have fewer than five students, they can double up on roles. Page 12 Think about Grammar: Students can work alone or in pairs to do these exercises. Go over their answers with the whole class. Make a chart on the board headed "be--the present tense" and elicit the three forms from the class. Write the subject pronoun I to the left of am, and then ask the class where the other pronouns belong. Add them. Chapter 1: New People, New Places: Statements with Be Chapter 1 Grammar Subject pronouns Present tense of be in affirmative statements Affirmative contractions with be Negative statements with be Negative contractions with be Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Briefing # 1 2 3, Talking the Talk 4 4, Grammar Hotspot Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, 2 3, 4, 5, 6 7, 8 9, 11, 12 10, 11, 12 11, 12 Unit 1 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 4 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 9, 10, 11 12 13 14

Page 13 Introductory Task: The purpose here is to have students introducing themselves to their classmates. You will make it easier for them to understand and remember each other's names if before you begin, you give them some exposure to all the names in the class. You can practice each student's name as you call the roll, making obvious your efforts to get the pronunciation right and remember who is who. Write the list of all the names on the board for them to copy, particularly if the students come from a variety of language backgrounds and may have difficulty with each other's names. 19

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Part B: Students listen and read as you model the conversation. Have the class practice the conversation chorally, repeating after you. Encourage them to use the intonation you use. Then have them practice with a partner. Part C: Ask a student to stand. Introduce yourself, following the model from Part B. Have the student also introduce him- or herself, and shake hands. Ask another student to stand, and repeat the process. Have the two students introduce themselves to each other and shake hands. Then have the entire class stand and move around the room, introducing themselves and shaking hands with as many people as possible. Page 14 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Hold up your book and outline the charts with your hand. Tell students This is Grammar Briefing 1. Have the class repeat the terms Grammar Briefing and subject pronouns. Recreate the Form chart with the subject pronouns on the board, asking students to supply the pronouns for you to write. Follow up with a quick oral drill, using gestures (see the teaching notes for page 4, Subject Pronouns) to elicit the subject pronouns from the whole class and/or individual students. Go over each of the three points in the Function chart: For point 1, write other sample sentences on the board (such as The book is green.), cross out the subject, and ask students to supply the appropriate subject pronoun. For point 2, again write other sample sentences on the board, this time with errors, such as My sister she is 30 years old, asking students "Is this OK?" For point 3, ask the class the time, the day, the date, and the weather. Write complete sentences with the subject It on the board. You may want to write more than one example of sentences with It is + the date to illustrate the practice of writing dates with cardinal numbers (May 2) but saying them with ordinal numbers ("May second"). Page 15 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Practice sections. Exercises 1 and 2 can be done alone or with a partner, in class or at home. Page 16 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Continue to emphasize the term Grammar Briefing when you refer to the charts to help students learn it.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Recreate the Form chart on the board, with input from the class to complete it. Follow up with a quick oral drill, saying the subject pronoun and asking the class and/or individual students to supply the appropriate form of be. Go over each of the three points in the Function chart: For point 1, write other simple statements on the board, such as I am a teacher. We are in Room X. It is sunny today. Ask students to identify the subject and verb. Practice the pronunciation of period. Circle the first letter of each sentence and write the terms capital letter and small letter on the board. Find out if they can identify capital letters. Point out that a statement begins with a capital letter. For point 2, review the meaning of noun: a word for a person, place, or thing. (Common and proper nouns will be taught in Unit 2.) Elicit examples of nouns and write them on the board. For point 3, write the three sample sentences on the board as heads for three columns. Underline the noun, the adjective, and the prepositional phrase in each. Add another statement of the same type in each column, such as I am a teacher, (Student's name) is tall, and We are in Room X. Elicit more examples from students, asking them where each statement should go. Page 17 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Practice sections. Exercises 3: Students can work alone or in pairs to complete the exercise. Follow up by reading the conversation aloud, with you taking the part of Mr. Rees while volunteers read the roles of the two students. Exercise 4, Part A: After going over the directions and examples, elicit further examples of statements made from words in the boxes. Part B: Once students finish writing sentences, have volunteers write some on the board. Exercise 5: Say the phrases for the students to repeat, to let them practice the pronunciation. Have students practice asking, "How do you say this word?" Read aloud the directions and demonstrate the exercise by taking the part of Student A and having someone in the class be Student B. Exercise 6: Part B may be best done as homework, given that students often need very different amounts of time to do writing assignments, and for this one, they may want to consult their dictionaries. See the General teaching suggestions for Writing assignments (under Grammar Practice sections).

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Page 21 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. When presenting the information in the Form chart, write some pronouns and forms of be on the board and change them to contractions to demonstrate how the apostrophe takes the place of a letter. Point out to students that the chart has both subject pronouns and nouns, and ask them to identify which is which. The Function chart reiterates these two points about the contractions. The Talking the Talk box contrasts the use of contractions in conversational English, or informal written English, with the use of full forms in academic English. Exercise 8: Follow up with a dictation of sentences using the contractions, to make sure students hear and spell them correctly. You could use the following: 1. I'm a teacher. 2. You're in class. 3. We're in room (number). 4. It's (time). 5. He's (name of male student in class). 6. She's (name of female student in class). 7. They're in class. Collect the papers, or have students exchange papers to check each other's spelling of the contractions. Page 23 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You might begin your presentation by writing three false statements with am, is, and are on the board, such as I am from Antactica, It is Sunday, and We are in an airplane. Try to elicit from students how to correct these false statements by making them negative. Show the full forms and the contractions, including--for is and are--both contracted forms. Go over the points emphasized in the Grammar Hotspot, showing how contractions are formed and how the apostrophe replaces a letter. Follow up with a quick oral drill. Make false statements with is and are about individual students (Yoshi is married. José is from Korea.) and about pairs of students (Inga and Tatyana are teachers.) Have students correct you by making the statements negative. After a little practice, turn the drill into a game by saying some statements will be true. When they hear a true statement, they should say "True" (and make no change). Exercise 11: Go over the directions and example with the class. You may want to ask volunteers to do items 2 and 3 as additional examples before having the students work in pairs. Exercise 12: Look at the words in the boxes. Answer any questions students have about word meanings. (Review the question "What does ___ mean? presented on page 7.)

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

For Part D, write statements on the board as students call them out. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 2: Getting the Facts: Questions with Be Chapter 2 Grammar Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, Talking 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 the Talk 2 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 11, Unit 1 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4 4, 5, 6 7

Yes/no questions and short answers with be Wh- questions with be: who, what, and where Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 27

Introductory Task: Draw students' attention to the gloss for the word nickname. Provide examples of nicknames for people as well as places. Page 28 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Note that in the Form chart, the short answers at right are shown in order according to their subject pronouns, not as responses to the questions at left. In some cases, therefore, it does not make sense to read across from question to answer. Only the contracted forms of negative short answers are shown in the chart, as the full forms are not often used. (See Grammar Hotspot.) Page 30 Exercise 2, Part D: After asking "Is New York City a good vacation place?" and tallying the votes on the board, try to elicit students' opinions of New York. (Is it expensive? Is it exciting?) Page 33 Exercise5: On a map, locate the island of Martha's Vineyard (off Cape Cod, Massachusetts). Preview vocabulary (island, beach, camping), for example by sketching on the board.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Page 34 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. As you present each point in the Function box, ask other wh- questions with the same word, such as Who is he? (pointing to someone in the class), What is this? (holding up an object), and Where is (famous city)? Write three questions from the Form chart on the board, using am, is, and are, with the verbs lined up in a column. Go over the points in Part B of the chart, referring to the questions you have on the board. Page 37 Exercise 6, Part D: Follow-up discussion in class can help students learn one another's names. Ask, What is your partner's first name? What is his/her last name? Page 38 Exercise 10: The students who are first to finish can write questions on the board or be paired with new partners to ask and answer each other's questions. The web icon after Exercise 10 directs students to the Grammar Links Website, where they can click on a link to a site with information about the 50 states. See General teaching suggestions for Links to the Web. Page 39 The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 40-42 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 1: Give students a chance to read the paragraph silently, in class or at home. Then read it aloud while they read along. Follow up with simple comprehension questions about the paragraph and the photo. You may want to ask if anyone has visited San Francisco. Activity 2: Have students look at the paragraph about Kyoto, and point out the form a paragraph takes, with the first sentence indented. You may want students to use a particular heading on their paper, skip lines, and leave margins at left and right. If you assign the writing for homework, have students begin it in class to make sure they are on track. You can also model both the task and the form you want students to use by writing a sample paragraph on the board.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Activity 3: Have one or more students write the paragraph, with their corrections, on the board. It is short, and students need to see, not just hear about, the corrections. Alternatively, have the students dictate it while you write it on the board. Activity 4: The activity will probably work best if you designate the teams. Keep the teams to no more than four persons each, if possible. Figure out how many teams there will be, and write the number of each team above a space on the blackboard or on a large piece of paper (taped to the wall or spread on a table/desktop). You can have the students count off and go to the space at the board with their number, or have each student draw a slip of colored paper, find the other people with the same color, and gather at any available space at the board. Tell the students how many names they should have (how many people are in the classs). Let all the teams finish writing all the names. That is, don't call a halt when you have a winner. Activity 5: Circulate while students are working on their clues, to make corrections and offer suggestions (and be sure you can read everyone's handwriting). You can also write your own set of clues to a city, such as the city where you are.

UNIT 2: NOUNS, ARTICLES, AND ADJECTIVES; DEMONSTRATIVES, POSSESSIVES, AND CONJUNCTIONS

Topic Focus: Families and Possessions

The Grammar

In Unit 2, students will study the function of nouns, the singular and plural forms of count nouns, the function of adjectives, the use of adjectives after be and before nouns, demonstrative adjectives and pronouns, and the conjunctions and, but, and or. They will also begin to learn about the articles a/an and the.

The Theme

This unit explores the concept of "family" and focuses on family activities, pets, and people's possessions. What is "the American family" like? The examples in the unit include a traditional two-parents-plus-children family (the Kalmars) and a single-parent family (the Martins). They illustrate the busy lives of American families juggling work, school, hobbies, sports, and other activities. Possessions offer insight into their owners: their interests, beliefs, personalities, and goals. Students are invited to share information about their own families and describe people and possessions. They will expand their vocabularies with words for various family members and adjectives for describing people and things.

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Teaching Notes

Page 44 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Reading and Listening: Have the students read as they listen to the conversation. Ask them to identify the speakers in the illustration: Who is Lisa/Anne/Mrs. Kalmar? Who are Jim and Jon? Use the picture to ask comprehension questions, such as Who lives on this street? What game is this? Is this the Kalmars' dog? What pets do Jim and Jon have? If no one in the class can answer a question, don't give them the answer but rather put the question on the board and have them listen and read again. Follow up with questions that relate to the students' lives, such as Are snakes nice pets? Who has twins in their family?Who likes volleyball? Page 45 Think About Grammar: Have students do Part A alone or in pairs. Put a definition of noun on the board (a noun = a word for a person, place, or thing). Elicit more examples of nouns from the class. Have the students do Part B alone or in pairs and go over the answers. Put two incorrect statements on the board, such as Jim and Jon are littles boys and It's a dog big, and ask the class to correct them.

Chapter 3: Every Family Is Different: Count Nouns, Articles, and Adjectives Chapter 3 Grammar Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1 2 Grammar Hotspot Talking the Talk 3, Grammar Hotspot 4 2, 4, 6 3, 4 5, 6 7, 8, 9 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Workbook Exercises 1, 2 3, 4 4

Function of nouns; common and proper nouns Singular and plural count nouns; spelling of plural count nouns Subject and verb agreement Pronunciation of -s ending on plural nouns The articles a/an and the

Descriptive adjectives Cumulative practice of chapter grammar

10, 11, 12 Unit 2 Wrap-up activities

10, 11 12

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Page 47 Introductory Task: Have the class practice the pronunciation of the family relationship vocabulary in Parts A and C. Provide other terms as needed, illustrating them with a family tree drawn on the board. To keep the task manageable, you might ask students to talk only about the family they live with. Page 49 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Point out that sometimes a noun is more than one word (New York City, ice cream). Page 51 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Draw a chart with six columns on the board. In each of the columns, write plural nouns shown as examples for the six points in Part C. For example, rooms and girls in the first column, lunches and brushes in the second, and so on. Elicit other nouns from the class, or suggest some yourself by pointing to objects in the classroom or drawing pictures on the board, and ask the class where to write these nouns in the chart: Do they go, for example, in the first column, with the nouns that add only ­s? or in the fourth column, with the nouns that ends in ­ies? or in the sixth column, with the irregular nouns? Page 52 Exercise 2: As an alternative to Part C (students working in pairs), have students tell you what is on their lists and write the words on the board. You may want to make errors in the spelling of the plural endings and get the class to correct you and tell you which one of the six points under Part C in Grammar Briefing 2 gives the relevant rule. Page 54 Talking the Talk: Have students listen to the audiocassette/CD or listen while you read the information. They should practice the final sounds by repeating the examples. The key point here is for them to distinguish when an -(e)s ending adds a syllable and when it does not. Exercise 5: Part A: Students may need to listen to the audio more than once. Part B: Note that the final sound of house is /s/ but in the plural, both the first and final s are pronounced /z/. Part C: Set a time limit for the survey. Model the exercise as needed, and encourage students to ask as many people as possible. They will need to get up out of

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their seats and move about the room. When they return to their seats, find out what they learned and chart the information on the board. Exercise 6: You might ask one or two pairs of students to do the exercise at the board, or ask a pair that quickly makes a good list to put their nouns on the board. Page 56 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You might want to have the class do Exercise 7, Listening for Articles, and then look at the Grammar Briefing. Part B: Point out that an initial h is sometimes pronounced (as in hat or house) and sometimes silent (as in hour or honor). Show that it is the initial sound, not the letter, that determines when an is used, for example, by crossing out the silent h and underlining the ou of hour. You may also want to point out that sometimes the letter u has a vowel sound, as in uncle or umbrella, and sometimes it has the consonant sound /y/, as in university. You might want to have the class do Exercise 8 (on a versus an versus no article for plurals) and then return to Parts C and D of the Grammar Briefing. Article use in English is usually difficult for learners, particularly when articles are used very differently, or are not used, in a person's first language. Students may feel confused and frustrated. Assure them that they will have many more chances to learn about and practice articles, both later in this book and as they continue to more advanced levels. Page 59 Exercise 9: Go over the students' answers to this exercise, referring back to the appropriate points in Parts B and D of Grammar Briefing 3. Page 60 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Exercise 10: After students have circled the adjectives in Part A, see if they can add other adjectives to describe the cars. Some of the adjectives in Part B clearly apply to one or more of the owners (such as bald) while others may require some inference (rich) or simply be a matter of opinion (pretty). The web icon following Exercise 10 directs the student to the Grammar Links website, they can click on a link to a site with information about cool cars.

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Page 62 Exercise 12: Encourage students to write more than three sentences if they can, or to write about another person if they have finished and are waiting for others in the class to finish. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 4: Families and Their Activities: Demonstratives, Possessives, and Conjunctions Chapter 4 Grammar Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives Possessive adjectives It's versus its Possessive nouns Questions with whose Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, Talking 1, 2, 3 the Talk 2 4, 5, 6 Grammar 8 Hotspot 3 7 3, 8, 9 Grammar Hotspot 4 10, 11, 12 Unit 2 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3 4, 9 5 6, 7, 9 8

The conjunctions and, but, and or Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 63

10, 11, 12

Introductory Task: The Kalmar family, introduced at the beginning of the unit in Grammar in Action, is now on vacation in Washington, D.C. You may want to have the class look back at the illustration and identify the family members and review information about them before playing the audio. If necessary, pause the audio during the first listening for students to identify the speakers. Page 64 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Stress the difference between this/these and that/those by touching objects or indicating people that are close to you and pointing to ones that are farther away. Move across the room so that you can use this/these for the objects or people formerly described with that/those. Draw students' attention to the use of a demonstrative adjective + noun by writing sample sentences on the board and circling, underlining, or boxing the pair of words. Use a 29

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

different method to highlight demonstrative pronouns, and emphasize that they function alone, taking the place of a noun. Page 65 Exercise 1: The web icon following this exercise directs students to the Grammar Links Website, where they can click on a link to a site about the White House. Page 67 Exercise 3: Model both Part A and Part B of the exercise before having students work with their partners. Point to things and ask the questions What's this/What are these and What's that/What are those, and get the whole class to answer. Encourage students to use gestures as they ask their questions. If the students have picture dictionaries, they can follow up this exercise by using illustrations in their dictionaries and continuing to ask and answer What's this/What are these questions. Page 68 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar Briefings (including Grammar Hotspots). Exercise 5: Alternatively, make Part B of this exercise a teacher-led, full-class activity. Students may want to consult their dictionaries. Page 70 Exercise 6: Model the exercise with the whole class after going over the directions. Have the weakest students work with stronger students in groups of three. Page 71 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar Briefings (including Grammar Hotspot boxes). To practice questions with whose: · Put two examples of questions with whose on the board, one with a singular noun, one with a plural noun, such as the two examples from point 2: Whose cat is it? Whose cats are they? Draw students' attention to the verbs is and are and the singular and plural pronouns. · Then move around the classroom pointing to objects belonging to students, saying to the class, for example, "This is a pen. Whose pen is it?" Wait for the answer. · After doing this several times, pause after you say "This is a/These are...." Your object is to get the class to ask and answer the questions Whose...is it/are they? when you point to something, without your saying a word. Once the whole class

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has understood, you can point to an object and call on a student to ask a classmate the question with whose. Page 74 Exercise 9: Model this activity for the class. Encourage students to make guesses quickly. The point is not to see if Student A can guess accurately but to have fun practicing possessive nouns. Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. When teaching point 1, emphasize that the complete sentences connected by conjunctions have a subject + verb on either side of the conjunction. You may wish to use a different gesture to signal each of the three conjunctions. Write more sample sentences with conjunctions on the board, leaving out any commas (or have students close their books and borrow sentences from the examples). Ask the class where commas are needed. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 77-78 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 2: If you assign the writing for homework, you may want to have students begin it in class to make sure they're on track. Activity 3: Have one or more students write the paragraph on the board, or have the students dictate it while you write it on the board. In this way, they can see, not just hear about, the corrections. Activity 5: Have one person in each group record the nouns used by the group. Check which group used the most nouns in the class. Activity 6: For this information gap activity, you may want to have all the Student B's wait with books closed while all the Student A's look at the page with their family tree and you go over the directions. Then have all the Student B's look at the family tree on page A-1 while you go over the directions. Then students can begin working in pairs, and you can circulate.

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UNIT 3: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

Topic Focus: Working toward a Goal

The Grammar

This unit presents the present progressive (or present continuous) tense in affirmative and negative statements and in yes/no and wh- questions and answers. It also introduces time expressions commonly used with the present progressive (e.g., now, at this moment, these days). Illustrations throughout the unit will help students learn new verbs.

The Theme

The theme of "Working Toward a Goal" emerges through the stories of a young American swimmer (Alice Kennedy) who is training for the Olympic Games and three college students who are working toward their career goals (Alice's brother, Mike, and his two roommates, Ahmed and Jae Yong). Chapter 5 deals with Alice's training and with preparations for the Summer Olympic Games, with Al Jordan reporting from Greece and from the site of the upcoming Olympics. Chapter 6 moves to a university setting and introduces such academic terms as major, tutor, grades, and degree. They will also find information about typical American college students and international students at U.S. colleges and universities.

Teaching Notes

Page 80 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Reading and Listening: Begin by discussing the illustrations and going over the glossed words following the passage. Career is often problematic, getting confused with major and/or job; try illustrating its meaning with a timeline on the board showing a person's career beginning after he or she completes school and continuing until late in life. Have students listen and read, and then follow up with comprehension questions. Page 81 Think About Grammar: This exercise introduces the terms present progressive, main verb, and auxiliary verb, which you can tell students is also called helping verb. Emphasize that these are two-part verbs, that the two parts function as a unit, in the way that you highlight them on the board.

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Chapter 5: The Olympic Games: The Present Progressive Tense--Affirmative and Negative Statements Chapter 5 Grammar Function of the present progressive Present progressive--affirmative statements Spelling rules for -ing verb forms Present progressive--negative statements Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 82 Introductory Task: When you go over Part B, make sure that students underline (and say) the form of the verb be as well as the main verb when they identify a present progressive verb. Part C can be done as a full-class, teacher-led activity if you feel your students need the additional guidance and support. You may want to follow up with some discussion of the Olympic Games: When and where will the next Games be? What sports can you see at the Olympics? Page 83 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. When you present point 1 of the Function chart, add examples of actions that people in the classroom are doing right now (Hector is listening. Indira is smiling. I am talking/walking.) For point 2, add examples of actions occurring over a longer time (You are learning English. We are using these books.) The term base verb, short for "the base (or simple) form of the verb" is introduced. Draw students' attention to this term and its meaning. The Form chart uses the verb work, which adds -ing to the base verb with no other spelling change. Spelling rules for -ing verbs will be addressed in Grammar Briefing 2. Emphasize that a present progressive verb always has two parts: am, is, or are plus the main verb ending in -ing. Page 84 Exercise 1: While students are working on the exercise, you might draw the two timelines from Grammar Briefing 1 on the board to refer to as visual reinforcement when you go over the answers with the class. Briefing # 1 1 2, Grammar Hotspot 3, Grammar Hotspot Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 5, 6 7, 8 Unit 3 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1 2, 4, 5 3 6, 7 7, 8

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Page 86 Exercise 4: Other verbs you can easily mime for the class are smiling, laughing, coughing, sneezing, shaking hands, washing your hands, brushing your teeth/hair, pushing, pulling, flying, lifting weights, boxing, and driving. If no one knows what you are doing, get them to ask, "What are you doing?" Write the base forms of the verbs on the board. Page 87 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 90 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 92 Exercise 8: You may want to follow up Part B by having students exchange papers and check the present progressive verbs in each other's statements. For a quick spelling quiz on the present progressive, make an overhead transparency of the actions illustrated in Exercise 2 in this chapter, and have students write a statement in the present progressive about each of the nine pictures. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 6: Academic Goals: The Present Progressive Tense--Yes/No Questions and Wh- Questions Chapter 6 Grammar Present progressive tense--yes/no questions and short answers Present progressive tense--whquestions with who or what as subject Present progressive tense--other whquestions Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 9 2, Grammar Hotspot 3, Talking the Talk 5, 6, 9 Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3 4

7, 8, 9 Unit 3 Wrap-up activities

5,6 7

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Page 93 Introductory Task: Have students read the passage and then reread it as they listen to the audio or to you reading aloud. The second reading and the listening will help them absorb and retain the information. Go over the glossed vocabulary before or after their second reading of the passage. Ask some follow-up comprehension questions of the class before having students work in pairs on parts B and C. Page 94 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 98 Exercise 4: You may wish to do the preparation in Part A as a full-class activity, writing the questions with Are you ­ing on the board. Tell students not to write the questions in their books. If they want to write them down, they should do it on a piece of paper and then put the paper away. When they do Part B and walk around the room, they need to ask questions, not read them. Page 99 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Present progressive wh- questions are broken into two Grammar Briefings in this chapter: Grammar Briefing 2 presents those that have who or what as the subject of the verb, and Grammar Briefing 3 presents who(m), what, and where questions with other subjects. Page 101 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Follow up the presentation of the material in the chart by writing some incomplete statements on the board to elicit more wh- questions from the class. For example, you can write: I am planning a _____. My sister is living in _____. My brother is building _____. (student) is living in _______. (student) is thinking about _____. Point to a statement, and say "Ask me" or "Ask (student)" to elicit questions like What are you planning? (a party, a trip, a vacation, a wedding, my retirement,...), Where is your sister living?, and Maria, what are you thinking about? Make this a quick oral drill; do not have students write the questions (unless they do it afterwards). Point to statements and call on students in random order to keep all eyes on the board. When you

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

point to a statement such as "(student) is thinking about ____," you can either supply the name of the student or let the person you call on ask whomever s/he would like. NOTE: Avoid statements that use the present progressive with future meaning (e.g., I am going to Dallas this weekend.) Page 102 Exercise 7: Before students begin work with their partners, go over the directions for both Part A and Part B. Make sure that students understand that Part A should be done orally. They should not write the questions until they have practiced all the conversations twice (changing roles). Page 103 Exercise 8: On the audio, students will hear relaxed pronunciation and reduced forms in questions such as "How're ya doin'?" You will see this pronunciation reflected in the tapescript. Students, however, will not see these nonstandard spellings and should write the full forms of the words they hear. Page 104 Exercise 9: You might follow up checking the students' corrections of the errors by dramatizing the conversation. Model the conversation, with you in the role of Julia (you can ham up this part, making her as hysterical and overwrought as you like with your voice and gestures) and a student in the role of her husband. You can ask the student to come to the front of the class and sit next to you, as if you were in the bleachers at the Olympic pool. Have the class then do the conversation in pairs. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 106-108 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 2: This writing assignment should be done outside of class. Do Activities 1 and 3 first, so that students will have two models. They can also go to the Grammar Links Website for another model paragraph. This assignment may produce a nice variety of paragraphs written in different locations and describing many different activities, so students may enjoy and benefit from reading one another's paragraphs. It would be a good idea to correct the paragraphs and have students write another draft, if necessary, before having them post their papers on a bulletin board or tape them up on the wall for everyone to see. Activity 4: You might begin this activity by quickly sketching on the board. As you draw someone doing something, ask, "What am I drawing? Who is this? What's she doing?"

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

(You don't need to be an artist; if you are an artist, make your sketch as simple and humorous as possible.) Go over the directions, and tell students "Write things that YOU can draw." Write some easy-to-draw statements of your own and add your slips of paper to the ones the students have. The smaller the groups in this activity, the more opportunities for speaking, but it can also be fun to do as a fast-paced, full-class activity. Activity 5: Step 1: The writing is probably best done as homework. When you give the assignment, tell the students what they will be doing with their completed paragraphs (either Step 2 as described or an alternative follow-up). Step 2: If you have students from a variety of language backgrounds, you might want everyone to pass their paragraphs around in their groups for the others to see before they read them aloud. It is sometimes difficult for students to understand each other, particularly when they are reading aloud rather than speaking, and they can't ask good questions about stories that they don't understand. An alternative is to have the students post their stories on a bulletin board or tape them to the wall so everyone can read them. Then you read one or more aloud and the whole class can ask the writer questions.

UNIT 4: SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Topic Focus: Celebrations

The Grammar

In Unit 4, students will learn the forms and functions of verbs in the simple present tense: in affirmative and negative statements, in yes/no questions and short answers, and in whquestions. They will learn new time expressions and be introduced to adverbs of frequency. In Chapter 9, the simple present is contrasted with the present progressive, and non-action verbs (or verbs with stative meaning) are introduced.

The Theme

Celebrations are an integral part of cultures. There are several universal themes or reasons for celebrations: yearly time markers (birthdays, New Year observances), harvest and thanksgiving festivals, independence/national pride celebrations, and family or societal membership events, such as rites of passage. The unit opens with a Reading and Listening on various New Year's traditions celebrated by different ethnic groups in the United States. Chapter 7 centers on Native American celebrations in the U.S. The Native American traditions are contrasted with some better-known American celebrations (Thanksgiving, the Fourth of July). Chapter 8 continues with celebrations highlighting different regions or states, from a Vermont maple syrup festival to a Georgia State Fair to a Western rodeo. Chapter 9 explores three ethnic celebrations: St. Patrick's Day, Kwanza, and Cinco de Mayo.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Teaching Notes

Page 110 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Chapter 7: Native American Celebrations: Simple Present Tense--Affirmative and Negative Statements Chapter 7 Grammar Simple present tense--function Simple present tense--affirmative statements Spelling rules for simple present tense verbs, affirmative statements Pronunciation of -s verb endings Simple present tense--negative statements Time expressions Adverbs of frequency Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 112 Introductory Tasks: Part C: If all students share the same language and cultural background, then rather than writing about their partner, you might have them write about you or another person they know. Page 113 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Emphasize the use of the term the base verb, or the base form of the verb. Students sometimes use "the present" to refer to verbs in their base or simple form. Point out that a verb such as work or play can only be called a simple present verb in the context of a statement about the present. You can begin your presentation with either the Function chart or the Form chart, as you prefer. Follow up your presentation of either chart by having students immediately do the related exercise (Exercise 1 on function, Exercise 2 on form). Then return to the other chart and its exercise. 38 Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1 1 2, 4, 6 2 Talking the Talk 3 4 5 3, 4 5 7, 8 9, 11 10, 11 Unit 4 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 2 1, 4, 5, 7, 8 3 3 6, 7, 8 9, 10 11 12

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Follow up with an oral drill. Ask a student to tell you what s/he does in the morning. Write the student's name on the board, and as s/he tells you "I get up, I take a shower,"etc., either list the actions or, preferably, draw a cartoon or an icon to represent the action. (For example, "get up" could be a stick figure getting out of bed or just an arrow pointing up; "take a shower" could be shower or a shower head with water coming out.) Repeat with another student or two telling you what s/he does in the morning while you record it all on the board. Then call on someone to tell you what the first student does in the morning. Make sure he or she clearly pronounces the final -s on each verb. Call on other students to do likewise. Then have students work with a partner to tell (a) what they do in the morning and (b) what one of the students listed on the board does. Page 116 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You might want to create four columns on the board and write the third person singular verbs eats, kisses, and studies in the first three columns. These are verbs from the examples in the chart; each has a different -s ending. Leave the fourth column empty; this will be for the irregular verbs has, does, and goes. Call out other verbs (in their base form) and ask the class in which column the verb belongs and how to spell it. Point out the difference in pronunciation between say and says. Page 119 Talking the Talk: Have students listen to the audiocassette/CD or listen to you while you read the information. They should practice the final sounds by repeating the examples. The key point here is for them to distinguish when an -s ending adds a syllable and when it does not. Page 120 Follow up to Grammar Practice 2: At this point, you may wish to give a brief quiz on simple present tense verb forms. You can do this by dictating some simple statements using verbs practiced in Exercises 3 and 4, such as: 1. I wake up at 6:00. 2. He studies every night. 3. She brushes her teeth. 4. I miss my friends. 5. He has two children. 6. She does her homework. 7. He fixes cars. 8. She stays at home. 9. She flies a plane. 10. He says thank you.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Page 121 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You might wish to present only Part A of the chart and then return later to Part B and the discussion of do and does as auxiliary verbs and as main verbs. Note that do occurs as a main verb in Exercise 7 (Peter doesn't do homework). Other useful verb phrases with do include: do homework, do an exercise, do a good job, and do the dishes/the cooking/the shopping/the laundry/housework. For oral practice with do/does, list several of the chores above on the board, and create two columns next to them. Put the names of two roommates or a husband and wife at the heads of the columns. Ask the class to tell you who does what, and put checkmarks next to the chores each person does. Point to a chore, and model two statements about it, such as John does the dishes. Mary doesn't do the dishes. Continue pointing to chores and ask students to make statements. Then have them turn to a partner and talk about who does what in their household. Page 123 Exercise 8: If all your students come from the same country, you can still have them work in groups with each group choosing a different holiday. Have them think of what they do and don't do on this day and make a list of affirmative and negative statements (either to hand in or to report on to you and the class). Page 124 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Have your students note the commas after time expressions at the beginning of the sample sentences. Page 125 Grammar Briefing 5: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. After presenting the Function section of the Grammar Briefing, you might want to do an oral drill with adverbs of frequency and simple present tense verbs in affirmative statements. Elicit from the class a list of things they sometimes do, for example, on weekends. On the board or an overhead transparency, write down the activities as students say them (sleep late, go out with friends, work, go shopping, etc.). Then point to activities and make statements about your own weekends using adverbs of frequency: I

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

rarely sleep late on weekends. I often go out with friends. Call on students to make similar statements about their weekends. You could also say an adverb and ask someone to use it in a statement about his or her weekends: "Sometimes--Carlos?" Carlos: "I sometimes play basketball on weekends." After presenting the Form section of the Grammar Briefing, try an oral drill using the adverbs in statements with be. On the board or a transparency, write I am late, I am on time, and I am early. Call on students to choose a statement and add the appropriate adverb, for example, I am never early. Ask, "Where do you put the adverb?" and use an arrow to mark its position after be. Follow up with a similar drill, using statements like I come to class early and I don't come to class early. Again, ask,"Where do you put the adverb?" and use an arrow to mark its position. Note that usually and often as well as sometimes can occur at the beginning of sentences. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 8: Regional Celebrations: Simple Present Tense--Yes/No Questions and Wh- Questions Chapter 8 Grammar Simple present tense--yes/no questions and short answers Simple present tense--whquestions and answers: overview Forming simple present tense whquestions with who or what as subject Forming other simple present whquestions Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 128 Introductory Tasks: Use the illustrations to preteach new vocabulary. Follow up with comprehension questions. When students answer, make sure they clearly pronounce the final -s on third person singular simple present tense verbs. Page 130 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2, 3, 4 2 3, Grammar Hotspot 3, Grammar Hotspot 5, 6, 7 8, 10, 11 Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4 5, 6 7, 8

9, 10, 11

9, 10

Unit 4 Wrap-up activities

11

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Page 131 Exercise 1: Make use of the illustrations to help students understand new words (sap, holes, syrup, pancakes). Follow up with simple present yes/no questions to check comprehension (for example, "Does Mark make maple syrup? Does maple syrup come from Vermont? Does Al like the pancakes?") Add questions with "Do you (like pancakes, have pancakes at home, etc.)." Page 133 Exercise 3: Before assigning this exercise, you may want to return to Grammar Briefing 1 for examples of yes/no questions with the verb be and with other verbs. Go over the answers as a class, identifying the main verb in each question (either is or the base form of another verb). Page 134 Exercise 4: You may wish to do the preparation in Part A as a full-class activity, writing the questions with Do you on the board. Tell students not to write the questions in their books. If they want to write them down, they should do so on a piece of paper and then put the paper away. When they do Part B and walk around the room, they need to ask questions, not read them. Page 135 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. This overview reviews the function of the wh- question words who(m), what, and where and introduces when, why, and how often. It addresses both questions with who/what as subject and wh- questions with other subjects, but students do not have to form either type of question until after they are presented in Grammar Briefing 3. Page 138 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Consider presenting the who/what as subject questions in Part A and then have students do Exercise 8 before continuing with the other wh- questions in Part B. Follow up Part B of the chart by writing some incomplete statements on the board to elicit more wh- questions from the class. For example, you can write: I live in _____. I live there because _____. My parents live in _____.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

I see them _____. I check my e-mail _____ . (student) has _____ for breakfast. (student) _______ on weekends. Point to a statement, and say "Ask me" or "Ask (student)" to elicit questions like Where do you live? Why do you live there? Maria, what do you do on weekends? Make this a quick oral drill; do not have students write the questions (unless they do it afterwards). Point to statements and call on students in random order to keep all eyes on the board. When you point to a statement such as "(student) has ____ for breakfast," you can either supply the name of the student or let the person you call on ask whomever s/he wants. NOTE: Avoid statements that use the simple present with future meaning (e.g., I leave for a conference on _____.) Page 142 Exercise 11: Consider having students work in groups of three rather than pairs, with the third person having a very specific task: to listen for the correct forms of questions. Each student will have a turn in this role. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 9: Ethnic Celebrations: Simple Present Tense and Present Progressive Tense; Non-Action Verbs Chapter 9 Grammar Simple present versus present progressive--functions Non-action verbs Have as an action or non-action verb Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 143 Introductory Tasks: It is helpful to use an overhead projector to go over this exercise so that students can see what is circled and what is underlined. Check that students underline the form of the verb be in present progressive verbs, not just the main verb. Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2, 3, 4 2 Grammar Hotspot 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 7 Unit 4 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4 5 6 7

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Page 145 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You may wish to have the class revisit the timelines for the present progressive (Grammar Briefing 1 in Chapter 5) and the simple present (Grammar Briefing 1 in Chapter 7). A helpful exercise on the different uses of simple present and present progressive verbs is to take a large photo or illustration, for example, from a magazine, showing a person engaged in some activity. Draw a line down the blackboard to divide it into two large areas where you can write. Place the picture between the two areas. On one side, write the heading "Right now" and write a list of present progressive statements about what is happening in the picture. Elicit the statements from the class by asking questions such as What is s/he doing? What is s/he wearing? What is s/he thinking about? Then shift to the other side and write the heading "Facts." Elicit simple present statements from the class by asking questions such as What is his/her name? Where does s/he live? Does s/he have a family? What does s/he do for a living? Where does s/he work? List the simple present statements in the "Facts" column on the board. Follow up by having the students do the same thing with another photo. They can find one in a magazine or choose one from Grammar Links 1. Encourage them to use their imaginations as they invent lives for the people in their photos. You can decide whether to assign them to write two lists of statements or two paragraphs. Share their stories by putting photos and papers up on the wall for everyone to read. Page 150 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. It may be best to have your students do Exercises 5 and 6 immediately after this Grammar Briefing, before you present the Grammar Hotspot. Page 151 The Grammar Hotspot addresses the common use of have as an action verb. When it refers to possession or ownership (I have many books.) or a relationship (She has two sisters.), then it is a non-action verb; when have means "eat, drink, or experience," then it is an action verb and can occur in the present progressive. After presenting the Hotspot, go to Exercise 7 for practice of this point. Page 154 Exercise 10: Do Part A with the entire class. Have them close their eyes and visualize the time and place of a special holiday or celebration while you ask guiding questions about

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

the different senses. (Look straight ahead--what do you see? Turn to your left and right--now what do you see? What smells good or bad? What do you hear around you?) Allow time for them to record their thoughts on the chart. After students do Part B in groups, you may want to ask them to write about the celebration. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 155-156 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 2: This activity is based on an interview. The interviews can be done in pairs in class or with friends or relatives outside of class. Do Activities 1 and 3 before assigning this one so that students see those paragraphs as models. Activity 6: You may want to have students "sign up" for different holidays on the list so everyone doesn't end up doing the same one. As a class, brainstorm possible questions for students to ask about the holidays.

UNIT 5: PREPOSITIONS; THERE + BE

Topic Focus: Home Sweet Home

The Grammar

This unit presents prepositions and prepositional phrases used for showing direction, describing location, and telling a time and prepositions that commonly follow certain verbs (such as listen to). It also presents the use of there + is or are in affirmative and negative statements and in yes/no questions and short answers. It includes helpful practice on distinguishing there, their, and they're.

The Theme

The opening reading on the theme asks, "What is a house?" and goes on to contrast three different types of houses in three different environments. Chapter 10 explores some other answers to that question with descriptions of unusual places to live, including a houseboat and a treehouse. Throughout the chapter, illustrations help students use the topic of houses to understand and use prepositions. Chapter 11 focuses on city living and its advantages and disadvantages, as seen by characters in the book and by the students themselves. It presents facts about some of the world's largest cities and describes features of some U.S. cities.

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Teaching Notes

Page 158 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Chapter 10: Some Unusual Houses: Prepositions Chapter 10 Grammar Prepositions and prepositional phrases Verb + preposition combinations Prepositions for describing location In, on, and at for describing location Prepositions for showing direction Prepositions with vehicles Prepositions for describing time Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 161 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You might wish to break the presentation of this Grammar Briefing into three parts, each followed by the related exercise(s): · Present Parts A and B and then have students do Exercise 1, · Present Part C (on the placement of prepositional phrases--have students note the commas after phrases at the beginning of sentences) and then have them do Exercise 2, and finally, · Present the Grammar Hotspot, followed by Exercises 3 and 4. Page 164 Exercise 4: Consider having students answer the questions in items 1-4 for homework after doing the exercise in a group in class. Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2 1 2 2 3 3 4 3, 4 5, 6, 8 7 9, 10 11 12, 13, 14 Unit 5 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1 2, 3 4, 6 5 8 7 9, 10, 11

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Page 165 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Follow up your presentation of Part A with a quick oral drill, asking questions about the locations of things in the classroom, questions which the class can answer with prepositional phrases: Where is the blackboard? On the wall, or In back of you. Where is the wastebasket? Near the door, next to Javier, etc.) Follow up Part B by writing in, on, and at on the board and then asking a student "Where do you live?" Point to the preposition(s) s/he uses; prompt the student to use all three ("In Springfield, at 1125 Maple Street, on the second floor"). Have that student ask another student, "Where do you live?" Continue around the room, pointing to the prepositions on the board to elicit all three from each student. Page 167 Exercise 6: In Part B, encourage students to answer the questions in as many ways as possible, using all the prepositional phrases they can think of. Page 169 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You may wish to break the presentation of this Grammar Briefing into two parts, leaving Part B until after students do Exercises 9 and 10. Part B focuses on prepositions used with vehicles, most commonly get in(to) versus get on(to) and get out of versus get off (of). (Exercise 11 will give students practice with these verb + preposition combinations. Encourage them to use their imaginations when they look at the pictures.) Page 173 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 11: City Life: There + Be Chapter 11 Grammar The function of there + be There + be in affirmative and negative statements Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1 2, Talking 2, 3, 4 the Talk 47 Workbook Exercises 1 2, 3, 7

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

It is versus there is; they are versus there are There versus their and they're There + be--yes/no questions and short answers Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 177

Grammar Hotspot Grammar Hotspot 3

5, 6 7, 8 9, 10, 11 Unit 5 Wrap-up activities

4, 5 6 8, 9, 10

Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Add examples of your own to the ones shown in the chart. You will have no difficulty thinking of statements with there is/are to describe the location of things; when you use there is/are to tell the time of something, avoid statements with future meaning (such as There's a good show on at 9:00 tonight.) Sentences with there is/are which state neither the time nor the location of anything often deal with abstractions: There are many reasons for...or There is no answer to..., for example. You can follow up with a quick oral drill. Ask questions about the city you are in or another city that students know. Use: "Does (city name) have a....?" and ask only questions with "yes" answers. Have the class answer with "Yes, there is a ... in (city name)." For example: (you) Does Springfield have a train station? (student) Yes, there is a train station in Springfield. You can stick to just singular or plural statements, or you can mix them if your class is ready to use both there is and there are. Page 178 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part A: The chart gives the example There is one bookstore on Main St. Students may ask how this is different from One bookstore is on Main St. Both are correct statements, but there + be is used when introducing a subject (the bookstore). Part B: Full forms of negative statements with there is/are are included in the chart, but they are not often used. Encourage students to use the contracted forms. Part C: Quantifiers are common with the nouns following there + be, and students will see some, any, no, and a lot of/lots of in Grammar Practice 2. You may wish to point out to your class that they will also see the adverb there (the opposite of here) used to point out something that is not nearby, as in The wastebasket is there, next to the door. Tai-Hung is sitting there.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Page 182 Grammar Hotspot: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings (including Grammar Hotspots). Point 1: Remind students that there + be is used to introduce a new subject: There's a party at David's. After the subject is known, you can refer back to it with a subject pronoun: It (the party) is a birthday party for Susan. Point 2: Students sometimes seem reluctant to believe that there is no difference in pronunciation among there, their, and they're. Have the class repeat all three words and also repeat the examples shown in the chart. Page 185 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You can follow up the presentation with a quick oral drill. Show the class your knapsack, briefcase, handbag, or wallet, and ask "What do you think is in here?" List their guesses on the board, with singular and noncount nouns on one side (money, a phone) and plural nouns on the other (credit cards, keys, family pictures). Then ask them to ask you questions with Is/Are there...in your (bag, wallet, etc.) using the words on the board. Give short answers with there + be. You can then have students turn to a partner and do the same thing. Page 186 Exercise 10: You can check the Money magazine website for its current report on American cities. Page 187 Exercise 11: Part D: Students can have fun with this role-play if they imagine that Student B is either very eager or very unwilling to have Student A take the apartment and that Student B is therefore ready to say anything to encourage or discourage Student A. Page 188 The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Pages 189-190 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 2: Before assigning this paragraph, do some brainstorming with the whole class, listing on the board the pros and cons of life in the city and in the country. Activity 4: Turn the guessing game into a competition by dividing students into two teams. The two teams alternate turns. Students on each team take turns giving clues about people or things in the room to the rest of their own team. Their team gets only three chances to guess the person or thing in the room and earn a point. (In this way, the student is motivated to give good clues, and his or her classmates are motivated to listen carefully.) If the classroom doesn't offer enough scope for this game, you can try opening it up to people and things in the entire building or on campus. Activity 6: Step 1 is probably best done as homework. You may want to do some brainstorming in class first. After students have read one another's descriptions of houses, follow up with some discussion of which ones they would like to visit and why.

UNIT 6: SIMPLE PAST TENSE

Topic Focus: Inventors and Inventions, Great and Small

The Grammar

Unit 6 presents the simple past tense. Chapter 12 focuses on the verb be in affirmative and negative statements, yes/no questions and short answers, and in wh- questions. Chapter 13 presents regular and then irregular verbs in affirmative statements, followed by negative statements with both types of verbs. Chapter 14 presents simple past tense verbs in yes/no and wh- questions, adding which to the wh- question words already taught. Past time expressions are also covered. A list of the most common irregular verbs can be found in Appendix 7.

The Theme

The inventors and inventions described in this unit include some famous ones that may be familiar to your students, such as Gutenberg and his printing press or Thomas Edison and his light bulb. Other inventors featured here are less well-known, such as the inventors of chocolate chip cookies and basketball, or the woman who wrote the first computer program. Chapter 12 focuses on American inventors. Chapter 13 entertains readers with the stories of inventors who stumbled onto their inventions. Finally, Chapter 14 ranges over a variety of inventions, some that have proven to be lifesavers and others that just make life more fun.

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Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Teaching Notes

Page 192 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Chapter 12: Some American Inventors: The Past Tense of Be Chapter 12 Grammar Past tense of be in affirmative statements Past time expressions Past tense of be in negative statements Past tense of be in yes/no questions and short answers Past tense of be in wh- questions and answers Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 194 Introductory Task: If your students are already familiar with the verbs was and were, have them circle the verbs before they listen to the audio. Then they can listen and check their answers. Page 195 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You may wish to break your presentation of the information in the Grammar Briefing into two parts: Part A, followed by Exercise 1, and then Part B, followed by Exercise 2. Plan to review the past time expressions and practice them further in Chapter 13, when students will be working with more than just one verb. Let students know that some speakers use last night to mean either the period at night when most people are sleeping or "yesterday evening," as in We were out at a movie last night. Briefing # 1 1, Grammar Hotspot 2 3, Talking the Talk 4, Talking the Talk Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, 3, 6 2, 3 4, 5, 6 7, 8 9, 10, 11 Unit 6 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2 3 4, 5 6, 7, 8 9, 10

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Page 199 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part B: The full forms of there + be + not are included in the chart but are not often used. Encourage your students to use the contracted forms. Page 201 Exercise 6: Students may have trouble limiting themselves to statements with the verb be. It may help to tell them to think of statements about places. Circulate around the room so you can see what they are writing and help make corrections. If they want to use verbs other than be, make sure they are using the correct forms. They will study those verbs in Chapter 13. Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You can follow up presentation of the Grammar Briefing with a quick oral drill. Ask the class yes/no questions with was and were, such as Was/Were (I/you/Dennis/Yoko and Miki/etc.) in class yesterday? Students should give short answers with was and were. Page 202 Exercise 7: Part A: Follow up Part A by asking the class questions about the accident, so you are transforming Mr. Wright's questions. For example, Was I in an accident? becomes Was Mr. Wright in an accident? Part B: Give the students a few seconds to study the picture. Then have all students cover it, and go over the directions for Part B. Page 203 Exercise 8: Part A: This is an information gap activity. Before the class begins working in pairs, help them with the pronunciation of the inventors' names. Part B: As an alternative, have the class do a Find Someone Who... activity. Write a list of incomplete statements with was on the board, and have students copy the list. For example, you could use: 1. _______________ was out yesterday evening. 2. _______________ was at the movies recently. 3. _______________ was in bed by 10:00 last night. 4. _______________ was up by 6:00 this morning. 5. _______________ was in the cafeteria before class today. 6. _______________ was not in school a year ago. Students circulate, asking yes/no questions (such as Were you out yesterday evening?), trying to find someone whose name they can use to complete the statement. When the

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first few students have completed all the statements, ask everyone to return to their seats and go over what they found out. You can ask questions like "Who was out yesterday evening?" and have the class call out answers or say "Tell me something about (name of student)" to elicit complete statements about that person. Page 204 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 206 Exercise 11: Questions about the past using verbs other than be will probably come up as students interview one another. Help with forming those questions as you circulate among the groups, and record a few examples on the board. You can use these examples to get students to discover the grammar of simple past tense question formation with verbs other than be. (To be presented in Chapter 14.) The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 13: Unusual Inventors: The Simple Past Tense--Affirmative and Negative Statements Chapter 13 Grammar Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities Simple past tense-- regular verbs in 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11 affirmative statements; spelling rules Pronunciation of -(e)d verb endings Talking 3, 11 the Talk Simple past tense-- irregular verbs 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 in affirmative statements Grammar Hotspot Simple past tense--negative 3 9, 10, 11 statements Cumulative practice of chapter Unit 6 Wrap-up grammar activities Page 207 Introductory Task: Thomas Edison said, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninetynine percent perspiration." You could introduce or follow up the Introductory Task by putting this quote on the blackboard and asking students what it means, if they agree, and what else "genius" depends on. Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4

5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 11, 12, 13 14, 15

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Page 208 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 211 Talking the Talk: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar Briefings (including Talking the Talk boxes). There are two key things for students to learn about the pronunciation of -ed verb endings: (1) when the ending does and does not add a syllable, and (2) that when they hear a final /t/ on a simple past verb, it does not necessarily mean that it is an irregular verb spelled with a t. Page 213 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. This list of irregular verbs shows common verbs that will be used in Grammar Practice 2. Have the students listen and repeat all the verbs. Point out that the g and h in bought and thought are not pronounced and that both said and the simple past read rhyme with bed. After presenting the Grammar Briefing, you can do a quick oral drill in which you say the simple past tense form and students call out the base form. After students have had time to memorize the verbs, you can do a similar drill by calling out the base form and having them say the simple past tense form. For a quiz, you can dictate the base forms and have them write the past. A longer list of common irregular verbs is found in Appendix 7. Students should get accustomed to checking this list as a reference. Page 216 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter.

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Chapter 14: From Saving Lives to Just Having Fun: The Simple Past Tense--Yes/No Questions and Wh- Questions Chapter 14 Grammar Simple past tense--yes/no questions and short answers Pronunciation of did you Simple past tense--wh- questions Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 220 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 222 Exercise 2: On the audio, students will hear "Did you" pronounced as "didja" or "ja" but they are asked to write the standard spelling of the words. Page 223 Exercise 3: Make sure that students do not write out the questions they are going to ask, or if you feel they need to do this, have them do it on another piece of paper, not in their book. When they circulate around the room, they should be asking the questions, not reading them aloud. You do not need to stop the activity when the first student gets three in a row. Let the others continue while you ask the students who have finished tell you what they learned. Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 227 Exercise 6: On the audio, students will hear the relaxed pronunciation described in the Talking the Talk box, but they are asked to write the standard spelling of the words. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2, 3, 7 Talking the Talk 2, Talking the Talk 2, 3 4, 5, 6, 7 Unit 6 Wrap-up activities 5, 6, 7 8 Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4

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Pages 228-230 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 1: Point out the use of the expression "There were (number) of us (in my family)." Activity 5: Before you begin, you may want to take a few minutes to have the class review all the inventors covered in the unit and list them on the board. Activity 6: Assign the students to read about this activity at home and decide on their inventions before they come to class. You might want to brainstorm interview questions to ask an inventor and write them on the board before students begin work with their partners.

UNIT 7: MORE ABOUT NOUNS AND PRONOUNS; QUANTIFIERS

Topic Focus: Money, Money, Money!

The Grammar

This unit reviews and expands on the forms and functions of nouns and pronouns. Chapter 15 covers the form and function of count and noncount nouns, including the use of articles with the nouns. Chapter 16 introduces some frequently used quantifiers and measure words. Their functions and forms are explained, and guidelines are given for using them with common count and noncount nouns in affirmative and negative statements and in questions. Questions with how much and how many are also covered. Chapter 17 deals with nouns and pronouns as subjects and objects in statements. Possessive adjectives and nouns are reviewed; the possessive pronouns and several indefinite pronouns are introduced.

The Theme

The money theme covers many interrelated factual and fictional stories. The unit starts off with contemporary American coins and bills. Chapter 15 steps back into history with Christopher Columbus and other European explorers searching the Americas for treasure and gold. Chapter 16 focuses on gold. From the Klondike gold rush to European alchemists and pirate gold, the chapter describes ways that people have tried to acquire gold. Chapter 17 deals with money stories about some wise and generous people and some shifty characters. The chapter starts with an Interpol case involving a con artist selling a European castle. From there, the chapter recounts the story of King Midas and introduces steel magnate Andrew Carnegie and several other philanthropists.

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Teaching Notes

Page 232 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Chapter 15: Money and Treasure: Count and Noncount Nouns Chapter 15 Grammar Count nouns and noncount nouns Subject-verb agreement Articles before count and noncount nouns Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 234 Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1 1 2 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Grammar Hotspot Unit 7 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 5 4, 5 6, 7, 8

Introductory Task: Part A: Students will probably need to listen to the audio more than once. Have them listen and read the first time and then fill in the blanks as they listen again (pausing the tape or CD to give them time to write). Ask comprehension questions, and make sure students understand key vocabulary such as explorer, valuable, gold, and trade. Part B: The subjects of these sentences include three noncount nouns (money, water, wood), one regular plural noun (spices), and two irregular plurals (fish, people). Page 236 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Make sure that students remember the meaning of noun. You could write on the board a sentence with several nouns (Mary went to two hospitals in Salt Lake City to look for a job as a nurse.) and ask students to identify the nouns. Circle them, and then write "a noun = a word for ________________" and ask the class to complete the definition. Review the terms singular and plural, common noun and proper noun. Part A: This section of the Grammar Briefing reviews and expands on information presented in Unit 2. Several new irregular plural nouns are presented here. See Chapter 3, Grammar Briefing 2, for a review of -s, -es, and -ies endings on plural nouns. Part B: The noncount nouns in the list will appear in the exercises in Grammar Practice 1. You may want to read the list aloud, so that students can hear the pronunciation, asking them to raise a hand when you come to a new word; have the class repeat it and discuss 57

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the meaning briefly. Emphasize that these nouns have one form only--no singular (you cannot say "one bread" or "one money") and no plural. On the board, write a sentence with an error--a plural noncount noun--such as He has two homeworks tonight, and correct it. Students may have heard "Two coffees, please" or "I'll have a soda" or similar singular or plural uses of noncount nouns. Explain that in conversation, some noncount nouns for food and drink are used in this way. These phrases are short for "cups of" or "a bottle/glass of." Part C: Points 1 and 2 are review. Point 3 deals with noncount noun subjects. Demonstrate to the class that even when a noncount noun subject refers to a large quantity, the verb is singular. For example, you might write on the board, A lot of snow (falls/fall) in Alaska, and There (is/are) a lot of cold weather, and have students select the correct verb. (The quantifier a lot of will be presented in Chapter 16.) Page 239 Exercise 2: Before beginning Part B, make sure students know the meanings of all the supplies in the list. Remind them that clothing is a noncount noun, while clothes is plural. Page 240 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Students need to know the term article, but knowing definite and indefinite is not really important, as they can easily refer to a/an or the. Part A: Make sure the students understand the meaning of specific, and review the use of an before singular nouns beginning with a vowel sound. Write some pairs of similar sentences on the board, one with a/an or a plural noun that is not specific and the other using the; then ask students how they differ in meaning. For example, write: Did you see a movie? Did you see the movie? Do you have books? Do you have the books? Add more examples to the ones shown in the chart, writing them on the board with a blank before any count nouns and asking students whether you need a, an, the, or no article. Part B: With noncount nouns, only the or no article--the zero article (0)--can be used. Quantifiers are also common with noncount nouns (some, a lot of, a little). Grammar Hotspot: You can recreate this chart on the board and point to the relevant parts of it when working through exercises in which students must make decisions about which article to use before a noun. You may want to teach your students to ask themselves this series of questions:

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1. It the noun specific?

If it is, use the. If not, go to question 2. If it is, use no article. If not, go to question 3. If it is, use no article. If not, use a or an.

2. Is it the noun plural?

3. Is it a noncount noun?

Page 241 Exercise 3: After students do the exercise, go over it with the class, asking them to identify each of the boldfaced nouns as plural or noncount. Refer back to the chart shown in the Grammar Hotspot which shows that only the or no article is possible in either case. Discuss why the nouns are or are not specific. Page 242 Exercise 4: In this exercise, students must make more decisions than in Exercise 3, and they need to ask themselves several questions, such as "Is the noun singular or noncount? Is the noun specific or not?" This exercise can also be done alone or with a partner. Either before or after students circle the articles, have them identify the 17 nouns as singular, plural, or noncount. Ask them to write S, P, or NC above each one. On the board, recreate the chart shown in the Grammar Hotspot so that it is easy to refer to it as you go over the answers with the class. Exercise 5: A gloss for the word jewel, a count noun, follows the exercise. Make sure that the students understand the difference in meaning between jewel and the noncount noun jewelry. This exercise is more demanding than Exercise 3 or 4 because students must now decide whether to use a, an, the, or no article. Circulate around the room as they work to check their work and see how they are progressing. When they finish, encourage them to check their answers against the chart from the Grammar Hotspot. They can also compare their answers with a classmate's before you go over the exercise as a class. When you call on a student, ask him or her to give not only the answer but also the reasons for that choice. Let your class know that articles are notoriously difficult for learners of English and that they will continue to work on them and develop their understanding of them as they progress through courses at the intermediate and advanced levels. Page 243 Exercise 6: Focus on communication and the use of a variety of nouns in Part B of this exercise rather than worrying about students' accuracy in their use of articles. When

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students edit their written work in Part C, they can better attend to articles, and you can offer corrections. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 16: Gold! Quantifiers and Measure Words Chapter 16 Grammar Quantifiers Measure words Quantifiers and measure words in affirmative and negative statements Quantifiers and measure words in questions How much and how many Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 244 Introductory Task: Use the map of the U.S. and Canada in Appendix 9 (unless you have a better one available) to locate the Yukon and Alaska with the class. Look for Skagway on the coast and the city of Dawson farther north. A note on the history: During the Klondike Gold Rush, people arrived in hordes. Many went inland over the Chilkoot Pass (up the Golden Stairs), from Skagway to Lake Lindman, about a 33-mile trip. To carry their equipment and supplies, the stampeders walked the distance many times, taking an average of three months to complete this portion of their journey. Miners spent the winter at the lake. While there, they built boats and rafts to use in the spring to travel the 500+ miles to Dawson and the goldfields. Page 246 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part B: Many of the quantifiers may already be familiar to your students. For those quantifiers that are new, give further examples of their use in sentences (e.g., Anna is wearing several earrings.) Part C: The key information in this chart is which quantifiers can be used only with plural nouns (many, several, a few) and which can be used only with noncount nouns (much, a little). Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, Talking 1, 2, 3 the Talk 2 4, 5 3 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14 4 4 11, 14 12, 13 Unit 7 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6, 7, 8 9, 10, 11 12 13, 14

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Page 248 Talking the Talk: Students do not need to practice saying "alotta" or "lotsa" but they need to recognize these quantifiers when they hear them. Page 250 Exercise 2: Emphasize the humorous tone of this exercise. Students should feel free to exaggerate when describing Sad Harry's problems. Page 251 Exercise 3: Students can choose subjects other than those listed; you may want to suggest others. Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. When you go over the examples of measure words in the chart, you may want to list the categories on the board (Containers, Weights, Volume, Length) and add other measure words that students know to the appropriate column. Page 253 Exercise 5: Part C: It might be fun to let the class compare all the lists of party necessities by having them post their lists on a bulletin board or tape them up on the wall. Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part B: The first point addresses the use of the quantifier no in statements. Students will undoubtedly hear people use double negatives (e.g., "We don't need no stinkin' badges") but they need to know that this is not merely informal or conversational; it is incorrect. Page 257 Exercise 10: If your students all come from the same cultural background and are likely to be familiar with the same foods, then have them work in pairs for maximum practice of quantifiers and measure words. When students come from different backgrounds, this exercise can lead to some very interesting comparisons, but if you worry that communication may break down over unfamiliar foods, then it may help to have them work in groups of four. Page 258 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings.

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The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 17: The Good, the Bad, and Their Money: Subjects and Objects; Pronouns Chapter 17 Grammar Nouns and pronouns as subjects and objects Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns Possessive nouns Indefinite pronouns One and ones as indefinite pronouns Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 264 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part A: Point out to students that you and it can be either subject or object pronouns. Only in the context of a sentence is it possible to tell what their function is. (See Exercise 2.) Part B: Word order in English is less flexible than in many other languages. Only rarely do English statements depart from the subject-verb-object order. Use the examples given to point out to students that a subject or direct object can be more than one word. (See the noun phrases The new doctor and the people.) Page 265 Exercise 1: Remind students that a subject or direct object can be more than one word. Page 268 Exercise 3: This exercise is based on the story of King Midas as told in Exercises 1 and 2. If students have not done those exercises and thus do not know the story, they can still complete the sentences by switching the subject and the direct object in each case. Page 269 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. 62 Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2, 3, 4 2 2 3 4 5, 6, 8 7, 8 9 10, 11 Unit 7 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4 5, 7 6, 7 8, 9, 10 11, 12, 13

Grammar Links 1, 2ed Teaching Notes

Part A: Point out that his can be either a possessive adjective or a possessive pronoun. Only in the context of a sentence is it possible to tell what its function is. Part B: Add to the examples shown in the Grammar Briefing by writing more sentences on the board, stressing the use of possessive pronouns, particularly ones ending in s which refer to singular nouns. Make sure that students understand that the s on yours, hers, ours, and theirs does not make it plural. Part C: You might wish to point out to students that they will also see possessives of names that end in s written with an apostrophe only, as in Carlos' sister. Page 274 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 275 Exercise 9: Pre-teach key vocabulary relating to banks: (savings) account, borrow, check, and interest. Students can do Parts A and B alone or with a partner. Follow up with comprehension questions before having the students do the discussion in Part C. Students may disagree on the answers to the questions. Page 276 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 279-280 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 2: You may wish to do both the reading passage (Activity 1) and the editing exercise (Activity 3) before assigning students to write their own paragraphs so that they will see both paragraphs as models. An alternative is to have students write a first draft, complete Activity 3, and then go back and edit their own drafts, looking for the same kinds of errors. Activity 4: Allow students to help each other remember the items previously mentioned. Activity 5: Model the activity. Choose a student as your partner and "think aloud" as you make your guesses about him or her. Write them on the board. Then elicit from the class

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the questions to ask in Step 2. Then have the students work in pairs, or--if there is an odd number of students in the class--ask your partner the questions and write the facts on the board. Add up the number of correct guesses you had. Then have the rest of the class work in pairs while your partner questions you.

UNIT 8: EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME

Topic Focus: The Wonders of National Parks

The Grammar

This unit introduces two ways of expressing the future, using will or be going to. Chapter 18 covers be going to, in affirmative and negative statements, yes/no questions and short answers, and wh- questions. Chapter 19 presents the use of will (also in affirmative and negative statements, yes/no questions and short answers, and wh- questions), and it contrasts the uses of will and be going to for talking about future plans and expectations.

The Theme

In this unit, students are introduced to the national park system in the United States. Chapter 18 focuses on beautiful Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Students will learn about what visitors can do there in the summer and fall and about some of the park's treasures, such as its geysers and wildlife. They will also listen to a weather forecast and practice making predictions about the weather. In Chapter 19, the setting moves to Olympic National Park in the state of Washington. Students will read about the variety of the park's natural beauty, from the beaches to the rainforests to the snowcapped mountains.

Teaching Notes

Page 282 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Reading and Listening: Although the focus of this unit will be on two national parks in the United States, there are issues raised in this introductory passage--managing nature, numbers of tourists, threats to air and water, and sharing the planet with wild animals-- that probably apply to students' own countries.

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Chapter 18: Yellowstone National Park, From Summer to Fall: Expressing Future Time with Be Going To

Chapter 18 Grammar The functions of be going to

Be going to in affirmative statements Future time expressions Be going to in negative statements Be going to in yes/no questions and short answers Be going to in wh- questions Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 286

Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, 1 Grammar Hotspot 1, Talking 2, 5 the Talk 1 3, 4 2 6, 7 3 8, 9 4 10, 11 Unit 8 Wrap-up activities

Workbook Exercises 1

2, 4, 6 3, 4 5, 6 7, 8, 11 9, 10, 11

Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Learners of English often overuse will in speaking about the future. Be going to is more common in conversational English for speaking about plans, with will being used to express a plan only when it is made at the moment of speaking. (This distinction will be presented in Chapter 19). Be going to is also often used to speak of predictions, although in academic prose, will is more common. Presenting the Function chart: Point 1. If students raise the question of will, tell them that in some cases, a speaker can use either will or be going to, but in other cases, only one choice is correct. The first and third example sentences given here, the ones with the subjects I and We, need am/are going to because these statements express plans already made. The second example sentence (They are going to visit the park in June) could be interpreted as a prediction, so either be going to or will could be used, but be going to is more common in conversation. Point 2. If students raise the question of using will rather than be going to in these sample sentences, tell them that either be going to or will could be used, but be going to is more common in conversation. Point 3. See the notes for Exercises 4 and 5 about using probably. Point 4. Other future time expressions are shown in Part B of the Form chart. Following presentation of the Form chart, you may want to do a quick oral drill of statements with be going to:

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· · ·

·

Ask a student a question about his or her future plans, for example, "Alfredo, what are you going to do (after class/for dinner/this evening)?" Have the student answer with a complete statement beginning "I'm going to...." Repeat to the class what the student is going to do: "Alfredo is going to go to the computer lab after dinner." Continue asking other students the same question, alternating with questions about the plans of students who have already answered ("What is Alfredo going to do?" "What are Olga and Angel going to do?") to elicit statements with he, she, we, and they. Include your own plans to elicit statements with "You are going to."

Page 288 Grammar Hotspot: The present progressive is also used in conversation to express future plans, often with verbs of motion: for example, "I'm going to the beach next weekend" and "They're leaving in a few minutes." This use of the present progressive is taught in Grammar Links 2. Page 290 Exercise 4: Point out to students the use of about in Student B's answer to mean "more or less, not exactly." They can also modify their responses with probably, as in Probably this weekend or This weekend, probably. Page 291 Talking the Talk: Students are not expected to practice "gonna," but they need to recognize it when they hear this pronunciation of going to. Exercise 5: Before students begin work on Part C, you may want to put sample affirmative statements with probably on the board and show them the placement of probably: subject + be + probably + (not) going to + main verb: It's probably (not) going to rain. Page 292 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 295 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings.

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Page 298 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 19: Olympic National Park, From Winter to Spring: Expressing Future Time with Will Chapter 19 Grammar Functions of will Will in affirmative and negative statements Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2 2, 3, 4 Grammar Hotspot, Talking the Talk 3 5, 7 3 6, 7 Talking 7 the Talk Unit 8 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1 2, 3, 4, 5

Will in yes/no questions Will in wh- questions Probably + will Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 300

6, 8, 9 7, 8, 9

Introductory Task: Before doing the activities, make sure students know some key vocabulary: rain forest, elk, cougar, tracks, and whales. Talk about other places to see rain forests and snow-covered mountains. Other words for cougar are mountain lion, catamount, panther, and puma. Page 301 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The key point in this Function chart is the use of will for future plans. It is used only for plans made at the moment of speaking; for plans already decided on at some earlier point, be going to is used. Page 302 Exercise 1: This can be done alone or with a partner, like Exercise 2.

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Page 304 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 307 Exercise 4: Parts A and B are for form practice. Part C gives communicative practice. Encourage students to make as many predictions as the group has time for. They should feel free to use their imaginations. If you think students will have trouble thinking of topics for predictions, then before they begin Exercise 4, go over the directions for each part, and model Part C with one or more volunteers. Ask for predictions--realistic or fantastic--about people in the class ("Nilda's future," "Yoshi as prime minister of Japan," "Mikhail in Hollywood") and predictions for the world at large ("the year's best picture," "world peace," "a cure for AIDS"). Although the exercise is designed for practice of statements with will ("I think Nilda will become a teacher and get married and have a family"), accept predictions made with be going to as well. Page 308 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You may wish to break the presentation of questions with will into two parts and follow the chart on yes/no questions with Exercise 5, returning to the chart for wh- questions and then going on to Exercise 6. Page 311 Exercise 7: Encourage students to see this as a game and write light-hearted questions for the "magic coin" to answer. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 312-314 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 5: Have students do this activity in class, not as homework, and make sure they do not look ahead at page A-2. The results of this activity can be hilarious and can provide lots of practice with will and be going to when students express their reactions to the stories about their futures.

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Activity 6: You might want to assign Step 1 as homework, to give students time to think about their imaginary vacations. Brainstorm questions to ask before students begin their interviews. They may need to take notes so they can tell the class about their partner's plans afterwards.

UNIT 9: MODALS; IMPERATIVES

Topic Focus: Let's Start a Business!

The Grammar

This unit presents a limited number of modals and a brief overview of selected modal functions. Chapter 20 presents one-word and phrasal modals, with a few of their functions and some rules that are common to all (such as the use of a modal + the base form of the verb). This chapter also discusses the use of the modals can, could, and be able to to express ability and might, may, and could to express possibility. Chapter 21 presents the use of the modal should for advice and then have to and must for expressing necessity. It covers the difference between must not (to say something is prohibited) and not have to (to say something is not necessary). In Chapter 22, students will practice using modals to make and respond to requests and offers, and ask for permission. This chapter also includes affirmative and negative imperatives and suggestions with let's.

The Theme

"Going into Business" gives students an opportunity to consider diverse aspects of the world of work and business. Chapter 20 starts with some would-be entrepreneurs. Chapter 21 focuses on advice and requirements for store owners, shoppers, and employees, among others. The emphasis in Chapter 22 is on social language and communication on the job. A restaurant setting allows for both formal and informal situations and interactions.

Teaching Notes

Page 316 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action.

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Chapter 20: Job Skills and Requirements: Overview of Modals; Ability--Can, Could, and Be Able To; Possibility--Might, May, and Could Chapter 20 Grammar Overview of modals: one-word and phrasal modals and their functions Can, could, and be able to for expressing ability Pronunciation of can vs. can't Questions about ability with can Might, may, and could for expressing possibility Maybe vs. may be Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 319 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. When discussing the second point in the chart, make sure that students understand: (a) that modals serve other functions in addition to the ones listed here, and (b) there are other ways--including other modals--to express each of the functions listed. Add to the examples shown in the chart, and be sure that students understand the meaning of each of the functions: "Ability" refers to skills, physical abilities, things that someone has learned to do (He can run fast.) "Possibility" refers to chances, things that are unknown at present or about the future (I might come with you.) "Advice" refers to saying what is and isn't a good idea (I should save more money.) "Necessity" refers to what people need to do and have no choice in (You have to have a ticket to enter.) "Requests" refers to asking someone to do something (Could you please speak more slowly?) "Permission" refers to being allowed to do something (May I interrupt?) "Offers" refers to expressing a willingness to do something for someone (Can I do that for you?) Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2, 3, 14 2 Talking the Talk 3 4 Grammar Hotspot 4, 5, 14 6 7, 8 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 12, 13, 14 Unit 9 Wrap-up activities 6, 7 8, 9 10 11, 12 Workbook Exercises 1, 2 3, 4, 5

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Page 322 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The use of could in these charts and the following Grammar Practice is limited to expressing past ability--what someone was able to do at some time in the past (He could read at age four.). Do not confuse this use of could with its use in sentences expressing present and future possibilities (e.g., They could be home by now. Could you come at 9:00 tomorrow?) There are two key points about be able to. One is explained in the Function chart: that only will be able to--not can--expresses future ability. The other relates to the use of could versus was/were able to: that in affirmative statements, was/were able to, not could, is used to refer to a specific instance in the past when someone succeeded in doing something. For example, "I was able to set up the computer with John's help" (not "I could set up the computer....") In negative statements, use either could or be able to: "The door was stuck, so we couldn't/weren't able to open it." Use could or was able to for repeated or sustained actions or abilities: "I could/was able to drive at age 16." The latter point is not addressed in this Grammar Briefing; you can decide if you want to present this information to your class or leave it for their future study of modals. Page 326 Exercise 6: Review the list of job skills with the class before they do the listening. Page 327 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 328 Exercise 8: Make sure that students do not write out the questions they are going to ask. When they circulate around the room, they should be asking the questions, not reading them aloud. For each question, they will be looking for someone who answers Yes and someone who answers No. Students must think of their own question to ask for item #8. Page 329 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. When going over the Form chart, make sure students notice that there are no contractions of may or might + not.

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When going over the Function chart, add other sample sentences with may/might not and ask students to give alternative possibilities: The weather may be nice tomorrow, or.... (A student) isn't here--s/he might be late for class, or I might stay in Friday night, or.... Add other sample sentences with could not and ask students to tell why something is impossible: Present meaning: (A teacher) couldn't be a millionaire. (Why not?) Future meaning: Our next test couldn't be on Sunday. (Why not?) Grammar Hotspot: You may wish to wait to discuss this Hotspot until you are ready to do Exercise 12, so that students will get immediate reinforcement and practice of this point. Ask students to identify the main verb in each of the example sentences. They should be able to tell if it is a past, present, or future tense verb (maybe can be used with these verbs) or if it is in the base form (following the modal may). Page 332 Exercise 12: Part A: Go over the answers with the class, asking students to identify the main verb in each statement. Part B: Have students share their guesses in writing, for example, by having volunteers write their statements on the board or by writing on the board or an overhead transparency as students dictate to you. Exercise 13: Follow up with written practice if students are having trouble with the forms of statements with may, might, could, and/or maybe. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 21: Getting Started in Business: Should for Advice; Must and Have To for Necessity Chapter 21 Grammar Should for advice Must and have to for necessity Must vs. have to in negative statements Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, Talking 1, 2, 3, 4 the Talk 2, Talking 5, 6 the Talk 3 7, 8, 9 Unit 9 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6 7, 8

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Page 334 Introductory Task: Preteach vocabulary such as loan, borrow, and counselor. When working in groups on Part C, don't let students get bogged down in arguing over whether a person should do something or must do it. It is often simply a matter of opinion as to whether something is advisable or necessary. In many cases, you can tell them that both should and must or have to are correct--the difference is only in how strongly the speaker feels about it ("You should be on time for class./You must be on time for class!") Page 335 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Talking the Talk: When discussing how to soften advice with I think or I don't think, point out that negative advice most often takes the form I don't think + an affirmative statement. You might also ask students to whom they give advice, whose advice they ask for, and who gives them advice without being asked (and how they feel about it). Page 339 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 343 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 22: Communicating: Requests, Permission, and Offers; Imperatives; Let's Chapter 22 Grammar Requests with would, will, could, and can Asking permission with could, can, and may; giving and refusing permission Making offers with could, can, and may; responding to offers Offers and requests with would like Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2 2, Talking the Talk 2, Talking the Talk 3 3, 4, 5 Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6, 7

3, 6 7, 8

6, 8 9, 10

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Imperatives Suggestions with let's Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 347

4, Talking the Talk 5

9, 10 11, 12 Unit 9 Wrap-up activities

11, 12, 13 14, 15

Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You can follow up presentation of the Grammar Briefing and Talking the Talk with a quick oral drill on making and responding to requests: On the board, make a list headed "Favors to ask a classmate" and write down two or three examples, such as lend me a pen, let me see your dictionary, and give me a piece of paper. Ask the class for more examples. Include some that are likely to elicit a "No" response, such as do my homework for me. Point to an item on the list, and make an informal request (with Will/Can you) to someone in the class: "Paola, will you please let me see your dictionary?" After Paola answers, discuss other possible replies. Point to another item on the list, and ask a student to make the request to someone else in the class, and so on. Then make a new list on the board: "Favors to ask a teacher" and write two or three examples: repeat the homework, explain this word, look at my paper, etc. Repeat the drill, this time with students using Could/Would you to make requests of you. Page 350 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. For a follow up to the Grammar Briefing, make a list on the board or a transparency of verbs often used with Can/Could I when someone asks a friend or family member for permission to do something, verbs such as borrow, use, wear, and try. Give examples of situations in which you ask for permission and model what to say: "Sometimes I ask my friend, `Could I use your phone?'" or "Sometimes I ask my son, `Can I borrow your CD player?'" Elicit similar statements from students. An alternative would be to list relationships on the board as well (friend/friend, brother/sister, child/parent, neighbor/neighbor). Point to a relationship and model a statement with Can/Could I and a verb from the list. For example, point to "neighbor/neighbor" and say, "Could I borrow a cup of sugar?" Point to relationships and elicit more examples from the class. Ask the class how someone could respond to each request. (Note: May is not included in this drill because it is so rarely used. For practice with using may to ask for permission, see Exercise 5.)

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Page 354 Exercise 6: You can follow up Part B by having students act out their conversations in pairs. Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 356 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 358 Grammar Briefing 5: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 360-362 See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities. Activity 2: Do a pre-writing activity in class: Choose a common task, such as doing the laundry or renting a videotape/DVD. Elicit from the class a list of the steps necessary to do the task, and list the steps (as imperative statements) on the board. Ask questions to elicit at least seven or eight steps. Try to include one or more negative imperatives. Then have students make their own lists and share them with a partner before writing up their instructions in the form of a paragraph. After they do Activity 3, the editing task, have them edit their paragraphs.

UNIT 10: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; COMPARISONS

Topic Focus: All about Clothes

The Grammar

In Unit 10, students will review descriptive adjectives and expand on their knowledge of adverbs (of frequency, manner, and intensity); practice describing similarities and differences with the same (as), like, and different (from); and learn the forms and functions of comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs.

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The Theme

In this unit, the subject is clothes. The unit opens at a college Halloween party, with everyone in costume. Two characters who will appear throughout the unit, Rose and Jane, talk about their own costumes and those they see, and Jane wonders aloud what a costume tells about the person wearing it. In Chapter 23, students will read the story of The Emperor's New Clothes, the classic tale by Hans Christian Andersen, and learn about people in the clothing industry: people who design, produce, model, and sell clothes. In Chapter 24, they will meet Rose's boyfriend, Doug, and his twin brother, Ralph, whose tastes in clothes are very different. The focus is on shopping, and students will read about two extraordinary malls. Chapter 25 looks at changes in clothing styles over time: cowboy clothes, bathing suits, tennis clothes, and teenage fashions.

Teaching Notes

Page 364 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Chapter 23: People in the Clothing Industry: Adjectives and Adverbs Chapter 23 Grammar Review of adjectives Overview of adverbs Adverbs of manner Intensifiers Briefing # 1 1 2, Grammar Hotspot 3, Grammar Hotspot, Talking the Talk Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, 2 3 4, 5, 6, 7 8, 9, 10, 11 Workbook Exercises 1 2 3, 4, 5, 6 7, 8, 9, 10

Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 369

Unit 10 Wrap-up activities

11

Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 371 Exercise 2: You can replay this game but with adverbs after finishing this chapter, when students will have a greater vocabulary of adverbs.

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Page 372 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 373 Exercise 4: Have the pairs do the exercise twice, so that each partner has a turn making each statement. Page 375 Exercise 6: Ask those students who finish first to create other sentences about Annika using the words they did not circle. Page 376 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. You may wish to present the Function and Form charts and have students do Exercise 8 and then present the Grammar Hotspot (on hard/hardly, too/very), followed by Exercise 9, which provides practice of those four adverbs. To emphasize the difference between very and too, write some sample sentences on the board, such as "She is _____ thin" and "She speaks _____ fast." Ask students to choose very or too, and discuss the meaning. Too indicates that there a problem. You might also want to write sentences such as "I want to be _____ rich" or "They were _____ happy" or "Your baby is ____ beautiful" and talk about why too would be very unlikely in these cases. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 24: Clothes and Shopping: Expressing Similarities and Differences Chapter 24 Grammar Expressing similarities and differences with the same (as), like, and different (from) As...as with adjectives and adverbs Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, 1, 2, 3 Grammar Hotspot 2, Talking 4, 5, 6, 7 the Talk Unit 10 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6, 7

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Page 381 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 385 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The rules for determining what auxiliary verb completes a statement with as ... as are too complex to go into at this level. Students will see and hear further examples of them in Grammar Practice 2, but they will not be asked to produce them. Page 387 Exercise 5: Students will hear the more informal object pronouns in Part A (...not as old as her), but it is the subject pronouns that they will practice using in Part B. Page 388 Exercise 6: You may wish to go over all the statements orally with the class before having the students work in pairs. Page 389 Exercise 7: You can invite students to bring in photos of the friends and family members they write about and give them time to share their paragraphs. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 25: Clothes of Yesterday and Today: Comparatives and Superlatives Chapter 25 Grammar Forms of comparative adjectives and comparative adverbs Sentences with comparatives Form and function of superlative adjectives and adverbs Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1, 1 Grammar Hotspot 2 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 3 6, 7, 8, 9 Unit 10 Wrap-up activities Workbook Exercises 1

2, 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 8

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Page 391 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part B: Point 3 states that two-syllable adjectives ending in y form the comparative with -ier (pretty prettier). However, a few two-syllable adjectives ending in y can also form the comparative with more. In fact, in the case of the adjective likely, the comparative more likely is actually more common than the form likelier. Point 4 states that most other adjectives of two syllables or more use more to form the comparative. An exception is quieter, which is much more common that "more quiet." Part D: If students ask about the difference between farther and further, you could tell them to use farther for distance (She ran farther. My office is farther down the hall.) and to use further for time, amounts or quantities, and degrees (You need to develop your idea further. I can tell you nothing further at this time.) However, this rule is of relatively recent origin and many English speakers disregard it. You might wish to draw your students' attention to the change in pronunciation in the comparatives younger, stronger, and longer. The consonant /g/ is pronounced before the er ending (and before the superlative ending -est as well). Page 394 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 396 Exercise 3: You will probably want to do the exercise orally with the entire class before asking students to write the comparisons. Page 397 Exercise 5: The game can be played in groups of four, for maximum practice, but playing as a class (divided into two teams) is fun and allows you to monitor students' comparative statements. Accept statements that are grammatically correct for points even if the information is mistaken or disputed.

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Page 398 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part A: Point 1 states that two-syllable adjectives ending in y form the superlative with iest (pretty prettiest). However, a few two-syllable adjectives ending in y can also form the superlative with most. In the case of the adjective likely, the superlative most likely is actually more commonly used than likeliest. Part C: The least (+ adjective/adverb) means the opposite of the most, but it is much less often used. Like less...than, the least is generally not used with adjectives and adverbs of one syllable. Also, English speakers tend not to use the least + adjective/adverb when it is possible to substitute the superlative form of an adjective/adverb with the opposite meaning, such as substituting the plainest for "the least beautiful." The least tends to be used when items are ranked (for example, from most to least interesting/important) or when all the items in a set are seen as negative (for example, Which one was least difficult/dangerous/expensive?) The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 403-404 See the General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities on page 10 of these notes. Activity 4: Assign students to do Step 1 for homework. Tell students to be ready to give one or more examples of their pet peeves.

UNIT 11: VERBS AND OBJECTS; PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE; TIME CLAUSES

Topic Focus: Adventure and Excitement

The Grammar

In Chapter 26, students will focus on subjects, objects (direct and indirect), transitive and intransitive verbs, and linking verbs. They will learn certain verbs of each type, and they will practice patterns for sentences with verbs that have both a direct and an indirect object. They will also learn to use direct object infinitives following certain verbs. In Chapter 27, students will study the past progressive tense (in affirmative and negative statements, yes/no questions and short answers, and wh- questions). They will review non-action verbs, which generally are not used in the progressive. They will learn to identify main clauses and time clauses and to use complex sentences with past time clauses in the simple past and the past progressive.

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The Theme

The theme of this unit is "Adventure and Excitement." It opens with a reading passage on modern-day explorers of space and the oceans which describes astronaut Neil Armstrong's 1969 moonwalk and the work of ocean scientist Jacques Cousteau. Chapter 26 focuses on other kinds of work that involve risk, although in these cases, students will be reading about performers who face danger to entertain an audience: a lion tamer, a circus acrobat, an illusionist, a stuntman, a tightrope walker, and a racecar driver. The chapter closes with an editing task based on the life of pioneering aviator Charles Lindbergh. Chapter 27 returns to the idea of exploration and braving the dangers of the oceans. It opens with a passage on the record-setting exploits of Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh on the Trieste. Students will also read about frightening encounters with sharks, the remarkable Francis Chichester, and ocean scientist Sylvia Earle.

Teaching Notes

Page 406 Grammar in Action: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for Grammar in Action. Chapter 26: Looking for Excitement: Verbs and Objects Chapter 26 Grammar Direct objects and indirect objects Sentence patterns for verbs with direct objects and indirect objects Verbs with and without direct objects Linking verbs Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2 2 3, 4, 5, 13 3 4, Grammar Hotspot 5, Talking the Talk 6, 7, 13 8, 9, 10 Workbook Exercises 1, 2 3, 4, 5, 6 7, 8, 10 9, 10

Infinitive direct objects Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 408

11, 12, 13 Unit 11 Wrap-up activities

11, 12

Introductory Task: Part C: If you feel your students need more guidance, then rather than having them work in pairs, do this exercise with the full class. · Have them write as many sentences as they can with each of the five verbs-- want, have, sleep, arrive, and study. Then talk as a class about each verb. · Starting with want, ask the class for examples of sentences with a direct object, and write a few of these sentences on the board. (Try to include both noun and 81

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·

pronoun direct objects.) Then ask for examples of sentences with want without a direct object. These are not possible--want always takes a direct object--so students should circle "Always" in their books. Continue with the other four verbs, first asking for examples of sentences with direct objects and then examples of sentences without. Use the examples, or the lack of examples, to help students arrive at a conclusion about each verb, whether it takes a direct object always, sometimes, or never.

Page 409 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 411 Exercise 2: The act described in this exercise is real. It is accomplished with precise timing and measurements. The pane of glass slows the bullet enough to allow the performer to catch the bullet between his teeth. Please point out to your students that of course they should not try this or any other stunt described in this chapter. Page 412 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part A: List the verbs that take to on the board and the verbs that take for. Assign at least one verb from each list to individual students or to pairs of students to write sentences using to/for + indirect object. Elicit an example of a sentence with each verb, write it on the board (for example, I sent an e-mail to my friend), and ask the class to transform it so that the indirect object precedes the direct object (I sent my friend an e-mail). Part B: List the two groups of verbs on the board, those that take to and those that take for. Ask the class to come up with a sentence using each verb with an indirect object, and write them on the board. Page 413 Exercise 3: The speaker in this exercise, a film director, speaks in imperatives to everyone around him. Remind the class that commands are used only by those in authority or in informal communication between good friends. The verbs practiced in this exercise can also be used in requests. You could review modals for requests by transforming these commands so that the director speaks more politely ("Would you please get my assistant for me?"). Page 415 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings.

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Page 417 Exercise 7: Bungee jumping is another activity that should be done with professional organizations that have the necessary safety equipment and experience. Bungee jumping is done from bridges, cliffs, platforms, and cranes. Usually the jumps are over water-- pools, rivers, lakes, or bays. Preteach vocabulary related to the illustrations. In their sentences, students can infer the thoughts and feelings of the participants and spectators. Page 418 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Page 420 Grammar Briefing 5: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. The examples show direct object nouns with the verbs learn and like. Add further examples on the board with other verbs listed, showing them with noun (or pronoun) direct objects as well as infinitive direct objects. Talking the Talk: Students are not expected to produce the "ta" but must recognize it when they hear it. The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Chapter 27: Ocean Adventures: Past Progressive Tense; Past Time Clauses Chapter 27 Grammar Past progressive tense in affirmative and negative statements Non-action verbs in the past Past progressive tense in yes/no questions and short answers Past progressive tense in whquestions Main clauses and time clauses Before and after in clauses vs. phrases Past time clauses Briefing # Textbook Exercises/ Activities 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 Workbook Exercises 1, 4

Grammar Hotspot 2 2 3 Grammar Hotspot 4

2, 15 6, 7 6, 8, 9 10, 11, 15 10, 11 12, 13, 14, 15

2, 3 5, 6 6, 7 8, 9 8 10, 11, 12

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Cumulative practice of chapter grammar Page 424

Unit 11 Wrap-up activities

Introductory Task: Part B: It may help students to distinguish between completed past actions and actions in progress at a point in the past if you draw timelines on the board. See Grammar Briefing 1. Page 425 Grammar Briefing 1: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Follow up your presentation of the Grammar Briefing with a quick oral drill. Choose a time from earlier in the day or the evening before, and tell the class what you were doing. For example, say At 11:00 last night, I was watching the news on TV. Ask a student what he or she was doing at that time, and repeat his or her statement and your own to the class: At 11:00 last night, Mohammed was e-mailing his brother, and I was watching the news on TV. Ask another student what he or she was doing, and then point to the first student to elicit He was e-mailing his brother and point to yourself to elicit You were watching the news on TV. Continue calling on students, getting each one to make three statements (with different subject pronouns) in the past progressive. To help students remember what people were doing, you can write names on the board and as students tell what they were doing, quickly draw an icon to represent the activity (such as a box for a TV, a box with a keyboard for a computer, etc.) Grammar Hotspot: Review the non-action verbs presented in Chapter 9 before having the students do Exercise 2. Also review the use of have as both a non-action verb meaning "possess, own" and as an action verb that can mean "eat" (have breakfast), "drink" (have a cup of coffee), and "experience" (have fun/trouble). Page 429 Exercise 3: Begin the exercise with the whole class before breaking into groups. Encourage students to use their imaginations to come up with as many possibilities as they can. For example, other possible guesses for The man was all wet include: He was snorkeling, he was washing his car, he was washing his dog, he was giving his children a bath, or his son was trying out his new water gun. Page 430 Grammar Briefing 2: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings.

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Page 433 Grammar Briefing 3: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Point 3: Time clauses are just one kind of dependent clause. You may wish to mention others, such as clauses that begin with because, when you discuss the point that a time clause is never written as a complete sentence; it cannot stand alone. Page 434 Exercise 10: Ask students to rewrite the three sentences with time clauses, changing the order of the two clauses in each sentence, adding commas as needed. Page 435 Grammar Briefing 4: See the preceding General teaching suggestions for the Grammar Briefings. Part C: Point 3 tells students to use either when or while to introduce a time clause with a past progressive verb and to use only when + the simple past in a time clause. The rules are actually more complex, but we want to avoid overwhelming students with too much information and too many choices. Page 439 The web icon at the end of the chapter directs the student to the Grammar Links website to try the self-test for this chapter. Pages 440-442 See the General teaching suggestions for Unit Wrap-up Activities on page 13 of these notes. Activity 4: Students will need time to think of stunts and prepare questions for their interviews. It might work best to introduce the activity, have students prepare at home, and then continue in class. Activity 5: Students may need time to think of surprising events to describe to their groups. You may want them to write descriptions of what happened, but when they are in their groups, they should tell the others about their experience, not read aloud to them. Activity 6: Discuss what a cruise ship is like--the things people do on one and the places on the ship where passengers can go--before starting the game. Or, to make the students' task easier, change the setting to something more familiar: Have the robbery take place at your school, and pretend that two people resembling your "suspects" were seen in the vicinity of the office where some money was stolen.

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