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Grammar Links 2

A Theme-Based Course for Reference and Practice Second Edition

TEACHING NOTES

M. Kathleen Mahnke Elizabeth O'Dowd

Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York

Contents

INTRODUCTION TO THE GRAMMAR LINKS SERIES....................................... 3 GRAMMAR LINKS 2 .................................................................................... 6 UNIT-BY-UNIT OVERVIEW AND TEACHING NOTES .................................... 16 UNIT ONE: PRESENT TIME........................................................................... 16 Chapter 1: Simple Present Tense; Adverbs of Frequency .......................................... 17 Chapter 2: Present Progressive Tense .................................................................. 19 Chapter 3: Simple Present and Present Progressive.................................................. 22 UNIT TWO: PAST TIME........................................................................................................ 25 Chapter 4: Simple Past Tense; Used To.................................................. ............. 26 Chapter 5: Past Progressive Tense; Simple Past and Past Progressive; Past Time Clauses............................................................... 30 UNIT THREE: FUTURE TIME ........................................................................ 33 Chapter 6: Expressing Future Time..................................................................... 35 Chapter 7: Future Time Clauses; Conditionals........................................................ 40 UNIT FOUR: NOUNS, ARTICLES, QUANTIFIERS AND PRONOUNS....................... 43 . Chapter 8: Nouns and Articles ........................................................................... 44 Chapter 9: General Quantifiers; Numbers; Measure Words ......................................... 49 Chapter 10: Pronouns and Possessives.................................................... ............. 52 UNIT FIVE: ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS .................................................... 55 Chapter 11: Adverbs and Prepositions ................................................................. 56 Chapter 12: Phrasal Verbs and Verb + Preposition Combinations ................................. 61 UNIT SIX: ADJECTIVES; COMPARISON WITH ADJECTIES AND ADVERBS .......... 65 Chapter 13: Adjectives ...................................................................... ............ 66

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Chapter 14: Comparison with Adjectives and Adverbs .............................................. 69 UNIT SEVEN: THE PRESENT PERFECT ........................................................... 73 Chapter 15: Present Perfect Tense: Present Perfect Versus Simple Past ......................... 74 Chapter 16: Present Perfect Progressive Tense; Present Perfect Versus Present Perfect Progressive.................................................... 79 UNIT EIGHT: MODALS, RELATED EXPRESSIONS, AND IMPERATIVES.................... 82 Chapter 17: Modals and Related Expressions; Ability; Possibility................................ 83 Chapter 18: Social Modals and Imperatives .......................................................... 87 UNIT NINE: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES ....................................................................... 92 Chapter 19: Gerunds and Infinitives .................................................................... 93 Chapter 20: Gerunds Versus Infinitives ............................................................... 97

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INTRODUCTION TO THE GRAMMAR LINKS SERIES

Grammar Links is a comprehensive five-level grammar reference and practice series for students of English as a second or foreign language. The series meets the needs of students from the beginning through the advanced level: Grammar Links Basic............................. Grammar Links 1.................................. beginning high beginning

Grammar Links 2 .................................. intermediate Grammar Links 3 ................................. Grammar Links 4 ................................. high intermediate advanced

Grammar Links student texts are accompanied by a variety of ancillary materials, including an audiocassette or audio CD package and an assortment of Web-based materials. The Web ancillaries for each book include teacher's notes, chapter-by-chapter teacher's tests and student self-tests, vocabulary Flashcards, tapescripts, answer keys, and other materials and activities. Grammar Links 1­4 are also accompanied by a workbook. Series Approach Recent research in applied linguistics tells us that when a well-designed communicative approach is coupled with a systematic treatment of grammatical form, the combination is a powerful pedagogical tool. Grammar Links is such a tool. Grammar Links' grammar explanations are clear, accurate, and carefully sequenced. All points introduced are practiced in exercises, and coverage is comprehensive and systematic. In addition, each grammar point is carefully recycled and reused in a variety of contexts. The grammar in Grammar Links Basic is presented in small manageable chunks arranged with students' communicative needs in mind. Each unit in Grammar Links Basic also treats a general topic of easy accessibility. "Unit One: At School," for example, teaches language for the classroom along with the grammar. "Unit Four: Everyday Life" teaches the simple present in the context of the daily routines of people at home, at school, and at work. Books 1­4 in the Grammar Links series employ a theme-based approach, with the grammar contextualized in a variety of content areas. The content serves as more than a backdrop for communication; high-interest topics presented along with the target grammar help promote the development of students' cognitive and linguistic abilities. Thus, the exercises and activities in Grammar Links 1­4 are content-driven as well as grammar-driven. While learning about adjective clauses in Book 3, for example, students explore various aspects of the discipline of psychology. While they are practicing gerunds and infinitives in Book 2, they read about successful American entrepreneurs. And while practicing the simple present tense in Book 1, students learn about and discuss North American festivals and other celebrations. Throughout

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the series, students communicate about meaningful content, transferring their grammatical training to the English they need in their daily lives. Complementing the communicative theme-based approach of the Grammar Links series is a range of successful methodological options for exercises and activities. In addition to more traditional, explicit rule presentation and practice, we have incorporated a number of less explicit, more inductive techniques. Foremost among these are our discovery exercises and activities, in which students are asked to notice general and specific grammatical features and think about them on their own, sometimes formulating their own hypotheses about how these features work and why they work they way they do. Discovery exercises are included in each unit opener. They are frequently used in chapter openers as well and are interspersed throughout the Grammar Practice sections, particularly at the higher levels. In short, the Grammar Links approach provides students with a comprehensive, systematic treatment of grammar that employs a variety of methods for grammar learning within a communicative theme-based framework. About the Books Grammar coverage in the Grammar Links series has been carefully designed to spiral across levels. Structures introduced in one book are recycled and built upon in the next. Students not only learn increasingly sophisticated information about the structures but also practice these structures in increasingly challenging contexts. Themes show a similar progression across levels, from less academic at the beginning levels to more academic in Book 3 and Book 4. Grammar Links is flexible in many ways and can be easily adapted to the particular needs of users. Although its careful spiraling makes it ideal as a series, the comprehensive grammar coverage at each level means the individual books can also stand alone. The careful organization also makes it possible for students to use their text as a reference after they have completed a course. The units in a book can be used in the order given or can be rearranged to fit the teacher's curriculum. Books can be used in their entirety or in part. In addition, the inclusion of ample practice allows teachers to be selective when choosing exercises and activities. All exercises are labeled for grammatical content, so that structures can be practiced more or less extensively, depending on class and individual needs.

OVERVIEW OF SECOND EDITION CHANGES

The second edition of Grammar Links retains the original features that made the first edition a success: Clear and comprehensive treatment of grammar. Attention to both form and function of grammar in all skill areas. Progression from more controlled practice exercises to more open-ended communicative activities. Attention to grammar at the discourse level within a contextualized theme-based framework. Inductive "noticing" or "discovery" tasks to help students become independent grammar learners. Our special Grammar Hotspot feature, which gives extra focus to grammar trouble spots.

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Talking the Talk, another special feature, which relates to the differences between spoken and written, formal and informal grammar use. A number of modifications have also been made and a number of new features have also been added as enhancements to the second edition: A reorganization and redistribution of material in order to provide maximum accessibility for learners. A fresh, new design with eye-catching art, realia, and a focus on ease of use. A new name and face for our unit introductory tasks - Grammar in Action. This title clearly reflects what these tasks accomplish ­ showing the unit grammar "in action," that is, in real use in authentic contexts. Simplification of content presentation. Some theme-based writings in each text have been simplified. Vocabulary glosses have been added throughout the books to aid students in focusing on grammar while learning about topics of interest. Simplification of grammar presentation and practice. Grammar has been broken down into shorter grammar briefings and practices. Streamlined, easy-to-read grammar briefings show structures at a glance. They incorporate: 1) More graphic representations (charts, time lines, etc.) and fewer written explanations. 2) An easy-to-understand side-by-side arrangement of explanations and their illustrating examples. An even greater number and variety of exercises and activities than before, now signaled with icons for easy reference. Exercises have been rearranged to match new grammar briefing divisions. Some exercises have been combined. Others have been divided up, and new exercises have been added. Thus, the total number of exercises per chapter sometimes differs from that of the first edition, but the coverage is as complete or more complete. At least one writing activity in every chapter. These assignments are carefully designed to encourage student to use the grammar of the chapter in extended written discourse. Assessment options. Practice tests, both self-check tests for student use and achievement tests for teacher use, are now available for each chapter of the book. These tests are on the Website. in the text lead students to: Other links to the World Wide Web. Icons 1) Models for writing assignments. 2) Links to interesting sites related to unit themes for further reading and discussion, along with activity sheets for some of these sites. 3) Vocabulary flashcards for review of the content-related vocabulary that is used in text readings and exercises. Improved support for teachers. Expanded teacher's notes are available at the Instructor's Website. Also available on the Web are sample syllabi and lesson plans, the tapescript, and the answer key. Updated workbook. The Grammar Links workbooks have been updated and expanded to incorporate second edition changes.

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GRAMMAR LINKS 2, 2ed

The Intermediate Language Learner

At the intermediate level, language learners have started to build a solid foundation of grammatical knowledge and have already developed some strategies for analyzing grammatical information. They are ready to take some responsibility for independent learning that builds on what they already know. Intermediate students are developing the confidence to interact and communicate spontaneously. They are eager to explore interesting ideas and build social relationships in the target language. Thus, instruction needs to be less teacher-controlled than at the basic and beginning levels, but to offer more structure and guidance than at the more advanced levels.

UNIT AND CHAPTER COMPONENTS

Grammar Links 2 consists of nine units, each unit focusing on a major grammar area. Each unit theme has an episodic structure: a question to be answered, or a thesis to be developed throughout the unit exercises. Since the units are all self-contained, they may be taught sequentially as presented in the book or selected according to teachers' preferences. Each unit contains two or three chapters, which are linked thematically with progressively-sequenced grammar instruction. However, the content of each chapter is also self-contained. Thus, teachers may choose to skip a chapter if systematic practice does not seem necessary for the grammar points in that chapter. The major sections for each unit and chapter are described below, as are the materials to be found at the back of the book. Unit Objectives. Each unit begins with a list of unit objectives so that teachers and students can preview the major grammar points covered in the unit. Objectives are accompanied by example sentences that highlight the relevant structures. Unit Introduction. To illustrate grammar use in extended discourse, a reading and listening selection introduces both the unit grammar and the unit theme in the unit-opener section, Grammar in Action. This material is followed by a grammar consciousness-raising or "noticing" task, Think About Grammar. In Think About Grammar tasks, students figure out some aspect of grammar by looking at words and sentences from the Grammar in Action selection, often working together to answer questions about them. Students induce grammatical rules themselves before having those rules given to them. Think About Grammar thus helps students become independent grammar learners by promoting critical thinking and discussion about grammar. Chapter Introduction. Each chapter opens with a task. This task involves students in working receptively with the structures that are treated in the chapter and gives them the opportunity to begin thinking about the chapter theme. Grammar Briefings. The grammar is presented in Grammar Briefings. Chapters generally have three or four Grammar Briefings, so that information is given in manageable chunks. The core of each Grammar Briefing is its form and function charts. In these charts, the form (the what of grammar) and the function (the how, when, and why) are presented in logical segments. These segments are manageable but large enough so that students can see

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connections between related grammar points. Form and function are presented in separate charts when appropriate but together when the two are essentially inseparable. All grammatical descriptions in the form and function charts are comprehensive, concise, and clear. Sample sentences illustrate each point. Grammar Hotspots. Grammar Hotspots are a special feature of Grammar Links. They occur at one or more strategic points in each chapter. Grammar Hotspots focus on aspects of grammar that students are likely to find particularly troublesome. Some Hotspots contain reminders about material that has already been presented in the form and function charts; others go beyond the charts. Talking the Talk. Talking the Talk is another special feature of Grammar Links. Our choice of grammar is often determined by our audience, whether we are writing or speaking, the situations in which we find ourselves, and other socio-cultural factors. Talking the Talk treats these factors. Students become aware of differences between formal and informal English, and between written and spoken English. Grammar Practice. Each Grammar Briefing is followed by comprehensive and systematic practice of all grammar points introduced. The general progression within each Grammar Practice is from more controlled to less controlled, from easier to more difficult, and often from more receptive to more productive and/or more structured to more communicative. A wide variety of innovative exercise types is included in each of the four skill areas: listening , speaking , reading, and writing . The exercise types that are used are appropriate to the particular grammar points being practiced. For example, more drill-like exercises are often used for practice with form. More open-ended exercises often focus on function. In many cases, drill-like practice of a particular grammar point is followed by openended communicative practice of the same point, often as pair or group work. Thus, a number of exercises have two parts. The majority of exercises within each Grammar Practice section are related to the theme of the unit. However, some exercises depart from the theme to ensure that each grammar point is practiced in the most effective way. Unit Wrap-Ups. Each unit ends with a series of activities that pull the unit grammar together and enable students to test, further practice, and apply what they have learned. These activities include an editing task, which covers the errors students most commonly make in using the structures presented in the unit, as well as a series of innovative openended communicative tasks, which build on and go beyond the individual chapters. Appendixes. Extensive appendixes supplement the grammar presented in the Grammar Briefings. They provide students with word lists, spelling and pronunciation rules, and other supplemental rules related to the structures taught. The appendixes are a rich resource for students as they work through exercises and activities. Grammar Glossary. A grammar glossary provides students and teachers with definitions of the grammar terms used in Grammar Links as well as example sentences to aid in understanding the meaning of each term. Index. A helpful index to the grammatical structures covered is the final component of the book.

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Other Components In addition to these teacher's notes, the following ancillary materials are available for Grammar Links. Audio Program. All Grammar Links listening exercises and all Grammar in Action reading and listening selections are recorded on audio CDs and cassettes. The symbol appears next to the title of each recorded segment. Workbook. Grammar Links 1 - 4 student texts are each accompanied by a workbook. The four workbooks contain a wide variety of exercise types, including paragraph and essay writing, and they provide extensive supplemental self-study practice of each grammar point presented in the student texts. Student self-tests with TOEFL® practice questions are also included in the workbooks. Tapescript and Answer Keys. The tapescript and the answer key for the student text and the answer key for the workbook are also available at the Grammar Links Website. Links to the World Wide Web. As was discussed above, the Grammar Links Website <http://www.hmco.com/college/esl/> has been expanded for the second edition to include teacher tests, student self-tests, model writing assignments, content Web links, vocabulary flashcards, and other materials. Links are updated frequently, to ensure that students and teachers can access the best information available on the Web.

GENERAL TEACHING SUGGESTIONS

Unit Objectives provide a starting point and preview for each unit. They list and exemplify the major grammar points to be covered. The objectives help students anticipate instruction and offer teachers the opportunity to consider which points are relevant for a particular class. Teachers may use the example sentences that accompany the objectives as a first diagnostic checkpoint by eliciting similar examples from students, in order to check their mastery of the grammar point. The photo on each unit opener page provides a visual context for introducing the unit theme. Teachers may want to take a few minutes to discuss this photo, introducing some of the unit vocabulary. Students can describe what is happening in the photograph and make predictions about the theme for the unit. They can also discuss what they know or are interested in learning about the topic. Grammar in Action contains two parts: a Reading and Listening passage, which introduces the theme and exposes students to the focal grammar structures, and a Think about Grammar task, a consciousness-raising activity in which students are invited to discover a certain aspect of grammar form or function by analyzing and making generalizations. The focal structures are usually boldfaced in the reading passage for easier identification. One suggested procedure for teaching Grammar in Action is, after introducing the Unit Objectives, to play the Reading and Listening passage once while students read along (tapescripts for these passages are also available at the Grammar Links Instructor's Website). Direct students to any vocabulary glosses for this passage and answer any vocabulary-related questions. Encourage students not to dwell on vocabulary, however, but to concentrate on reading for overall meaning. Next, direct students to the Grammar in Action tasks. If they

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feel ready, they can complete the tasks at that time. If not, play the passage a second time so students can listen and read again with these tasks in mind. A NOTE ABOUT VOCABULARY IN THE SECOND EDITION OF GRAMMAR LINKS 2 Vocabulary glosses have been strategically inserted to cover the most challenging vocabulary that is important for understanding the meaning of a passage or exercise. Minimal time spent on these glosses should provide students with easy access to text content. With regard to words that are not glossed in the reading and listening selection, we suggest that you encourage students wherever possible to make meaningful guesses, based on the text context, rather than to use their dictionaries. Explain that the point is not so much to understand every new word as to grasp the main ideas. This should not be too difficult; in most units, technical vocabulary is kept to a minimum. More challenging unglossed words are usually defined or paraphrased on introduction and then recycled in different contexts, so as to facilitate effective understanding. Students who still feel that they need help with vocabulary in the text should be directed to the Vocabulary Flashcards at the Grammar Links 2 Student's Website. These flashcards provide practice with text-related words and their definitions. Think About Grammar tasks are designed to help students become independent learners who can use their own learning strategies to analyze and understand the rules of grammar. These tasks may be done as a whole class, or in small groups which share their answers in later class discussion. For whole-class work, elicitation is the best technique. This gives lessconfident students a chance to hear model answers from their classmates before volunteering themselves. Once students are used to the procedure of Think About Grammar tasks, they may want to work more spontaneously in small "discovery" groups. During group work, the teacher should circulate, allowing students as much time as they need (within reasonable limits) to complete the task satisfactorily, and intervening with instruction only when necessary. The generalizations formed by the students during Think About Grammar tasks are elaborated in the Grammar Briefings of the upcoming unit. For example, in Unit One, students are led step-by-step to the conclusion that present tense verbs ending in -ing cooccur with the auxiliary verbs is, are, and am. They also discover that other present tense verbs take ­s endings for the persons he, she, and it. Later, in the Grammar Briefings for Chapters 1 and 2, these conclusions are reinforced in rules that characterize the forms and functions of Present Progressive versus Simple Present verb tenses. Note that Think About Grammar tasks may serve as a second diagnostic checkpoint (after the Unit Objectives): students' ability to make appropriate generalizations automatically may indicate at least partial mastery of the grammar area. Each chapter Introductory Task engages students' interest in the thematic content to be covered. The task leads them either to analyze an aspect of the focal grammar area or to interact with it receptively. For example, "The Flying Dutchman" in Chapter 5 requires students to sequence sentences reconstructing a legend, a task which requires them to understand the meaning of past tense verb forms. In Chapter 6, students listen to a lecture 9

about futuristic educational technology and check the predictions they hear. Although their conscious attention is to meaning rather than form, each prediction that they hear reinforces the same future-tense pattern. Information gap and other interactive exercises are sometimes used as Introductory Tasks. The instruction lines for each Introductory Task specify whether it should be done individually, in small groups or as a class. Again, wherever possible, allow students to work independently and allow them enough time for task completion. Every chapter in Grammar Links 2 includes two or more Grammar Briefings (GBs). The number of GBs varies according to the familiarity and complexity of the grammar area. In order to break grammar into smaller, more manageable chunks, there are more GBs per grammar point in the second edition than there were in the first edition. In Chapter 6, Expressing Future Time, for example, 6 GBs now cover the same amount of material that was covered in 3 GBs in the first edition. This allows students to access and practice the grammar more easily. A GB may be devoted to Form (e.g. present, past, and future tense forms in Chapters 1 7), to Function (e.g. the "past continuing to present" use of present perfect tense in Chapter 15), or to both Form and Function when the two are inseparably linked (e.g. uses of indefinite versus definite articles in Chapter 8). Grammar Briefings are often best presented in whole-class instructional sessions. At the intermediate level, some students are familiar with the terminology used to talk about grammar, but it is always helpful to make sure everyone understands the terms you are using for a particular grammar point. Often at the intermediate level, students in the class will already know some of what you are trying to teach, especially the forms of the grammar. As you go over the grammar points (or review them), elicit rules for both form and function from the students and get them to add examples of their own. The more you can elicit from students, the better. It will boost the confidence of students who can contribute and increase overall class participation and attention. Additionally, it will encourage them to be independent learners of grammar and give them the tools to learn on their own. Options for varying Grammar Briefing presentation include: · When introducing the grammar, put key terms, timelines, and examples on the board. · Highlight each point as you make it by underlining, circling, or using chalk or markers of a different color. · Make an overhead of the GB and highlight points being made in some way (by underlining, circling, using different colors, arrows, etc.). · Explain the grammar in your own words. · Elicit rules for both form and function from the students. · Ask questions which require the students to (re)state what they understand in their own words. · Provide further examples to illustrate grammar points; use examples relevant to the student's lives and situations. · Elicit student examples to check comprehension of grammar points after they have been presented. · Have the students tell you what they know about the grammar point before you present it. · Have students read the GB at home before you present it and come to class with example sentences to show their understanding, along with any questions they might have. 10

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Begin with the examples and then look at the rule(s). This may work well with GBs that present examples on the right and rules on the left (for example, Chapter 2, GB 1, page 20) and can be useful in helping students "discover" the grammar. Start with the exercises and then return to the GB. This may work well in instances when you believe most, if not all, of the grammatical information is already familiar to the students. This also works well when you feel that the students can discover the grammar rule(s) on their own.

Within the GBs, Grammar Hotspots highlight specific grammatical pitfalls, or points which tend to be particularly troublesome for intermediate students. They help raise students' consciousness in anticipating and monitoring their own errors. Examples include the tendency to use to after will when forming the future tense (I will to go: Chapter 6, GB 3); and the common confusion between used to + base verb form and use as a regular main verb (I used to wait versus I used your pen: Chapter 4, GB 3). Some Hotspots simply emphasize points that have already been made in the GB, whereas others present new information. Hotspots are often a good place to follow up with a quick practice drill; for example, the teacher may present both correct and incorrect forms in rapid succession, asking students to correct where necessary. Talking the Talk sections alert students to certain pragmatic aspects of usage ­ to variations of grammatical form which are determined by contextual considerations of politeness, formality or modality (written versus spoken language). Intermediate students are usually quite eager to master these variations as part of "real-life" English. An effective technique is to invite students to come up with their own examples of situations where the different variations might be used. Talking the Talk examples include formal versus informal intensifiers (quite good versus really/pretty good: Chapter 11), and the reduction of going to to gonna for future forms: (Chapter 6). Every instructional point in a GB is covered systematically in the Grammar Practice section that follows. The majority of Grammar Practice exercises follow the thematic flow of the unit, in the form of stories, jokes, lectures, and conversational discourse. However, each exercise stands by itself, so that the teacher can quickly review the chapter and decide which exercises, if any, to omit altogether. Earlier exercises in the section provide relatively controlled and drill-like practice, and later exercises are more open-ended, allowing students to generate their own examples in communicative contexts. Along this continuum, many different exercise formats allow practice in a variety of grammar microskills. Controlled exercises are best done quickly, to promote automaticity in manipulating the structures. They typically involve such activities as identifying forms, filling in blanks, reconstructing or transforming sentences, true/false responses, multiple choice and matching, sentence combination and completion, and error correction. Many of these form-based exercises are appropriate as homework assignments, since the answers are usually unambiguous and easily checked. Alternatively, they may be completed in class by individuals, small groups, or the whole class group. Pace and interest level are increased for many controlled exercises by giving the exercises a game-like format. For example, teachers may divide class groups into teams who race each other for correct completion of exercises, and so on (see "Time for a Race," Chapter 4, Exercise 4; "Time for a Race," Chapter 8,

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Exercise 5; or "Group Game," Chapter 20, Exercise 7). Other form-based exercise "games" allow for more student spontaneity; for example, in sentence "chains" (see "Chain Game," Chapter 9, Exercise 9); action games ("Charades," Chapter 12, Exercise 7); and Tic Tac Toe (Chapter 14 Exercise 8). Controlled exercises generally involve cognitively engaging content, which may require students to analyze information and draw inferences. In "Tea Time" (Chapter 11, Exercise 11), students examine a map in order to ascertain the appropriate time prepositions for a fillin-the-blanks exercise about the history of tea. Many exercises have a Part B (and sometimes C and D), where students respond to the Part A content information in a way that elicits the structure more freely. For example, in "Making It?" (Chapter 19, Exercise 6), students first fill in the blanks in a conversation about recreational activities. Then, in Part B, they make inferences about the characters in the conversation; and finally, in Part C, they contribute their own ideas about favorite recreational pursuits. There are several ways to go over the answers to controlled exercises with students, whether they are done in class or for homework. For example: · have students work in pairs to check the answers in each other's books, while you circulate to check their work and answer questions; · ask students to read the exercise items with their answers aloud to the class; · read the items yourself while students supply missing information or answers; · write the exercise on the board (with students calling out the answers); · have students write just the answers or the complete exercise on the board; · make an overhead transparency of the answers from the Answer Key for students to use in checking their own answers or a partner's. Open-ended exercises usually occur later in each chapter, and are designed for pair or small-group work in class. When an exercise calls for students to work in pairs or groups, make sure they understand what is expected of them. Go over with the class the directions and examples in the book. Demonstrate the task with a student volunteer as your partner, or have student volunteers demonstrate. Beyond this, you should allow students to interact freely, focusing more on effective communication than on error correction. Some of the pairwork exercises are very brief, and students should simply turn to the person seated closest to them; for other pair or group exercises, you may have students choose their own partners, or you may want to assign partners or groups, taking into consideration factors such as students' first languages and proficiency in English. Occasionally, open-ended exercises require students to go beyond the classroom, to find information related to the unit theme. Openended exercises promote fluency by allowing students to communicate in contexts which naturally elicit the relevant structures. They integrate listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, and they involve many different types of activities; for example: · · · · · role play ("Role Play," Chapter 7, Exercise 6); information gap ("Making a Date," Chapter 6, Exercise 16); interviews and surveys ("Find Someone Who," Chapter 10, Exercise 8); interpreting graphic information ("Travel to Mars," Chapter 7, Exercise 4); discussion ("The Good and the Bad," Chapter 9, Exercise 6B);

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sharing personal information ("Once Upon a Time," Chapter 4, Exercise 11B & C); self-check questionnaires ("Personal Profiles," Chapter 3, Exercise 8B); writing advertisements or stories ("The Marriage Market," Chapter 13, Exercise 4B; "Story Writing ­ It Happened One Night," Chapter 5, Exercise 9A).

To aid teachers and students in identifying them, communicative activities are signaled with this icon: At least one paragraph-length writing assignment is included in each second edition chapter. Though guided, these assignments require students to use the chapter grammar to produce their own written discourse. At the start of the course, you may want to give students directions on how to format the writing and any other expectations you may have. Intermediate-level students are still likely to make a great many errors in their writing. Some of these you may wish to ignore; others are best handled by simply supplying the student with the correct word or phrase. Errors that you will not want to ignore, however, and that you'll want to have students correct in a subsequent draft, are those that relate directly to the grammar they have been studying. Model answers for longer writing assignments are provided on the Grammar Links 2 Website, signaled by the Web icon . The models are set up so that students can highlight the grammar in focus to see it used correctly in extended discourse or so that the highlighting can be turned off, making the grammar blend in with the rest of the text. The model Web assignments can be used in a variety of ways. Teachers can direct students to look at them before they write their own paragraphs in order to get some structure and content ideas for their own work. Alternatively, teachers and students can brainstorm ideas for the writing assignment in class, write a guided group draft or individual in-class drafts, and then refer to these models after feedback has been given on the drafts, as a comparison point for self-improvement in writing. Teachers can even invite students to continue the model beyond the initial paragraph given, continuing to use the focused grammar and applying their imagination in a longer essay which can then be shared in class. Turned on, the highlighting in the model may serve as a simple reminder and motivation for students to follow suit in exploiting the focused structure as often as possible ­ perhaps even in a competitive spirit. Turned off, it can work as a discovery exercise where students are asked to identify and underline the structures before seeing them highlighted. The chapter tests (one self-test for students and one achievement test for teachers) which are available on the Web have many uses. While both can provide feedback on mastery of chapter grammar and can be taken after chapter completion, they can also be used as diagnostic tests prior to starting a chapter, or as study guides for student self-monitoring and reinforcement as the chapter progresses. One popular strategy is for students to use the selftests alone or in small study groups as preparation for the more formal teacher tests. Another (requiring a little more flexibility from the teacher!) is for students to use the self-tests as a model to build their own tests, which can then be used in class for formal or informal assessments).The student self-tests refer students to specific grammar briefings for help with questions that they miss. Students who join the class late or who have been absent for an extensive period will have the advantage of accessing these self-tests to help them see how much catch-up work they will need. Teacher tests are downloadable Word files, which teachers can use "as is" or modify to suit their needs. Each answer in each teacher test

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answer key is cross-referenced to the GB it covers. You may want to delete questions which cover material that you opted to omit from chapter study, for example, or add extra questions about grammar points on which you needed to spend extra time. A NOTE ABOUT THE NEW CONTENT WEB LINKS IN THE SECOND EDITION OF GRAMMAR LINKS 2 The value of the use of authentic materials to foster second language learning is welldocumented. And, with the advent of the World Wide Web, an enormous amount of authentic material has been made available to teachers and their students. Armed with this knowledge, we have tapped the Web to add a new feature to Grammar Links. In at least two locations in each chapter in the second edition of Grammar Links 2, students and teachers are directed by the Web icon to links to Content Weblinks which further explore chapter themes. In Chapter 13, for example, after completing an exercise in which they practice adjectives while reading about Buffalo Bill, students can explore the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show Website. There they will find numerous short readings, photos, and video clips which bring this American cultural icon and his colorful world to life. Our Websites have been carefully selected and graded. Some Web icons in the book lead students to more than one site. Multiple sites for the same icon are listed in order of increasing difficulty. That is, the #1 site link is, in most cases, easier for students than the #2 site link, etc. So, if you are concerned about site complexity, start your students with #1 and move on from there. We encourage you, however, not to be intimidated by the more complex sites. You do not need to ask your students to be accountable for the information in the sites; instead, their goal can be exploration, of both grammar and topics of interest, in real-life contexts. They do not need to understand everything they see in order to benefit from exposure to authentic material. Hyperlinks to all of the content sites are provided at the Grammar Links 2 Website and can be accessed by both students and teachers. In addition, activities have been designed for selected sites. The Buffalo Bill Wild West Show site, for example, is accompanied by supplemental activities in which students first practice new adjectives and then use them to write short summaries of video clips. Each activity comprises two parts: downloadable directions to the teacher and a downloadable activity worksheet for the students. Students can access their portion of the activity from the student site. Teachers access their directions and their own copy of the student activity sheet at the instructor's site. The Web link activities are designed to be user-friendly and to practice chapter grammar while allowing students to have some fun with chapter themes. The Grammar Links 2 content sites and activities are designed to require only minimal keyboarding and Web navigation skills. Nevertheless, you may want to go through the steps for accessing the Grammar Links 2 Web materials in class with your students prior to sending them to do Web homework on their own. You may also want to ask students to work in pairs on the Web. Experienced students can guide those with less experience.

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We encourage you to use the Web links as sources for creating your own supplementary materials and/or class projects. The content sites can also be used as springboards for class discussion of chapter themes and of American culture, as resources for some of the chapter writing assignments, and as places in which to find further use of chapter grammar points in authentic material. Many of them provide excellent visual reinforcement for topics discussed in the text. Others provide opportunities to move beyond what is discussed in the text and explore related topics, vocabulary, and grammar. In multi-level groups (so characteristic of community college or high school classes, for example), the Web links and activities provide more challenging material to those students who are ahead with the textbook grammar while those who are less familiar, or whose attendance has been discontinuous, are catching up (with younger classes, the Web activities may well serve as a motivation and reward for good attendance!). There are many possibilities for exploitation of the content Web links.

The Unit Wrap-Up Activities which complete each unit fulfill two cumulative functions: to pull together all the major grammar points from the unit chapters, and to bring closure to the unit theme. Each wrap-up section begins with an editing exercise, where students apply what they have learned in the unit to identify and correct a wide range of grammatical errors. This exercise is probably best done in pairs or small groups, with students comparing their answers afterwards. The activities following the editing exercise are usually of the openended, interactive type. The intention is to stimulate students' creative and cooperative involvement in an extended activity which also elicits the focal structures of the unit. Particularly appropriate activities are problem-solving, personal writing and sharing, discussion, impromptu speaking, and cooperative games. Examples include: · · · · · · · · "My Personal Adventure," Unit 2, Activity 3; "Make Sense of Nonsense," Unit 2, Activity 4; "Utopia," Unit 3, Activity 3; "A Place I Love," Unit 4, Activity 3; "Diet Budget, "Unit 5, Activity 2 "Lifestyle Log," Unit 5, Activity 4 "A Trip to the West," Unit 6, Activity 3; "A Superlative Group," Unit 6, Task 4.

Teachers will need to facilitate some of these student-centered activities by helping to set up groups and circulating to answer any questions about the nature of the task. It may be appropriate to start a Wrap-Up Activity with a whole-class introduction to exemplify how it should be done. Beyond this, the teacher should allow free communicative practice, emphasizing fluency rather than accuracy.

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UNIT-BY-UNIT OVERVIEW AND TEACHING NOTES

Note: General suggestions made above are not repeated here. Please continue to refer to the general suggestions as you use these more specific notes.

UNIT ONE: PRESENT TIME

Topic Focus: People and Personalities

The Grammar

This unit reviews the forms and functions of the simple present tense (Chapter 1) and present progressive tense (Chapter 2) and examines the contrast between the two tense systems (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 provides an overview of verbs with stative meaning (for example, see, have, like), which seldom take present progressive form.

The Theme

The theme of People and Personalities touches on popular-interest topics. The content is light and sometimes humorous, eliciting social language and personal information sharing. Chapter 1 discusses how different personalities may be reflected in handwriting and in job choice, and how the "real" personalities of celebrities may surprise us. Chapter 2 introduces the topics of optimism and pessimism, taking a tongue-in-cheek look at various suggestions for personality self-improvement. Chapter 3 points out physical and psychological factors that may affect personality, returning to the topic of the unit introduction: stress and stress relief.

Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 2-3: Prior to teaching this segment, you may want to have students look at the unit opener photos and discuss the concept of stress. Questions you could pursue include: "What is stress?" "Which person in the photos might be having a stressful day?" "How do you know?" "Is all stress bad?" "What can you do to relieve stress?" Next, by listening to the passage "Good Stress, Bad Stress" while reading it, students can hear the pronunciation of the simple present and present progressive tenses while seeing how they are used in connected discourse. The Think About Grammar exercises which follow the passage then help students infer the rules for formation of these tenses as well as for subject-verb agreement without having these rules given to them explicitly. These exercises can be done individually or in small groups.

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Chapter 1 ­ Simple Present Tense; Adverbs of Frequency Chapter 1 Grammar Affirmative Statements - Simple Present Tense Negative Statements - Simple Present Tense Simple Present Tense of Be Functions of the Simple Present Spelling Rules for Third Person Singular Present Tense Verbs Yes/No Questions and Short Answers ­ Simple Present Wh- Questions ­ Simple Present Meaning of Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Frequency with the Simple Present ­ Placement Do you ever... ? Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 Appendix 1 1 1 Hotspot 2 2 3 3 3 Hotspot Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 4 3, 4 1, 3 1, 2, 3, 4 2 5, 6 7 8 9, 10 11 12, Unit Wrap-up Activities Workbook Exercise 2, 3, 5 3, 5 1, 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 4 6, 7 8 9, 10, 11 5, 12, TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 4-5: Guide students through the graphology exercise, explaining the notions of backward, forward, and upward "slope." The graphology chart in Part B models the use of the simple present tense to talk about habits, routines, and things that are generally true. It also models the use of adverbs of frequency. These are both chapter grammar points; an option is to draw students' attention to these points at this time, asking them guiding questions about verb + adverb meaning (to discuss a habit or a routine), the placement of the adverbs in the sentences (before or after the verb?), etc. You may opt, however, to wait until after study of the grammar briefing to do this. For fun and extra practice with authentic materials, direct your students' attention to the Web icon on page 5. It will send them to the Grammar Links 2 Website where they will find links to handwriting personality profiles and other interesting information about handwriting analysis. It is important to point out that these links need not be taken seriously, but can provide opportunities for further discussion of the chapter topic and further use of the chapter grammar. Students may want to spend time comparing handwriting with one another and discussing together what the sites say about their personalities. Are these sites "right on," or are they "crazy?" Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Simple Present Tense I, pp. 5-6: This GB covers the formation of affirmative and negative statements with the simple present tense. It also introduces the meaning of the simple present to discuss habits, routines, and things that are generally true. See the preceding general teaching suggestions for the grammar briefings for tips regarding how to present this grammar. In addition, if you did not

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exploit the graphology chart earlier, you may want to ask students to go back to it now and look at the models there of the functions of the simple present. The formation of the simple present tense of the verb be is treated extensively at lower levels, so, though it is practiced in Grammar Links 2, it is not re-taught here. Rather, it is reviewed in the chart in Appendix 1. Send your students to Appendix 1 if you sense that they need to review the simple present of be. For learners of English, one of the most difficult formal aspects of the simple present tense is the third person singular ­s ending. Problems with the third person singular stay with learners far beyond even the intermediate level, particularly in writing. With this in mind, it will be important for you to focus on the ­s ending when working on Grammar Briefing 1. In addition, the spelling rules for the third person singular are particularly challenging. For this reason, they are the subject of the Grammar Hotspot on page. 6. Exercise 1, pp. 6-7: Review vocabulary for job occupations as necessary before students complete the "jobpersonality" matching exercise. After students have completed Part B of this exercise, you may want to ask them to compare their job choices and discuss the pros and cons of each of the jobs they have chosen. Another content Web icon follows Exercise 1. This one sends students to some sites with quizzes which match personalities with jobs. Once again, it is important to approach these sites in a spirit of having fun with the topic while exploring the grammar. Students enjoy these quizzes but shouldn't be alarmed if quiz results don't correspond with their own ideas about job choices. Exercise 2, pp.7-8: New "personality" vocabulary here is introduced inductively, and thus should not need to be pre-taught. Allow students to discover new meanings by completing the exercise. They can later reinforce their understanding by using the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web. Exercises 2-4, pp. 7-9: These exercises could all be done in class or assigned for homework. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Simple Present Tense II, pp. 9-10: This GB covers question formation with the simple present tense. It is a straightforward briefing about form. However, the insertion of do in questions can be challenging for students. The use of does with the third person singular is especially challenging. You will want to pay special attention to these parts of the briefing, both for yes/no and for wh-questions. Exercises 5-7, pp. 10-13: If preceded by a general discussion of Grammar Briefing 2 and a review of the concept of a "career counselor," these exercises would all make good homework assignments. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Adverbs of Frequency with the Simple Present Tense, pp. 13-14: Grammar Briefing 3 covers the placement of adverbs of frequency before be and after other verbs. Correct placement is difficult for students, resulting in errors such as "We eat always at 5:00." In teaching adverb placement, you will want to stress the difference between be

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and other verbs. Grammar Briefing 3 also covers the meaning of adverbs of frequency. The triangle illustrating "full" to "empty" is a good visual aid for clarifying some of their subtle differences in meaning. The use of adverbs of frequency in negative sentences and in questions can be quite tricky, so these aspects are the topic of the Grammar Hotspot on page 14. Use of a negative adverb of frequency with a negative verb can result in the "double negative" error (e.g., I don't never go there) that so often plagues ESL students. Exercises 8-10, pp. 14-16: The theme of these exercises is "looks can be deceiving." They chronicle the difference between the public versus the true personality of a movie star. These differences are illustrated in the drawings on page 14, and, time permitting, you could discuss these drawings before doing the exercises themselves. All of the grammar of Grammar Briefing 3 is covered in these exercises. While it is probably best to do the first exercise in the series, Exercise 8, in class, the others could be assigned for homework. Exercise 11, p. 17: This exercise should be done in class and needs to be done quickly in order to be effective. It allows students to talk about themselves and their classmates. Prior to doing the exercise with students, you should review the meaning of the phrases in the box. Exercise 12, p. 17: This exercise is the first of the longer writing assignments in Grammar Links 2. Unless you have a lot of in-class time, it is best assigned for homework. A model answer for this assignment, as signaled by the Web icon, is available at the Grammar Links Website. As mentioned in the general teaching suggestions above, you may want to ask students to look at this model before they write, or you may prefer that they wait and look after their first draft has been evaluated. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 1 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

Chapter 2 ­ Present Progressive Tense Chapter 2 Grammar Functions of the Present Progressive Spelling Rules for ­ing Verbs Affirmative Statements ­ Present Progressive Tense Negative Statements ­ Present Progressive Tense Yes/No Questions and Short Answers ­ Present Progressive Briefing 1 1, Appendix 3 2 2 3 Textbook Workbook Exercise/Activity Exercise 1 1 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 2, 3, 5 4, 5 6 2, 3, 4 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 3, 4, 7, 8 5

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Wh-Questions ­ Present Progressive Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar

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7, 8 9, Unit Wrap-up Activities

6, 7 8, TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 18-19: Help students through an initial reading of the postcards for content. These cards model the two primary functions of the present progressive: 1) to express actions happening at the moment, and 2) to express actions happening over a longer period of time in the present. These are both chapter grammar points; an option at this point is to draw students' attention to these points while they are reading the cards, asking them to find the one boldfaced present progressive verb that is not talking about something happening right at the moment that Chip and Chuck are writing their postcards but is still happening for them over a longer period of time while they are on vacation (learning a lot about skiing). You may opt, however, to wait until after study of the grammar briefing to do this. Before asking students to begin Part B, make sure they understand the terms "pessimist" and "optimist." These terms are defined in the direction lines for the exercise. Grammar Briefing 1- Present Progressive Tense I, p. 20: This is a function grammar briefing. It presents two of the primary meanings of the present progressive. The time lines provide visual reinforcement for students for understanding the similarities (both are in the present) and differences (one function relates to a point in time, the other to a longer period) between these two functions. Use the time lines and the example sentences to help students understand the two functions. In addition, if you did not exploit Chip and Chuck's postcards earlier, you may want to ask students to go back to them now and look at the models there of the functions of the present progressive. Exercise 1, p. 21: This exercise allows students to practice understanding the two functions of the present progressive before they are asked to form this tense or use it in discourse. It can be done in class or assigned for homework. Grammar Briefing 2- Present Progressive Tense, II, p. 22: This GB covers the formation of affirmative and negative statements in the present progressive tense. Spelling of ­ing verb forms is one of the challenging aspects of this tense. Verb + -ing spelling rules are covered in Appendix 3, and you may want to review this appendix with students before they proceed to the grammar practice for this GB. All of the different contractions possible with this tense can be confusing and should also be discussed. Exercises 2 and 3, pp. 22-23: These two exercises are devoted to practice of affirmative statements. Either or both would make appropriate homework assignments. Remind students to use Appendix 3 to help them with the spelling of verbs in the exercises.

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Exercise 4, p. 24: Contractions are more common than full forms in negative statements, so this exercise focuses on the formation of negative statements with contractions. It can be done in class or as homework. The theme of Exercises 1-4 is psychology and sports. The Web icon which follows Exercise 4 sends students to Web sites which also explore this topic. To complement these sites, you may want to discuss the students' favorite sports and what they do to mentally prepare for them. You may also want to find out if students have learned any new strategies for mental preparation from any of the sites. Exercise 5, pp. 24-25: Student responses to this exercise will vary, and it is a good one to complete in class. Once students have a chance to write their answers down, complete Part B as a full class. Grammar Briefing 3-Present Progressive Tense III, pp. 25-26: This GB covers question formation with the present progressive. Contractions and spelling of the -ing verb form again need to be stressed in working through this GB. Exercises 6 and 7, pp. 26-27: Exercise 6 focuses on yes/no question formation. Exercise 7 focuses on wh- questions and answers. The theme of both is "help yourself" books and habits. Both can be done in class or as homework. Exercise 8, pp. 28-29: Prior to completing this exercise, make sure you carefully review the information in the Talking the Talk box at the top of page 28. Next, you may want to have students listen to the exercise one time through without writing anything. They will hear contracted forms, which are common in speaking. On the second listening, their task is to write out the full forms that correspond to the contractions. In this way, they show their understanding of the relationship between the full forms and the contractions they hear and see in English. Be prepared to stop the tape during this exercise to allow students time to write. Exercise 9, p. 29: Before sending students off on their own to complete this writing assignment, you may want to spend some time on it in class. Talk students through the visualization, perhaps getting them to close their eyes. When you feel it is appropriate, send students to the model paragraph on the Web. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 2 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

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Chapter 3 ­ Simple Present and Present Progressive Chapter 3 Grammar Meaning of the Simple Present Versus Meaning of the Present Progressive Time Expressions with the Simple Present and the Present Progressive Verbs with Stative Meaning Verbs with Both Stative and Active Meaning Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1, 2 1 2 2 Textbook Exercise/Activity All exercises in this chapter 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 8 5 6, 7, 8, Unit Wrapup Activities Workbook Exercise All exercises for this chapter 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6 4 TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, p. 30: This task introduces the chapter theme ­ personal changes of different types (e.g., personality, routine). It also introduces the chapter grammar - the contrast in meaning between the simple present and the present progressive. By completing this task, students become familiar with this contrast and infer some principles about it prior to having these principles presented to them formally in the grammar briefing which follows. Grammar Briefing 1-Simple Present Versus Present Progressive, p. 31: Students at all levels of English language proficiency have difficulty knowing when to use the simple present as opposed to the present progressive. For this reason, we devote Grammar Briefing 1 to the basics of the contrast in meaning between these two tenses. Careful attention to the time lines and to the example sentences in this grammar briefing can help students grasp this contrast. Time expressions are often the only overt signals we have regarding which tense to choose, so they need to be discussed in detail as well. Exercise 1, p. 32: This exercise could be assigned as homework. If you choose to do it in class, you may want to do it orally as a quick "round robin" exercise, in which students take turns calling out the answers. Exercise 2, pp. 32-33: Though this exercise is another candidate for homework, you may want to go over the answers in class. Then have students complete Part B as a whole class. Exercise 3, p. 33: After you make sure that students understand the directions for this exercise, you can assign it for homework. Send students to the Web model when you feel it would be appropriate to do so. In Part B, students are asked to exchange papers and compare ideas. You may want to have them do this on the second draft of this assignment, after they have looked at the Web

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model and after you have given initial feedback. This would assure that students present one another with comprehensible input and that they don't reinforce one another's errors. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Verbs with Stative Meaning, p. 34: The distinction between stative and active (sometimes referred to as dynamic) meaning is one which informs many of our choices between the simple present and the present progressive. Unfortunately, while this distinction is second nature for native speakers of English, it is very difficult for non-native speakers. Grammar Briefing 2 provides a gentle introduction to the distinction between stative and active meaning. A limited number of verbs with stative meaning are presented. And we have chosen to illustrate verbs that have both a stative and an active meaning with only two examples (look and think), ones in which the difference in meaning is very clear. Because have is such a common verb in English and because its idiomatic active meanings are so difficult to remember, it is the focus of the Grammar Hotspot on page 35. Once you have presented the material in this grammar briefing, you may want to ask students to provide their own example sentences, using the verbs in the charts. Exercise 4, pp. 35-37: Parts A-C of this exercise are all about Gloria Jones and the stress she suffers. The grammar progression within the exercise is from recognition only in Part A to correct production in Part C. Before assigning the exercise, you may want to direct students' attention to the illustration of Gloria on page 35. Do they ever feel the way she feels? What causes them to lose sleep? What do they do about it? Exercise 5, p. 37: This exercise focuses on verbs that have both a stative and an active meaning. These verbs are treated in Part C of Grammar Briefing 3 and in the Grammar Hotspot which follows on page 35. You may want to go back and review that treatment before having students do the exercise. As this exercise can be challenging, students are asked to work on it in pairs. You can opt to have them do it individually instead, if you think they are able. Exercise 6, p. 38: This editing exercise provides practice with all of the grammar introduced in this chapter. It is more guided than some later editing exercises, in that students only look at boldfaced verbs to find errors. They don't look at every word in the text for these errors. With this guidance, they should be able to complete this exercise as a homework assignment. The content theme of Exercise 6 is Type A and Type B personalities. The Web icon which follows this exercise sends students to Websites which further explore this theme, including a personality quiz. Again, point out that these links need not be taken too seriously, but can provide opportunities for further discussion of the chapter topic and further use of the chapter grammar. Exercise 7, p. 39: This is another writing exercise which asks students to use the chapter grammar in a productive way. To provide them with the background knowledge they need, have them review the content presented in Exercise 6. You may want to ask them to get even more information by looking at one of the Websites discussed above. A full-class discussion of the Website material

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prior to writing might also be useful. In addition, a model answer for this question is provided at the Grammar Links 2 Website. Exercise 8, pp. 39-40: This exercise provides further cumulative practice of the chapter grammar. In Part A, students contemplate stress and their own reactions to it. If they are unfamiliar with the format of questionnaires, guide them through this portion of the exercise in class. Allow a limited time for individual completion of questionnaire responses in Part A, and check back as a whole class for Part B. Accompanying Exercise 8 is another content Web icon. This one leads not only to sites related to stress but also to one of our Weblink activities. See "A Note About the New Content Web Links in the Second Edition of Grammar Links 2," above, for more general information about these activities. This one asks students to look at job-stress cartoons on the Web and then write about those cartoons using verbs with stative meaning. It then asks students to draw their own cartoons about stress and discuss them in class, using the simple present and the present progressive. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 3 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Unit One Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 41: As this editing will be challenging, you may want to have students work on it in pairs or small groups. As a follow-up, you can have students discuss their own letters home, the food in the school cafeteria, or another of the topics raised in this electronic letter. Activities 2 ­ 5, pp. 41-44: These communicative activities all involve group or pair work, which you can supervise while circulating among the students. The Web icon directs students to a model answer for Activity 4 and to Web links to several sites where students can look at other Norman Rockwell paintings.

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UNIT TWO: PAST TIME

Topic Focus: Unsolved Mysteries

The Grammar

This unit reviews the forms and functions of the simple past tense, including regular and irregular forms and the phenomenon of used to for expressing past habitual action (Chapter 4). It introduces the concept of past progressive tense as action in progress at a specific time or over a longer period of time in the past (Chapter 5) and explains the contrast and interaction between simple past and past progressive. Finally, Chapter 5 introduces past time clauses with when and while, explaining how simple past and past progressive interact to express interrupted, simultaneous actions, and sequential actions. This is the first chapter in Grammar Links 2 in which complex sentences (sentences with subordinate clauses) are practiced. (Future time clauses and conditional clauses are introduced in Chapter 7.)

The Theme

The "unsolved mysteries" theme weaves together several subthemes, ancient and modern. The unit opens with a focus on the ancient past, linking the legend of Atlantis with the mysteries of the Egyptian pyramids and the modern-day drama of the Bermuda Triangle. All these subthemes are elaborated throughout the unit. Chapter 4 recounts the famous mystery of King Tutankhamen's tomb in Egypt and the unexplained disappearance of the Mayan civilization in America. Humor is introduced to the chapter through dialogues and interviews. Chapter 5 continues with the topic of legendary mysteries, bringing us up to the sixteenth century with The Flying Dutchman, and then linking the sixteenth century of Christopher Columbus with the twentieth-century Bermuda Triangle saga. The second part of the chapter develops a modern-day fictional mystery about the strange disappearance of Mr. Charles, inviting the students to do some detective work. Finally, a little-known mystery, contained in the tragedy of the Titanic, brings us back full circle to the curse of an ancient Egyptian tomb.

Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 46-47: As a warm-up to the unit, have students look at the unit opener photos and find out how much they know about the pyramids of ancient Egypt: Who built them? What were they used for? Elicit or explain the concept of a "mystery": a story which leaves many questions unanswered. You could ask students whether they know of any mysteries associated with ancient Egypt or with the ancient history of their own cultures: lost treasures, strange disappearances of a civilization, etc. The listening passage "Unsolved Mysteries" allows students to hear the pronunciation of several regular and irregular past tense verb forms and introduces them to time clauses with when in the context of a narrative. The Web icon following the passage (page 46) links students to sites offering more information about the mysteries mentioned in the passage, and also to a cloze activity where they learn about the building of the Great Pyramid. You could allow 25

students to browse these sites in order to pique their interest and build some background knowledge of the chapter themes to come; or you could come back to it after students have studied the past tense with more grammar-focused attention. Next, in the Think About Grammar exercises, students identify past verb forms from the passage and sort regular and irregular forms into two separate lists. This helps them to infer the regular past tense (-ed) ending. Part B of Think About Grammar focuses student attention on a past time clause construction, helping them figure out the sequence of events expressed by the interaction between simple past and past progressive. The exercises in Think About Grammar can be done individually or in small groups. Chapter 4 ­ Simple Past Tense; Used To Chapter 4 Grammar Regular Verb Forms - Simple Past Tense Pronunciation of Regular Verb Forms ­ Simple Past Tense Irregular Verb Forms ­ Simple Past Tense Affirmative Statements - Simple Past Tense Negative Statements ­ Simple Past Tense Functions of the Simple Past Time expressions used with the Simple Past Yes/No Questions and Short Answers ­ Simple Past Wh- Questions ­ Simple Past Used To Negatives and Questions with Used To Use vs. Used To Contracted forms with Simple Past and Used To Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 Hotspot 3 Hotspot 3 Talking the Talk Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2, 4 1 3, 4 2, 3, 4 5 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 6 7, 9 8, 9 10, 11, 12 10, 11, 12 12 12 13, Unit Wrap-up Activities TOEFL Time Workbook Exercise 2 1 3 2, 3, 4 5 6 6 7,8 7 9 10, 11

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Introductory Task, p. 48: Chapter 4 begins with a reading and listening passage about King Tutankhamen's tomb. You might want to play the tape once for meaning before students identify and underline the verb forms; alternatively (and especially if students' reading skills are stronger than their listening skills), you might do the exercise first and then focus on listening for pronunciation of the regular and irregular past forms. Several vocabulary items may be new to the students; many are explained through paraphrase in the text while others are defined in the gloss. Part B allows the students to engage with the theme by sharing their opinions about the mystery of the Tutankhamen curse. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Simple Past Tense I, p. 49: This GB covers the formation of affirmative and negative statements with the simple past tense. It also introduces the function of the simple past in describing actions and states that occurred at a certain time or during a certain period in the past. Although the regular past tense ­ ed ending is easy to form, its range of pronunciations can sometimes escape students. Both spelling and pronunciation rules for regular past verb forms are summarized in Appendixes 4 and 5. Irregular past forms are far too numerous to list in this GB; an extensive list is included in Appendix 6, and the verb be, quite complex in its past verb forms, is reviewed in Appendix 7. Although traditional approaches often require students to study or memorize these irregular forms, a more effective "discovery" strategy may be simply to draw students' attention to this list as a reference, advising them to notice unfamiliar past verb forms as they read and then identify them in the list. The list is also a good look-up reference for students' writing. In the Function section of the GB, timelines allow students to build on their understanding of present tense from the previous unit, by comparing present and past time reference. Explain that the time phrases listed here are only a few very common examples of the many expressions that can be used with the past tense. Exercise 1, p. 50: This exercise reinforces students' awareness of the varied pronunciation for regular past tense endings as they occur in discourse. The simple labeling exercise can be done as a whole class: students listen again to the introductory passage, mark their textbooks, and compare answers at the end. For an entertaining alternative, you can divide the students into the three different "sound groups": -ed, -d, and -Id. Each group jumps up or waves a flash card representing their sound as they hear it pronounced on the tape. Exercises 2 -4, pp. 50-52: These three exercises offer controlled practice of regular and irregular verb forms, both contextualized in the continuing ancient Egypt theme with illustrations to clarify new vocabulary (Exercises 2 and 3), and as a decontextualized game (exercise 4). Exercises 3 and 4 could be done as homework, although the theme lends itself naturally to some interesting in-class discussion.

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Exercise 5, pp. 52-53: To practice negative affirmative statements, this exercise could be done as homework; however, if done in class, the simple sentence-writing exercise could usefully be elaborated into more extended spoken discourse with the past tense as students use the humorous picture prompts to explain what happened and why, either through mini-dialogues or through extended explanations; e.g. "She didn't give the waiter a good tip, so he poured water over her and walked away." Since low-intermediate students often need to be nudged beyond word or phrase-level responses, such on-the-spot fluency exercises may be quite productive. Exercise 6, p. 53: This longer writing exercise allows students to use past forms with appropriate time phrases in a narrative related to their personal experience. Remind students that the prompts in the box are simply examples and may not be suitable for their own stories. To help students brainstorm ideas, you could ask them questions (or have them ask each other) in a warm-up whole-class activity: "Jorge, where did you grow up? Mao, when did you first leave home?" etc. The Web icon links students to a model paragraph for further ideas. The writing can be done either in class or at home and submitted for feedback. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Simple Past Tense II, p. 54: This GB covers question formation with the simple past tense and is a straightforward briefing about form. Bring students' attention to the insertion of did in past tense questions, parallel to that of do in present tense, and point out that, unlike do/does, the form of did remains unchanged. Exercise 7, p. 54: This simple form-based, interactive exercise is best done as a whole class. It has the advantage of allowing students to exploit sentences that they themselves produced in the previous writing exercise. Exercise 8, p. 55: This tongue-in-cheek dialogue provides simple form practice in wh-questions and could be done as homework; however, the humor may be missed unless attention is directed to it explicitly, helping students to draw the inference that Mrs. Jumpy, far from being haunted by an exotic fetish, is simply over-anxious and rather careless in the way she stores and arranges objects in her house. You can invite this inference by asking simple questions about the story such as: "Why did the statue come out of the closet?" "Did it really jump or attack Mrs. Jumpy"? How do you know? etc. (The significance of the names Jumpy and Fossil might also be explained.) Exercise 9, p. 56: Since this exercise simply reinforces question practice, it can be done as homework, perhaps after a brief in-class introduction to the Mayan civilization using a map and the photograph in this exercise. You may want to refer students back to the photograph on page 45, prompting their opinions on the similarity between the pyramids of both civilizations and what mysterious connections this similarity may suggest. Part B should be done in class to engage students interactively in the mystery theme as they form past tense questions. The Web icon after

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this exercise links students to more information about the Mayan civilization, which could possibly be used as extra practice to elicit more questions. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Used To, pp. 57-58: Grammar Briefing 3 covers the idiomatic structure used to, which is often used to express habitual actions or states in past time. Although this structure simply involves the past form of the regular verb use + infinitive verb, it can be confusing for the following reasons. First, its pronunciation, where the ­ed ending of used is indistinguishable from the following initial consonant of to, often causes confusion and errors with the form; e.g. I use to; Did you used to? I didn't used to. The Grammar Hotspot covers this tricky point, as well as the distinction between used to and used as a main verb. Talking the Talk on page 60 illustrates the contracted, fused forms that often occur in rapid speech with past tense wh- questions and used to. Exercise 10, p. 59: This exercise practices the forms and function of used to in a straightforward way and can be done as homework. Exercise 11, p. 59: This writing exercise encourages students to practice used to with a focus on its common function of contrasting past with present situations. Although not accompanied by a model paragraph on the Web, it could be used as a formal writing activity, especially since the writing lends itself to sharing and authentic communication in Part B. Exercise 12, p. 60: Before playing the tape, go over the Talking the Talk at the top of the page. Model and have students practice contracted pronunciations such as didja, what'd, and useta, and explain the full forms that these contractions derive from. Students generally enjoy mimicking the informal, casual speech of native speakers; however, point out very clearly that these forms are never to be written. To reinforce this point, make sure that students complete Exercise 12 with the correctly written versions of the words they hear. Exercise 13, p. 61: This problem-solving exercise should be presented in a light-hearted way, encouraging students to use their imaginations; the explanation to the mysterious picture does not need to be realistic! The Web icon takes students to a model paragraph which may help brainstorm ideas. The writing is more entertaining if done as a small group activity, with groups comparing their stories and judging which is the most realistic, crazy, etc. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 4 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

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Chapter 5 ­ Past Progressive Tense; Simple Past and Past Progressive; Past Time Clauses Chapter 5 Grammar Affirmative Statements ­ Past Progressive Tense Negative Statements ­ Past Progressive Tense Functions of the Past Progressive Yes/No Questions and Short Answers ­ Past Progressive Wh- Questions ­ Past Progressive Simple Past Versus Past Progressive Past Time Clauses with While + Progressive Past Time Clauses with When + Simple Past Past Time Clauses with Simple Past and Past Progressive Contrast between When and While Clauses Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1, Appendix 3 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 Hotspot 4 Hotspot Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2 2 1, 2 3 4, 5 6, 7, 8, 9 10 11 12, 13, Unit WrapUp Activities 14, 15, Unit WrapUp Activities Unit Wrap-Up Activities 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOEFL Time Workbook Exercise 1, 2 2

Introductory Task, p. 62: The Introductory Task models all the grammar presented in this chapter. In one short exercise, it helps students figure out the complex interaction between form and function of past time clauses with when and while by means of a clearly-structured story with a provocative illustration of The Flying Dutchman. The concept of time sequencing will be reiterated and reinforced in Exercises 11 & 12. Following this exercise, a Web icon invites students to learn more about the intriguing mystery of The Flying Dutchman. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Past Progressive Tense I, p. 63: This GB covers the formation of affirmative and negative statements with the past progressive tense. It also introduces the function of the past progressive to express actions in progress at a specific time or over a longer period in the past. Time lines comparable to those used in Chapter 4, GB1 build on students' prior understanding of present and past time.

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Exercises 1 and 2, p. 64: These exercises practice the form of statements with past progressive, continuing the Flying Dutchman theme. They may be assigned as homework Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Past Progressive II, p.65: This GB covers the formation of questions with past progressive. Exercises 3 and 4, pp. 66 - 67: These exercises practice question and answer forms, and they report a modern-day mystery ­ that of the Bermuda Triangle and the planes and ships which have disappeared there. Students tend to be fascinated by this mystery; some have similar stories from their own parts of the world. Ask whether students have heard of the Triangle and to relate what they know. Use the map in Exercise 4, on page 67, or a world map to introduce the location. As an alternative to individual seatwork, have students ask and answer the questions in pairs before writing the sentences. Exercise 5, p. 68: Exercise 5 invites students to interview each other, applying the grammar from this GB to their own experience as they communicate at first in pairs and then with the whole class. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Simple Past Versus Past Progressive Tense, pp. 68-69: This GB contrasts the basic function of the past progressive with that of the simple past, emphasizing the distinction between incomplete (progressive) and complete (simple) action. The common use of the progressive to describe scenes or background settings for stories is also introduced. The Grammar Hotspot warns students that the progressive is generally inapplicable to stative meanings in the past, just as in the present (Chapter 3, GB2). Exercises 6-8, pp. 69-71: In these exercises, students use the discourse context to choose between progressive and simple forms. Exercise 6 is short, simple, and suitable for homework. Exercise 7 adds a lighthearted dimension to the story of Christopher Columbus's adventures in the Atlantic. While the cartoon illustration should clarify the context, you may need to help students understand and explain the joke by asking the questions in Part B to the whole class. Exercise 8 returns with more seriousness to the Atlantic Ocean subtheme, presenting some authentic hypotheses about the disappearance of Flight 19, described in Exercise 3. Although the first part of this exercise can easily be done as homework , it may be a good idea to discuss Part B in class in order to generate more hypotheses and motivate the writing exercise. As suggested in previous chapters, you can use the model paragraph on the Website either as a pre-writing prompt or as a postwriting comparison. Exercise 9, p. 72: This communicative group-writing activity should be fun, as groups vie to come up with the funniest, scariest, or most mysterious tale. However, you will need to guide students step-bystep through the instructions before they start writing. The assignment prompts writers to employ simple past and past progressive in their respective functions of backgrounding and presenting the story line. It also practices choosing the correct form for verbs with stative meanings. It

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might be a good idea for students to make a rough draft of their story on a separate paper, writing in their textbook only after they have reached group consensus on what to say. Grammar Briefing 4 ­ Past Time Clauses with When and While, pp. 73-75: Grammar Briefing 4 begins with an introduction to the notion of time clauses, explaining their subordinate relation to main clauses and the rules for punctuation depending on the order of main clause and time clause in the sentence. You might explain that using a time clause without a main clause results in the error known as a sentence "fragment." For purposes of simplicity at the Grammar Links 2 level, when is associated only with simple past time clauses and while with past progressive time clauses. (The overlap between these associations is introduced in Grammar Links 3). Time lines are used to represent the notion of simultaneous actions with while, sequential actions with when, and interrupted action with both time expressions. To help further clarify this fairly complex interaction of tenses, it may help to act out the different scenarios represented by time lines (e.g. one student pretends to eat, another pretends to sleep, and a third enters the room) and match them with the corresponding sentences (e.g. "Aftaba was eating while Noriko was sleeping"; "When Shan-Shan came in, Noriko was sleeping."). The Grammar Hotspot highlights the tricky point that clauses connected with when may express either sequential or interrupted action, depending on the tense used. Again, acting out the two situations should help to clarify this point. Exercise 10, p. 75: This simple form exercise practices sentence combining with while, following the model. It can easily be done as homework. Exercise 11, p. 76: This two-part exercise requires understanding of the relationship between clauses in the simple past connected by when. Part A asks students simply to sequence pairs of events, and Part B to represent that sequence in a sentence-combining exercise. It may be advisable to discuss at least the first few sentences in class, so that you can demonstrate the sequential relationship as necessary by acting out the events, as suggested for GB4. Note that Part B is a fairly complex exercise and may require more review time than others in this section; in addition to producing correct past tense verb forms and choosing the correct clause order to represent the sequence of events, students must add appropriate punctuation. Exercises 12 - 15, pp. 77 - 80: These exercises offer extensive practice of the interaction between simple past and past progressive with when and while time clauses. They also introduce the final mystery of the unit: a modern-day detective story. The exercises provide information to explain the disappearance of Mr. Charles. They invite students to piece together various clues offered by a news story, biographic details, a witness, realia as evidence, and a police report. The mystery lends itself to controlled and spontaneous use of time clauses with when and while as students collaborate to reconstruct the sequence of events which can best solve it. Although the exercises are interconnected thematically, each of them can be assigned independently, in class or for homework, with the exception of Exercise 15, Part A.

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Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 5 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Unit Two Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 81: As this editing will be challenging, you may want to have students work on it in pairs or small groups. New vocabulary is contextualized or clarified through illustrations. As a follow-up, you can have students share what they already knew about the Titanic (many will have seen the movie) and whether they believe in the mummy's curse. The Website icon leads students to an exciting video-based listening and writing activity, where they speculate on what was happening just before the Titanic disaster. Activities 2 ­ 4, pp. 82 - 84: These communicative activities all involve group or pair work, which you can supervise while circulating among the students. They also involve writing, either individually or in small groups; model paragraphs are available for Activities 2 and 3 at the Grammar Links Website. For Activity 4, review instructions with students, making sure they understand the point: to integrate an apparently nonsensical, "mysterious" sentence logically into their story. Encourage amusing, inventive answers.

UNIT THREE: FUTURE TIME

Topic Focus: Living with Technology

The Grammar

Intermediate students are probably already familiar with the use of be going to and will. Chapter 6 reviews these forms and introduces others (present progressive and simple present tense) for talking about future time. It explains some of the criteria for choosing among these various forms. Chapter 7 introduces the form and function of future time clauses with when and other common conjunctions of time. It also introduces two related structures: factual and future conditionals ("Dogs bite when/if they are frightened"; "If you go, I'll cry"). Of the many possible conditional constructions, these are the two most frequently used. They are also easily mastered within the context of this unit, where students can see their structural similarity to future time clauses.

The Theme

The theme of Unit 3 is technology and the changes, positive and negative, that technology promises for the future - for education, society, lifestyle and work. Chapter 6 touches on the topics of virtual reality, space exploration and life in space, robots, artificial intelligence and Internet dating. Chapter 7 centers on a fictional debate between two politicians about the influences of technology on our environmental resources and on other aspects of human life. It invites students to participate in the debate.

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Some technical vocabulary is introduced around the theme - for example, robots, Internet, extraterrestrial life, telepresence surgery, environment, pollution and virtual reality. All technical concepts are defined or paraphrased through context, illustrations, or vocabulary glosses. Other vocabulary that may be unfamiliar is available to students through the Website Flashcards. Nevertheless, it may be a good idea to check back on understanding as these words are recycled throughout the unit.

Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 86 - 87: Prior to teaching this segment, you may want to have students look at the unit opener photo and discuss the futuristic skyline they see there. Is it realistic ­ have they seen buildings like this before? How soon may we expect to see such skylines in our cities? You may choose to let students read the passage "Technology in the Twenty First Century" once before listening. Although many of the technical words are globally familiar (e.g. e-mail, Internet, network, robot), their density in this passage may slow up some students' listening. You may also want to pre-teach some of the vocabulary: virtual reality, for example, may need some explaining even though it is defined in the gloss. Alternatively, you might elicit several of these words from the students themselves if, before listening, you ask for their ideas about technological advances during this century. The Think About Grammar exercises after the passage help students infer the two major ways of expressing future time ­ be going to and will, and they direct students' attention to the form and function of factual and future conditionals. These activities could be done as homework.

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Chapter 6 ­ Expressing Future Time Chapter 6 Grammar Affirmative and Negative Statements ­ Future with Be Going To Functions of Be Going To Questions with Be Going To Affirmative and Negative Statements ­ Future with Will Predictions with Will Questions with Will Other Functions of Will Contractions with Will Be Going To Versus Will Present Progressive and Simple Present for Future Time Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 2 3 and 3 Hotspot 3 4 4 4 Talking the Talk 5 6 and 6 Hotspot Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4 5, 6, 7 8 8, 9 9, 13 12, 10, 11 14 15, 16, 17, 18 19, Unit Wrap-up Activities Workbook Exercise 1, 2, 3 1, 2, 3 4, 5 6 6, 7 8, 9 10 11 12, 13, 14 TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, p. 88: Guide students through Professor Larsen's statements, which model the use of be going to and will for predictions. This primes students for the listening exercise in Part B, where they are asked to check their own predictions against those of the professor. It will also give them a chance to review, and you a chance to further explain where necessary, the vocabulary gloss underneath the exercise. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Future Time with Be Going To I, p. 89: This GB explains the formation of affirmative and negative statements with be going to. It also introduces the main functions of be going to for making immediate predictions based on present evidence, and for expressing plans made prior to speaking. You can add your own illustrations to complement the examples in the right-hand column; for example, to demonstrate immediate, evidence-based predictions, "It's going to rain" (pointing at the clouds); "I'm going to sneeze" (after drawing in a sharp breath). And for plans: "We're going to study Unit Three this week," etc. Sometimes, it helps to represent be going to as an arrow moving along a path toward a perceivable goal. It's very helpful to familiarize students with these aspects of meaning now, in order to help them make the subtle functional distinctions later between be going to and will. Exercise 1, p. 90: Although this exercise is straightforward enough to be done as homework, it lends itself to lively in-class discussion as students respond to the fantasy-like illustration and think up their

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own predictions about technology in their lives. The Web link takes students to an activity where they are prompted to make predictions about the abilities of robots in the decades to come. Exercises 2 - 4, pp. 91-93: These exercises simply practice the form of statements and can be done independently. However, if you have time, doing both in class could easily encourage fluency practice with be going to as students go beyond the prompts and suggest more predictions: e.g. "He's going to get angry; she's going to change her mind, but he's going to marry her sister" for the first screen in Exercise 2; or "... and then we're going to go to bed early and feel better in the morning" for item #2 in Exercise 4. A good compromise might be to cover a few portions of each exercise in class and let students finish at home, expanding their answers as you or they see fit. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Future Time with Be Going To II, p. 94: This GB covers question formation with be going to. The Talking the Talk box illustrates how casual speech often conflates going to into gonna, in both statements and questions. Although you don't need to teach this as a production (it will happen naturally!), it is helpful to clarify this feature for inexperienced listeners who may not have figured out the relationship between gonna (spoken) and going to (the only acceptable written form). Exercises 5 - 6, pp. 95-6: Ask students what they have heard and what they believe about extraterrestrial life ­ many students will know the concept, most are fascinated by it, and many enjoy simply trying to pronounce the word extraterrestrial! For those who don't know the word, the mention of ET (main character in the Steven Spielberg film of the same name) is usually enough to fill them in. The Web link to information about SETI will intrigue those who are especially interested in this topic. After a general introduction to the theme, students can complete Exercises 5 and 6 independently or, more enjoyably, as a scripted class conversation where they choose to ham up the parts of Mrs. Baker, her inquisitive students, and the visitor. Exercise 7, p. 97: The writing exercise in Part B can be done at home but should be motivated in class by the small group discussion in Part A. The model paragraph can be accessed from the Website either before or after writing. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Future Time with Will I, pp. 97-98: Explain that will overlaps with be going to for making simple predictions, but that there are other functions which can only be expressed by one form or the other and which will be reviewed later. Statements with will are fairly easy to form, but you might direct attention to students' pronunciation of won't (the vowel sound is difficult for some) and warn them to avoid the common errors of inserting to ("I will to go") and mixing up this structure with progressive forms ("I will going"), as indicated by the Grammar Hotspot. Adverbs of possibility such as certainly, maybe, and probably, covered in more detail in Chapter 11, GB 2, are briefly introduced here because of their usefulness in modifying predictions and to preempt common errors of word order (e.g. "I'll go probably"; I won't certainly go."). (Note that adverb placement is also briefly covered in Chapter 1, GB3 for adverbs of frequency.)

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Exercise 8, p. 98: Although short, this error exercise is important because it pulls together all the points of verb formation and word order detailed in GB3. Since error analysis exercises are usually challenging, it is a good idea to cover this in class. Grammar Briefing 4 ­ Future Time with Will II, pp. 99-100: Question formation is covered in this briefing, and more functions of will (beyond simple prediction) are introduced. It may help to point out to students that will originally meant "wish" or "want," which explains its association with decisions, promises, offers and requests. Word ordering with adverbs of frequency is very briefly reviewed. The Talking the Talk on page 101 explains that contractions of nouns or wh-words + will ("my friend'll arrive soon"; "What'll he think?") are only acceptable in speaking. Exercises 9 - 11, pp. 100 - 102: These exercises practice question forms with will and rules for contraction. They also engage students with the topic of robots, starring Roboroach (the intriguing little character illustrated in Exercise 10 on page 101). Exercise 9, Part A, could be done at home, following up in class with the Part B discussion. This exercise sets up a context for the listening on robotic intelligence in Exercise 11. Exercise 10 could also be done at home although students may enjoy sharing their reactions to Roboroach before or after the exercise, or even finding out more about Roboroach by exploring the Web link. For Exercise 11, you may need to play the tape more than once and/or stop after some of the blanks, in order to give students time to hear the contractions and write them in their appropriate forms. Exercise 12, p. 103: This important exercise exposes students to contexts for other functions of will beyond prediction. Although the sentences are simple in form, they merit review as a whole class since they cover all the functions detailed in GB4. You may also want to refer back to them when you address the contrast between be going to and will in GB5. For reinforcement of the functions, you could ask students to label each answer decision, request, promise, refusal, offer, or prediction, as appropriate. You could also ask them to generate their own situations and present them to the whole class for further practice. Exercise 13, p. 104: This exercise practices wh-questions and introduces the final theme for this chapter, Internet dating, which continues in Exercises 15-19. Introduce the theme briefly, referring to the illustration of the Internet advertisement on page 104. If you don't mind possible strong reactions, you might tentatively elicit students' attitudes toward both Internet dating and Internet advertising. Parts A and B can be completed as homework, with Part C shared in class as students come up with their own questions. Grammar Briefing 5 ­ Be Going To Versus Will, pp. 105-106: The functional distinction between these two forms is quite subtle, especially because they overlap in the function of making predictions. This briefing revisits and contrasts the points made separately about be going to and will in previous briefings, emphasizing be going to as more related to the present, with will more related to personal choice. If you skipped Exercises 2,

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4, and/or 12 earlier, you may find them useful now for contrasting the meanings of be going to (Exercise 2, 4) and will (Exercise 12). Exercise 14, pp. 106 ­ 107: This exercise directly focuses the functional contrasts explained in GB5. It is best done in class since students may disagree on the whether the context of some items warrants be going to or will (consider, for example, items 3.a and 6.b, where both forms may seem acceptable). Explain that this ambivalence is often the case since such functions as predicting, promising, and stating plans may all be happening at the same time in a given context. The choice of be going to or will should depend on which meaning is emphasized. So, for example, item 3.a, where the speaker is making a spontaneous decision, warrants will, in contrast to item 2.a, where the speaker's action is evidently pre-planned. As suggested for Exercise 12, asking students to justify their choices with functional labels such as plan, expectation, promise, refusal, etc., should help keep them on track. Grammar Briefing 6 ­ Present Progressive and Simple Present for Future Time, pp. 107 ­ 108: One of the most challenging aspects of future time is the many possible ways of talking about it, including by means of the present progressive and simple present. When covering GB6, you may want to refer students back to Unit One for a quick review of the formation of these tenses. The use of present progressive to express future plans ("I'm seeing my friend tonight") may seem to overlap with that of be going to ("We're going to watch a movie"). Explain, however, that present progressive suggests more certainty ­ almost as if it the event is already happening now. For that reason, present progressive becomes a less viable option as the plan becomes more remote in the future or less certain: for example, you could say "We're having a class reunion next month," but hardly "We're having a class reunion ten years from now." Both statements will work, however, with be going to, provided the plan is definite. For the same reason, only be going to is suitable for unplanned, uncertain predictions; as section A2 and the Grammar Hotspot explains, you can't say "it is raining tomorrow." Like the present progressive, the simple present is also very limited in its range of applications to future time. Bring students' attention to the pairs of verbs commonly associated with it in section B2: arrive, depart; open, close, etc. Explain that when we talk about fixed future schedules, especially public ones, we are viewing them almost as timeless facts or routines ­ meanings they have already learned to associate with simple present tense in Chapter 1. Exercise 15, p. 108: This recognition exercise takes up the theme of Internet dating initiated in Exercise 13. It also helps students to sort out the different ways that present tenses are used to refer to both present and future time. Note the tricky contrast between "I'm going to the ticket office." (= present time) and "I'm going to go" (= future time). The exercise can be completed for homework, but answers should at least be reviewed in class to make sure all the form-meaning relationships are clear. Exercises 16 ­ 17, pp. 109-112: These two exercises are thematically connected as they invite students to plan schedules for characters already mentioned. However, they are self-contained as form practice for present

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progressive plans (Exercise 16) and simple present schedules (Exercise 17). Exercise 16 is an information gap activity where pairs of students negotiate with each other's schedules (detailed in the calendar illustrations) to make an online appointment. Exercise 17, Part A, involves extracting information from the illustrated flight schedule and may be done independently. However, it also prepares students for the interactive exercise in Part B, where they compare two more flight schedules, agree on a choice, and then justify it in writing. For students who are ahead, Part C invites further interaction and Web-based research for authentic flights and fares between Boston and Madrid. Sharing the findings with the whole class will provide further opportunities to practice simple present for future time. Exercises 18 ­ 19, pp. 112 ­ 113: The Internet dating theme is brought to a happy conclusion with a virtual wedding in Exercise 18, followed by a critical discussion of the topic in Exercise 19. The former exercise involves choosing between present progressive and simple present for future events and can be done outside class. Exercise 19 should elicit all the structures presented in the chapter for talking about future time. To encourage students to cover the range, you could start the exercise by having students ask more detailed questions about Raul and Linda's wedding, for example "What time does the virtual spaceship come back to Earth?" "Where are they going for their virtual honeymoon?" However, the focus of this exercise should be authentic communication rather than directed grammar practice, as students express their opinions about living (and dating) in a virtual world. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 6 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

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Chapter 7 ­ Future Time Clauses; Conditionals Chapter 7 Grammar Statements and Verb Forms Future Time Clauses Questions ­ Future Time Clauses Clause Order and Punctuation with Future Time Clauses Time Expressions with Future Time Clauses Form of Factual and Future Conditionals Clause Order and Punctuation of Conditionals Function of Factual Conditionals Function of Future Conditionals Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 and 1 Hotspot 1 1 1 2 and 2 Hotspot 2 2 2 Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 3, 4 3 2, 4, 5, 6 7, 10, 12, 13, 14 7, 10, 11, 13 8, 9, 11, 14 8, 9, 10, 14 Unit Wrap-up Activities Workbook Exercise 1 4 5 2 1, 3 8, 9 3, 6, 7 3, 6, 7 TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 114-115: This task models future time clauses and future conditionals in the context of an election debate. Through the listening task, students' attention is drawn to the interaction between present and past verb tenses in forming future time clauses. Technical vocabulary items are explained either through context or in the gloss; more vocabulary is provided in the Web Flashcards for those who need them. In Part B, students' opinions are elicited. You might engage students more actively by taking a class poll, or by counting votes for or against the specific statements in Part A. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Future Time Clauses, pp. 115-116: If students have already studied present tenses (Chapters 1 to 3) and verb forms for future time (Chapter 6), they will already know the major components of future time clauses. If they have not, you may wish to go back and quickly review the grammar briefings for all these forms. The overview in this GB defines the structure of sentences with time clauses and the rules for their punctuation, which vary according to clause order. This information will be familiar if students have studied past time clauses in Chapter 5. Negative and question forms are mentioned only in summary, since students will already know how to manipulate these forms in the required tenses. Function may require more time and explanation than Form in this GB since the logical sequencing of future clauses depends on the meanings of the time expressions. Among these, until may be unfamiliar to students and may require a few more illustrations in both negative and affirmative contexts, e.g. "Don't go until I tell you"; Stay until I tell you to go." You might mention that until is often used interchangeably with `till. The Grammar Hotspot reminds students that future time clauses take present tense. In several of the students' languages, future

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tense would be used, quite logically, for future time clauses; thus, many will want to say, "When I will know, I will tell you." Exercise 1, p. 117: This straightforward verb form exercise can be done as homework. In many cases, either will or be going to is acceptable in the main clause although students should be reminded to use will for those sentences which involve promises, refusals etc. (e.g. items A2, B3) as instructed in Chapter 6, GB 5. Exercise 2, p. 118: This recognition exercise can also be done at home but checked in class to ensure students' understanding of the time expressions. Exercise 3, p. 118: Verb form production is practiced in this clause-combining exercise, which returns to the "election" context of the Introductory Task. In Part B, students evaluate the promises in the sentences they completed and try to predict the election result. You don't need to take this content too seriously; those students familiar with election campaign procedures may find the inflated promises rather tongue in cheek! Flashcards are available at the Grammar Links Website for any unfamiliar vocabulary. Exercise 4, p. 119: Students are invited here to compose their own sentences with future time clauses and time expressions, using the information from NASA's Mars exploration schedule. The recent resurgence of interest in the Mars mission should add extra motivation to this writing exercise, which may be done as homework and checked in class. Students can update themselves on NASA's Mars project by following the Web link. Exercises 5 and 6, pp. 120-122: The technology debate continues as students practice questions and answers with future time clauses. The role play in Exercise 6 should appeal to students' sense of fun and competition; encourage them to think of the most challenging questions they can for their opponent. Use Part A to generate questions for the role play questions. Students could return to Exercise 5 and the Introductory Task to remind themselves of the issues and possible ideas. If your class is large, you might divide each team into sub-groups for this task. The sub-groups can then combine to pool questions. It is a good idea to structure the role play: Make sure that each student in turn gets a chance to ask a question, and that each question gets answered, before any student speaks twice. Students could take turns playing the parts of Senators O'Leary and Fallows; or two confident students could stay in these roles while their opposing teams fire questions at them. Encourage students to stay in role by positioning the teams on opposite sides of the room. You could perhaps set up a "podium" (an empty chair will do) for each side, at which the senator stands while students advance one by one with their questions. The more lively the debate, the more motivated and successful the writing exercise in Part C is likely to be. Since persuasive writing can be challenging, you might encourage students to look at the model paragraph on the Web before they start writing. Alternatively, you could

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jointly compose a paragraph with the whole class (on the board or the overhead projector) as a group evaluation of the debate. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Factual and Future Conditionals, pp. 122-123: Factual and Future conditionals are very similar in form to future time clauses, differing only in the use of if rather than a time expression (though factual conditionals may also use when), and, with factual conditionals, in the use of simple present tense for both time clause and main clause. Since these conditionals are used so frequently in everyday speech, intermediate students should already be fairly familiar with their meanings, which involve a condition-result relationship. The Grammar Hotspot, parallel to the one in GB1, reminds students to use present tense in the if clause of a future conditional. Exercises 7-8, p. 124: These controlled exercises, which practice verb forms for conditionals, can be done as homework. By dealing with the impact of technology on wildlife, they move Unit Three into its final subtheme: animals. Exercise 9, p. 125: The focus here is on the functional differences between factual and future conditionals. Students are asked to identify and label instances in the article about manatees. The article is supported by several definitions in the vocabulary gloss and by accompanying Flashcards on the Grammar Links Website. Since the topics of endangered species and wildlife are so fascinating for many students, you might direct them to the Web link activity. Here they will use future time clauses and conditionals as they learn how to attract and protect wildlife in their neighborhood. The Web activities also include further practice forming conditionals in an interactive "chain" game. Exercise 10, p. 126: Students are guided to combine conditional and main clauses in their different orders and to add appropriate punctuation. The topic of animal self-protective behavior, and the amusing illustrations, should provoke an interesting discussion as students compare human and animal behavior in Part B. (To start them off, you might mention how some students tend to look the other way or slide down in their seats when you ask the class difficult questions! Camouflage outfits for hunters are another example.) Exercise 11, p. 127: Most students enjoy hearing about superstitions and comparing them with those of their own culture. Continuing with the topic of animal-related trivia, this exercise, slightly less controlled than the previous one, prompts students to write their own clauses, combine them, and then add punctuation according to clause order in Part A. Part C provides writing practice while students have fun inventing their own superstitions, and Parts B and D allow for freer interaction surrounding students' sentences and animal superstitions in general. Exercise 12, p. 128: This form practice for negative conditionals can be done at home ­ although students may enjoy comparing RoboCat with Roboroach from Chapter 6, Exercise 10.

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Exercise 13, p. 129: Since this editing exercise for conditionals is challenging, it should probably be done in pairs or small groups. Exercise 14, p. 130: Encourage students to use their creativity in drafting their pet advertisements. The model paragraph on the Grammar Links Website should prompt their imagination; you could also bring in pictures of unusual animals additional to those illustrated on pages 126, 127, and 130: National Geographic or magazines from wildlife protection organizations are a good source. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 7 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Unit Three Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 131: As this editing will be challenging, you may want to have students work on it in pairs or small groups. You may need to explain the tongue-in-cheek point of the advertisement - that books, as familiar and old-fashioned as they seem, may actually have several advantages over more modern forms of information technology. This could lead to a follow-up discussion, exploiting the grammar of this unit, about whether computers will ever replace books. Activities 2 ­ 4, p. 132: These communicative activities all involve group or pair work, which you can supervise while circulating among the students. The Web icon directs students to a model response to the writing assignment in Activity 4, which can be used either to prompt ideas or as a model for comparison after feedback has been given on students' writing.

UNIT FOUR: NOUNS, ARTICLES, QUANTIFIERS, AND PRONOUNS

Topic Focus: Travel and Transportation

The Grammar

Unit Four teaches the grammar of noun categories and the grammatical elements associated with them. The point of the unit is to give some broad guidelines for recognizing and using nouns, articles, quantifiers and pronouns, and to help students draw conclusions about their functions.

The Theme

The unit opens with the history of transportation from its earliest beginnings through air and space travel. The theme then moves into more social topics, such as preferred modes of transportation. These two aspects - historical and social - continue to be juxtaposed throughout the unit. For example, information about the quest to fly in air and space, the disappearance of Amelia Earhart, the Age of the Auto, and Railroads are balanced with conversations about

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vacation travel plans (Chapters 8 and 9). Chapter 10 focuses on the notion of adventure travel in exotic places and allows students to discuss their own attitudes to various recreational activities.

Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 134-135: Prior to teaching this segment, you may want to ask students to look again at the unit opener photo of Henry Ford. The Model T, one of his first creations, is discussed in "Travel Through Time," the opening listening/reading selection. All of the major grammar points of Unit Four are treated in "Travel Through Time." You can ask students to listen to the passage once through for meaning before listening again to fill in the blanks. Be prepared to pause the tape regularly to allow students enough time to write. The short Think About Grammar exercises which follow the passage accomplish two things: they help students categorize and label unit grammar points so that they will be familiar with them when they encounter them in more detail later, and they get students started inferring the rules for using some of this grammar (quantifiers, articles, and pronouns). Chapter 8 ­Nouns and Articles Chapter 8 Grammar Proper and Common Nouns Articles with Proper and Common Nouns Count and Noncount Nouns Pronunciation and Spelling of Plural Count Nouns Subject-Verb Agreement with Singular, Plural, and Noncount Nouns The Indefinite Article A/An The Definite Article The Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 2, 3, 4, Appendix 11 2, Appendixes 8, 9, 10 2 Hotspot 1, 3 1, 4 Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2 2 6, 7 3, 4, 5 8 Workbook Exercise 1, 2 2 3, 5 4, 5 6, 7

2, 9, 12 8, 9 2, 10, 11, 12, 13 10 12, 13, Unit Wrap- 11, TOEFL Time up Activities

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Introductory Task, pp. 136-137: The reading in Part A discusses walking as a valid and healthy mode of transportation. It is followed by a Web icon which sends students to several sites where they can further explore the benefits of walking and get advice on techniques for healthy walking. This Web icon also links them to another set of our Web link activities, which provides further practice with a wide variety of count and noncount nouns. Before doing this set of activities, you should complete Parts B and C of the Introductory Task, as well as Grammar Practice 2. See "A Note About the New Content Web Links in the Second Edition of Grammar Links 2," above, for more general information about the Web link activities. In preparation for Parts B and C of the Introductory Task, you can direct students' attention to the boldfaced words in the Part A passage and ask them what kind of words these are: adjectives? nouns? adverbs? Parts B and C guide students to infer rules about how to form plural nouns and about which articles go with singular and plural nouns. Though many students may already have mastered these concepts, they are an important foundation for understanding all of the chapter grammar, so it is well worth reviewing them here. Grammar Briefing 1-Proper Nouns and Common Nouns, pp. 138-139: The distinction in English between common and proper nouns is reflected in our capitalization rules. This distinction is important to understanding article use, since proper nouns do not normally occur with articles in English, but frequently do occur with articles in other languages. The rules for capitalization of nouns vary from language to language, so it can be difficult for students to master those for English. Capitalization and article use are two key points to stress when covering this GB. The Grammar Hotspot which follows relates to capitalization. The rules for capitalization of days, months, and seasons seem inconsistent to students and need special attention. In many languages all of these are capitalized (e.g., German). In others, none of them is (e.g., French). In English, some are and some aren't. Exercise 1, pp. 139-140: Part A of this exercise gets students started listening to the chapter grammar in authentic discourse. The vocabulary could be challenging, so you may want to use the illustrations to preteach and check vocabulary comprehension before students complete the exercise. Also encourage students to use the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web at a later time for vocabulary reinforcement. Be prepared to play the exercise more than one time. Part B builds on the material in Part A to provide practice with capitalization rules. It isn't important that students remember all of the specific names and places in this exercise. But they do need to know how to apply capitalization rules to names and places, as well as to days, months, and seasons. Exercise 2, p. 140: Part A can be done individually, but you might want to have students do it in pairs, as editing exercises can be quite challenging. Part B can be done in the same pairs, in small groups, or as a full class.

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Grammar Briefing 2 - Count and Noncount Nouns, pp. 141-142: In order to understand articles and quantifiers in English, students need to understand the distinction between count and noncount nouns. Article choice depends heavily on the formal distinction between these two. For this reason, Grammar Briefing 1 treats count and noncount nouns in-depth, paving the way for the article GBs which follow. Part A of this GB is devoted to count nouns. The spelling and pronunciation rules for plural count nouns are challenging. In addition, many of the most commonly-used nouns have irregular plurals, so they deserve special attention. One suggestion for teaching Part A is to ask students to supply example sentences in which they both pronounce and spell plural nouns. Part B introduces noncount nouns. Though it is convenient to teach the concept of noncount as a semantic one, the count/noncount distinction is really more of a formal one. Thus, it is difficult to explain, from a meaning/semantic point of view, why a noun like homework can't be counted. Teacher A gives you homework. Then Teacher B gives you homework. Doesn't that make two homeworks? Students should familiarize themselves with the noncount nouns in Part B, as they will be used in the exercises which follow. Rather than memorize each noun, however, they should be encouraged to learn them by category. A suggestion for teaching Part B, just as for Part A, is to ask students to supply example sentences which contain the noncount nouns in the chart. The Grammar Hotspot on page142 treats subject-verb agreement with count and noncount nouns. In addition, it introduces those tricky noncount nouns that end in ­s. Students often think these nouns are plural and, as a result, use plural verbs with them. Refer students to this Hotspot if they have trouble creating sentences with the nouns in the GB chart. Exercises 3 and 4, pp. 143-144: These exercises provide practice listening to, writing, and pronouncing singular and plural count nouns. The theme of both is the story of Amelia Earhart, woman pilot and important American cultural figure. To provide context prior to doing the exercises, you may want to discuss the photo on page 143, which shows Earhart standing in her airplane, the Electra. You may also want to direct students' attention to the map on page 144. Use the vocabulary glosses as well to familiarize students with words they will hear. Students can also follow-up later with the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web. As with other listening exercises, we recommend that students listen first just for meaning, then listen again and fill in the blanks. Be prepared to stop the tape to allow students time to write. With proper background preparation, Exercise 3 and Part A of Exercise 4 could be done as homework. Students could then listen to the tape as many times as they wanted while completing the exercise. Part B of Exercise 4 should be done in class. If your students are comfortable with one another and with role-play, invite them to imitate a news reporter as they read. Part C of Exercise 4 can be done in class as well. To save time, however, you could also ask students to work in pairs outside of class on the writing portion, then come back together for the oral portion. To monitor students' pronunciation of plural nouns, you might want to make notes of errors/areas for further practice and give them to students rather than calling attention to errors in front of the whole class. Don't forget about the Web icon on page 145. It sends students to information which might be helpful for them as they write their story endings. Exercise 5, p. 145:

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This exercise gets the class on its feet and moving. It provides a fun way to drill regular and irregular plural noun spellings. You might want to choose the members of each team yourself in order to create teams of approximately equal ability. Exercises 6 and 7, pp. 145-147: These two exercises are linked thematically, and they both ask students to work not only with singular and plural count nouns but with noncount nouns as well. You may want to read through the story in Exercise 6 and the lists in Exercise 7 with students before they do these exercises, answering any questions about vocabulary. These exercises could then be assigned for homework. Part B of Exercise 7 introduces students to the idea that dictionaries can provide them with the information they need to determine whether a noun is count or noncount. Using dictionaries to find grammatical information is an important skill. With this in mind, you might want to bring a dictionary to class and/or put one page on an overhead and review with students how to find the information regarding countability. This information is normally included before the definition. Exercise 8, pp. 147-148: This exercise can be assigned for homework or done in class. Grammar Briefing 3 - The Indefinite Article, A/An, pp. 148-149: Articles are often ranked as the most difficult aspects of English grammar for non-native speakers. This GB treats the form and the function of the indefinite article. While the form can be tricky (e.g., when to use a versus when to use an), the function is even more challenging. To solidify an understanding of the three situations when a/an is used to introduce singular nouns into discourse, ask students to look closely at the illustrations on page 149, analyzing the perspectives of the speakers there. You can follow this up by creating or having students create other sentences and asking the class to categorize them according to the framework presented. Example sentences: Speaker: Last night I saw a really good movie (Speaker knows which movie, but listener doesn't). Speaker: I'd like to see a movie tonight, would you? (Neither speaker nor listener necessarily knows which movie.) Speaker: I understand you saw a good movie last night. (Listener knows which movie, but speaker doesn't.) Exercise 9, p. 150: This straightforward exercise, which practices primarily the form of the indefinite article, can be assigned for homework or done in class.

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Grammar Briefing 4, The Definite Article, The, p. 151: This GB builds on the information introduced about the indefinite article in GB 3 to provide an in-depth introduction to its counterpart, the definite article. As for the indefinite article, the most challenging thing about the definite article is its function, or meaning, in English. For that reason, function is the primary focus of this GB. Once you have reviewed the functions of the with students, solidify their understanding by creating or asking them to create additional sentences which illustrate each function. Example sentences: Last night we had a big storm. The storm lasted for three hours (second mention). There is going to be a storm today. The wind will be high and the rain will be heavy (nouns wind and rain = part of something already introduced, storm). We couldn't see the moon last night (the moon = something unique). Wife to husband: Did you get the snow scraper? (noun = part of the everyday world of speaker and listener). The car at his office doesn't have good snow tires (other words in the sentence make the noun specific). Look at the rain (noun can be seen). Exercises 10 and 11, pp. 152-153: These exercises are thematically related. Both talk about Henry Ford. You might want to refer students back to the unit opener photo on page 133 to help set the scene. These two exercises are also grammatically related. Both treat the functions of the definite article. Some functions are treated in Exercise 10. Others are treated in Exercise 11. If you do Exercise 10 in class, Exercise 11 could be assigned for homework. Students interested in cars and the history of the automobile will find additional information at the Web links signaled by the Web icon on page 152. Exercise 12, p. 154: This article practices both indefinite and definite articles. As a cumulative exercise, it could be challenging for students. But it is straightforward in format. You may want to do the first few items in class and assign the rest for homework. Exercise 13, p. 155: This exercise also provides cumulative practice of the chapter grammar. Part A may take some time to complete, so it could be assigned as homework. Part B should be done in class. After partners compare answers, you may want them to share one another's ideas with the whole class. Students can also see and discuss model answers for this exercise at the Grammar Links 2 Website. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 8 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

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Chapter 9 ­ General Quantifiers; Numbers; Measure Words Chapter 9 Grammar General Quantifiers ­ Overview Each and Every (Too/How)Much and (Too/How) Many Some and Any Few/A Few and Little/A Little Enough and Plenty (Of) General Quantifiers Without Nouns Numbers Measure Words Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 Hotspot 3 and 3 Hotspot 3 Textbook Workbook Exercise/Activity Exercise 1, 2 1, 2, 7 1, 2 1, 2 3, 5, 6 3, 5 3, 5, 6 4, 5 5, 6 5 7, 8, 9, 10,11 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 5C 4 6 9 9 7, 8, 10

Introductory Task, pp. 156-157: This task picks up on the travel theme by discussing train travel in the United States. It also introduces quantifiers, one of the major grammar topics of the chapter. You might want to have students listen through once without writing anything, then listen again and fill in the blanks. For variety, however, you might want to have students pencil in the answers before listening, then listen and check. All the quantifiers to be written in Part B are illustrated in the GB1 chart. Have students use this chart to check their work for Part B. Part C encourages students to infer some of the rules regarding quantifier use with count versus noncount nouns (e.g., much with noncount nouns, many with count nouns). A Web icon linking students to more information about train travel in the United States occurs on page 157 and can be exploited by having students use it to plan their own train trips. Grammar Briefing 1- General Quantifiers I, p. 158: This GB treats both the form and the function of general quantifiers. One of the more challenging formal aspects is matching quantifiers correctly with count and noncount nouns. Mistakes with much and many are very common (e.g., He didn't have much apples in his basket.) Though these two quantifiers mean the same thing, they are not interchangeable. There are some subtle differences in the meanings of general quantifiers as well. The colored triangle chart on the left should help students understand these differences. Each and every are unusual, as they only occur with singular nouns. For this reason, they have their own place in the GB. Exercises 1 and 2, pp. 158-160: These exercises are sequenced to practice form first, followed by form and meaning combined. They can be done in class or assigned as homework.

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Grammar Briefing 2 - General Quantifiers II, pp. 160-161: Just as quantifier choice is conditioned by whether or not the noun modified is count or noncount, it is also conditioned by what type of sentence the quantifier is found in. Affirmative statements, negative statements, and questions can all trigger different quantifiers. This is the topic of the first part of GB 2. It has been simplified to cover only the more common quantifiers. One of the trickiest distinctions to learn is some versus any. These two very different forms really have almost the same meaning, but they are used in different sentence types. The second part of this Grammar Briefing addresses the functions of specific quantifiers. After going over the example sentences carefully, you might want to have students create sentences of their own to solidify their understanding of the sometimes subtle differences in these functions. They could talk about things they and partners or classmates have little of, versus a little of, etc. One note of caution: Sometimes teachers tell students that few and little always mean something negative, while a few and a little always mean something positive. This isn't always true. Few + a "negative" noun can mean something quite positive (e.g., He has few problems), and a few + a "negative" noun can have at least a slightly negative meaning (e.g., He has a few problems.) Exercise 3, p. 162: This exercise combines practice of both the form and the function of several quantifiers. If you choose to assign it for homework, make sure you direct students back to the Grammar Briefing for help. Exercise 4, p. 163: This exercise singles out few, a few, little, and a little for special practice, as they can be quite problematic for students. It can be done in class or assigned as homework. It is a good idea to go over the answers to this exercise in class, however, asking students to compare and contrast the "positive" and "negative" meanings of the various sentences. Exercise 5, pp. 164-165: Parts A and B of this exercise are best done in class. Part C should be done as homework, unless you have ample in-class time for writing. As a follow-up to this exercise, have students compare their preferences and discuss other vacation choices, using the quantifiers in the box on page164. When you feel it is appropriate, send students to the model paragraph on the Web for Part C of this exercise. Exercise 6, pp. 165-166: Part A of this exercise can be assigned as homework, but only with careful review of the directions and the example. Part B is designed to be done in class.

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Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Numbers and Measure Words, pp. 167-168: Teaching numbers and measure words is as much as question of vocabulary as it is of grammar. The grammatical pattern of article/number + measure word + noun does need attention, and it is the focus of Part B of this briefing. However, "special" measure words are very common in English, and are a question of vocabulary. These special words are introduced briefly in Part C, and new ones are introduced (e.g., tube, head, etc.) within the exercises on pages 168-170. So, as you do the exercises, you may want to have students enter new measure words in a "mini-dictionary" or notebook for future reference. To make sure they use these new words in the correct grammatical pattern, refer them back to the GB as they work through the exercises. The Grammar Hotspot on page 168 addresses two very common problems for English language learners trying to use numbers in English. Learners tend to try and add "of" after numbers, adopting the same pattern for numbers as for measure words. (e.g., She has forty of students in her class.) They also sometimes pluralize the numbers that come before plural nouns (e.g., John drank tens glasses of water.). Attention to the material in the Grammar Hotspot should help students overcome these tendencies. The Talking the Talk box on page 168 relates to pronunciation. Of is often shortened in English, and this can obscure meaning. As you go over the information in this box, model the sentences for students, and add examples of your own, carefully stressing pronunciation. Ask students to supply some of their own examples as well. Exercises 7 and 8, pp. 168-169: These two listening exercises provide combined practice of numbers and measure words. They include material from the Grammar Hotspot and the Talking the Talk box as well. New "special" measure words are introduced in these two exercises, so you might want to go over these words with students either before or after they listen to the passages. Though both are appropriate homework assignments, you might want to do one of them in class, in order to check comprehension. Be prepared to stop the tape as you go in order to allow students time to write. The theme of Exercises 8 and 9 is mobile home or "RV" travel. This mode of vacation travel is very common in the United States, particularly among retired people, and, as such, is a cultural phenomenon that may interest your students. Exercise 8 is followed by a Web icon which sends students to several sites where they can find even more information about mobile home travel. Exercise 9, p. 170: This exercise is designed to be done as a full class. It works well when you ask students to sit in a circle and see how far they can go before their chain is broken. If you have time and if your students are comfortable with one another and with competition, you can ask students who miss to move outside the circle and continue until only one player remains as "the winner."

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Exercises 10 and 11, p.170: These two related exercises involve students in using numbers and measure words communicatively, to create and try out recipes. They are both best done in class, as students will need to query you and one another about the vocabulary in the box and/or other words they may need for their recipes. As a follow-up project, Part B of Exercise 11 encourages the whole class to put together their own recipe book. This can make a nice keepsake for students who have gotten to know one another. Those with more advanced computer skills can help others to design a booklet with a cover, table of contents, etc. Check your students' accuracy with measure words and numbers before "publishing" the recipe book. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 9 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Chapter 10 ­ Pronouns and Possessives Chapter 10 Grammar Personal Pronouns Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives Reflexive Pronouns Possessive Nouns Indefinite Pronouns Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 1 Hotspot 3 Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 4 7, 8, 9 5 Workbook Exercise 1, 2, 3 1, 3, 4 1, 5 6 8, 9 10, TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 171-172: Ask the students to look at the picture on page 171 while they listen to the passage for the first time. Then ask them to listen again and circle their answer choices. Complete Part B in class, making sure that students understand what "adventure travel" is. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives I, p. 172: This GB treats the form of pronouns and possessive adjectives. Students will have already seen these forms. Here, however, they learn the labels for them and they see them together as a system. The terms subject and object are used in this GB. For a review of these terms, which are helpful in explaining and understanding English sentence structure, refer students to Appendix 12. You might want to spend some extra time discussing the form of reflexive pronouns. Most reflexive pronouns follow the pattern possessive pronoun + self/selves. However, himself and themselves do not follow this pattern. They follow the pattern object pronoun + self/selves. This irregularity leads to the common errors, hisself and theirselves.

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Exercise 1, p. 173: This identification exercise can be done in class or assigned for homework. Another content Web icon follows Exercise 1. This one sends students to some sites where they can explore adventure vacations. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives II, pp. 173-175: Students should be familiar with the concepts of subject and object when studying this function GB. To this end, you may need to review the material in Appendix 12 with them as you present the GB information. Students also need to review the concept of possession. Use the examples on the right side of the chart and create examples of your own, using pronouns that aren't treated in the examples in the chart. The Grammar Hotspot on page 175 covers two key points - the formation of possessive nouns, and the important fact that possessive pronouns and nouns don't have a plural form, even when they are used with plural nouns. It is a good idea to spend extra time on these points, as they often cause confusion for learners of English. To encourage practice of the material in the Talking the Talk box on page 175, you might want to ask students to listen carefully to native speakers for a few minutes each day and keep track of their use of object pronouns. Alternatively, you could tape record colleagues or friends, isolate the use of these pronouns, and play them for students in class. Be sure you stress that the use of object pronouns after be is not appropriate in formal writing. Exercise 2, pp. 175-177: By the time students complete this exercise, they will have practiced all of the personal, possessive, and reflexive pronouns and all of the possessive adjectives presented in GBs 1 and 2. As this exercise is rather long, you might want to do the first section in class and assign the rest as homework. The theme of this exercise is "adventure cycling" through North Africa to the Dead Sea. The map on page 176 can help students get their bearings, and students who haven't ever seen the Dead Sea can get an idea of what it looks like from the photo on that page. The white material in the photo is salt. Exercise 3, p. 178: As a lead-in to Exercise 3, direct students to the photo illustration. Ask them who they think these people are, where they might be, and what kind of adventure vacation they might be on. You can also explore questions about the gear the people are wearing, how happy they are, who the leader in the group might be, etc. This will help students prepare for the exercise. The exercise can be done in class or assigned for homework if you have done the lead-in. It provides listening practice for the pronouns and possessives, and it incorporates practice of the Talking the Talk material on page 175. Exercise 4, p. 179: This exercise focuses on the first bullet of the Grammar Hotspot on page 175. It is fun, but tricky, and it is best done in class. An enjoyable way to do this exercise is to read the passage aloud (complete with nouns) as a class before having students do the pronoun transformations. You may then want to ask students to work in pairs or small groups to complete the exercise and read their completed dialogues to the whole class.

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Exercise 5, p. 180: This exercise provides cumulative practice of the material presented in the first two GBs of this chapter. As with all editing exercises, it can be tricky, and you may want to ask students to do it in pairs in class while you observe what they are doing. The vocabulary in this exercise can be challenging, too. Use the map, the photo, the illustration, the word glosses, and the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web to help students with any challenging vocabulary they encounter. Exercise 6, p. 181: Part A could be started in class, to get students thinking about their topic. You might want to brainstorm ideas with them on the board or on an overhead projector. The actual writing is most efficiently completed outside of class, unless you have extra class time for writing. When you feel it is appropriate, either before or after their first or second draft, send students to the model paragraph on the Web. Part B should be completed as a whole class, and you may want to add your own description to the discussion. Grammar Briefing 3- Indefinite Pronouns, pp. 182-183: Both the form and the meaning of indefinite pronouns are treated in this grammar briefing. Choosing the correct indefinite pronoun to use in negative sentences and questions can be a challenge for students, so Part B.4 deserves special attention. In addition, using singular verbs with indefinite pronouns that are semantically plural (i.e. everybody and everyone) is counterintuitive. Errors such as "Everybody were here" are common. With this in mind, focus extra attention on Part C. as well. Exercise 7, p. 183: This exercise can be done in class or assigned for homework. Students sometimes enjoy taking parts and reading the dialogue aloud. Exercise 8, p. 184: Both parts of this exercise are designed to be completed in class. Before putting students in pairs to complete Part A, review any vocabulary that might seem problematic and encourage students to use the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web for further reinforcement. For Part B, you might want to add information about yourself, as well. Exercise 9, pp. 184-185: This quiz makes a good homework assignment. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 10 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

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Unit Four Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 186: As this editing will be challenging, you may want to have students work on it in pairs or small groups. As a follow-up, have students visit the dogsled race Websites keyed by the icon at the bottom of the page, and discuss with them what they find. One of these sites is accompanied by a supplementary Web link activity in which students learn more about the Iditarod dogsled race while practicing pronouns and possessives. Activities 2-4, p. 187-188: These communicative activities all involve group or pair work, which you can supervise while circulating among the students. Allow enough time to complete Activity 2. It may be useful to pre-teach some vocabulary: e.g. pressurized, diving suit, battery-operated heater. Go over the instructions and the lists on page 188 carefully with students before they begin. Activities 3 and 4 ask students to bring objects to class, so you need to assign them at least one day before you intend to work on them in class. The Web icon on page 188 directs students to a model answer for Activity 3.

UNIT FIVE: ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS

Topic Focus: Care of Body and Mind

The Grammar

Adverbs and prepositions cover a confusingly broad range of functions. The two categories also overlap, particularly in location/direction expressions (e.g. in, out, up and down), where the same word may function as both adverb and preposition (he went out = adverb; he jumped out the window = preposition). Furthermore, students may be tempted to confuse phrasal verbs (or verb + adverbial particle) with verb + preposition combinations. For these reasons, Unit Five treats adverbs and prepositions together, so as to compare and contrast them more clearly. Chapter 11 defines both parts of speech and introduces their most common functions. Chapter 12 offers some simple criteria to help students distinguish easily between phrasal verbs and verb + preposition combinations. It also introduces three-word verbs, a combination of both constructions.

The Theme

The theme of Unit Five is the "mind-body" connection. This unit develops the thesis that the way we condition our bodies through food and exercise also conditions our minds. Various topics are treated in this connection: in Chapter 11, such food-related topics as healthy eating, fad foods, comfort foods, and the less obvious effects of sunshine as a source of nutrition; in Chapter 12, the psychology of exercise and sports, the growing importance of women in sports events, and various forms of mental exercise.

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Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 190 - 191: The reading and listening passage models all the major grammar topics of the unit: adverbs, prepositional phrases, phrasal verbs, and verb-preposition combinations. It also ties together the main themes: the body-mind connection, food, and sports. To build some context for these themes, you might discuss the photograph of the athletic champion on page 189. The unusualness of a picture featuring a female athlete may strike some students ­ this is in fact the topic of Chapter 12, Exercise 6. Warm-up questions to the unit might include these: "Why does the athlete look so proud?" "What do you notice first about the way she looks?" "Do you think human bodies are like machines in some ways?" "Do you know who started the Olympic Games, and when?" "Do you agree that food can change your personality as well as your body?" "Can you think of any examples?" Think About Grammar, Part A, introduces students to adverbs and prepositions, directing them to discover some of the properties of each part of speech within the passage. The definition exercise in Part B helps them to perceive phrasal verbs as verb + adverb units with special meanings. Chapter 11 ­ Adverbs and Prepositions Chapter 11 Grammar Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Place and Time Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Possibility Adverbs of Degree (Intensifiers) Introduction to Prepositional Phrases Prepositions of Time Prepositions of Place Adjective + Preposition Combinations Common Prepositional Phrases with No Article Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1, Appendix 13 1 2 2 2 and 2 Hotspot 3 3 3 3, Appendix 14 3 Hotspot Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2, 4, 9 1, 3, 4, 9 5, 9 6, 9 7, 8, 9 10 11, 13, 16 12, 13, 16 14 15 17, Unit Wrap-up Activities Workbook Exercise 1, 2 1, 3 4 5 6, 7 8 9, 11 10, 11 12 13 TOEFL Time

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Introductory Task, p. 192: As they answer this "Fact or Fiction?" questionnaire about the properties of different foods, students' attention is focused implicitly on the various meanings of adverbs, prepositional phrases, and adjective + preposition combinations. Ask student pairs to compare their answers with those of the whole group. To resolve disagreements, you can provide the correct answers (given at the bottom of page 212) ­ or you can keep up the suspense by telling students to discover the answers for themselves as they read through the chapter. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Adverbs I, pp. 193-194: Grammar Briefing 1 defines adverbs as modifiers. The briefing introduces three categories of adverbs: manner, place and time. For each category, emphasis is given to the position of the adverb in the sentence. It may be helpful for students to think of these adverbs as answering the questions "How?" "Where?" and "When?" For adverbs of manner, Appendix 13 gives more information about the spellings for ­ly endings and other, irregular forms. For adverbs of place, explain that directional words have variable order in the sentence, occurring either before or after noun objects ("Pour out the water"; "Pour the water out") but always after pronouns. (Note that this variability is also true of the particles in phrasal verbs, which will be defined as verb + adverb constructions in Chapter 12, GB1.) Exercise 1, pp. 194-195: The food pyramid is now a familiar item of popular culture and can be found especially often in health or housekeeping magazines. The illustrations in this exercise clarify most of the key vocabulary, but additional support is provided by Flashcards on the Grammar Links Website. As a warm-up, ask students if they can explain the information provided by the pyramid and what "sparingly" and "servings" mean. Do they try to follow this diet in their daily eating plan? Alternatively, go right into the exercise as an explanation of the pyramid and ask comprehension questions afterwards. In either case, you will elicit adverbs of manner beyond those included in the exercise itself. Exercise 2, p. 195: Students practice forming adverbs of manner and learn about Ayurvedic nutrition as they fill in the blanks. Although Part A can be done as homework, Part B prompts class discussion and personal reactions to the information in the preceding conversation. For a fun activity and more practice with adverbs, direct students to the Grammar Links Website for some delicious recipes, including Ayurvedic flax banana bread! Exercise 3, pp. 196-197: This modified version of Little Red Riding Hood practices identification of place and time adverbs and can be done as homework. Exercise 4, p. 197: As with most error editing, this exercise is challenging. It practices the correct placement of adverbs as explained in GB1 for all three categories. Students could either complete this exercise in pairs or compare their answers in small groups.

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Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Adverbs II, pp. 198-199: This GB introduces three more categories of adverb: frequency, possibility and degree. The triangles illustrating "full" to "empty" in each category help students understand the meanings of the adverbs in relation to each other. Again, placement in the sentence is emphasized in all cases. Rather than have students memorize the rules of placement, it may be more effective to review these rules and then have students verify them by finding adverbs in authentic reading texts. Students should think of frequency and possibility adverbs as answering the questions "How often?" and "How sure?" Adverbs of frequency have already been introduced in Chapter 1, GB1, in the context of simple present tense. Adverbs of possibility, once learned, will be a useful aid to understanding modals of possibility in Chapter 17, GB3. Adverbs of frequency and possibility show some flexibility of position. Students may mention that they have heard such variations as "She eats always at five o'clock." Explain that, although such alternatives are acceptable in certain situations (e.g., for emphasis), the word order patterns given in this GB are more common. Adverbs of degree are also known as intensifiers. They can be tricky, mainly because of their similarity to other kinds of words or subtle meaning differences: note hard versus hardly, the placement of enough, and very versus too (a common stumbling block). Spend some time on these tricky intensifiers, adding examples beyond those in the GB to ensure understanding. The Talking the Talk on page 203 adds a few informal intensifiers that are very useful in casual conversation. Exercises 5-6, pp. 200-201: These exercises practice placement for adverbs of frequency and possibility and can be done as homework. The writing prompt, which builds on the ideas from Exercise 4 and Exercise 5, Part A, is fairly easy to respond to; however, you may want to check that students do not get so carried away describing their favorite comfort food that they forget to place the adverbs! The model paragraph provided on the Website should serve as a good check for feedback. Exercise 6 may also be done as homework. Exercise 7, p. 202: Explain to students that the chocolate lover's questionnaire is intended as a humorous exercise. Students are not required to answer the questions, but simply to enjoy them. The real task is to circle the correct intensifier forms. Exercise 8, p. 203: Exercise 8 practices the Talking the Talk on this page, which introduces the informal intensifiers so, really, and pretty, as well as the non-standard kind of. These forms are heard so often that they hardly need to be taught; the point is more to alert students that the forms are less acceptable in written speech than very. Allow students to preview Part A before they listen to the conversation so that they can more easily match the intensifiers they hear with the statements on the page. Before playing the tape again for Part B, you might need to remind the students which intensifiers in the box represent informal speech. The discussion in Part C should allow free interaction rather than controlled production.

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Exercise 9, p. 204: This activity gets the class up and moving in a drill-like activity turned into a game. The focus should be on the correct production of adverb forms (especially adverbs of manner) and on correct placement. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases, pp. 204-205: Prepositions are defined as words (other than verbs) which always take objects. Note that sometimes it is only the presence of an object which distinguishes a preposition from an adverb; this is especially true with adverbs of direction ("I walked around" involves an adverb; "I walked around the tree," a preposition). From the beginning, stress the fact that prepositions never occur alone: they are always part of a prepositional phrase. This will help students in Chapter 12, GB2, where they distinguish verb + preposition combinations from phrasal verbs. The prepositions listed in section A.2 have many meanings and functions. Students do not need to learn all the functions of these prepositions, but should be aware of their productivity before moving on to the broad categories of time, location and direction. Section D introduces adjective + preposition combinations (fond of, etc.), which, like vocabulary or short idioms, might be more effectively learned by repeated exposure and practice than by memorization. This is also true of the high-frequency prepositional phrases in the Grammar Hotspot on page 210, which are "fixed" in that their noun objects do not normally take an article (in bed; to school; on foot, etc.). Exercise 10 ­ 13, pp. 205 ­ 208: In different ways, these are all "noticing" exercises for very familiar prepositions of time and place. While following the story of tea, students identify preposition functions in Exercise 10, a suitable homework assignment. They then select appropriate prepositions of time from a list to match the map-based historical account of the tea trade (Exercise 11). Because of the inference work involved, it may be a good idea to cover this exercise in class, where the precise meanings of prepositions can be discussed (e.g. for until in item #4). "The Fiery Foods Show" (Exercise 12) requires students to listen carefully as they match the place prepositions on page 207 against the ones they hear. Allow students to read the notes through and think about the statements before they listen to the interview. Vocabulary Flashcards are available at the Website to supplement the glosses and illustrations in these exercises. Exercise 13, like Exercise 11, has students select from a list to fill in the blanks but in this case combines place and time prepositions. Since this exercise is intended to be humorous, you may choose to dramatize it by reading the conversation aloud; you could have a fluent student take Jenny's part, or you could take both parts, changing voices and positions to indicate different parts. Make sure in the Part B discussion that students understand the joke: it's not tea that is unhealthy (as the title suggests), but letting the teaspoon stab you in the eye!

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Exercise 14, p. 209: This straightforward exercise can be done as homework. Students learn the adjective + preposition combinations by selecting them for the appropriate context. Clues for selection are provided by the preposition in each blank, which only needs to be matched against the choices in the box. As reinforcement, Part B asks students to write and share their own "guess what?" paragraph about favorite foods, using Appendix 14 to find adjective + preposition combinations. A model paragraph is provided at the Grammar Links Website for pre-writing ideas or for postwriting feedback and comparison. The effects of sunshine on health can be further explored by following the Web link. Exercise 15, pp. 210 211: The Grammar Hotspot for common prepositional phrases is practiced here. Reassure students that the list of such phrases is quite short. The problem-solution exercise focuses on the difference between the "fixed" phrases, which have a generic meaning, and those whose objects have a specific reference (e.g. to school versus to the school). Exercise 16, p. 212: You don't need to focus too consciously on preposition production in this communicative exercise; in fact, prepositions of time and place are so common that they are difficult to avoid. Fluency and free interaction around the theme are the main purpose here. Exercise 17, p. 212: Again, the focus of this exercise is thematic, but the grammar of adverbs and prepositional phrases will be exploited implicitly as students go back though the chapter to hunt for the information that answers the food questionnaire in the Introductory Task (page 192). The actual answers are given at the bottom of page 212. You might set this exercise up as a team game: Which team will be first to locate all the exercises containing the information? For your reference, here are the exercises matching the answers: Ex. 6: Eat rice and beans together. Ex. 5: Chocolate often makes people feel relaxed. Ex. 5: When you eat chocolate, special chemicals travel fast to your brain. Ex. 10: Tea possibly started the American Revolution. Ex. 14: Sunshine is full of healthy nutrients. Ex. 14: Some people become psychologically ill when the sunlight isn't bright enough. 7.a: Ex. 15b: When your feet are tired, this helps them: putting hot green tea in your bath water. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 11 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. 1.b: 2.a: 3.a: 4.a: 5.a: 6.a:

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Chapter 12 ­ Phrasal Verbs and Verb + Preposition Combinations Chapter 12 Grammar Form of Phrasal Verbs Object Placement ­ Phrasal Verbs Meanings of Phrasal Verbs Form of Verb + Preposition Combinations Meanings of Verb + Preposition Combinations Phrasal Verbs Versus Verb + Preposition Combinations Three-Word Verbs Stress Placement for Particles and Prepositions Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1, Appendix 15 1 1, Appendix 15 2, Appendix 16 2, Appendix 16 2 Hotspot 3 3 Talking the Talk Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 6, 7 3, 4, 6 2, 5, 6, 7 8, 11 9, 10, 12 13 14, 15 16 Unit Wrap-up Activities Workbook Exercise 1, 2, 5 3, 4 2, 6 7, 9 8, 9 10 11 TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 213-214: The reading is followed by a grammar discovery exercise in which students figure out which particles tend to be associated with phrasal verbs, and which prepositions with verb + preposition combinations. This information will be useful to them later in learning the difference between the two constructions. Part C guides students to infer the meanings of phrasal verbs from the context of the reading. Before the discussion in Part D, you might want to mention that the reading is humorous in tone and not intended to criticize "couch potatoes" or judge their lifestyle. Grammar Briefing 1 ­Phrasal Verbs, p. 215: GB1 defines phrasal verbs as verb + adverb combinations with a special, idiomatic meaning. The adverb, when "fixed" in combination with a verb, is called a particle. Students are referred to a list of phrasal verbs in Appendix 15. However, as with most idioms, the best way to learn phrasal verbs is not to memorize them from a list but to practice them in meaningful contexts. To help students recognize phrasal verbs, the GB reiterates the Introductory Task point that up, out, down and off are by far the most frequently used particles (they will discover the less frequent ones, such as over, around, or on by themselves once they know how to recognize the phrasal verb construction). Note that this briefing differs in approach from many accounts in that it does not talk about "separable" or "inseparable" phrasal verbs. It simply states that all phrasal verb noun objects can go before or after the adverbial particle, but pronoun objects must go before. This will make sense to students who have already seen the same rule operating for directional adverbs like up and out in Chapter 11, GB1. More will be said about "separability" in GB2.

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One of the intriguing things for students about phrasal verbs is their productivity. When talking about their multiple meanings, you might invite students to think of other examples beyond those in the GB (e.g. set up, put out). Exercises 1 and 2, pp. 216 -217: In different ways, these exercises serve to build students' vocabulary as they figure out the meanings of the phrasal verbs modeled. All the meanings will be summarized in a chapter "dictionary" in Exercise 5, as well as in Appendix 15. These straightforward identification or definition-matching tasks can be done for homework, with a follow-up discussion for Exercise 1, Part B. Flashcards are available at the Grammar Links 2 Website to supplement the vocabulary gloss in Exercise 1. Exercises 3 and 4, pp. 218 ­ 219: The rules for object placement are exercised here. Exercise 3 is a simple form drill that should be done quickly. You might liven it up by having students take the parts in the dialogue, sounding suitably anxious (Steve) or reassuring (Louise). Students may also be able to extend the exercise by thinking up other things for Steve to worry about. Exercise 4 is a bit more challenging since students have to decide whether or not the phrasal verb has an object, identify that object, and then move it in front of the particle. It might be a good idea to start the whole class off together with a few items and then let students finish in pairs. Exercise 5, p. 220: This "dictionary" exercise pulls together all the phrasal verbs used up to this point in the chapter so that students may have a complete record of all combinations practiced. As a check, students may refer to the complete list in Appendix 15. Students could complete Part A at home and then compare their list in class with a partner (Part B); or, as a more lively option, they could do this assignment as a two-team or small-group race in class. Exercise 6, p. 221: The form and function of phrasal verbs are both exercised here as students use their Exercise 5 dictionaries to supply the missing phrasal verb and then apply the rules of object placement according to whether the object is a noun or a pronoun. Since the task is fairly complex, it should probably be done in pairs. Students might first want to read the dialogue for meaning, each taking one part and using the paraphrases under the lines, before applying themselves to the actual exercise. Make sure students are clear about the concept of "hero" (further vocabulary support is available if necessary in Website Flashcards). As a follow-up discussion, students may enjoy talking about their favorite sports heroes, both male and female. This will motivate the writing exercise in Part B. Since phrasal verbs may not occur naturally in their writing, you could, as a pre-writing exercise, write a few phrasal verbs on the board and then brainstorm appropriate sentences around them: e.g. "My uncle used to make up adventure stories for me"; "My big sister always showed up to help me when I was in trouble"; "Beckham is my hero; he never slows down." The model paragraph on the Website will provide further ideas.

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Exercise 7, p. 222: This game calls for independent production of phrasal verbs in a creative context. Students may be unfamiliar with the game of charades and may not know how to act out their groups of sentences. You could model the activity first and then ask for more confident student volunteers. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Verb + Preposition Combinations, p. 223: Verb + preposition combinations are defined here as fixed units, often called "two-word verbs." The same characterization is true of phrasal verbs; however, this GB, reinforced by the Grammar Hotspot, points out that the two constructions are very different in form and function. First, they can usually be distinguished by the words in the combinations; GB2 gives a list of the most frequently-used prepositions in verb + preposition constructions, which contrasts clearly with the adverbs listed for phrasal verbs in GB1. Second, verb + preposition combinations always have objects, and the position of these objects is fixed. This will make sense to students who have already learned that all prepositions take objects (Chapter 11, GB3). We could say that verb + preposition combinations are all "inseparable" in the sense that prepositional objects always come after their prepositions (except in special cases of "stranding," which are irrelevant here). Students are referred to a list of verb + preposition combinations in Appendix 16. However, as suggested for adjective + preposition combinations (Chapter 11, GB3), the best way to learn them is not from a list but through exposure and practice. Since their meanings are not usually idiomatic, learning is simply a matter of remembering which preposition comes after which verb. Exercises 8-10, pp. 224-226: These exercises build students' vocabulary as they identify the verb + preposition combinations modeled (Exercise 8) or select them to fill in the blanks (Exercise 9). These exercises can easily be done for homework. Vocabulary Flashcards are available, if needed, at the Grammar Links 2 Website. All the combinations are pulled together in a chapter "dictionary" in Exercise 10. As a check, students may refer to the complete list in Appendix 16. Students could complete Exercise 10 at home, or, as a more lively option, they could do this assignment as a two-team or small-group race in class. Exercise 11, p. 227: Again, this is basically a vocabulary-building exercise; all students have to do is add the preposition to the verb, using their "dictionaries" from the previous exercise as necessary. However, the exercise also reinforces the GB2 point about invariable word order - that all objects, whether nouns or pronouns, come after the preposition. Exercise 12, p. 228: This writing activity could be done at home and shared in class. Alternatively, it could follow a warm-up discussion in class, where students talk about their favorite fitness activities. The previous exercise about meditation and controlled breathing might help to spark more unconventional interpretations of "fitness" activities. The discussion should be especially interesting in a very diverse multicultural group. More ideas may be encouraged by the Website model paragraph, which can also be used post-writing as a comparison point for self-evaluation.

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Exercise 13, pp. 228 229: This exercise focuses attention more explicitly than Exercise 11 on the issue of pronoun placement, which distinguishes verb + preposition constructions from phrasal verbs. It is a fairly complex task which should be done in pairs. Students have to replace noun objects with pronouns and then decide whether to move the pronoun (movement should take place with phrasal verbs only). Remind them that up and out are very good clues to help them identify phrasal verbs, as instructed in GB1. The Web icon links students to activities where they learn more about REM and non-REM sleep, and discuss ideas for getting a good night's sleep. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Three-Word Verbs, pp. 229-230: Grammar Briefing 3 introduces three-word verbs as a combination of phrasal verb + preposition. For simplicity's sake, only three-word verbs without objects are covered here (constructions like "make it up to (someone)" or "put (someone) up to something" are excluded). A list of three-word verbs is given for reference in Appendix 17. The Talking the Talk in this GB provides one more helpful criterion for distinguishing between phrasal verbs and verb + preposition combinations: that of stress and intonation. Exercise 14, pp. 230 ­ 231: This exercise builds vocabulary as students identify the three-word verbs modeled in Part A and then match them with meanings in Part B, using Appendix 17 as a reference. Both parts can be done for homework. The final subtheme of the unit, hiking and/or running as an activity, is taken up here. In the Part C discussions, as students share their opinions about hiking, you might challenge each group to come up with a few three-word verbs in their responses. Exercise 15, p. 231: This interactive exercise practices three-word verb production in a lively game. Guide students through the instructions; you might suggest they write down their chosen words before they leave their groups to find the other two parts of their three-word verbs. Make sure all the words in the circle for each group are used. This activity should be seen as a light break from seatwork and should be completed quickly (don't let students spend too long mulling over their sentences.). Exercise 16, p. 232: In spoken English, prepositions are generally unstressed while particles are stressed. For both accurate listening and clearer speaking, it is helpful for students to recognize these patterns, which are practiced receptively in Exercise 16. Let students read the dialogue before listening to the tape in order to prepare themselves for the stress-identification task. Afterwards, a productive follow-up would be to have them practice the dialogue themselves, either in pairs or with the whole class checking their accuracy of stress placement. Students usually enjoy these exercises; encourage them to exaggerate the stress patterns now, so that they will remember them later. Make sure students get the joke in the dialogue, and encourage them to explain it in their own words. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 12 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

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Unit Five Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 233: As this editing will be challenging, you may want to have students work on it in pairs or small groups. Vocabulary is explained in the gloss and in the illustrations; additional support is given in Flashcards at the Grammar Links 2 Website. As a follow-up, you might ask the students if they have heard of the Tarahumara, if they have ever run in a marathon, or what other famous marathon runners they know. The Web icon leads students to more information about the Tarahumara, which could stimulate additional discussion if you assign students to research and bring back more interesting facts to class. Activities 2 ­ 4, pp. 234: These communicative activities all involve group or pair work, which you can supervise while circulating among the students. Activity 1 in particular provides authentic practice since it takes students outside the classroom to do research for their shopping budget. Set a time limit for completion of Part A ­ about 15 minutes to plan each group diet. Assign Step 2 for homework. If students cannot complete Step 2 outside class, ask them to guess the prices of their chosen foods and plan their budget during class time. The Web icon directs students to a model answer for Activity 4, which will give students ideas for organizing this log-keeping activity.

UNIT SIX: ADJECTIVES; COMPARISON WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Topic Focus: The Wild West

The Grammar

At the intermediate level, adjectives are particularly tricky in terms of word order (e.g. "That pretty little blue house is valuable"), and in terms of the -ing/-ed distinction ("He's boring" versus "He's bored"). These points are treated in Chapter 13 together with nouns used as adjectives ­ that is, to modify other nouns ("a train ride"). Chapter 14 covers the grammar of comparison, treating adjectives and adverbs together. This grammar includes the structures (not) as ... as, comparative forms (___-er versus more ___ or less ___), and superlative forms (the ___-est versus the most ___ or the least ___). Problematic points at this level include the rules governing formation with -er/-est versus more/most, the optional omission of final sentence parts, and irregular comparative and superlative forms for good, bad and far.

The Theme

The American West and its fascination for adventurers of yesterday and today are the theme of Unit Six. Chapter 13 tells the stories of the nineteenth-century pioneers, the Native Americans of the Plains, and the cowboys, both white and African-American, emphasizing the ways each group influenced the others. The buffalo are also focused on as early significant inhabitants of the Western Plains. The chapter ends with vignettes about notorious Western gunfighters. Chapter 14 then takes up the history of a famous road, Route 66. It unfolds in the style of a guided tour westward to California, stopping along the way to point out some of the 65

more fascinating aspects of Southwestern history, wildlife, ethnic and popular culture, and natural wonders. Cultural Note: The terms "Indian" and "black" are used at several points in this unit to refer to Native Americans and African-Americans, respectively. These terms are used advisedly in the contexts where they occur. For example, the Plains tribes are generally referred to as "Indians" within the nineteenth-century historical context, particularly when they are associated with "cowboys" since these names were generally paired together in that context. In Chapter 14, Exercise 7, Paul Stewart's Denver museum is referred to by its actual name, "The Black Cowboy Hall of Fame."

Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 236-237: The reading and listening passage offers a historical introduction to the Wild West and how it has attracted people from around the world since prehistoric times. Before playing the tape, refer students to the picture on page 235. This photograph is one of several Western classics included in the unit, but unusual in that it shows a black cowboy (the topic of Chapter 13, Exercise 7). The photograph may spark some discussion about the different people who have come to the West in search of a better life. To motivate the unit, you could ask what the picture makes students think of (adventures? romance? freedom? gunfights? horses?). Which states do we normally include in the American "West"? Who has visited them? Do the students know any of the big national parks - Yellowstone, The Grand Canyon, Yosemite, etc? What Western movies or actors do they know? etc. The reading and listening passage introduces all the major grammar points of the unit. Flashcards on the Website provide additional support as needed to the vocabulary gloss for this passage. In the Think About Grammar discovery exercises, students' attention is drawn to each point, clearly focused on in separate paragraphs. Part A has them identify and classify the different types of adjectives. Part B involves classifying different forms for making comparisons, and Part C involves figuring out the functions of these forms. Chapter 13 ­ Adjectives Chapter 13 Grammar Form and Function of Adjectives Nouns Used as Adjectives Word Order of Adjectives Adjectives Versus Adverbs Adjectives Ending in ­ing or ­ed Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 1 1 Hotspot 2 and 2 Hotspot, Appendix 18 Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2, 4 1, 3, 4 3, 4 2 5, 6, 7 8, 9, Unit Wrap-up Activities 66 Workbook Exercise 1 4 5, 6, 7 2, 3 8, 9, 10, 11 TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 238 - 240: This information gap or "jigsaw" activity contains a lot of information and is fairly complex. It may take about 20 minutes to complete successfully, but the learning and the interaction should be worth it. The aim is to involve students in the stories that make up the theme of this chapter while manipulating adjectives and other noun modifiers in a controlled context. Before starting, study the map features together, including the "cattle" and "Oregon" trails, and review the vocabulary gloss to make sure all these elements are clear. Then walk the students through the instructions, one part at a time. For Part A, position the three groups and then circulate among them to make sure the "cowboys" are looking only at their information card (page 239), the pioneers at theirs, and the "Indians" at theirs. Answer any vocabulary queries that may come up beyond those in the "cowboy" gloss. Make sure each group answers its own questions, using the information on their card. After five to ten minutes, count students off "1- 2- 3"; all the "1s" will now form a new group, as will all the "2s" and "3s." (If you have fewer than 3 in each group, simply count off in 1s or 2s and form fewer new groups. The main idea is to have at least one "cowboy," one "pioneer" and one "Indian" together in each new group.) For Part B, read the instructions with the whole class first and then circulate among the new groups. Check that each "expert" is contributing his or her own information from Part A to help answer the questions (preferably without reading straight from his/her card), and encourage the groups to refer to the map on page 238 as needed. About ten minutes should be enough. By the time the whole group comes together again to compare answers in Part C, they should feel quite confident in their historical knowledge about Western cowboys, pioneers, and Plains Indians. They will also have used a lot of adjectives. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Adjectives, pp. 240 ­ 241: Adjectives are trickier than they may seem. First, they may work differently in some students' first languages; thus, students may expect adjectives to agree with the nouns they modify (adding plural endings, etc.) or to come after the noun. Emphasize, in Sections A and B of this briefing, that adjectives (even nouns used as adjectives) do not change in form and that they usually come before the noun - unless they follow linking verbs, as the predicate of the sentence. Second, the word order of multiple adjectives in a sentence can be challenging. A practical guide is given in Section C. If students ask, acknowledge that native speakers sometimes vary this order and punctuation a little with certain adjectives, but that section C shows the most common general pattern. Finally, the similarity between some adjectives and adverbs can be confusing. This is addressed in the Grammar Hotspot. Exercises 1 - 2, pp. 242 - 243: These recognition exercises can be done at home and checked in class. For Exercise 1, make sure students notice nouns used as modifiers (e.g. "evening sun"); they are easy to miss. Exercise 2 helps students distinguish adjectives from adverbs, including the ambiguous ones detailed in the GB. You might want to spend a few minutes in class eliciting students' reactions to the photograph of the poignant "End of the Trail," a classic in Western art. What do they know about this difficult period of American history? Has anyone visited a reservation or talked with Native Americans about their history?

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Exercise 3, p. 244: This sentence-writing exercise applies the word order rules given in GB1. Pay special attention to comma placement in adjective lists, which is often overlooked. Has anyone seen a buffalo in Yellowstone or another national park, or in the zoo? Exercise 4, p. 245: To motivate this writing, read the direction lines in Part A in class and have students speculate what everyday life must have been in a large, wild territory with very few women. The discussion should elicit some lively adjectives, and those who have watched westerns will probably have plenty to say. As the students imagine themselves in the role of the lonely pioneer man, they may have fun brainstorming adjectives to describe themselves and the perfect wife; they can be as idiosyncratic, and the wife as unrealistic, as they like! On the basis of the brainstorming, you could write a comical whole-class draft together as a model for the individual homework assignment; you could also use the model paragraph on the Website as a model. Students should enjoy sharing their advertisements in class (Part B). Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Adjectives ending in ­ing and -ed, p. 246: The confusion between ­ing and ­ed with adjectives of emotion or feeling persists for many students even to more advanced levels of English. Following the explanation in the Briefing, the Grammar Hotspot neatly sums up the difference between ­ing and -ed pairs: "If something is ­ing to a person, the person is ­ed." To reinforce the point, you might do a quick drill with students filling in the slots: "If the lesson is boring, the student is bored; if the work is tiring, the workers are tired," etc. Appendix 18 provides a list of ­ing and ­ed pairs for students' reference. Exercise 5, p. 247: Allow students to read and listen once for meaning before they listen again to complete the blanks in the passage. Since the answers are given on the tape, the exercise is a straightforward recognition one, but you may need to stop the tape after each sentence to give students time to write the missing word. A more challenging approach would be to let students read and complete the passage first, using the ­ing/-ed pairs from the box, and then check their answers when they hear the tape. However, you would then have to allow for alternative answers which would also make sense in some cases. Additional vocabulary support may be accessed from the Flashcards at the Grammar Links 2 Website. Exercise 6, p. 248: This exercise would be a good one for homework. It is basically a vocabulary builder which involves combining ­ed adjectives with their appropriate prepositions. Students can use Appendix 18 to help them select the correct preposition. Students will enjoy following the Web link to the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show. The activities at the Grammar Links 2 Website include exciting movies of Buffalo Bill's show made by Thomas Edison's studio in 1894! Exercise 7, p. 249: After in-class study of Grammar Briefing 2 and completion of Exercise 5, this would make a good homework assignment. For those intrigued by the subject and the photograph,

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Exercise 7 provides an interesting Web link to the Black Cowboy Hall of Fame, where students can learn more about this unusual museum. Exercise 8, p. 250: This exercise introduces yet more colorful characters from the old West. Make sure students understand "hero" (if they have not read Chapter 12, Exercise 6) as well as the glossed words "villain," "gunfighter," "sheriff," and "robber." If you have time, to make Part A more challenging you could set it up as an information gap pair activity where one student reads about Billy the Kid, the other reads about the James brothers, and then both share and ask each other questions about the information before discussing their conclusions. The ideas discussed in Part A set up the writing exercise in Part B, which could be done in class or at home. Encourage students to use ­ing/-ed forms and nouns as adjectives, as well as the regular adjective forms. The boxed lists of adjectives in Part B will also help generate ideas, as will the model paragraph, which can also be used as a post-writing evaluation check. For even more stimulation of ideas and opinions, direct students to the Web link, which will take them to more information, pictures, and facts about these famous gunfighters and others. Exercise 9, p. 251: "A Special Place" could be done either in class quickly, or for homework more carefully. In either case, the model paragraph at the Website should help provide structure and ideas. This activity should provide cumulative practice for all the points covered in this chapter. To ensure this, you could pair students up to critique each other's paragraph with a checklist for use of adjectives, -ing/ -ed forms, and nouns used as modifiers. If competition works with your students, you could even announce that the winner will be the writer with the most adjectives used correctly in each category (this approach might work well if the paragraph is written by pairs or small groups in class). The "secret" element should motivate students to listen to each other's paragraphs as they try to guess what place is being described. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 13 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

Chapter 14 ­ Comparison with Adjectives and Adverbs Chapter 14 Grammar Form and Function of as ... as Short Form of as ... as Form and Function of Comparative Adjectives and Adverbs Quantifiers with Comparative Adjectives and Adverbs Short Forms of Comparatives Irregular Comparative Forms Briefing 1 1 2 and Appendix 19 2 2 2, and 2 Hotspot Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2, 3 2 4, 5, 6, 7 6 7 4, 5, 6 Workbook Exercise 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6, 7 8 6, 7

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Form and Function of Superlative Adjectives and Adverbs Superlatives and Prepositional Phrases One of the + Superlative Irregular Superlative Forms Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar

3 and Appendix 19 3 3 3

8, 9, 10 10 10 8, 9, 10 Unit Wrap-up Activities

9, 10

9, 10 11, TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, p. 252: This "believe it or not" trivia quiz sets up the Southwest theme for Chapter 14 and lets students know what topics to expect in upcoming exercises. The cartoon illustrations should pique interest and speculation. Don't let students spend too long on the sentences or take them too seriously; the main point is only to engage students receptively with the grammar structures of the chapter, which are all modeled here and in the discussion exercise for Part B. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ As ... as with Adjectives and Adverbs, pp. 253 ­ 254: Comparisons with as ... as are fairly straightforward. Students may need some clarification on the alternative shorter forms, where the verb in the second clause may be omitted (or replaced with an auxiliary), or where the second clause may be omitted altogether. The Talking the Talk addresses the common use of object pronouns in comparisons. ("She is as tall as me.") Students are not necessarily expected to produce such non-standard forms ­ only to recognize them as informal when they hear them. Exercise 1, pp.254-255: This exercise provides the answer to the trivia quiz in the Chapter Introductory Task. It could be done at home although students may enjoy discussing the strange picture of the jackelope (you could ask about any such strange, hybrid characters in their own folklore), and you will want them to check in Part B whether they got the quiz answers right on page 252. Most of the vocabulary for Exercise 1 has already been illustrated on page 252. Exercise 2, pp. 256 - 257: Before students listen and fill in the blanks, they should read through this passage once just for meaning. You might want to pronounce and bring their attention to any unfamiliar place names, for example "Oklahoma," Meramec, "Death Valley," and of course, "Route 66," which provides the common thread to organize most of this chapter. You could ask if some of the students have traveled along parts of Route 66 or seen any of the places mentioned in this passage. A lot of this famous old highway is traced today by Interstate 40; a road atlas of the USA might come in useful to add some detail to the map on page 256. This exercise practices recognition of as ... as comparisons in both full and shortened forms. You might need to stop at the end of each sentence and give students time to fill in the blanks with what they hear. Exercise 3, p. 257: Here students are required to write their own comparisons with as ... as. The Web icons link students not only to a model paragraph but also to pictures and more information about

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jackelopes, antelopes and other interesting animals. If students prefer, they can choose other animals as the subject of their comparison. This writing exercise can be done outside class. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Comparative Adjectives and Adverbs, pp. 258 - 259: Most of this briefing is devoted to form: when to use ­er than versus more ____ than; alternative shorter forms, where the verb in the second clause may be omitted (or replaced with an auxiliary) or where the second clause may be omitted altogether; and the irregular forms in the Grammar Hotspot. Appendix 19 provides spelling rules for comparative forms as well as more detailed guidelines for the choice between ­er and more ___than. The GB also introduces some of the quantifier and measure words often used with comparatives. The Talking the Talk on page 262 mentions the common use of object pronouns in comparisons ("My horse is smarter than me.") Students are not necessarily expected to produce such non-standard forms ­ only to recognize them as informal when they hear them, as they will in Exercise 7. Exercise 4, p. 260: This simple drill for comparative forms is more interesting if done rapidly and collaboratively. For example, each team could take charge of one column (-er, more than, or both), write the title on a large sheet of butcher paper, and add all the forms that belong there. Taping their sheets to the board or wall, the groups could then check each other's work and negotiate any disagreements about what belongs in each column, using Appendix 19 as a reference. Part B is a follow-up for any unfamiliar words, and could also be done in groups. Exercises 5 and 6, pp. 260 - 262: As straightforward form exercises, both of these can be done as homework. Alternatively, working in pairs and reading the dialogue in class would provide good fluency practice for Exercise 6. Exercise 5 practices production of the comparative forms ­er, more ___than, and less ___than in a reading passage about one of the highlights of Route 66 ­ the pueblos in northern New Mexico. Exercise 6 moves us farther west along Route 66 to Arizona and the Grand Canyon, and practices modifying comparatives with quantifiers and measure words. For any unfamiliar vocabulary, remind students about the Flashcards accessible at the Grammar Links 2 Website. Exercise 7, pp. 263 - 264: Students should read and listen to this dialogue at least once for meaning before listening again and filling in the blanks. This will also allow them to catch the humor in the cowboys' exaggerated intonation as their "tall tales" get more and more far-fetched (you might also see if students catch the pun conveyed between the "tales" in the title and the "tails" in the picture). This exercise practices recognition of comparatives in both full and shortened forms. You might need to stop at the end of each sentence and give students time to fill in the blanks with what they hear. The exercise also models the informal use of object pronouns as explained in the Talking the Talk on page 262. Students are not necessarily expected to produce such nonstandard forms ­ only to recognize them as informal when they hear them. Part A sets the tone and a model for the writing exercise in Part B, where students write their own tall tale using comparative forms. Another model is provided at the Grammar Links 2 Website. Encourage students to have fun with this and to be as far-fetched as they can. You might take a vote for the craziest tale in the Part B discussion.

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Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Superlative Adjectives and Adverbs, pp. 264 ­ 265: As with comparatives, most of this GB is devoted to form: when to use the ­est versus the most ____; when to use or omit a following prepositional phrase; and the irregular forms in the Grammar Hotspot. Appendix 19 provides spelling rules for superlative forms as well as more detailed guidelines for the choice between the ­est and the most ___. This GB also mentions the use of one of the as a modifier for superlatives. Exercise 8, pp. 266 - 267: Similar to Exercise 4 for comparatives, this simple drill for superlative forms is more interesting if done rapidly and collaboratively. For example, each team could take charge of one column (the -est, the most ___, or both), write the title on a large sheet of butcher paper, and add all the forms that belong there. Taping their sheets to the board or wall, the groups could then check each other's work and negotiate any disagreements about what belongs in each column, using Appendix 19 as a reference. Part B is a follow-up for any unfamiliar words, which could also be done in groups. Part C provides more drill-like practice for superlative forms in a game setting with a bingo-like version of "tic-tac-toe," which is familiar to most and can become quite lively. Exercise 9, p. 268: One more trivia quiz is provided here, this time on the topic of superlatives (many, but not all, of them about the Southwest). You might ask students if they have seen The Guiness Book of Records, which consists entirely of such superlatives. In fact, a good follow-up exercise may be for student teams to research this book, available in many public libraries, and make up their own superlative trivia prompts for later use in a class quiz show. The exercise practices production of the superlative forms the ­est, the most ___, and the least ___. For any unfamiliar vocabulary, remind students about the Flashcards accessible at the Grammar Links 2 Website. Exercise 10, p. 269: Continuing west along Route 66, we come in this exercise to southern California, once the home of Roy Rogers, his famous Western Museum, and Trigger, his world-famous super-horse. Exercise 10 practices using superlatives and identifying the prepositional phrases that go with them. It also models use of one of the to modify superlatives. Students will enjoy following the Website link to more pictures and information about Hollywood western stars of yesteryear. Website activities focus on Roy Rogers, Hopalong Cassidy, Gene Autrey, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame. They also help students to research information and make comparisons about their own favorite modern-day stars. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 14 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Unit Six Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 270: Since adjectives are so numerous in this essay, with so many possible places for errors, the editing will be challenging. Students should work on it in pairs or small groups. The gloss

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provides definitions for "create" and "souvenir"; students will recognize "coyote" from the illustration and also from the Introductory Task. As a follow-up, you might elicit students' reactions to the illustration ­ do they find the singing coyote charming? Eerie? Sad? Have they ever heard a coyote? Does its howl really sound like singing? You may need to explain that coyotes are not wolves; they are generally smaller, and, unlike wolves, are plentiful throughout the Southwest. Activity 2, p. 271: This interactive task is more fun if time limits are imposed and if speakers are not allowed to see their neighbors' prompts until they are passed to them. However, you might want to circulate as students are preparing their prompts, just to make sure they aren't too unpredictable or difficult to define ­ and that they really come from the chapter! For more fluency practice in speaking, you could have students extend their definitions into a one-minute impromptu "speech," where the challenge is to keep talking for one minute on the topic of their definition (rather than to make a lot of sense). Activity 3, p. 271: If they have studied Chapters 13 and 14, students should have several ideas for places and sights that they would like to write about in this exercise. The model paragraph at the Website should also help to stimulate ideas. To help students brainstorm, you could quickly review the unit themes with them, asking what people, animals and places they remember. If they don't want to travel to the American West, they can choose a free plane ticket to another destination and write about that. In Step 2, as students explain their vote for the most interesting trip, try to elicit as many adjectives and comparisons as possible in their evaluations.

UNIT SEVEN: THE PRESENT PERFECT

Topic Focus: Science: Fact and Fiction

The Grammar

Unit Seven introduces the basic functions of the present perfect and present perfect progressive tenses. It also introduces some troublesome adverbs and prepositional phrases that commonly co-occur with these tenses, together with their word order and meanings (e.g. just, still, yet, for five years, since five years ago). Considerable attention is given to the functional distinctions between present perfect and simple past (Chapter 15) and between present perfect and present perfect progressive (Chapter 16). Clear guidelines are given in this unit for a distinction that is subtle and often difficult at this level: namely, that simple verb forms express complete or repeated action, whereas progressive forms express incomplete action or action in progress.

The Theme

The thesis of Unit Seven is that many ideas once held to be facts are now viewed as fiction, while many ideas from science fiction have now, through scientific progress, become facts. Examples of the "fact-to-fiction" reversal include the flat earth theory of ancient times and the belief that space travel would never happen. Chapter 15 explores "fiction-to-fact" reality in

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the predictions of science-fiction writers, and in such phenomena as mythical creatures and monsters. Chapter 16 continues in the same vein, broadening its scope to astronomy and the nature of the universe.

Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 274-275: To prepare students for the listening/reading passage on page 274, you may want to ask them to look again at the unit opener photo of unicorns. Write the word unicorn on the board and review its meaning. To discuss: How can this be a real photo? Do unicorns exist? Are they "fact," (real) or are they "fiction" (imaginary)? How do you know? How do we decide that something is a "fact?" Are there other animals that you have heard of that might not be real? What, for example? The two major grammar points (present perfect and present perfect progressive) of Unit Seven are treated in "Fact and Fiction." In addition, the thesis of the unit theme is introduced here. We recommend that you ask students to listen to the passage one time through for meaning and, time permitting, discuss the theme. Then have them look at Think About Grammar on page 275 and listen again to complete the exercises there. The Think About Grammar exercises help students figure out the rules for forming the present perfect and the present perfect progressive tenses before these rules are formally presented to them later in the unit. Chapter 15 ­ Present Perfect Tense; Present Perfect Versus Simple Past Chapter 15 Grammar Affirmative and Negative Statements ­ Present Perfect Tense Past Participles of Regular and Irregular Verbs Contractions of be and contractions of have Yes/No and Wh-Questions and Answers ­ Present Perfect Tense Functions of the Present Perfect For and Since with the Present Perfect Other Time Expressions with the Present Perfect Briefing 1 1, Appendix 6 1 Hotspot, 1 Talking the Talk 2 3 3 4, 5 Talking the 74 Textbook Exercise/Activity 2, 3 1 3 4, 5, 8, 12, 13 6, 9 7, 8 10, 11, 12, 13, 16 Workbook Exercise 2, 3 1 3 4, 5 6 7, 8, 10 9, 10

Meaning of the Present Perfect Versus Meaning of the Simple Past Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar

Talk 5

14, 15, 16, 17 17

11, 12, 13 14, TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 276-277: The Part A passage picks up on the theme of the unit by giving students examples of ways in which fiction (the idea of space travel a hundred years ago) becomes fact (we've gone to the moon) and in which fact (people used to believe in dragons) becomes fiction (people no longer believe in them). In addition, the contrast in meaning between the present perfect and the simple past is highlighted in this passage. Though this difference isn't treated until Grammar Briefing 5, it is introduced here because it is one of the most difficult things for students to learn; it is helpful for students to start thinking about it right from the beginning without asking them to master it. In Part B, students are encouraged to begin to figure out for themselves the function rules which distinguish these two tenses in terms of meaning. Part C reprises the unit and chapter theme. Each culture has its myths about strange animals and its fantasy/science-fiction stories. Students enjoy discussing these things and comparing them across cultures. Interesting similarities and differences emerge. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Present Perfect Tense I, p. 277: This GB covers the formation of affirmative and negative statements with the present perfect. This tense includes an auxiliary, have. In addition, the main verb is always in its past participle form, and there are many irregular past participles in English. These features taken together make the present perfect a difficult tense to master. Draw students' attention to the sample sentences in the GB, one of which contains a regular verb, and the other of which contains an irregular verb. Students should also become familiar with Appendix 6 when they study this GB as it contains many irregular past participle forms that they will need when they do chapter exercises. Has in the present perfect is often contracted. The contraction for has and the contraction for is are the same ­ `s. As a result, students often confuse the two, especially when they are listening to spoken English. This confusing aspect of English grammar is the focus of the Grammar Hotspot at the bottom of page 277. Exercise 1, p.278: This straightforward exercise practices past participle forms. It makes an ideal homework assignment. Encourage students to refer to Appendix 6 for help. Exercise 2, p. 279: This exercise gets students started using present perfect forms in extended discourse. Part A is a science-fiction story. Part B encourages students to discuss the contents of this story and is designed to be completed in class. Part A can be assigned for homework.

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Exercise 3, p. 280: Exercise 3 develops the theme of the chapter by relating predictions for the future that have been made by a famous science-fiction writer, Isaac Asimov. Students can see a photo of Asimov on page 284. In Part A of Exercise 3, students are asked to react to Asimov's predictions by agreeing or disagreeing with them, using the present perfect tense in negative or affirmative sentences to do so. Before asking students to complete Part B, review the material in the Talking the Talk box at the top of the page and the material in the Grammar Hotspot on page 277. Part B asks students to listen to a passage containing contractions and determine what the long forms of those contractions are. Be prepared to stop the tape to allow students time to write. Exercise 3 can be done in class or assigned as homework. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Present Perfect Tense II, p. 282: This GB covers question formation with the present perfect. It is helpful to have students compare this to question formation with the progressive tenses, as the basic principle is the same. The auxiliary (have in the case of the present perfect, be in the case of the progressive) moves forward in both cases. Exercise 4, p. 283: The theme of this exercise is a follow-up to the theme of Exercises 2 and 3. The grammar covers Part A of Grammar Briefing 2. Part A of the exercise can be done in class or as homework. Part B should be done in class. Exercise 5, p. 284: Exercise 5 practices the material from Part B of Grammar Briefing 2. In this exercise, students learn more about the life of Isaac Asimov. Once they have completed the exercise, you may want to have them correct it in class in pairs, one person acting as the interviewer, the other as Asimov. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Present Perfect Tense III, p. 285: This is a function GB which introduces students to the two core meanings of the present perfect ­ to talk about past events that continue to the present, and to talk about the indefinite past. Many languages do not have a tense that corresponds to the present perfect, so its functions can be difficult to learn. Make use of the timelines for graphic reinforcement. Carefully review the example sentences, supplying further examples as needed. When describing past continuing to the present, the present perfect is often used with for and since. These two words are the focus of Part B of the GB. They are not interchangeable, and students often confuse them. Exercise 6, p. 286: This exercise, which introduces information about Mars, is a good one to do in class, as it provides initial practice recognizing the two primary functions of the present perfect. You may need to stop and review these functions as you go, referring students back to the GB as needed. Point out the use of for and since in the sentences in questions 1, 2, and 5, and compare their meanings in these sentences.

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Exercise 7, pp. 287-288: This exercise asks students to produce for and since in the correct contexts. Refer them to Part B of the GB for help. To build context for the theme of space travel, ask students to look at the photo on page 287 and the illustration on page 288. Once the context is set, this exercise can be done in class or assigned for homework. The Web icon on page 288 sends students to more information about the solar sailing theme. In addition, it sends them to another Web link activity. This one asks students to work with the present perfect tense while learning about solar sails. In addition, it directs students to an optional activity, a SkyLab trivia game which they can play individually or in groups. Exercise 8, p. 288: Exercise 8 asks students to use the present perfect tense with for and since in a communicative manner, both in writing and in speaking. After the students finish Part A in pairs, have them complete Part B individually. Before students read their Part B sentences to the class, have them check them with their partners for factual accuracy. Exercise 9, p. 289: This exercise continues the discussion of mythical beasts. It revisits the primary functions of the present perfect by asking students to identify fairly subtle aspects of its meaning. It is best done in class as a final check before moving on to Grammar Briefing 4. Grammar Briefing 4- Time Expressions with the Present Perfect, p. 290: Time expressions frequently occur with the present perfect. Both their form (placement within sentences) and their function (basic meaning) are difficult to master. Both are treated in Grammar Briefing 4. Review the rules for each set of time expressions presented, with special attention to their occurrence in negative sentences and in questions. Discuss the meaning of each of the sample sentences. Provide or elicit further examples. The Grammar Hotspot on page 291 reminds students about crucial information regarding ever and yet. This information is covered in the preceding chart, but it is reorganized and reiterated here because it is particularly challenging. Exercise 10, p. 291: Both parts of this exercise should be done in class. While completing Part A, students should refer to the GB chart on page 290. Exercises 11 and 12, pp. 291-293: These two exercises are thematically related, introducing a discussion of the sea monsters, Nessie and Champ. Exercise 11 focuses on time expressions with the present perfect in statements, and Exercise 12 follows up by practicing them in questions and short answers. Students will need to think about both the meaning and the placement of time expressions in both exercises. They can be done in class or assigned as homework. The Web icon on page 292 sends students to further interesting information about sea "monsters."

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Exercise 13, p. 293: This exercise focuses on using ever and yet in a communicative context. As a follow-up, ask students to choose the most interesting thing they learned about their partner and report it to the whole class, using the present perfect. Grammar Briefing 5 ­ Present Perfect Versus Simple Past, p. 294: This GB treats the contrast in meaning between the simple past and the present perfect. To solidify the concepts covered, ask students to reread the passage on page 276, where these two tenses are used together. The contrast between the present perfect and the simple past is one of the most difficult verb contrasts for students to learn. Use the timelines to help students visualize the differences in their meaning, and carefully review the example sentences and their meanings. Because the meaning of the two tenses does also sometimes overlap (to talk about the definite past), you might want to draw two intersecting circles on the board, one for the simple past and one for the present perfect. Label the place where these circles intersect with "indefinite past ­ both tenses," and the nonintersecting parts with "definite past ­ simple past" and "past related to present ­ present perfect." The Talking the Talk box at the bottom of page 294 treats another "twist" to the simple past versus present perfect distinction. In informal English, the simple past can be used instead of the present perfect with just and recently to talk about the recent past. Students are exposed to this fact here because this use is so common in spoken English, and they need to be able to recognize it. Exercise 14, p. 295: Part A of this exercise gently introduces students to producing the simple past and the present perfect in contrast. All of the sentences about the 1970s will take the simple past. All of the "since then" sentences will use the present perfect. Because this part of Exercise 14 is so carefully guided, it can be done in class or assigned as homework. Part B is another open-ended writing assignment, so you may want to assign it for homework. Send students to the Web model for this assignment when you think it would be appropriate. As a follow-up, ask students to read one another their paragraphs and/or share them with the class. Exercises 15 and 16, pp. 296-297: Exercise 15 explores the theme of the origin of mermaids, and Exercise 16 explores the topic of "dragons" in the 21st century. The photos of the mermaid statue and the live sea lion help students understand where sailors may have gotten the idea that mermaids exist. The photo of the Komodo lizard makes dragons seem not-so-impossible in the 21st century. Both of these exercises ask students to decide which tense ­ simple past or present perfect ­ to use in extended discourse. Exercise 16 adds choices with just and recently. Both exercises can be done in class or assigned as homework. To review the answers to Exercise 16, you might want to have two students read the dialogue aloud, taking the parts of Audrey and Mr. Merlin. Part C of Exercise 16 provides students with the opportunity to further discuss the themes of the chapter.

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Exercise 17, p. 298: This exercise provides cumulative, communicative practice with chapter structures and should be done in class. Guide students to an understanding of how to use the chart. After students have completed the exercise in pairs, ask the full class to compare answers. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 15 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

Chapter 16 ­ Present Perfect Progressive Tense; Present Perfect Versus Present Perfect Progressive Chapter 16 Grammar Affirmative and Negative Statements ­ Present Perfect Progressive Tense Functions of the Present Perfect Progressive Yes/No and Wh-Questions and Answers ­ Present Perfect Progressive Tense Meaning of the Present Perfect Versus Meaning of the Present Perfect Progressive Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 2 3 3 Hotspot Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2 1, 2 3, 4 6-9 5 Workbook Exercise 1 1, 2 4, 5 6, 7 3, TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 299-300: The Part A passages address the theme of the unit by describing how the science "facts" about our universe have changed over the centuries. Older ideas have become "fiction" as newer ones take over. Each news flash presents the beliefs of a certain time period, and each contains highlighted examples of the chapter grammar ­ the present perfect progressive. This tense is juxtaposed with the present perfect so that students can begin to recognize the difference between the two. Parts B and C of the Introductory Task allow students to discover the rules for formation of the present perfect progressive before being taught those rules explicitly. In addition, students are asked to compare the formation of the present perfect progressive with that of the present perfect. Some points for the Part C discussion: Both tenses contain have/has. The present perfect contains the past participle of the main verb, however, while the present perfect progressive contains only the past participle of be (been). The present perfect has one auxiliary verb (have). The present perfect progressive has two auxiliary verbs (have and be). In the present perfect, the main verb is in its past participle form. In the present perfect progressive, it is in its ­ing form.

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Part D provides students the opportunity to elaborate on the theme of the chapter while using the present perfect and/or the present perfect progressive. Medicine makes a good point of departure for extending this discussion. Students from different cultures are likely to have quite different points of view regarding treatments of the past and present for such everyday ailments as colds, the flu, and headaches. They could be encouraged to compare these viewpoints in class, with special attention to treatments which have endured over time, in order to elicit the present perfect and the present perfect progressive. (e.g., People in my country have been using garlic to cure colds for hundreds of years.) Grammar Briefing 1- Present Perfect Progressive Tense I, pp. 300-301: The first half of this GB covers the formation of affirmative and negative statements with the present perfect progressive tense. This complex tense involves two auxiliary verbs: have in its present tense, and be in its past participle form (been). The main verb is in the ­ing form. These factors taken together make the present perfect progressive one of the more difficult verb forms in English to master. To help students, you might want to put a list of verbs on the board and ask them to put them into short sentences in the present perfect progressive, first in the affirmative and then in the negative. Remind students to use Appendix 3 if they need help with the correct spelling of ­ing forms. The second half of Grammar Briefing 1 treats the function of the present perfect progressive. This, too, is difficult to learn. The meaning discussed in Function-Part A overlaps with one of the core meanings of the present perfect. The only difference between the two is that the present perfect progressive puts more emphasis on the "ongoingness" or "in progress" nature of the verb than does the present perfect. This difference in focus or stance is quite subtle and not easily mastered. In this "past continuing to the present" meaning, the two tenses are interchangeable, and they take the same time expressions. So as not to confuse students, in Grammar Briefing 1 this basic function of the present perfect progressive is introduced in isolation, without reference to the present perfect. The comparison of the two tenses is treated in Grammar Briefing 3. Function-Part B treats a present perfect progressive meaning for which the present perfect can not be used. Exercise 1, p. 302: This exercise combines practice of affirmative and negative statements within the functional framework of "past continuing to present" meaning. Note that while the present perfect would be appropriate in any of the blanks in this exercise, students are explicitly asked to use only the present perfect progressive. Part A of this exercise can be done in class or assigned as homework. Vocabulary might be challenging, so if you do choose to assign it for homework, you may want to review some of the more challenging vocabulary in class or send students to the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web for help. Part B will be of special interest to students who enjoy reading and thinking about astronomy. Exercise 2, p. 303: Exercise 2 practices actions that have just ended, a function of the present perfect progressive that does not overlap with a function of the present perfect. Part A can be done in

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class or as homework. Part B, however, should be done in class; students enjoy comparing their answers, which can vary a great deal. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Present Perfect Progressive Tense II, p. 304: This GB covers question formation with the present perfect progressive. Again, because of the complex nature of this tense, this can be challenging for students. It is important for them to remember that only the first auxiliary verb (have) needs to change position. All other words can stay in the same order as for statements. To help them see this, you may want to return to the short sentences that students created for Grammar Briefing 1, asking them to transform the affirmative statements into questions. Exercises 3 and 4, pp. 305-306: These two exercises practice questions and answers with the present perfect progressive tense. Exercise 3 and Part A of Exercise 4 can be done in class or assigned for homework. Part B of Exercise 4 should be done in class. You may want to direct students to the Web sites signaled by the Web icon at the bottom of page 306 before completing Part B with them. Different cultures have very different ideas about the moon and its effects on humans. They enjoy comparing these ideas. Exercise 5, p. 307: Exercise 5 is another writing exercise. It asks students to use the present perfect progressive tense productively, in connected discourse. While no set number of sentences is requested, you may want to create a limit of 5-7 sentences. Encourage your students to be creative with this assignment. A model answer is provided on the Web. Direct students to that model when you feel it would be appropriate. Once students have completed this assignment to your satisfaction, ask them to share their writing with the rest of the class. You might want to share your own ideas as well. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Present Perfect Versus Present Perfect Progressive, pp. 307-308: This function GB contrasts the meaning of the present perfect with that of the present perfect progressive. Use the timelines and the sample sentences to help students understand the differences. To help students feel the subtle difference described in Point D, ask them to go back to Exercise 1 on page 302. Have students read the passage aloud, once with the verbs in the present perfect, and once with the verbs in the present perfect progressive. See if they can sense the difference in focus. With the present perfect progressive, the "ongoingness" and the long duration of the preoccupation of scientists with the origin of the universe are being stressed. With the present perfect, this is not the case. If students can't sense the difference, don't worry too much. The subtle differences in meaning between the simple tenses and the progressive tenses take a long time to master. Exercises 6-9, pp. 308-310: These exercises all treat the contrast between the present perfect and the present perfect progressive. They move systematically from recognition to production. It would probably be best to do Exercise 6 in class, so that you can get a sense for how well students have understood the meaning differences presented in Grammar Briefing 3. The others can be done in class or assigned as homework.

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The theme of Exercises 6-9 moves from astronomy to astrology. Astrology is a popular topic with students, and they can find out more information about the Western approach to this topic by going to the Web sites signaled by the icon on page 310. As a follow-up to Part B of Exercise 8, ask students to compare their signs using both Western and non-Western astrology. Do their signs predict their personalities? Do students with the same signs have characteristics in common, or are they different? Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 16 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Unit Seven Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 311: As this editing will be challenging, you may want to have students work on it in pairs or small groups. As a follow-up, you might want to have them read the letter aloud, with corrections. In some places, more than one correction is possible, so students can compare their work. Activities 2 ­ 4, pp. 312-314: These communicative activities all involve group or pair work, which you can supervise while circulating among the students. The Web icon directs students to a model answer for Activity 4.

UNIT EIGHT: MODAL AUXILIARIES, RELATED EXPRESSIONS, AND IMPERATIVES

Topic Focus: Language

The Grammar

With their many irregular forms and overlapping functions, modals are a difficult grammar topic for intermediate students. However, they are also intriguing because of their usefulness in expressing shades of speaker attitude and sensitivity to social contexts. Unit Eight simplifies this area of grammar by grouping modals and related forms into three broad functional categories. The first two, modals of ability and possibility, are covered in Chapter 17, after a general introduction to the form of one-word modals and to phrasal expressions that have similar functions. The third category, "social modals," associated with requests, permission, advice, and obligation, is covered in Chapter 18. At this level, modals are presented only in their simple form; perfective forms (must have, etc.) are covered in Grammar Links 3. Point out to students that modals are best learned through practice in communicative contexts. It is so difficult to state clear rules for form-function relationships that memorization is far less effective for learning than trial and error through everyday use. The guidelines given here for American English are subject to variation: for example, we state that may not and might not seldom take contracted forms. We recognize that such generalizations may not be true for all varieties of American English and would almost certainly need modification for other English dialects, such as British. You can acknowledge to students that variation does occur with modal 82

forms, and that they should try to learn as much as possible from the native speakers around them.

The Theme

The theme of this unit is language. Chapter 17 examines language, both spoken and signed, and the process of language acquisition as an anthropological wonder. The chapter also touches on the controversial issues of language planning policy and "Official English." Chapter 18 takes a different perspective on language, exploring its possibilities as a useful but complicated social tool. It explores the topic of politeness and the subtle language skills that politeness requires both in English and across cultures. Culture shock is explained as resulting partly from linguistic misunderstandings. These topics should all be very interesting to intermediate learners of English.

Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 316 - 317: Before starting this segment, you might ask students to consider the photograph introducing the unit on page 315. Where do they think it was taken? Can anyone read all the languages? Are multilingual signs like this common around the world, do they think? If the class is very diverse, it will be interesting to find out how many languages are represented in the classroom. Does anyone speak more than two languages? Why do they think so many English speakers only know one language? The reading and listening passage on page 316 models all the categories of modals presented in this unit: ability, possibility and social (advice and necessity). It also touches on several subthemes of the unit: language acquisition, the social power of language, politeness, the future of languages, and language planning. Before reading, you might want to motivate students and activate the context by asking if they can guess how many languages there are in the world, whether age matters in learning a language, and whether we can control how a language grows or changes. Think About Grammar guides students to discover that the same modal forms can be used to talk about past, present, and future time. Chapter 17 ­ Modals and Related Expressions; Ability; Possibility Chapter 17 Grammar Forms of Modals Forms of Modal-Like Expressions Forms of Phrasal Modals Statements ­ Modals and Related Expressions Questions ­ Modals and Related Expressions Contractions ­ Modals and Related Expressions Briefing 1 1 1 1 1 1 and 1 Hotspot 83 Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2, 6 1, 2, 6 1, 2, 6 2, 6 4, 5 3, 6 Workbook Exercise 1, 2, 6 3 3 1, 2, 6 4, 5 3, 6

Present and Past Ability with Can and Could Ability with Be Able To Pronunciation of Can and Can't Present Possibility and Belief May Be Versus Maybe Possibility and Impossibility with Could and Couldn't Future Possibility Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar

2 2 2 Talking the Talk 3 3 3 and 3 Hotspot 4

7, 8, 10 8, 9 11 12, 13, 14.b, 15, 16 14 15, 16 17 Unit Wrap-Up Activities

7 8 9, 10 10 11, 12 TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, p. 318 : The dialogue in Part A is a light introduction to the "ability" and "probability" functions of modals. In Part B, students are helped to figure out these functions from the context of the conversation. Students who volunteer to read the dialogue parts may have fun showing off their pronunciation ­ or learning the pronunciation ­ of the names of the prehistoric creatures. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Overview of Modals and Related Expressions, pp. 319 - 321: This GB provides a general introduction to the eight basic modals of English, and how they are similar to or different from modal-like expressions (ought to, had better, and let's) and phrasal modals (have to, be able to, and be going to). The major difference between modals and phrasal modals is that the latter can be used in all tenses. For this GB, students do not need to be concerned with the details of meaning or usage. These will be covered in later GBs. The Grammar Hotspot points out two of the many irregularities of modals ­ that may + not isn't usually contracted (at least in American English), and that can + not is spelled cannot or can't. Exercises 1 - 5: pp. 322-325: These straightforward form exercises practice the grammar of GB1, focusing on word order, tense, and question formation for modals and related expressions. Any of the identification or manipulation exercises can be done as homework. However, all touch on "hot" topics and invite responses from the reader which could lead to lively discussions in class. Exercise 1 deals with language planning and issues of minority language status. These issues may be dear to the hearts of some students if they find parallels between the status of their own home language and that of Basque, Catalan, Irish, or French Canadian. Exercise 2 touches on the related topic of power languages and lingua franca planning. Students may be interested in taking up the question in the last sentence as to whether we will ever have one worldwide lingua franca. In Exercise 3, students choose whether to apply verb contractions as they read an "Official English" debate from a political campaign flyer. Part B of this exercise asks for students' opinions on the issue. In some states, where Official English and bilingual education are especially controversial issues for linguistic minorities, you may need to approach this topic cautiously. Exercises 4 and 5 move into the topic of language acquisition as they practice question formation, and Part B of Exercise 4 invites students to anticipate the facts that will be given in Exercise 6.

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Exercise 6, p. 326: As with most editing exercises, Exercise 6 is better done in pairs or small groups and checked in class to make sure students catch all the errors correctly. At the same time, they will learn something about the process of language learning and confirm their guesses from the previous two exercises. As a follow-up, you might ask students if they are surprised at any of the facts ­ for example, that a person can learn three or four languages at the same time. The related Web link activities invite students to use modals of ability and possibility while learning more about other languages and language learning. Students should enjoy learning how to say "Hello" in a variety of other languages, and teaching their classmates a few phrases of their home languages. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Ability, pp. 326 - 327: This short but important GB reveals can as a tricky modal: although it seems to have a past tense ­ could, it doesn't have any other tenses; and even could is not appropriate for talking about specific events in the past (see section C.2). The phrasal modal be able to is introduced here as a useful alternative expression which carries the full range of tenses. Following this GB, the Talking the Talk on page 329 draws attention to the important sound distinction between can and can't. Exercises 7 ­ 10, pp. 327 ­ 329: This set of exercises practices can, could and be able to for the expression of ability in all tenses. Exercise 7, which contrasts present with past ability, simply involves manipulation of can, can't, could, and couldn't, and is a suitable exercise for homework. Exercise 8 may also be done outside class, as long as students understand the point of the exercise ­ namely, recognizing the constraints on the modal can and when to use be able to. Check the exercise in class, with special attention to item #6, where students may be tempted to use could for past ability. Remind them that this item refers to a specific past event, which prohibits could. Continuing with the topic of children's language learning, the tongue-in-cheek advertisement in Exercise 9 involves a simple pattern practice with be able to for future ability. This is an ideal homework exercise. The writing task in Exercise 10 could be done as a group activity or individually for homework, after a class brainstorming session to generate some entertaining ideas. The model paragraph at the Website may be used to spark more ideas ­ or you might save it as a point of comparison until after the student paragraphs are shared in Part B. Exercise 11: p. 329: The Talking the Talk on this page is practiced in Exercise 11. Although the distinction between can and can't seems a fairly fine detail of pronunciation, it can make a big difference in meaning. Part A practices recognition of the difference, and Part B production. You may need to play the tape a few times; it may also help to invent a quick drill yourself and practice until students are sure. For Part B, encourage students to speak fairly quickly as they model the sounds for each other. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Present Possibility and Belief, pp. 330 ­ 331: Two major points are made for modals of possibility: that they are related to each other on a scale, as shown by the strong-to-weak inverted triangle; and that they are also related to adverbs of possibility, which exist on a similar scale. Both points should help students learn

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modals more systematically. The list of corresponding adverbs will already be familiar if they have studied Chapter 11, GB2. Note that modals of possibility are also called modals of belief, and sometimes modals of probability. Their function is to express degrees of speaker certainty about situations in the present (or the future - see GB 4). Note that the lower, negative end of the scale is symmetrical to the upper, affirmative end in a sense; as probability lessens toward "no possibility," the degree of certainty becomes quite strong again in the modals must not, cannot and could not. This point is made in the Grammar Hotspot (Point #2) and will be demonstrated in Exercise 15. The Hotspot also warns of the common confusion between may be and maybe. Exercises 12 - 13, pp. 331 - 332: These exercises practice using modals of present possibility. Exercise 12 presents some theories about children's language learning. The answers are prompted by corresponding adverbs of possibility, making this a fairly controlled, simple exercise that can be done for homework. The puzzle in Exercise 13 is best tackled as a problem-solving activity in class. Anyone who has seen the movie Mary Poppins will probably be able to sing supercalifragilisticexpialidocious even if they can't explain it! An amusing follow-up activity would be an adapted form of the "Dictionary" game. Students go to their dictionaries to find an unusual word, write the true definition together with some invented ones, and then challenge classmates to guess which definition is correct. Encourage students to use modals of possibility while they try to figure out the definitions, just as in Exercise 13. Exercise 14, p. 333: May be and maybe are the focus of Part A as students write sentences guessing about the situation described. Part B practices negative forms, requiring students to select different modals according to their degree of certainty. The discussion in Part C acts as a check for understanding of the modals; by explaining their answers and resolving any differences, students will see whether their choice of modals was appropriate. Exercise 15, p. 334: This exercise focuses on the expression of impossibility as well as possibility. It directly contrasts could, which expresses weak possibility, with couldn't, which expresses strong impossibility, as explained in the Grammar Hotspot for GB3. You might refer students back to the diagram in GB3 and remind them that couldn't and cannot, at the negative tip of the triangle, represent certainty about the impossibility of a situation ­ in other words, disbelief or surprise. All these attitudes are demonstrated in the conversation for Exercise 15. The topic, American Sign Language, is generally a popular one and may lead to some discussion, especially if students follow the Web link to find out more about ASL. You might ask students whether they agree with the common belief, expressed by Anne, that ASL isn't a "real" language. Exercise 16, p. 335: This writing exercise could be preceded by a small-group or pair discussion in which students try to figure out the meanings of the signs in the pictures. It will be interesting to see how many guess the signs correctly, and how widely the answers vary.

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Grammar Briefing 4 ­ Future Possibility, p. 335: Several of the modals used for present possibility (GB3) are also used to express future possibility. They are represented on a similar scale in this GB. It might be worth comparing the two scales and pointing out that they are different only at the "top," where will replaces must for certainty about the future, and at the "bottom," where could not and cannot are not used to talk about the future. Exercise 17, p. 336: Future possibility is practiced in this conversation, which returns to the topic of a worldwide lingua franca. Students are asked to choose from a variety of modals and related expressions, according to the degree of certainty and the forms admissible for statements and questions about the future. Vocabulary support beyond the gloss definitions is available in the Flashcards at the Grammar Links 2 Website. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 17 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website.

Chapter 18 ­ Social Modals and Imperatives Chapter 18 Grammar Permission and Offers (May, Could, Can) Requests (Would, Could, Can/Will) Imperatives for Offers and Requests Modals of Necessity and Advice Obligation (Must/Have To) Prohibition (Must Not) Versus Non-Necessity (Don't Have To) Opinions and Suggestions (Should/Ought To; Might / Could) Imperatives for Orders Had Better (Not) for Warnings Let's (Not) for Suggestions Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 2 3 4 4 4 and 4 Hotspot 4 Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2 3, 5 4, 5 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 7 6, 8 9, 10, 11 Workbook Exercise 1, 2 3 4 5, 8 5, 6 7 5, 8

5 5 6

12 12 13 Unit Wrap-up Activities

4 5, 9 10, 11 TOEFL Time

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Introductory Task, pp. 337 ­ 338: The large number of functions explained in this chapter for modals all have one thing in common: they are interactive in the sense that they involve somehow persuading or affecting the behavior of someone else. For this reason, they are called "social modals." The Introductory Task models several of these forms through a lecture offering advice, opinions, and suggestions about polite language. This topic offers a very nice showcase for this area of grammar, since the use of strong or weak social modals (e.g. "you must" versus "you could") is determined as much by politeness considerations as it is by the strength of the advice. The Task asks students, within the context of the reading, to figure out the relative strength of the modals and classify them accordingly. Grammar Briefing 1 ­Permission and Offers, pp. 338 - 339: May, could and can are represented here on a scale of formality or politeness for giving and refusing permission or for making offers. Students may point out, as native English speakers will, that there is considerable flexibility here; that any of the modals could be used in many given situations. Acknowledge this, pointing out that expressions of politeness and formality are very much a matter of personal style, especially when we include mitigating expressions like of course, I'm sorry but..., etc. The main point, however, is that may suggests more social distance than can. You might recommend could as a good all-purpose request modal when students are not sure what degree of distance is called for. Exercises 1and 2, pp. 339 - 340: Exercises 1 and 2 set up contexts for permission and requests with varying degrees of social distance. They are best acted out in class so that these social contexts come to life and motivate the choice of modals. In Exercise 1, the Part B follow-up to the listening exercise requires students to infer Dave's growing impatience with the library visitor from his use of modals and accompanying expressions. Point out how Dave's use of language is reinforced by intonation as his voice becomes gradually testier and less polite. A good extension would be to have students act out the dialogue or even continue it, simulating Dave's language and intonation. Students should enjoy acting out the situations in Exercise 2. The important thing here is to understand the relationship between Al and his listeners; this determines his degree of politeness and formality. Again, as extension, pairs of students could continue the conversation for each item, having Al persist with listeners who are slow to respond. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Requests, p. 341: For general requests, a scale of formality is given here similar to the one in GB1, this time featuring the modals would, could, and can/will. Again, students may point out the considerable overlap between these modals in many situations, and again you might clarify the main points: that would is relatively more formal than can/will; that each modal may be modified considerably by expressions such as please, certainly, and I'm afraid ...; and that could is a pretty safe choice in most situations. Exercise 3, pp. 342 - 343: This exercise sets up a job interview as the social context for requests at different levels of formality. The relationships between the interviewer, his interviewee, and a friendly

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workplace colleague determine the choice of modals. Students are prompted to complete the conversations among these speakers. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Imperatives for Offers and Requests, p. 344: Imperatives are covered in this chapter on social modals because they are so often used in the same contexts for the same purpose ­ to affect people's behavior. Of course, they are far less polite! Perhaps the most important point in this GB is in the Talking the Talk: that despite their formal simplicity as an alternative to modals, imperatives are socially complex and should be used carefully, especially for requests that make demands on the listener. Explain that, as with modals, social distance can make all the difference: for example, it is not appropriate to request service in a store with "Give me ...."! You might offer the general advice that students avoid imperatives with strangers. Imperatives are appropriate, however, in close or informal relationships ­ especially for friendly offers and invitations. Such a context is illustrated in Exercise 4. Exercise 4, p. 345: This exercise provides a clear contrast with the social context in Exercise 1. Dave is now at home complaining about the rude visitor from his earlier encounter, and his wife is offering comfort and asking him to relax. Imperatives are very appropriate in this informal context where no demands are being made on the listener. This exercise is a straightforward cloze practice for positive and negative imperatives. The advantage of doing it in class is that it could be acted out with appropriate intonation to reinforce the imperatives. Exercise 5, p. 346: The humorous tone of this exercise is set by the illustration. Nevertheless, you might need to explain that in all the situations illustrated, the listener is being obtuse or ignoring the veiled requests behind the speaker's indirect statements. Modals are required to clarify the requests, and imperatives to make the appropriate offers. This exercise, like all the preceding ones in this chapter, is best acted out with appropriate intonation. Grammar Briefing 4 ­ Necessity and Advice, pp. 347 ­ 348: For ease of instruction, modals of advice and related expressions are roughly separated into two categories: necessity or obligation (must and have to), and opinions or suggestions (might /could or should/ought to). However, students might be interested to see how the same strong-to-weak scale relates all these modals in their "advice" function as in their "possibility" function (see diagram in Chapter 17, GB3). Thus, must is a very "strong" modal both for probability and for advice, and might/ could much weaker. Perhaps the trickiest grammar point in this GB is the asymmetry illustrated in the Grammar Hotspot between must and have to: must means the same as have to, but mustn't is very different from don't have to. Less tricky, but worth pointing out, are the constraints on certain forms: should is generally used in place of might/could for advice questions, and in place of ought to for both negatives and questions. Exercises 6 and 7, pp. 349 ­ 350: These exercises focus on the interaction between must and have to for expressing necessity. Exercise 6 also practices the whole range of advice modals; students follow the

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prompts (suggestion; a good idea, etc.) to fill in the blank with a modal of appropriate strength. The most important item to focus on, however, is probably #3, where don't have to (not mustn't) should be used for non-necessity. In Exercise 7, the choice between must and have to is determined by tense: have to is required for all tenses other than present. Both exercises may be done for homework and checked in class. The theme of culture shock should be an interesting one to English language learners: Exercise 7, Part B might provoke animated responses from students who have found themselves in the same disappointing situation as Lienh is in, by mistaking superficial friendliness for a serious invitation. Students can find out more about culture shock by following the link to the Grammar Links 2 Website. Exercise 8, p. 351: The Grammar Hotspot for page 350 is focused on here in the choice between mustn't and don't have to. Following class discussion of GB4 and the Grammar Hotspot, you could assign Part A as homework. Part B invites group discussion of body language. To get the groups started, you could first brainstorm as a class, writing some interesting dos and don'ts from different cultures on the board. The Web icon leads students to more about body language. Exercises 9 - 11, pp. 352 ­ 355: These exercises practice giving advice and expressing opinions. The exercises guide students to use ought to for statements only, and should for questions and negatives. The topics all concern socially appropriate language use ­ at job interviews (Exercise 9), within the values of a culture (Exercise 10), and at dinner with a host family (Exercise 11). The Web icon in Exercise 9 links to an amusing activity where students find out how to make a good impression at an interview; they also study pictures to decide which body language to use or avoid. Exercise 10, Part A can also be done as homework; for the Part B follow-up discussion, try to pair students from different cultures if possible, for a more informative discussion about cross-cultural values. The question-forming exercise in Part A (one more homework option) sets up the ideas for the writing exercise in Part B, where students play the role of politeness advisor. More ideas may be generated by the model paragraph at the Grammar Links 2 Website. As the students share their letters (Part C), you might inquire whether they have actually followed their own advice at dinner parties in the past! An amusing follow-up might be to role play the scene at the host family's house as the student arrives and tries to make a good impression all round. Grammar Briefing 5 ­ Imperatives for Orders; Had Better (Not) for Warnings, p. 355: Just as imperatives overlap with modals for requests and offers, so they do for advice and necessity; imperatives are the simplest and most direct way to give orders. If the students have not studied the Talking the Talk in GB3 of this chapter, which explains the social constraints on imperatives (see also Teacher's Notes for GB3), point out that imperatives are very direct and we only use them in situations where politeness is not a consideration (for example, in very casual speech, very urgent messages, or very impersonal public signs). Closely related to orders are warnings, so had better (not) is also covered here. This modal-like expression expresses an implicit "or else" message. To make this clearer, a quick round-the-class drill may be helpful, using if statements to prompt warnings with had better (not): "If you eat too much, you'll get sick - you'd better not eat too much"; "If you don't sleep, you'll be grouchy - you'd better sleep," etc.

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Exercise 12, p. 356: Part A is a basic form practice which converts imperatives to warnings with had better (not). Part B is more interesting ­ a discussion of the consequences for those who ignore the warnings. Both parts lead naturally to the writing exercise in Part C, where students modify the warnings and add their own advice for people visiting the U.S. A model paragraph is available at the Website for a pre-writing guide or a post-writing comparison. Grammar Briefing 6 ­ Let's (Not) for Suggestions, p. 357 This modal-like expression is simple in form and function. It is included here as a complement to could and might for making suggestions. In some languages, the first person plural does not necessarily correspond to we or us is English. Therefore, you might want to emphasize that the subject of let's is you and I, and that we use this form when we want to encourage someone to join us in an activity. Exercise 13, p. 357: Part A prompts students to make appropriate suggestions with let's (not). In Part B, they discuss what social conditions are required for the suggestions. The main point to make here is that let's is a very informal expression which presumes some intimacy or at least some familiarity between the listener and the speaker. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 18 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Unit Eight Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 358: Like most cumulative editing exercises, this one will be challenging and should be done in pairs or small groups. The topic of "weasel words" in advertising is intriguing, and students may find the reading quite informative ­ especially when they see that modals themselves can be weasel words! As a follow-up, you could invite students to find their own examples of language manipulation in magazines, cut them out and bring them to share in class (you could also perhaps keep a stack of old magazines for this purpose). Activity 2, p. 359: The "Yes/No" game is a classic, and a lot of fun ­ provided the questioner keeps firing the questions, and the student keeps answering them quickly. For this reason, you may want to retain the role of questioner unless your student volunteers are very confident and fluent; and you may want to insist on immediate answers (a two-second lag disqualifies the answerer). This time limit increases the tension and fun of the game, which will stimulate automatic practice of short answers with modals in answer to your questions. Activity 3, p. 359: This topic may be too sensitive for some students who have strong feelings about language planning, Official English politics, and bilingual education in the U.S. On the other hand, the opportunity to write about a topic of real importance may stimulate some very satisfying products - and the exploitation of modals (especially should) is almost guaranteed. The

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paragraph model at the Website will guide students to organize their ideas. Students will probably be eager to share their paragraphs with the whole class. Activity 4, p. 360: This activity offers students a useful opportunity to practice extended speaking. However, it is important to structure the exercise carefully, guiding students through each step. Step 1 could be done as a whole-class discussion; you could even jot some of the students' ideas on the board and allow them to take notes. Originality is not the most important requirement for their speech. Students should enjoy explaining what is most difficult about their language for an English speaker. For Step 2, allow students the choice of having their speech recorded. After peer feedback has been given in Step 3, student speakers would probably appreciate having your feedback as well.

UNIT NINE: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

Topic Focus: Making It

The Grammar

Intermediate students are often confused in the choice between gerunds and infinitives because these two elements are conceptually quite similar: that is, they are both verbs functioning as nouns (plus, in the case of infinitives, as adjectives or adverbs). Thus, in this unit, gerunds and infinitives are presented in Chapter 19 as clearly separate grammatical patterns with certain functions for which they are not interchangeable. For gerunds, these functions include go + -ing for recreational activities, by + -ing for expressing how something is done, and the use of gerunds as prepositional objects in phrasal combinations (e.g., afraid of skiing; talk about walking). For infinitives, one major function is the expression of purpose with to or in order to (e.g., I went there to/in order to see her). Then, in Chapter 20, gerunds and infinitives are juxtaposed and their overlapping functions examined. It is explained that while many verbs are followed interchangeably by either gerunds or infinitives (e.g., like, hate), other verbs are not (want, hope), and still others express a different meaning in combination with a gerund than with an infinitive (e.g., forget, remember).

The Theme

Many second-language learners are interested in the topic of business. Unit Nine places this topic within the wider concept of success, or "making it," and what this concept may mean to different people. Chapter 19 surveys various motivations that might define success in business or careers. These motivations include helping the community, getting rich, making a living from an activity we love, or being recognized through promotion. Exercise 13 suggests that, for a company, "making it," or survival, may involve difficult corporate decisions. Chapter 20 focuses more narrowly on unusual job choices and why people make them, and invites students to share their own personal interpretations of what "making it" means for them.

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Teaching Notes

Unit Opener

Grammar in Action, pp. 362-363: Prior to teaching this segment, you may want to look at and discuss the unit opener photo with your students. Questions you could pursue include: "What job does the person in the photo have?" "How do you know?" "Does he seem happy?" If yes, then, "Is he `making it'?" "What does `making it' mean?" Next, by listening to the passage "Making It" while reading it, students can hear gerunds and infinitives while seeing how they are used in connected discourse. They can also confirm their hunches about what "making it" means. The Think About Grammar exercises which follow the passage then help students infer a great deal of information about gerunds and infinitives, including how they are formed and where they occur in sentences. Chapter 19 ­ Gerunds and Infinitives Chapter 19 Grammar Gerunds and Negative Gerunds Gerunds as Subjects and After Be Gerunds as Objects Gerunds After Prepositions Go + Gerund Gerunds Versus Progressive Verbs Infinitives and Negative Infinitives Infinitives After Be; It + Infinitive Infinitives After Verbs Infinitives of Purpose Pronunciation of Infinitives Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 1 2 2 2 Hotspot 3 3 Hotspot 3 3 4 4 Talking the Talk Textbook Exercise/Activity 1, 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11, 12 13, 14, 15 13 8 Workbook Exercise 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6 7 8 9 10 11, 13 12 13, 14 15 16

Introductory Task, pp. 364-365: The passage in Part A picks develops the theme of the unit in a letter of advice from one friend to another about "making it." It also models the use of gerunds as subjects alongside infinitives in sentences beginning with it. Pairs of synonymous sentences using these two patterns are included in the passage and treated in the Part B exercise. Encourage your students to notice the fact that these two very different forms can carry two identical meanings. Part C refers students back to the theme introduced in Part A and asks them to reflect on whose advice is better, Charlene's, or Dolores's. As part of the discussion, you might want to ask students to give specific examples of how they found jobs. Did they look for a long time? Or, were they lucky? 93

Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Gerunds I, pp. 365-366: This GB introduces the form for gerunds and negative gerunds, along with three of the most common functions of gerunds ­ as subjects, as subject complements (after be), and as objects. You may want to review the meanings of some of the verbs listed in Part C or send students to a dictionary or to the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web for help. In addition, review Appendixes 3, 12, and 20 with your students when teaching this GB. Exercises 1 and 2: pp. 366-367: These two exercises focus on recognition of gerunds and negative gerunds in extended discourse ­ a reading (Exercise 1) passage and a listening (Exercise 2) passage. Exercise 1 tells the story of Bill Gates. The Web icon following this exercise sends students to more information about this 21st century American success story. These exercises can be done I class or assigned for homework. If you choose to complete Part B of Exercise 2, it will need to be done in class. Exercises 3 and 4, pp. 367-368: These two exercises continue the theme of Americans who have "made it" by discussing Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. In Exercise 3, students move from recognition to guided production by filling in the correct forms of gerunds as subjects and subject complements in an article about these two entrepreneurs. (You can refer them to Part B in GB1 for help.) In Exercise 4, they do the same thing, but this time with gerunds as objects. (You can refer them to Part C in GB1 for help.) Following Exercise 4 is another content Web icon. This one sends students to more information about Ben and Jerry and their ice cream. In addition, it sends them to another Web link activity. This activity asks students to discuss their likes and dislikes (ice cream-related) using gerunds. In addition, it asks students to discuss the cost of ice cream and related products available in the Ben and Jerry's Web catalogue, again using gerunds to do so. Grammar Briefing 2 ­ Gerunds II, p. 369: Part A of this GB covers the use of gerunds after prepositions. Certain verb + preposition and adjective + preposition combinations are very common. Students should familiarize themselves with those introduced here, as they will be used in later exercises. In addition, attention should be given to the meaning of by + gerund. This structure is very common in English. Part B treats go + gerund, another common and somewhat idiomatic use of gerunds for describing activities. Go can take a full range of tenses when used in this structure, which makes it more challenging than it seems at first glance. The Grammar Hotspot on page 369 covers a very common challenge for learners of English. Students are often miscued when they hear or see the ­ing ending on a verb. They tend to confuse gerunds, which are functioning as nouns, with progressive verb forms. Exercise 5, p. 370: This exercise reprises the theme of Ben and Jerry. It covers Part A of the GB and can be done in class or assigned for homework.

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Exercise 6, p. 371: Exercise 6 moves away from the real-life success story of Ben and Jerry to the imaginary story of two young people trying to "make it" in their own business. It practices Part B of the GB chart. Part A of this exercise can be done in class or assigned for homework. Remind students that they will need to use a variety of tenses with go. To correct the exercise in class, ask students to take the parts of Kim and her mother and read their answers aloud. Follow up with the discussion in Part B and the short writing assignment in Part C. Ask students to share their Part C answers. Do the students have similar interests? Exercise 7, p. 372: Part A of this exercise provides direct practice of the Grammar Hotspot at the bottom of page 369. By seeing gerunds and progressive forms juxtaposed in a piece of extended discourse, students can process and understand the confusion that can occur and learn how to avoid it. You can have students complete this exercise in class or assign it for homework. It is a good idea to go over the answers in class, however, asking students to explain how they were able to recognize when a word was a gerund (It is functioning as a subject, after be, or as an object) and when it was functioning as a progressive verb form. (It is the main verb in a sentence.) Part B is meant to be done in class as a follow-up to the content introduced in Part A. The dilemma faced by Jeff and his wife is a common one in today's world of work. Students from different cultures have many different ways of finding a solution to this dilemma, and they enjoy discussing these solutions. Exercise 8, p. 372: Exercise 8 provides cumulative practice of the grammar introduced to this point in the chapter. An open-ended writing exercise, it is accompanied by a Web model. Students can write about chapter themes, but they should feel free to use topics of their own choosing as well. As a follow-up to this exercise, have students share their writing with one another. As an alternative, choose selected pieces, read them aloud to the class with names removed, and see if students can guess who the authors are. Grammar Briefing 3 ­ Infinitives I, pp. 373-374: This GB presents the forms and the most common functions of infinitives and negative infinitives. It is helpful to review Appendix 12 with students when discussing infinitive functions. After discussing the information in Part B.1. and 2., you might also want to ask students take another look at the Introductory Task on pages 364-365. There they will see again examples which illustrate this part of the GB chart. Part C of the GB covers infinitives after verbs. This topic is fairly complex. You will want to spend time on the rules and example sentences here, creating further examples if time permits. In addition, students should become familiar with the lists of verbs presented, as these verbs will be used in later exercises. Review the meanings of unfamiliar verbs and/or send students to their dictionaries or to the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web. Students often make mistakes with the formation of infinitives and negative infinitives. Typical errors and their corrections are listed in the Grammar Hotspot on page 374.

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Exercise 9, pp. 374-375: This recognition exercise moves from the more simple identification of infinitives and negative infinitives in Part A to the more complex identification of verb + infinitive structures in Part B. Both parts of this exercise can be done in class or assigned as homework, but it is helpful to go over the answers to Part B in class, asking students to identify the objects in the verb + object + infinitive structures. The topic of this exercise is a rather sad one about corporate realities in the 21st Century. In Part C, students can discuss Tim's unfortunate experience and relate it to their own and/or others' experiences. Exercise 10, pp. 375-376: Exercise 10 practices the production of infinitives in sentences with it. It continues the theme started in Exercise 9, putting a positive spin on Tim's disappointing work experience. It can be done in class or assigned for homework. Exercises 11 and 12, pp. 376-377: These two exercises are thematically related, and they both provide productive practice with verb + infinitve structures. The topic of the exercises is the life of an actress, for whom the definition of "making it" has more to do with artistic fulfillment than with money. Students can discuss this definition of "making it" and their feelings about it when they complete Part B. Use the illustration on page 377 to help students visualize the actress, her agent, and the complications her attitude might cause. Exercise 12 is more challenging than Exercise 11 and should probably be done in class. Students can role-play to check the answers. Grammar Briefing 4 ­ Infinitives II, p. 378: This short GB teaches the infinitive of purpose, one of the most common and important infinitive structures in English. Sometimes this structure occurs without in order. When this happens, students tend to incorrectly add for before the infinitive of purpose. This error is quite common. ( e.g., I went to the hospital for to see my friend.) The Talking the Talk on page 378 treats the pronunciation of infinitives. Provide students with additional oral examples so that they can practice listening to the shortened form. Exercise 13, p. 379: This exercise combines practice of the information in the Talking the Talk box. For Part A, you might want to have students listen through the entire passage once without writing anything, then listen again and fill in the blanks. Be prepared to stop the tape as necessary, giving students time to write their answers. To check Part B, have students read the passage allowed, adding in order to as indicated. The topic of this exercise is "downsizing" to save businesses. This is another very common 21st century business practice, and Part C provides students the opportunity to discuss downsizing and it effects on companies and their employees. Exercise 14, p. 380: Part A asks students to form sentences from sentence parts. Two combinations are possible for each set. The infinitive of purpose can come after or before the main clause. Go over the instructions to this exercise very carefully, making this clear to students. In addition,

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make sure that they understand that the infinitive of purpose should be made from the words that are boldfaced. Once you are certain that the students understand how to complete this exercise, you can assign it for homework or complete it in class. The sentences created in Part A give advice for "making it." This advice is the topic of discussion in Part B. This part of the exercise should be done in class after the answers to Part A have been checked. Exercise 15, p. 381: This exercise should be done in pairs in class. As a follow-up, ask students to write down their partners' answers and hand them in to you for correction. Alternatively, you can have student pairs share their answers with the class. Reminder: A student self-test and a teacher test for Chapter 19 are both available on the Grammar Links 2 Website. Chapter 20 ­ Gerunds Versus Infinitives Chapter 20 Grammar Verbs That Take Gerunds Versus Verbs That Take Infinitives Preposition + Gerund Be Used To + Gerund Versus Used To Verbs That Take Both Gerunds and Infinitives - Same Meaning Verbs That Take Both Gerunds and Infinitives ­ Different Meanings (Forget, Remember and Stop) Cumulative Practice of Chapter Grammar Briefing 1 1 Hotspot Hotspot Page 385 2 2 Textbook Exercise/ Activity 1, 3, 4 1, 3 2 3, 4 5, 6 7 Workbook Exercise 1, 3, 4, 5 2 3 6 5, TOEFL Time

Introductory Task, pp. 382-383: The poster in Part A develops the unit theme by matching types of people with specific jobs. Students may not recognize all of the jobs in the "Good Job Choice" column, so you may want to spend some time in class reviewing them. As an alternative, send them to the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web for Chapter 20. The Part A poster also models the chapter grammar ­ gerunds versus infinitives. Part B helps students learn on their own that some verbs can take only gerunds (e.g., enjoy), others can take only infinitives (e.g., want), and still others can take either, with little or no difference in meaning (e.g., like). This is one of the key grammar points taught explicitly later in the chapter. Part C treats another key grammar point taught in Chapter 20. It guides students to figuring out that the meaning of some verbs (e.g., stop) changes when they are followed by a gerund as opposed to when they are followed by an infinitive. The Introductory Task makes a good in-class introduction to both the theme and the grammar of this chapter. As a follow-up, students can go back to the poster on page 382 and

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discuss which jobs appeal to them the most and why. You might want to join in the discussion, as well, explaining why you like to be/being a teacher. Grammar Briefing 1 ­ Gerunds Versus Infinitives I, p. 383: This GB presents short lists of verbs that can only be followed by gerunds and verbs that can only be followed by infinitives. More lists are provided in Appendixes 20 and 21, and you should ask students to familiarize themselves with these lists. The Grammar Hotspot at the bottom of the page reminds students that prepositions can be followed by gerunds but not by infinitives, a point originally introduced in Grammar Briefing 2 of Chapter 19. You might want to refer students back to that GB (page 369) as a reminder. As you are working through the material for Grammar Briefing 1 of Chapter 20, create and elicit example sentences to add to those presented. You can use verbs from the appendixes, asking students to try creating sentences with these verbs with their books closed, then checking the appendixes to confirm their answers. Exercise 1, p. 384: Part A of this exercise practices all of the verbs introduced in GB1. It also practices the material in the Hotspot. It makes a good homework assignment; students can check their own answers by looking back at the GB. Part B asks students to discuss the theme of the exercise ­ feeling unhappy in your job. Encourage students to use verb + gerund and verb + infinitive combinations when carrying out this discussion as a full class or in small groups. Exercise 2, p. 385: Part A of this exercise provides practice for the material presented directly above it in the Grammar Hotspot. Review this material with the students before they complete the exercise, or assign both the Hotspot review and the exercise for homework. If necessary, refer students back to Unit Two (Chapter 4, GB3, pages 57-58), where used to is first introduced. Students should also refer to the gloss and/or to the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web for help with any difficult vocabulary in the exercise. Part A of Exercise 2 is followed by a content Web icon. This one directs students to more information about working from your home, a more and more popular type of employment in the United States now that technology has become so accessible. Part B is another writing assignment, which asks students to use the material in the Grammar Hotspot in a productive manner. A model answer for this part of the exercise is provided on the Web. Direct students to look at this model when you feel it would be appropriate. As a follow-up to this writing assignment, you can have students share their paragraphs in small groups or as a full class. You might want to share your own paragraph on this topic as well. Grammar Briefing II, p. 386: In this GB, students are exposed to two sets of verbs that can be followed either by gerunds or by infinitives. The verbs presented in Part A don't change meaning. The verbs in Part B, forget, remember, and stop, do change meaning. Review the example sentences carefully with the students. It sometimes helps to put a timeline on the board or on an overhead when

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reviewing Part B. Mark the timeline with an X for when the first action happens and a second X for when the second action happens. Exercise 3, p. 387: This exercise practices Part A of GB2 as it contrasts with material from GB1. It can be done in class or assigned for homework. Garbology, the topic of this exercise, is a real "career" for some people, and students are fascinated by this and other "crazy careers." With this in mind, direct students to the Web icon at the bottom of page 387, which will send them to a number of sites about interesting, off-beat jobs. Exercise 4, p. 388: Parts A and B of this exercise also practices Part A of GB2 as it contrasts with material from GB1, but in a more open-ended manner. They can be done in class or assigned for homework. Some of the words in the box may be difficult for students. Go over them in class or refer students to the gloss and/or to the Vocabulary Flashcards on the Web for help. Part C should be done in class. Students enjoy comparing their ideas about what is important in choosing a job. They also like to give one another advice about job choices. Exercises 5 and 6, pp. 389-390: Forget, remember and stop are particularly problematic in their combination with gerunds and infinitives. It is probably best to complete these exercises in class, clarifying the differences in meaning. Use the illustrations to help. Exercise 7, p. 391: This cumulative exercise is designed to be done in class. Divide the class into groups of approximately equal ability. As soon as a group finishes, it should signal you. Continue until all groups have finished. Before designating a "winner," check all of the answers to make sure the fastest group was also the most accurate. The "winner" should be the group that finished everything correctly, not just the group that finished first. Unit Nine Wrap-up Activities Activity 1: Editing, p. 392: As this editing will be challenging, you may want to have students work on it in pairs or small groups. Check the answers in class. Activities 2-4, pp. 393-394: These communicative activities all involve group or pair work, which you can supervise while circulating among the students. Activity 2 gets students up and moving around. Step 3 should be done individually. The Web icon on page 393 directs students to a model answer for this step. Step 4 brings the class back together to report out. Activity 3 will take some advance preparation on the part of students, so it should be assigned a day or two ahead of when you want to cover it in class. It also calls for the use of a video recorder; if you don't have access to one, students can complete the activity without one.

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Step 1 of Activity 4 should be done individually, with a full class follow-up for Step 2. The Web icon on page 394 directs students to a model answer for this activity.

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