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TARGETING PRONUNCIAITON, Second Edition by Sue F. Miller INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL

I INTRODUCTION Welcome to the second edition of Targeting Pronunciation: Communicating Clearly in English. Although updated, this new edition contains all the popular features of the first edition. It makes pronunciation easy to teach and fun to learn. Whether you are experienced or inexperienced at teaching pronunciation, you will be comfortable with the clear explanations and communicative approach. The text introduces the key features of American English pronunciation to intermediate and advanced ESL students. Regardless of their language level, all students need to master these basic features if they want to speak clearly. Targeting Pronunciation is organized around eight practical pronunciation goals, or targets, that make communicating clearly in English manageable and strategic. It builds awareness and provides extensive practice with all aspects of pronunciation: intonation, stress, rhythm, and sounds. The text balances suprasegmentals (speech rhythm and intonation) with segmentals (consonant and vowel sounds) for achieving clear communication. Although suprasegmentals are emphasized because of their powerful impact on comprehensibility, segmentals are also well covered. Text Goals · To promote clear effective communication, with the understanding that native-like speech is neither an essential nor realistic goal for most people learning a new language · To reach beyond the classroom by providing home assignments that facilitate the transfer of speech changes learned in class to everyday conversation. · To encourage students to take responsibility for their pronunciation progress by identifying their most important targets, discovering and correcting their own errors, practicing on their own, and gradually incorporating the newly learned pronunciation into their everyday speech. · To promote self-confidence and increase the student's comfort when speaking English

Features 1. An assessment package available online for evaluating individual speech needs and setting priorities includes a listening survey, a goals survey, and a series of speaking tasks for recording and analysis. 2. Practical worksheets available for classroom use on the Targeting Pronunciation website build student responsibility and make it easy to provide feedback. 3. A wide variety of listening and interactive speaking activities sustain student interest. 4. Tips suggest ways to pronounce English more clearly and practice effectively with the audio program. 5. Detailed home assignments reinforce the work presented in class. 6. Communicative activities called Talk Time facilitate the transfer of pronunciation targets to everyday speech in real-life situations. 7. Student and instructor web sites include an answer key, an Instructor's Manual, and additional student practice material keyed to the chapters that students can use on their own or in a lab.

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Teaching Priorities · Suprasegmentals. Focus on the intonation and rhythm of English speech because these play a key role in comprehensibility and effective communication. Have students practice segmentals in meaningful, conversational contexts that also reinforce the speech rhythm and intonation. Multisensory approaches. Encourage students to move their bodies with the rhythm of speech as they listen and engage in choral practice. Movements can be large or small and should emphasize the focus words. Pronunciation experts believe that in order to master the rhythm of a new language, students need to accompany speech practice with some kind of rhythmic movement. In addition, auditory, kinesthetic, and visual modalities all play a key role in pronunciation teaching. Learner-centered classroom. Have students work frequently in pairs to provide more speaking practice. Have them monitor their own and their partner's speech and exchange feedback. Student independence. Most students do not meet their ultimate speech goals by the end of one pronunciation or oral skills class. Help them develop tools to continue the process of change and transfer after the class ends. They need good self-monitoring and self-correction skills in order to do this. Student responsibility. Build responsibility. Students are ultimately responsible for their own progress. They control their progress by how much they practice and how many risks they take trying out new pronunciation features. Audio program Improving student listening is essential to this text's approach to speaking clearly. Have students listen regularly to the text audio program on tape or CD. They also need to record and listen to their own speech. Listening to recorded speech gives students the opportunity to replay what they could not hear at first. Day-to-day speaking goes by too quickly for most students to successfully monitor speech in real time without this kind of training.

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Steps To Learning a New Accent To learn a new accent students need to understand what makes English sound different from other languages, retrain 146 speech muscles, change the way they hold their mouth, tongue, and jaw when speaking, practice on their own outside of class, and integrate new pronunciation into their everyday lives. This kind of learning is closer to perfecting an athletic skill or musical instrument than learning history or math. It takes time, practice, and a plan of action. The following steps are briefly described in the student text on p. 14, "Overview of Your Plan of Action." It is helpful for students to have an ongoing understanding of what they need to do to modify their accent. 1. Awareness. Targeted listening. Saturate the students with the sound of English speech while focusing their attention on the important targets of English pronunciation. Building awareness starts with targeted listening. Production. Following closely along with targeted listening, comes producing the feature, and choral practice. Students learn to produce the target pattern or sound under supervision and with guidance. Students listen and repeat the target in phrases or sentences along with the teacher and the class. Choral practice with many repetitions serves to stabilize the new sound or suprasegmental feature. This precedes other types of more independent practice.

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Reinforcement. In-class. Through more choral practice followed by partner practice, students reinforce and further stabilize the new sound or intonation pattern. They begin to develop self-monitoring skills during partner practice by saying short units of speech with well-defined monitoring targets. After-class. Structured home assignments further reinforce class work. Encourage students to practice with the audio program on their own, make recordings of their speech, keep a personal pronunciation glossary, and try out their pronunciation in real-life situations. Because the amount of listening and practice provided in class is usually not enough to move students beyond the awareness level, they need to listen and practice on their own. Make sure the new sound or pattern is stabilized before students go home to practice or they risk reinforcing the wrong pattern.

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Transfer. The last phase of changing an accent is transfer. Transfer takes time and happens gradually. Students cannot leap from awareness and class practice to permanent changes in their pronunciation. They need home practice and bridging activities directed at transfer. They also need the skills and tools for continuing this process on their own. Students who take risks trying out new speech patterns in their daily lives will make more progress.

Chapter Organization The text is divided into five progressive units. The first unit provides an assessment package and an introduction to what makes English sound different from other languages. Unit II focuses on words; Unit III focuses on phrases and sentences; Unit IV covers consonants and vowels. The eight pronunciation targets are introduced and practiced in Units I through IV. The last unit, "Putting It All Together," provides additional practice and exposure to conversational speech, including authentic speech samples. A Finishing Up section in each chapter includes a self-quiz, a Talk Times sequence, and On Your Own home assignments. There is a Progress Check after the last chapter in each Unit. The targets presented early in the book are recycled throughout the chapters as students increase their ability to monitor their speech, and gain more speaking experience and confidence. This recycling allows students to isolate and revisit sections that need more practice. You can choose from a variety of exercises in each chapter, making it easy to omit or repeat exercises to meet classroom needs or time constraints. If you alter the order or skip exercises, be sure to provide adequate background for exercises you present.

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II TEACHING TIPS Activity Types The chapters include a progression from controlled and guided exercises to more independent communicative activities. The Index of Activities lists page references for the different types of activities. The following suggestions relate to activity types found in each chapter. 1. Learn By Listening Improved listening will not guarantee clear speech, but speech cannot improve without it. Because people process what they hear through the filter of their original language, students need to develop the ability to hear the features of English pronunciation. Targeted listening for specific pronunciation features develops their self-monitoring skills. Saturate your students with the sound of English. Some students may need to hear the same sentence ten or more times before they master the pronunciation. Engage your class in listening combined with choral practice, or repetition with you and the class. Targeting Pronunciation provides a variety of targeted listening experiences that lead students toward discovering and correcting their own errors. 2. Improve Your Monitoring In activities called Improve Your Monitoring, students listen to a sentence and decide if a certain word or intonation pattern is correct. Students monitor for specific features, such as missing final sounds. These monitoring exercises focus attention on features students need to listen for in their own speech in order to discover and correct their own pronunciation errors. Students are not able to self-monitor in real time at first. They need to start by listening for errors, such as missing ed's in the speech of others and on recordings. These monitoring activities prepare students for listening for errors in their own recorded speech. Always have students follow any listening for errors or monitoring activity by saying the selection correctly. 3. Group Practice Combine listening and building awareness of a new feature with choral practice. Choral practice, or saying the target word or phrase as a class along with the instructor, reinforces and stabilizes the new pronunciation feature. This stabilization is an essential step toward transfer. Students who practice on their own must have the feature well stabilized or there is a danger that they will practice incorrectly and reinforce their old errors. For some time, Olle Kjelln, Norwegian neuro-scientist, author, and ESL teacher, has studied neuroscience as a basis for more effective pronunciation teaching. He has documented and explained the scientific basis for choral practice. At TESOL 2005, Dr. Kjelln and Judy Gilbert presented "Quality Repetition" discussing the benefits of choral practice. 4. Partner Practice After you present a teaching segment and reinforce the pronunciation of the target, have students practice with a partner or small group. This reinforces the target and the student's self-monitoring skills. Use this time to circulate, provide individual attention, and field problems that may arise. When introducing an exercise, you can be the first partner and model one or two examples with the whole class or with one student. Partner practice needs close supervision. Some partners complete the activity with good intentions, but can't monitor accurately. Some students may be hesitant to correct their partner. Encourage both partners to stay actively involved in monitoring and exchanging constructive suggestions. Switching partners can facilitate this. Suggestion: Arrange the desks in a circle. This sets up a friendly atmosphere and makes it easier for you to circulate among the groups. Give students an opportunity to work with different partners from different language groups during each class.

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Suggestion: Some students resist working with other students, especially those from other language groups. To help dispel this prejudice, talk about the benefits of developing monitoring skills by listening to the speech of others. Survey student attitudes. Distribute strips of paper and ask for anonymous short answers to questions, such as Tell one thing you like and one thing you do not like about partner practice or How could partner practice work better with this class? Look over the answers, share useful information, and have a discussion. 5. Join the Chorus Chants, poems, rhymes, and limericks said in unison add fun and variety to the lessons as well as provide an effective, pedagogically sound way to practice pronunciation and speech rhythm. Shyer students have the support of a group. Targeting Pronunciation has choral activities that emphasize the targets covered in that chapter, as well as revisit targets spiraled from other chapters. Using movement The group repetition of poetry and chants accompanied by movement works miracles in helping students internalize English speech rhythm. Always accompany teaching a chant or poem with rhythmic movements that signal the focus words. In the same way that learning pronunciation is learning the music of the language, teaching pronunciation is akin to directing an orchestra. As you become familiar with the chants, you will develop your own style for directing. Encourage students to join in by using whatever hand, foot, or body movements feel natural to them. Some students prefer a small movement such as tapping one finger, but most enter into the spirit more vigorously. Most people unconsciously move their head as they talk. Have students watch TV with no sound to see natural speech movement. If you are feeling adventurous, have students march around with a heavy step on the focus words to underscore the speech rhythm. Another advantage of using movement is that you can easily see the students who are having difficulty with the rhythm. Suggestions for teaching chants and poems 1. Become familiar with the chant or poem. 2. Have the class listen and repeat the chant along with you and the class, choral fashion, line by line. Go over the difficult portions. 3. Divide the class into two groups. Use choral practice and many repetitioins, saying the chant with your class. Start with a slower speech rate, but keep up the rhythm. 4. Switch groups. As the groups learn the chant, let your voice fade. Listen for problem parts that may need to be practiced individually. 5. Invite a pair or small group of students to perform the chant for the class. 6. Have students add their own verses when appropriate. Rather than finish all these steps in one class, start with steps 1 and 2. Have the students practice on their own, and finish the steps in a subsequent class. 6. Dialogues Have students listen to a dialogue and practice in unison many times before they practice with a partner. Suggested sequence for teaching dialogues 1. Play the tape of the whole dialogue numerous times and use choral practice one line at a time. 2. Have students practice with a partner as you circulate around the room to field problems. Remind students to listen to the dialogue several times on their own and to start by repeating one line at a time. 3. Ask two students to act out the dialogue for the class.

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4. You can extend the practice by having students add lines of their own to expand the dialogue. These dialogues can be used to practice targets other than the ones highlighted in the chapter. 7. Dictations Dictations can be handled as a self-quiz or as a group activity with the dictation given to the class. For consistency play the audio to present the dictation sentences. This activity can be fun and challenging for students, who focus on listening and learn what details they might not be hearing. Encourage students to listen several times to correct their own dictation before looking in the answer key. Suggestion: For variety, invite five students to each put one of the five dictation sentences on the board. Ask the class if anyone disagrees with any of the sentences and write the alternative suggestions. Then play the tape again and make final corrections with the whole class. 8. Sing Along Using songs to teach the suprasegmental features of speech is pedagogically sound as well as motivating because of the powerful connection between music and speech. Research shows that infants respond to the prosodic features of their mother's speech, even prenatally. Singing in English can help students to remember sounds and grammatical structures as well as internalize the speech rhythm. The songs in the book translate easily into speech and illustrate specific pronunciation targets. Have students listen and fill in or underline the focus words, and complete any exercises. Have students listen to the song until they can sing along, and practice saying the words conversationally. 9. Communicative Activities Each chapter has one or more communicative activity during which students generate language and monitor for one or more pronunciation targets. Some of these activities are more controlled than others. The main purpose of any communicative activity in a pronunciation class is to build selfmonitoring skills. Therefore, the communication itself should not be so challenging that it takes all the student's attention. Short, easy communications are optimum for encouraging monitoring. See the Index of Activities for the list of communicative activities. 10. Talks Some of the chapters assign short talks that give students a chance to express themselves in front of the class. The primary goals are to practice specific pronunciation targets, to improve monitoring, and to increase the student's comfort level while speaking English. Check the Index of Activities for the list of talk assignments. Tips for talk assignments 1. Keep talks short. Some students have difficulty monitoring for longer than 8 to 12 sentences. It is more efficient to help students with pronunciation when their talk is short. 2. Encourage students to use a tape recorder to prepare their talk. Have them listen to their talk on tape, decide what they want to improve, and re-tape it until they are satisfied. 3. If there is time, have students turn in a preliminary tape of their presentation. Return your taped suggestions in time to help students present an improved talk for the class. 4. Encourage students to talk from notes rather than read their talk. Students should know what they want to say, so that they can focus on their pronunciation. 5. Before giving their talk, have speakers tell the class which targets they are self-monitoring for.

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6. Give the listeners a task. Listeners gain by monitoring the pronunciation of the speaker. Have them take notes and provide feedback to the speaker. 7. Have the speakers prepare one or two short questions about their talk to ask the class when they finish. This will provide feedback about how intelligible or effective they were. 8. Videotape the talks whenever possible. Have students bring one videocassette for keeping a log of their talks. If there is not enough time to watch the videos in class, remind students to look at it on their own. When time permits, have students volunteer to show their video to the class to critique their pronunciation. 9. Use intelligibility as a criterion for when to correct or interrupt. Too many interruptions are counterproductive and defeating. However, there is no point in letting students proceed if they are losing their audience due to unintelligibility. 10. Create a relaxed atmosphere. Help students view talks as an opportunity to practice pronunciation and get individual help rather than as a test of their pronunciation skill. Some students like to work in pairs and are more comfortable in front of the class with a partner. You can also have students listen to a paragraph from the Website. Click on the link to Additional Listening on the student site. 11. Talk Times These communicative activities take place in real-life situations. The goal is to have students transfer skills they learned in class to their everyday lives. Talk Times are "bridging activities," an interim step between what goes on in class and fully automatic transfer and habit change. Talk Times activities have two parts: (1) an in-class preparation, usually a role-play and (2) the communicative activity itself. Students plan and then contact places in their community by phone or in person to get information, such as a music store, a restaurant, or a car rental agency. They monitor for 1-3 specific pronunciation features, such as word stress, compound nouns, focus words, or end-of-thesentence intonation. Criteria for Transfer Activities 1. Relevant. The task must meet a communicative need. You can let students come up with their own activity or do the ones offered in the book. Students often come up with relevant tasks and vocabulary for their workplace. 2. Preparation phase. Talk Times require a plan. Students practice for Talk Times using role-play or discussion. 3. Short speaking task with specific self-monitoring goals. Students cannot self-monitor for everything they say, so they need to pick out specific words or phrases and specific targets to monitor. Most students can sustain monitoring for about 1-2 minutes of speech. 4. Written self-assessment and follow-up plan. Students can plan and assess the Talk Times using Student Worksheet 2 from the Houghton Mifflin web site, or they can use a journal format to record their Talk Times experiences and comfort level as a record of their progress. Adapt Talk Times to the level of your class. Decide how much control your class needs for the preparatory activity. For example, students can (1) write and practice questions to ask during a Talk Times call, (2) write out an entire conversation, identifying the pronunciation targets they plan to monitor, or (3) talk from key words without writing out a script for the whole conversation. Even lower level students can carry out an appropriate Talk Time activity. For example, have them plan specific words to practice word stress in an easy situation, such as shopping at a market. They

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might plan to practice focus by using specific phrases, or ask for a compound noun, such as peanut butter or tuna fish. If you wish to introduce Talk Times, but don't have time for a full transfer program, assign one or two Talk Time activities, such as "The Message Machine" in Chapter 2 or "Shopping at a Market" in Chapter 3. Add as many the Talk Times as you have time for. Talk Times require support. Students vary in their motivation or willingness to do Talk Times. Explain that students who take more risks and responsibility for using their speech and for self-monitoring make more changes. Devoting a few minutes of class time for students to discuss Talk Times experiences can be motivating and make these activities more successful. Individualizing Talk Times. You may want to modify the Talk Times assignments in the text to meet special needs. For example: (1) Create Talk Times assignments for a work setting where students speak English. Find out challenging phrases and sentences that students say at work on a regular basis. (2) Have students practice pronunciation targets during conversations in the school library, the school cafeteria, or the administration office; (3) Students who live in a country where English is not readily available can get together with another student or friend to role play a Talk Times conversation. 12. On Your Own At the end of every chapter in Finishing Up, students are asked to practice with the text audio program and to make recordings of their speech. These key assignments develop self-monitoring and self-correction. New speech patterns can slip away quickly without the reinforcement of practice outside of class. Make sure that your students can produce the pronunciation target in class for an exercise before they practice on their own at home. Direct students to p. 20, Practice Tips for the Audio Tapes. 13. Paragraphs/stories I n addition to the targets they were designed for, use the following recorded paragraphs and stories from the text to practice a variety of pronunciation features. p. 125. Breakfast Conversation p. 122 The Photographer p. 215. A Creative Idea p. 179. Binti, the Heroine p. 192-3- Jesse Owens p. 208. A Family Mystery p. 217. An Ad for Delta Air Lines A-3 "Do you like Westerns? A-6 Paragraph "James" A-9. "Learning to Drive A-17 Paragraph "Learn about Shirley" A-22, Paragraph "The Beatles" A-23. Paragraph "Pets are Big Business." These recorded selections can be used in several ways, such as: 1. Have students listen and track the selection, then say the scripted selection for the class or a small group. 2. Have students listen and track the selection, then talk about it in their own words, either from notes or using free speech. Have them self-monitor for one or more targets, either of your choice or theirs.

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3. Create a "listening for errors" activity by reading the paragraph or story to the class. Insert errors, such as omitting final sounds. Have students mark the errors they hear on the written script. Record this sample so that you can replay the selection for the class as many times as necessary. After listening for errors, have students say the selection correctly and self-monitor. Note: You can find additional recorded paragraphs, poems, and dialogues, as well as the transcripts on the Targeting Pronunciation student web site. Open the link: Listening and Speaking Activities Suggestions for other activities · Drama Drama is effective for practicing pronunciation and the targets taught in the book. Use short (5-minute) scenes from a play, a movie, or a videotaped television "sitcom." Provide students with a transcript of the scene. If you have the video, show them the scene a number of times. Have them act out the parts and monitor for the targets. Use video to record the students' production. View the video with your class and analyze the pronunciation. · Role play In addition to the role plays in the book, create a role-play scenario with personal or family scenarios. Have students come up with ideas for the scene. · Improvisation Have students create a drama scene by giving them a scenario and having them act it out. If possible, videotape their improvisation and analyze the pronunciation with the class.

More Teaching Tips Student recordings and feedback For preparing talks and for general practice, students need to make tapes and listen to their own speech. Have them tape selections from the text, or tape speech that they have created. These taped speech samples should be short, about one or two minutes each. It is not necessary to assign long speech samples that are challenging to monitor. Students listen to their recordings, decide what they want to improve, and re-tape the selection until they are satisfied. You will find additional paragraphs and poems for students to record on the student website (http://college.hmco.com/esl/students) link to Listening and Speaking Activities. Use your judgment about how frequently you ask students to turn in tapes for your review and feedback. If time permits, listen to your students' tapes and send back recorded feedback to provide individual help. This also can improve your ability to hear specific targets and student errors. Make personal comments to your students and provide speech models on their tapes. Listening to tapes along with the student and encouraging them to listen for and correct their own errors is the best way to facilitate self-monitoring skills. Time constraints, however, can limit the number of individual feedback sessions. Scheduling feedback sessions with student peer groups or graduate students can also be helpful. Instructor Observation Worksheet 3. Photocopy and use this worksheet on the Instructor web site for reviewing student tapes and providing feedback. Correction strategies Correct your students' pronunciation ways that encourage them to discover their own errors and give more responsibility to the learner. Create a supportive atmosphere of trust where students don't feel that someone is trying to catch them in a mistake. See the following tips for correction. · Point out strengths as well as weaknesses. · Remind students that errors are part of progress. Praise them enthusiastically when they identify their own errors. It means that they are making progress. · Do not point out every error you hear. Direct the student's attention to specific targets that you have been working on. Most students can only listen for one or two things at a time.

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· Allow space so that the student can come up with the correction themselves. Sometimes all the student needs is a little time. · When you point out an error, model the correct pronunciation. Make sure that the student repeats the word or phrase correctly at that time and does not just nod or say yes. · When appropriate, encourage students to add a corrected word to their personal glossary and practice the word or phrase later. · When appropriate, give students verbal, hand, and humming cues to signal self-correction. Encourage them to replay what they said in their own mind or out loud before they try to correct it.

III WEBSITE WORKSHEETS. CHECKLISTS AND CHARTS Sample verbal cues: · Did you notice where you put the stress when you said that last word? or when you said the word c-o-m-m-i-t-t-e-e? (Write the word on the board.) or Try moving the stress to the next (or a different) syllable. · Try shifting the stress on the last word in your sentence, "I am on the finance _____________." · What did you notice about your end-of-the-sentence intonation on that last sentence ? · Try shifting the focus word in that last sentence about where you went yesterday. · Try saying the final -s (or -ed) sound in that last sentence and linking it to "at the store." · Can you tell what part of that sentence might be hard to understand? · Did you hear anything in that last sentence that you would like to correct?

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UNIT 1 GETTING STARTED Chapter 1. Improving Your Pronunciation

This chapter is divided into three parts.

Part 1 ­ Setting Goals

p. 1, Pronunciation Targets. Targeting Pronunciation is organized around these eight key pronunciation goals, or targets, listed here for students to refer to as they develop an awareness of what features they need to target in their own speech. When mastered, these features are the most likely to improve speech intelligibility and communication. This is a reference list, not as something to teach about at this time. Ask students to read the introduction and glance at the list. Chapters 2-10 build awareness and provide practice with these targets, or features. See "Identifying Your Targets," Instructor worksheet 2 on the instructor web site. This worksheet also gives you a chance to record assessment of their initial speech effectiveness level. Give this worksheet to your students to keep track of their most important pronunciation targets. p. 3, Goals Survey This survey makes a good opener for the first class. It gives students a chance to greet each other and talk about their pronunciation goals. You will have a chance to state your goals for this class. Students need a realistic idea of what can be accomplished and what is important. This book proposes that goal "a," to sound like a native speaker, is not important, realistic, or necessary for clear, effective speech. Some students may disagree with this. Explain that it is possible to be competent, self-confident, and comfortable in English and still have an accent that provides a clue to your original language and culture. It is also possible to speak clear, effective English and retain ties to your original language and culture. Suggestion: Tally the goals survey results on the board. Find out which goals are most important to your class. Find out which goals your students do not consider important or realistic. p. 4, Your Speech Effectiveness Level Ask students to rate their Speech Effectiveness Level. After you listen to their tape, let them know whether you agree with their assessment. This scale assumes that effective speech includes the correct use of grammar and vocabulary along with intelligible pronunciation. Sometimes students with fairly intelligible speech take a pronunciation class thinking that their accent is interfering with communication when it is really their grammar or vocabulary.

Part 2 ­ Assessing Your Pronunciation Priorities

Part 2 is devoted to assessment. There are both listening and speaking components. p. 5, Listening to English Survey Numerous native speakers who were given this listening survey scored 100%. It directs students to important parts of English speech that they may not be hearing clearly. It underscores the importance of listening for pronunciation features as well as content. The items on the survey are important to speech intelligibility and effective oral communication. The survey does not test global comprehension of spoken English.

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Administration Photocopy and distribute the survey on pp. 5-8 of the student book. It is better to play the audio for the survey rather than read it yourself. The timing will remain standardized. Do not repeat any items. Items are repeated when appropriate. Students need time to look over items 8 and 9 before they listen. Although time has been provided on the tape, you can pause the audio to allow more time for students to read the question through silently before they are expected to listen. This will minimize guessing. Scoring See the answers to this quiz below. There are 50 items on the survey. Multiply the number correct by 2 to get the listening score. If you use the survey as a post-class test, be sure that the items tested have been covered during the class.

Listening to English (answers)

1. Syllables. 1. _3 _ 2. _1_ 3. _3_ [6 points] 4. _4_ 5. _5_

2. Word stress. [6 points] Students circle the stressed syllable because underlining can be inexact and hard to score. 1. forgot 2. visitors 4. decision ate 5. appreciate

3 . a p p l i c a t i o n 6. u n d e r s t a n d

2. Important endings. [6 points]

1. a. 2. a 3. b 4. a. 5. b. 6. a.

4. Missing sounds. [4 points]

1. foe 2. made 3. moo 4. ray

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5. Reduced speech. [5 points] Accept as correct either the reduction or the full form. Students must include all the pronouns, etc. correctly to get credit. Do not take off for spelling errors. 1. I'd like to have it early 2. Is he sure she wanted it? 3. That's kind of hard to do. Accept kinna. 4. How much do you think you want to give? Accept wanna 5. Is he going to talk with her?

6. Focus Words.

[3 points] 1. How about buying one instead? 2. Not this week? 3. Try looking on the chair.

7. Focus Words. [8 points] There are 8 sentences. Mark the sentence correct only if the student underlines the one correct word. There are no alternative correct answers. A: What shall we do this weekend? B: I'd like to go to a movie. What do you want to do? A: I'd like to go to a movie. But only a funny movie. B: We did that last weekend. I'd rather see an exciting action film. How does that sound?

8. Phrases. [4 points]

1. He's sleeping. 2. I do. 3. He's a college dropout. 4. Please print out four copies. 9. Thought groups. [3 points] 1. b. Tom did not buy a new car. 2. a. The books cost $9 each. 3. b. Nancy is a doctor. 10. Intonation. [ 2 points] 1. finished 2. not finished 11. Intonation. [2 points] 1. the same 2. the opposite. 12. Intonation 1. I'd like cake, please 2. Yes, that would be great.

Listening Survey Scoring Give students their overall scores on the Listening to English Profile, Instructor Worksheet 1 on the Instructor website. Do not return the survey itself. Check the categories on the profile to indicate any items missed. Explain that low scores indicate a need for better listening to the parts of English that affect pronunciation and that their score does not indicate their overall comprehension of spoken English. Assure students that you will be covering the items on the survey as the class proceeds and that their listening scores will go up by the end of the class.

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At the end of the class, administer the quiz and give them their pre- and post-test scores to compare. Scores often go up 20-30 per cent or more. The answers to the survey are not in the student's answer key on the web site. This is to prevent students from studying for the post-class survey. During the final class, administer the Listening Survey again. Have the students correct their own tests and compare their new scores with their firsts scores. They will be amazed at their progress. Be sure to keep your own record of their listening scores until you administer the survey again at the end of the course. It is not advisable to give students the answers if you plan to administer the survey again. All that is important for students to know now is their overall listening score and the listening areas where they show weakness. Assure your students two things: 1. Their scores will improve dramatically at the end of the course. Students are often surprised and dismayed by low scores of 50, 60, and 70%. (For your information, most students improve between 10 and 40 points. Students with the lower scores show the most improvement.) 2. This survey does not assess their overall understanding of spoken English. It is directed at specific listening elements where pronunciation impacts on comprehension. p. 9, Pronunciation Survey: Making a Speech Tape This next section assesses pronunciation needs through a series of speaking tasks. There are four parts. 1. Introductions. 2. Reading. 3. Describing Pictures. 4. Talking about a topic. p. 9, 1. Introducing Yourself Students answer a few easy questions about themselves and their background. This serves a double purpose. It gives you a chance to assess the speaking level of your class and to get to know your students a bit. Students should be told not rehearse or write out what they have to say. Explain that this in not a test and that you need a true sample of their natural speech in order to help them set priorities. You can usually tell from listening to the tape which students have written out their response. p. 9, 2. Reading Have students read one of the two paragraphs aloud. Instruct them to read the paragraph silently first so that they are familiar with the content. Your ability to hear your students' errors clearly and to identify their priorities will sharpen as you listen to the same paragraph read by different students. p. 10. Describing Pictures Students describe the following story told by four pictures. Frame 1: A woman is shopping and goes into a coffee shop. Frame 2: She puts her bag down on a chair and has a cup of coffee. Frame 3: She finishes her coffee and starts to leave the shop, but forgets her bag . Frame 4: A man, maybe the waiter or a customer, sees her bag and calls to her. Encourage students to use their imagination and develop this story and make up as much detail as possible. Ask students to tell how they think the story ends. Who is the man? How does he succeed in getting the woman's attention? Why does she leave without her bag? Does she return later to look for it?

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p. 11. 4. Talking about a Topic Have students talk about one of the topics. It is more informative to have them talk longer about one topic than give short answers to a number of topics. Have students listen to their tape and answer a few short questions. Many students resist listening to their own voice on tape and need encouragement. Feedback for the Pronunciation Survey After you listen to the four-part student recording outlined on pp. 9-11, help students to identify their personal pronunciation targets and set priorities. For this first tape, students should get a general idea of high priority areas. Do not call attention to every error you hear. Returning their tape with your comments is a good way to provide feedback for this first assessment. The first tape can become part of an oral speech journal and can serve as a baseline to track progress. Fill out the Identifying Your Targets, Instructor Website Worksheet 2. Write a few examples you heard on their tape. Tell them your assessment of their Speech Effectiveness Level, their 3 most important targets. Describe some strengths and their priorities. Offer supportive comments. Listen to each tape and leave a brief verbal message for your students. They appreciate hearing your taped message. Most students don't have a clue as to what will help their speech. Point out the student's strengths, their most important targets, and model a few key items on the tape. The time for specific feedback to foster self-monitoring comes later, so don't overwhelm them by telling them all that is wrong. Be encouraging. This first tape gives you a chance to assess the overall level of your class, make contact with each student, and establish priorities. You can respond in a personal and friendly way. For example: I'm delighted that you're taking this class and have decided to learn more about English pronunciation. It sounds as if you had quite an experience getting to this country. Your English seems to be coming along quite nicely. I was able to understand most of what you told me. I hope that the class will help you feel more comfortable using English. Your plans for the future sound quite interesting. I hope you will reach your goals for this class and I look forward to guiding you in that process. Make a few general comments related to strengths such as: Your overall intonation in English sounds quite good. Your English is much better than you seem to think it is. I could understand most of what you said. I hope this class will give you more confidence. You are pausing and coming down in pitch at the ends of many of your sentences. Good! This is helping your speech to sound clear and organized. You seem to have a natural feeling for English speech melody and rhythm. I think this class will help you gain an even better understanding of how to use English speech rhythm and speech melody to make your speech easier to understand. Hearing student errors You will be amazed at how quickly you will improve your ability to analyze your students' pronunciation and hear the targets after you listen to the same passage read by different students. At first you may have to replay each tape several times. Soon you will be able to pick up the

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essentials right away. Most students need to start with word stress and focus. On the tape make comments such as: A good place for you to start is with word stress -- exaggerating the stressed syllable. Although you stressed the correct syllable in many words, listen to how these words should sound... Your speech will be easier to understand if you emphasize one important word in each phrase or sentence. This is called the focus word. Here's an example... Although I could understand most of what you said, your English would be even more clear and natural if you lengthened the stressed syllables more. For example, listen to these words... Although most of what you said was clear, I noticed a few compound nouns where the stress was not in the right place. For example... Your pronunciation is fairly clear, however I am hearing grammatical errors and missing words. This can interfere with how easily people understand your speech. Prioritizing the instructor's listening. Start by listening for one or two of the following high priority targets. It is not productive to focus on too many details at once for this first tape. Keep your ear on the big picture at this time. 1. Word stress. Students may not be emphasizing the stressed syllable enough or may be putting stress on the wrong syllable. You may often hear compound nouns with incorrect stress. 2. Focus words. Students may put the focus in the wrong place or may not indicate focus at all. 3. Linking and omitting sounds. Some students don't link words together properly because they are leaving off final sounds. This is especially noticeable if their past tenses or plurals are incomplete. 4. Thought groups. Thought groups are not something that students understand readily until you teach about it in class. For now, suggest that they need to pause more often. 5. Speech melody. Some students do not use enough melody to signal the important parts of English speech, such as the stressed syllable, focus words, or the ends of thought groups or sentences. 6. Stress and unstress. Some students do not give enough contrast between the stressed and unstressed elements in their speech. Other targets · Sounds. You may hear a number of other errors, such as incorrect vowel or consonant sounds. Circle these problem sounds on the Instructor's Observation form and give examples from the student's tape. Sounds are not usually among the first priorities because they are not as critical to speech intelligibility as the suprasegmental errors.

7. Grammar vs. pronunciation. Some students sign up for pronunciation classes thinking that their pronunciation makes their speech hard to understand. It may be the grammar that interferes. · Omitting words You may notice students who leave out grammatically important function words such as articles, prepositions, helping verbs, etc. This changes the speech rhythm because an unstressed beat is missing and can be distracting to those who know English grammar.

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p. 11. Part 3. Making Your New Pronunciation a Habit.

Part 3 sets the tone for making students responsible for their own pronunciation changes. To make significant progress with their pronunciation, students need to practice outside of class and incorporate the changes into their daily lives. This is called "transfer." If you are teaching the class for awareness only, the book works well for introducing and providing practice with basic pronunciation principles. Review Teaching Tips ­ Activity Types in this manual for more details about Talk Times and transfer. p. 11. Where do I start? Most students do not know what they need to do in order to change the way they talk. See pages 11-14 for an overview of what happens in class and after class. Explain that pronunciation changes take time. The number of changes and how long they take depend upon many things, such as how much students practice outside of class, how different their original language is from English, how many risks they take trying out new speech patterns, and how well they monitor their own speech. Discuss these elements for making changes with your class. 1. Self-monitoring 2. Talking in English 3. Using the audio program 4. Developing a plan of action. p. 12. Learn By Listening 1: Listen to a teacher talking One of the first steps for change is the willingness to take risks and use English. This friendly teacher encourages students to make Small Talk. The following transcript is not in the student book. Transcript of the Taped Lecture. Part One You've all been telling me how eager you are to improve your pronunciation. I'm glad to know that because I really want to help you. But, believe it or not, my first suggestion is going to send you right out of this classroom -- where you can be your own best teacher because one of the best ways I know to improve your pronunciation and practice your English at the same time is to make "small talk." Small talk is short safe impersonal conversation that can happen anywhere you happen to be. You could start a little conversation right here after class. Get to know the students in this class and other classes so that you can talk English with them. A lot of them probably want to practice speaking English, too. One safe topic is to talk about what happened in the class. "I thought the film we saw today was very helpful. What did you think of it?" An impersonal compliment is always a nice way to start a conversation. "That's a cool backpack you're carrying. It looks comfortable." "That's a beautiful sweater. What a great shade of blue." "That was an interesting talk you gave today in class." Perhaps there is a conversation group at your school where you can feel safe having informal conversations. If you happen to be at a shopping mall where people speak English, ask for directions to a certain store, or make small talk with someone in the campus bookstore. "Do you know if they sell sweatshirts here?"

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Instead of waiting silently in line somewhere, make small talk with someone else who's waiting, too. If you're waiting in line at the movies, you could say, "There sure are a lot of people who want to see this movie. I hope it's good!" If you're waiting with people at the bus stop, you can say something like, "I wonder when the bus is coming." Before you know it, you'll be in a short easy conversation. Transcript of the Lecture. Part Two There are many places where you can have a short conversation in English. Try it in the school cafeteria or during break time. Try it at work. But, one important reminder. Don't look around for people who speak your native language. I know it's tempting! But, the more you speak with people who don't speak your language, the easier it gets. The supermarket can be a great place to start a conversation, if you're in an English- speaking country. You might say, "Excuse me, do you know where I can find the tuna fish?" Or, if you're waiting to pay for your groceries, you could ask another customer, "Can you tell me what time the market closes?" People are usually friendly, and before you know it, you'll be making small talk! If you're waiting in line at the post office, talk to the person in front of you or behind you. Maybe you'll want to complain, "There's always such a long line here!" Most people love to talk about their pets. Wherever you are, if you see someone with a dog, try saying, What a beautiful dog! What kind is it? And before long, you'll be talking about dogs -or maybe cats or even goldfish. The weather is always a safe way to start a conversation. You might say, It sure is hot today, or What do you think of all this rain? Take charge of your own pronunciation training! You can make small talk just about anywhere. Be creative. Turn a shopping mall or the campus cafeteria or even a phone conversation into a "pronunciation classroom of the day." p. 12 Partner Practice: Small talk plan Students compare small talk in English to small talk in their native language. Guide your class to the topics that would be appropriate in this country, and make a list on the board. Point out the appropriateness of less personal compliments such as That is a pretty sweater or That talk that you gave was interesting, and the advisability of avoiding more personal compliments such as You have beautiful eyes. or I like the color of your hair. p. 13. Making the Most of the Targeting Pronunciation Audio Program The audio program, on audiotape or CD, is essential for improving pronunciation. It is through careful, targeted listening that students learn to identify their own errors and build their self-monitoring skills. They need guidance in how to listen productively. These instructions will open that discussion. Most students do not realize that they are better off practicing for a short period of time with good concentration every day than one longer session per week. Although a car may be a good place to listen to music or news, a car is not necessarily the best place to practice pronunciation unless it is quiet enough for students to hear the tape clearly. Whereas native speakers can fill in missing details, nonnative speakers need to hear them. Tracking Have the students track the speaker. To "track" is to say the selection along with the speaker. Many students will try to do this naturally. This effort to speak along with the speaker on the tape is a

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good way to master the rhythm. With time and practice, the tracking will get easier for each selection. Tracking the speaker on the tape is somewhat related to choral practice in class when students say the selection along with the instructor and the other students. See p. 74 for "The Talking Mirror," or "mirroring," which is tracking and moving with the speaker on video. p. 14. Reflection Journals. Keeping reflection journals has been shown to be highly effective for helping students take responsibility for their own pronunciation changes. This should not become a writing assignment. The emphasis is on "reflection," not grammar and sentence structure. Anything the student records or shares with the class about what happened deserves praise. Written or oral journals? Teachers who use reflection journals differ as to whether these should be written or oral journals. My feeling is that written works better. For many people, the process of writing stimulates a process of reflection better than speaking, especially when speaking a new language itself is a challenge. In contrast, listening to their own recorded speech is an important step to developing selfmonitoring and self-correction skills. The reflection, however, should not be inhibited by any kind of monitoring or focus on errors. Students like to look back at these journals. As a diary of their progress and comfort level using English. See the Student Web site for a sample Reflection Journal Worksheet. p. 15. On Your Own Ask students to complete three small talk conversations and report what happened. For example, set up student-to-student phone assignments when they can call another student in the class to exchange small talk about the class. Pair each student with someone from a different language background if possible. Use this opportunity to talk about phone etiquette. Some students need very specific information about how to get a phone conversation started Suggestion: For future calls, set up the phone calls as a chain where each person who receives a call has the name of another person to call. p. 15. Phone Meeting. Phone meetings are excellent for getting students talking to each other and speaking English. Whenever possible, pair students from different native languages. Most students welcome an excuse to talk to others in English in a safe way. You can vary these phone assignments. In this assignment, students explore memories and possible prejudices about English. Suggestions: 1. Have students complete the survey at home even if you do not have time for the discussion in class. It is interesting to read their comments. 2. Have students write background information on a standard index card (e.g, name, native country, language spoken at home or work, educational or career goals). Ask them to turn over the card and write why they are taking this class so you have a sample of their written expression. Suggestion: 3. Try a discussion technique called The Wagon Wheel. Have students stand in two concentric circles facing each other. Then have them introduce themselves to the person facing them and spend a minute or two talking about the first question. On cue, one circle moves one person to the left and everyone has a new partner to discuss the next question, etc.

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Chapter 2: Pronunciation Basics

Overview This chapter briefly introduces basic pronunciation features that are likely to improve the speech comprehensibility of most students. These targets will be recycled throughout the text. p. 19. Learn By Listening 3: Focus words It is important to start to encourage students to move as they speak, such as leaning forward or tapping their hand when they say the focus words. It is through accompanying speech with some kind of movement that people internalize the rhythm patterns of a new language. This theme will be repeated many times in the direction lines of the book. p. 20. b. Partner Practice: Finish the link When students leave off an "ed" or a final "s," it is not because they cannot pronounce "d" "t" or "s." They need help with the underlying feature of finishing words, linking, and clustering consonants. Missing sounds change the rhythm of the chunk of speech or thought group and can change the meaning of the word. For some students whose native language does not finish words and syllables with one or more consonants, the words "ate," "aid," "ache," aches," "aim," "egg," and "eggs" often all sound like "A." p. 18. Thought Groups Spoken language is organized into thought groups. Commas and periods give clues about the boundaries of some thought groups, but people make individual choices about where to pause and often pause in between these punctuation markers. Each thought group has these characteristics: (1) one focus word (2) a pitch change, and (3) a pause. The pauses and pitch changes within a sentence are not as noticeable as the ones at the end of a sentence. Have students trace the sweeping lines over the thought groups in the first two lines of the Edward Lear poem and listen to the farewell address by President Eisenhower to hear how pausing and phrasing can make English speech easier to understand.

p. 25. Learn BY Listening 5: End-of-the-sentence Intonation Words at the end of a sentence have special intonation patterns introduced here in terms of steps and glides. Many nonnative speakers do not come down low enough in pitch at the ends of sentences. Endof-the-sentence intonation along with steps and glides will be recycled throughout the book. p. 27. i. Join the Chorus When speaking or chanting along with a group, the individual learner miraculously learns the rhythm and melody more easily. Review the general instructions for Join the chorus in the Teaching Tips section of this manual. Direct the chant using hand movements that emphasize the focus word, and encourage your class to use some kind of rhythmic gesture as well. Point out the bold type for focus and the pitch lines that show intonation and the differences between what you see in print and what you hear. Students will get a feeling for the rhythm of these chunks of speech even if they don't repeat all the reductions. If this were a conversation, the second repetition of what do you WANT might sound like WHAT do you WANT? with an upward pitch line, asking for clarification. Although this rule is not taught until Chapter 7, p. 129, students can learn the pattern anyway through choral practice. p. 29. Sing Along: "Getting to Know You" Students listen to the song and fill in missing focus words. See activity types, Sing Along, p. 00 in this manual for more information about teaching songs.

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p. 30. k. Song Exercises Contrastive stress is only briefly mentioned in this exercises because it appears in the song. It will be practiced in Chapter 4 as part of Changes in Focus. p. 31. t. Talk: Getting to know your partner. Divide the class into groups of two or three. Have partners spend a few minutes in class interviewing each other. Have students exchange phone numbers so they can clarify information over the phone and check to make sure that their partner is coming to class the day of the introductions. Doing these introductions in pairs lowers anxiety about speaking in front of the class. Suggestion: Have the partners come to the front of the room and write their own names on the board before they begin their introductions. Start by saying "My name is ____________ and I would like to introduce my partner, __________." Do not correct anyone's speech during these introductions, but help clarify misunderstandings due to unintelligibility and take notes for your own information. These introductory talks can speed up your getting to know your class. See Activity Types, Talks, in this manual for more information about talk assignments. p. 32. k. Check Your Listening: Dictation Review the general instructions about dictations in the Teaching Tips section of this manual. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I'd like to have dessert and coffee with Kay. Do you like the plan that he made? The play didn't get started on time. Look at the rows of bushes by the door. There are a lot of interesting things in this box.

p. 33. Talk Times After they finish the in-class preparation, for more practice, students can practice their answering messages with a new set of partners and make a tape at home of their new message. Have students bring the tape to class to play their new answering machine message and get feedback from a group of students. See Activity Types, Talk Times, in the Teaching Tips section of this manual.

UNIT II WORDS

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Chapter 3: Stressing Syllables And Speaking Clearly

Overview This chapter introduces intonation and stress in single words because word stress is one of the cornerstones of English speech rhythm. Words are short, manageable units of speech, and the stress and intonation of multi-syllabic words match the patterns of many common short phrases. Most students are not aware of the stressed and unstressed elements of English words, yet misplaced word stress can cause misunderstanding even if all the sounds are basically accurate. Most of the examples in the pictures on p. 35 came out of real conversations. For example: a student was complaining about her ex-husband who had a lot of money, but wouldn't help her financially. Teacher: Student: Teacher: Student: Teacher: Student: So where is your ex-husband now? He's living in a jeep. A jeep? Why is he living in a jeep? He's working for the American government there. Oh, you mean the country of Egypt! Yes, a jeep.

Review Activity Types in the Teaching Tips section of this manual for suggestions. Suggestions for teaching word stress Word stress is taught best using multi-sensory methods. The more students move their heads, arms, and bodies the easier it is for them to internalize the speech rhythm. Have students tap, trace, hum, move their arms up and down, or stand up and sit down to match the patterns they learn on pp. 23 and 27-8. 1. Trace hand movements in the air as you demonstrate the stressed syllable for your class. Facing the class, use mirror image movement that goes from right to left. For example, on the word "Egypt" sweep your hand from right to left making a long movement for the first syllable, "E". Bring your hand down and close your fist to make a dot for the unstressed syllable "gypt." Invite the students to join you tracing the pattern, either in the air or on the desk. 2. Draw patterns on the board for words that you and your class generate, such the glossary words the students collect. (See the glossary form on p. 247.) Have students copy and trace the patterns. 3. Judy Gilbert uses rubber bands and kazoos to facilitate word stress.* Each student needs a thick rubber band and a plastic kazoo often available at toy or party stores. Demonstrate stretching a thick rubber band between your two thumbs. Pull your thumbs apart stretching the rubber band as you say the stressed syllable. Relax your stretch and bring your hands in as you say the unstressed syllables. Show students how to hum into the kazoo when they feel and hear the stress and intonation of the words. 4. Have students suggest words in their language, such as chocolate, that are similar to English words and then go around the room and have students say that word in their language. Contrast the intonation and stress of these words with the English pronunciation. p. 37. Learn By Listening 2: Two-syllable words Students start learning about word stress by tapping, humming, and tracing the patterns for twosyllable words. Although the stressed vowel is clear and easier to hear than the unstressed vowel, it still takes practice before students learn to raise the pitch and lengthen stressed syllables.

Judy Gilbert, Clear Speech (Cambridge University Press, 1994). Targeting Pronunciation, Second Edition Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

*

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p. 37. Group Practice 1: Unstressed syllables and schwa vowels Unstressed syllables in English often have schwa vowels. The schwa vowel is not easy for students to hear or say in words or sentences. There is more practice with schwa vowels in Chapters 5 and 11. p. 38. a. Partner practice: Look-alikes These "look-alike" nouns and verbs are spelled alike. The exercise illustrates the facts that most two-syllable nouns have stress on the first syllable and many two-syllable verbs have stress on the second syllable. Students figure out this guideline on p. 35. Other examples include REcord- reCORD and SUBjectsubJECT. The important thing is to make the nouns sound different from the verbs by lengthening the stressed syllables whether or not students say a native-like schwa in the unstressed syllables. Most students resist using the schwa. p. 39. b. "What am I?" In this partner practice, one partner chooses a name and a job from the list and asks the other partner, "What am I?" Students should emphasize the stressed syllable. Model and point out the schwa vowels in the names and occupations even though students may not say them. For additional less controlled practice, encourage students to elaborate the role play. p. 41. Learn By Listening 4: Three-syllable words The word patterns in boxes, used throughout the book, combine a visual and kinesthetic way of learning about stress. Have students trace the patterns with their finger as they say the words. The line is longer and heavier because the stressed syllable sounds longer and stronger. The line is also higher because the pitch is higher. An entertaining way to demonstrate English rhythm is to contrast it to other languages. Have a native Japanese speaker say the name of a city such as Nagoya. Contrast this with the Anglicized version, which stretches out and raises the pitch of the middle syllable NaGOya. Try this with the names of other cities in other languages. Most students have noticed how English speakers change the pronunciation of non-English names. It is good chance to point out how we all translate the pronunciation of words in a new language into the rhythm patterns of our original language. p. 41. Learn By Listening 5: Four-syllable words Have students listen, tap the rhythm, and repeat what they hear, concentrating on the stressed syllable. Although dictionaries may show a mark for secondary stress in some four-syllable words, this is best taught later as part of vowel clarity. p. 42. Group Practice 2: The Echo Game Use arm movements to practice word stress in three- and four-syllable words and phrases. Students enjoy this activity because of its chant-like quality and the movement. After they play the echo game, have students extend their practice. Have them make up short conversations using the phrases they just practiced. After you model this for the class continuing to use the arm movements, let the students work in small groups making short conversations. Examples:

1. Speaker: fantastic A: What's it made out of? B: It's plastic. 2. Speaker: acquainted A: What happened to him? B: He fainted. Echo: It's plastic. Echo: He fainted.

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3. Speaker: application A: Where should we meet? B: At the station. Other examples: 1. consented - I sent it. A: What did you do with the letter? B: I sent it 2. appropriate - I noticed it. A: They finally installed the phone. B: I noticed it. 3. interact - It's a fact. A: I can't believe what you are telling me. B: It's a fact. 4. define ­ at nine A: What time is the plane arriving? B: At nine. 5. arithmetic ­ a Christmas gift A: What are you buying the plant for----? B: a Christmas gift. 6. contradiction - Science fiction. A: What kind of book is that? B: Science fiction

Echo: at the station

For a less controlled activity that uses movement to practice stress in words and phrases, try Bill Acton's The Syllablettes. * (italics) Students negotiate with a group to figure out the movements for five postures with standing on toes as the highest level down to kneeling. These positions match the stress and volume in various phrases. Acton continues to be a leader in demonstrating the importance of kinesthetic techniques in language teaching. * Speak Out! Newsletter of the IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group. No. 22. p. 5-8, July 1998 p. 40. Figure out the guidelines: Two-syllable words Although there is no perfect way to know which syllable to stress when you see a new word, help your students figure out some of the guidelines. They may need help identifying the parts of speech in the examples given for two-syllable words. Stress the first syllable in most two-syllable nouns and adjectives. In the second example, stress the last syllable in many two-syllable verbs. There are exceptions to this rule in different English dialects. For example, "LOcate," and "DICtate" in American English break the rule. In British English "loCATE," "dicTATE,' etc. follow the rule. Dropping Unstressed Syllables You can point out to your students that some words commonly lose a syllable in informal conversation. Dictionaries usually show two pronunciations for these. Examples: AVerage / AVrage ---> av´r-Ij / avrIj vegetable vej t´ b´l / vej i t´ b´l Read the following words with the syllables dropped. Say the phrase after you say each word. 1. SAL-ry 5. SCEN-ry 2. CHOC-late 6. BUS-ness 3. CAM-ra 7. IN-tresting 4. FAV-rite 8. AV-rage

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p.46. Compound Nouns Compounds have a stronger stress and a higher pitch on the first element or word. The pitch falls on the second word, even in complex compounds such as AIRport TAX. This same intonation and stress can occur in some two-word adjective-noun combinations that aren't necessarily thought of as compound nouns, such as AIRPLANE TRIP or OFFice MANager. In sentences, one would say, I went on an AIRPLANE TRIP . not I went on an AIRPLANE TRIP, or She is the new OFFice MANager, not She is the new OFFice MANager . Although compound nouns are the most common, there are also compound verbs such as BAbySIT and TAPDANCE, and compound adjectives such as SECondHAND and AIR conDItioned. When these compound adjectives are used at the end of a sentence the stress usually shifts to the last word. I bought it SEcondHAND. Is the room AIR conDItioned? p. 49. i. Role play: Visitor with a shopping list. This is a chance to practice compound nouns in a guided activity. Students often need help saying the article or modifier that is commonly used before the nouns on the shopping lists (e.g., some peanut butter, a paperback, some hiking boots, or a rain coat). Give them practice saying these phrases repetitively choral fashion so they feel the stressed nouns and unstressed modifiers. For example, Say, "some hiking boots, some hiking boots, some hiking boots, some hiking boots, I need to buy some hiking boots . I need to buy some hiking boots," 8 or 10 times. p. 50. f. Join the Chorus: It's Missing, It's Gone As with all the chants, encourage students to listen and practice outside of class. Have students make up more verses looking for other missing objects such as a cell phone, raincoat, etc. p. 51. Self-Quiz. This self-quiz involves listening. Students listen to words of different lengths and write them under the correct pattern. Make sure the students understand the instruction. You can play the tape for the whole class or have them complete the quiz on their own at home. p. 54. Talk Times: Make your new pronunciation a habit. Asking for help at a market or store is a realistic and manageable first Talk Times assignment. Students can get ideas for making a grocery list from looking at newspaper ads or reading the labels on cans, bottles or boxes at the store. Read about Talk Times in the Teaching Tips section of this manual.

Chapter 4: More Intonation Patterns: More words

Overview This chapter augments the basic information about word stress in Chapter 3. It has information about using a dictionary and introduces additional word patterns, including prefixes and suffixes, that can help students predict the stress of related words. It compares descriptive phrases, names, and phrasal verbs with the compound nouns introduced in Chapter 3. These common English patterns deserve special attention because students often confuse them and this can contribute to lack of comprehensibility. p. 56-58. Dictionaries and Pronunciation Students need help using a dictionary for pronunciation and these pages should help them get figure out their own dictionary and how it shows pronunciation. Students learn how to identify the stressed syllable, but it does not attempt to teach all the consonant and vowel symbols.

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Vowel sounds The dictionary symbols for vowels vary from dictionary to dictionary. Most students are not able to consistently pronounce or clearly hear the fifteen different English vowels, so it is pointless to teach all the vowel symbols now. The only vowel symbol to teach now is schwa. If questions arise about vowels, model the word in question and explain that the important thing is to find the stressed syllable. Explain that they will learn more about specific vowel sounds later, and help students locate the sound key in the front of their dictionary for future use. Light stress (secondary stress) Although dictionaries don't always agree about the use of secondary stress marks, point out these marks so students can recognize them. Explain that another syllable sometimes gets a small amount of stress, but the most important thing is to emphasize the stressed syllable. Vowels in syllables with secondary stress are clear vowels, and sound low in pitch. The fifteen clear vowels are introduced in Chapter 5. I also recommend using a good online dictionary with high quality audio. Some online dictionaries provide audio pronunciation models that are not natural. In making this choice, listen for adequate pitch changes, clearly stressed syllables, flaps, and, mainly, natural pronunciation. There is at least one online dictionary currently available on the web. p. 60. Learn By Listening 2: Related Words Practicing these groups of words until they become automatic will help students predict the correct pronunciation when they encounter new words with these suffixes and prefixes. Suggest that the students add to the lists, use the words in phrases and sentences, and use a dictionary to find more groups of related words. p. 62. Descriptive Phrases; p. 64. Phrasal Verbs; p.67. Names Students learn to recognize these two-word combinations by listening for their intonation and stress, rather than by defining them grammatically. Most students are not accustomed to listening to intonation for clues about meaning. Learning to tell these types of phrases apart by their intonation and stress patterns adds considerably to a student's auditory understanding of pronunciation features and what makes English speech easier to understand. The purpose of this chapter is to tune the student's ears to these various two-word intonation and stress patterns so that they can begin to monitor their own speech for these. The two-word combinations in this exercise function as independent phrases that are pronounced differently from the compounds. The classic example contrasting a descriptive phrase and compound noun is white house and White House. Other examples are

HOT DOG-HOT DOG BLACK BOARD­BLACKBOARD GREEN HOUSE-GREENHOUSE

Some two-word combinations appear to be compounds, but are pronounced with the stress on the second element or word. These sound like descriptive phrases. Examples: INstant COFfee

FROzen YOgurt

In contrast, some two-word adjective-noun combinations that look as if they might be pronounced like descriptive phrases are pronounced with compound intonation. Examples: COLlege STUdent MOvie THEater

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You can't always tell from looking at an adjective and a noun whether they will be pronounced as a compound or as a descriptive phrase. You have to listen to be sure. These differences in intonation are not necessarily logical. Some words have changed to compounds after years of usage. Some compounds, such the many computer compounds, were created that way. What is pronounced as a compound can vary with different dialects. Some Americans say CHICKen SOUP, MUSHroom SOUP (compounds). Others say CHICKen SOUP, MUSHroom SOUP, pOTAto SOUP (descriptive phrases). Extra practice with descriptive phrases Game: "I went to the store..." · Divide into teams. One person on each team adds a descriptive word. Be sure students make the last word in the phrase the focus word. When one team can't think of another word or can't remember the sequence, the second team wins that round, gets a point, and starts a new sentence. Each team has one minute to answer. · Link and reduce "an" before words that begin with a vowel. Example: an apple, an enormous apple. Say each sentence as if you are the first speaker with all new information. The focus is on "apple." Team A: I WENT to the STORE / and BOUGHT an APple. Team B: I WENT to the STORE / and BOUGHT a RED APple. Team A: I WENT to the STORE / and BOUGHT a CRUNCHy RED APple. Team B: I WENT to the STORE / and BOUGHT an eNORmous CRUNCHy RED APple. p. 66. Join the Chorus: Wishes To prepare for the chant, have students listen and repeat these descriptive phrases in choral fashion. a hungry tiger the sleeping baby a shiny car the mushroom omelette the gorgeous sunset the kitchen table p. 69. Sing Along: "This Land is Your Land" After listening to the song and completing the song exercises, you can have students say and sing the verses in choral fashion until the rhythm of the words feels automatic. For an independent activity, they can talk about a scenic place they have visited either in this country or another country. They should monitor for focus words, word stress, and/or linking the past tense. This level of self-monitoring is more likely if they write out their talk, or have time to rehearse it using a tape recorder so they can monitor the audio before they monitor in real time. p. 71. o. Dialolgue: "A Great Weedend" This is a good dialogue for practicing compound nouns and the other two-part phrases as well as intonation. After listening, choral practice, and working on the dialogue at home, have different pairs of students come up and dramatize the dialogue using video. the cloudy sky a rainy day a falling star some fried potatoes an apple pie

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UNIT III Phrases and Sentences Chapter 5: Speech Rhythm, Stress and Unstress

Overview When students become comfortable emphasizing the stressed words and weakening the unstressed words, their speech rhythm and intonation sounds more natural. Their speech is easier to understand. Sentence stress directs attention to the meaning because the important words are prominent. In the sentence I FOUND a DOLlar in my POCKet, the stressed words are FOUND DOLLAR POCKET. However, not all these stressed words receive the same amount of stress. English sentences have three levels of stress: (1) strong stress (focus words); (2) stress (content words); and (3) unstress (structure words). As shown in the Key to Symbols, p. xi, Targeting Pronunciation frequently uses graphics to show these. The rules for sentence stress are divided in half: (1) Focus Words: The Basic Pattern at the beginning of a conversation, and (2) Changes in Focus that occur as conversations proceed. Although this chapter presents some guidelines, changing students' pronunciation and mastering the speech rhythm of English, requires more than understanding the rules. Accompany the rhymes, chants, and dialogues in this chapter with arm, foot or body movements such as tapping or tracing to reinforce English speech rhythm automatically. Encourage your students to move with the rhythm of their speech in any way that they are comfortable. Use choral practice with numerous repetitions whenever possible. Encourage students to track, or speak along with, the speaker when practicing on their own with the audio program. Review Activity Types in the Teaching Tips section of this manual. p. 80. Predicting Stress: Chart This chart shows examples of the different parts of speech that are stressed and unstressed. This can make it easier for students to predict the words that will receive stress. Students usually need guidance using the chart, especially if they do not have a good command of grammatical forms. p. 81. Group Practice 3: Identifying stressed words Students first listen to the sentences and underline all the content words, including the focus words (i.e. the content word with the most emphasis). At this time, this is easier for most students than predicting the stressed words before they listen. Then have students compare answers with a partner and use the previous chart to discuss the parts of speech of the words they underlined. Suggestion: Make a transparency of this exercise and teach it using an overhead projector. After students listen and repeat each sentence, refer to the chart on p. 63. Ask your class to identify each word in the sentence as stressed, unstressed, or the focus word. For example: Is "I"stressed or unstressed? What about "put"? What about "brakes"? Which is the focus word? Underline all the stressed words and then circle the focus word on the transparency. Many students appreciate this concrete explanation for stress and unstress. p. 81. b. Partner Practice: Structure words Structure words build and connect grammatically. Although less important to the meaning than content words, structure words are important to speech rhythm, as well as syntax. Have students practice these sentences first by saying the content words alone to get the meaning. Then use whispering to contrast stress and unstress. Practice the sentences by saying the content words out loud and whispering the structure words.

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p. 82. Group Practice 4: Walking the rhythm This exercise, new to the revision, is good pedagogy. Body movement, including walking in rhythm with speech emphasizing the focus words, is an excellent way to help master the rhythm patterns. Use this technique to accompany other poems or paragraphs. Start by marking the script with slashes for pauses and underlining the focus words. p. 83. Focus Words: The basic stress pattern This segment provides guidelines for the basic focus pattern that is used at the beginning of an idea or conversation. You can hear this basic pattern in most narratives and public speeches. The focus word is the most prominent content word in each thought group and draws the listener's attention to new and important information. It is often the last content word. There may be other stressed words in the thought group, as shown by exercises "c" and "d," but there is only one focus word. Emphasizing the correct focus word is important to speech intelligibility. Most students need a lot of listening, repeating, choral practice, and reinforcement with movement before they can use focus more appropriately. It is helpful to compare the stress in short phrases with word stress, as in The Echo Game on p.421. In illustrating Guideline 2, you can give examples such as the following to show how the focus word is usually the last content word. It stopped beeping. The beeping stopped. She answered quickly. She quickly answered. It is red, white, and blue. It is blue, white, and red. The following chart contrasts some typical native choices for focus with some possible nonnative choices. Notice how your students use focus so that you can help them discover their own errors. Pay attention to whether they choose the wrong focus word or show too little focus. Typical native speech · I NEED some HELP. · Our proFESsional STAFF / will be HAPpy to asSIST you. (two thought groups, two focus words) Possible nonnative speech · I need SOME help, · Our PROfessional staff / will be HAP-PY (equal stress) to ASsist YOU. (two thought groups, nonstandard word stress and focus).

p. 85. e. Partner Practice: Focus words As they listen to these short conversations, have students underline the focus words. The physical act of underlining reinforces the rhythm kinesthetically. Then they should repeat these short conversations along with the speaker on the audio, or with the teacher and the class in choral fashion. p. 86. f. Join the Chorus: "What's Happening?" Students enjoy practicing these everyday greetings and expressions such as "on top of the world," "things have been going well," etc. In addition to the footnoted idioms, "my patience is wearing thin" (getting weaker, diminishing) and "time has been flying by" (passing quickly) may need explaining. Don't be disappointed if students don't repeat the reductions exactly as one might hear in native speech. The rhythm of the chant and the choral practice will facilitate a natural speech pattern regardless. As in all chants, move with the rhythm emphasizing the focus words and use choral practice with a lot of repetitions of individual phrases. p. 89. Changes in Focus The rules for focus vary after a conversation gets underway. The most consistent way to explain this is in terms of old information and new information. Generally, new information gets the focus and is prominent. When the focus word is repeated in a subsequent sentence, it becomes old information and recedes. These variations are often difficult for students to master. It becomes easier for students to hear the changes in focus once their ear is familiar with the basic pattern (i.e. when the focus word is the last

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content word). The remaining exercises in the chapter show some of the common ways that focus can vary in conversations. p. 89: Learn By Listening 6: Guidelines for shifting the focus Guidelines are given to help students recognize some of the more common contexts that show changes in focus and some of the times when structure words might get stressed. Use choral practice. Use your hands and arms to demonstrate the direction of the intonation shown by the arrows. Some students may need more practice with these, so here are ways to elaborate this exercise. p. 91. i. Partner Practice: Short conversations Students are asked to complete conversations and practice examples of the guidelines for changing the focus. Have different partners present their dialogues for the class. p. 92. Returning a question Expand this activity. Write some topics on the board and have students compose questions to ask their partner. Sample topics: vacation; time you get up; favorite class, movie, city, etc. A: When is your vacation? B: In July. When is YOUR vacation?

p. 93. j. Partner Practice: Contrast the basic pattern with changes in focus The interesting thing about this exercise is for students to see the same sentence and hear the pronunciation change to match the initial statement or question. p. 94. i. Partner Practice: Giving a choice After listening to the rules and examples, ask students to finish these dialogues with different, appropriate responses to choice questions. The repeated auditory model is more important than explaining the rules, so provide a lot of repetitions and choral practice for each example. You might decide to model the first item or two for the whole class with a student as your partner. Students listen to a series of dialogues illustrating the guidelines for shifting the focus. Use choral practice and many repetitions to teach the pattern. Then have students practice on their own with a partner. Expand this activity. Ask the following questions that tell you to pick one of the two things and help students respond appropriately. Some students need to hear these questions many times before they can give the appropriate answer. A: Do you want pie or carrot cake? B: I don't want pie OR carrot cake, but I'd like a piece of fruit, please. A: Would you rather leave now or in the evening? B: I'd rather wait and leave in the evening. Suggestion: Pass out index cards with answers for questions giving a choice (either-or questions). Have a student ask the appropriate question.

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Examples Card (answer): I like to read the news in the paper AND watch it on TV. Question: Which would you rather do, read news in the paper or watch it on TV? Card (answer): I don't plan to walk to my friend's house OR ride my bicycle. Question: Do you plan to walk to your friend's house or ride your bicycle? Card (answer): I want to take the history class. Question: Which do you want to take, the history class or the English class? Card (answer): I don't like broccoli OR cauliflower. Question: Which do you like better, broccoli or cauliflower? You can vary this by giving students the question such as Do you like cats or dogs? or Do you like jazz or folk music? and having them come up with an answer. You could also include some yes-no questions for contrast. p. 95. m. Talk: You're the expert In giving this short talk about a simple familiar procedure, students have a chance to concentrate on their pronunciation. Make sure that they emphasize the focus words so that their main ideas are clear. See the Teaching Tips about Talks. p. 99. Conversation Strategies Building student independence and self-confidence is an important goal for pronunciation training. Discuss these strategies and any others you might have with your students. Talk about the connection between what students learn in class and their real life communication. Perhaps give a journal assignment describing what happened when they tried to clear up a misunderstanding. Ask students to write about an experience they have had when someone did not understand them and what they did.

Chapter 6: Vowels and Speech Music

Overview You can't separate vowel sounds from speech rhythm and intonation. It is the stressing and unstressing (weakening) of vowel sounds that produces characteristic English speech rhythm. Changing the pitch of the vowel syllable produces intonation. Vowel sounds glide, lengthen, and shorten. Native speakers often reduce the vowels in weak syllables to schwa. Most other languages don't reduce vowels as part of speech rhythm the way we do in English. Although schwa is the most common sound in English, don't be surprised if your students have difficulty saying these weak vowels. Most nonnative speakers can learn to produce a schwa sound rather easily in isolation or in stressed one-syllable words such as bus or fun. However, these same speakers may find it hard to say a reduced neutral vowel. Speech becomes easier to understand when speakers make the contrast between the stressed and unstressed syllables very strong, even if the vowel sounds themselves are not exactly native-like. Lengthening and raising the pitch of the stressed syllable or vowel can clear up many misunderstandings. Some students may want to practice specific vowels on their own. Have them see Appendix B, p. A-12 for practice with vowel sounds. For teaching tips for the various activity types in this chapter, see Activity Types in the Teaching Tips section of this manual.

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Suggestions for teaching vowels: · Fifteen different clear vowel sounds can be overwhelming to learn and time-consuming to teach, especially in an introductory class, so teach the fifteen vowels gradually without a lot of time consuming drill. Use the vowel phrases on p. 108 described below. These key vowel words to gradually familiarize students with the sounds of the fifteen vowels. Display a large vowel chart such as the one on p. A-12, and refer to it whenever needed. Refer to the vowels using the numbers on the chart and the key words. For example, in correcting your student's speech, you might say, Try saying that word using the Number 9 vowel, as in' two.' Include vowel practice as you teach vocabulary and word stress. Model vowel sounds and identify them by number` as needed, such as when discussing personal glossary words or teaching pronunciation along with new vocabulary.

· ·

· ·

p. 101. b. Communicative Activity: Countries and names Students learn to weaken unstressed syllables gradually. The purpose of this exercise is to build awareness of stress and unstress in common names. In this role-play, encourage your class to emphasize the stressed syllable and make it sound much longer than the unstressed syllable. p. 102. Learn By Listening 2: Reducing structure words This is an awareness activity. Students hear the contrast between the way the structure word is said alone with a full vowel and how it sounds in conversation when it is unstressed due to speech rhythm. Before students use reductions they have to hear them. Explain that any vowel can sound like // when it is unstressed. The exact phonetic sound that native speakers say in unstressed syllables is somewhat idiosyncratic and can vary according to their speech rate, their dialect, or the situation. The unstressed vowel in some words can sound closer to /I/, as in Africa. According to Celce-Muria, Brinton, and Goodwin, North American English actually has four reduced vowel sounds that occur in unstressed syllables, /I/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. It is the lack of clarity about exactly what a schwa sounds like that gives it the title, unclear vowel. p. 103. c. Improve Your Monitoring: Listening for reductions This listening activity can be hard for some students. They may need to listen several times. p. 104. Questions and answers Students often resist using reduced vowels. Discussing these questions and answers can be helpful. When students realize that reduced vowels are part of speech rhythm and make English sound natural native-like, they are more willing to use them. However, adopting them as part of an automatic speech pattern takes time and practice. This happens gradually,. p. 104. Learn By Listening 3: What's the difference between can and can't? The main difference between can and can't used as a helping verb is the vowel sound. I can go. (schwa) I can't go. (#5 on the chart on page p. A-12, as in FAT). Pitch and stress are crucial as well. When nonnative speakers say can with a clear vowel and raise the pitch, it sounds stressed and like can't. Teach students to lower the pitch as well as shorten the vowel for can when used as a helping verb. Sometimes in teaching how to say can, it's easier for students to think of it without any vowel as in /k'n/.

Celce-Murica, M., Brinton, D., Goodwin, J., Teaching Pronunication (Cambridge University Press, 1996) p. 108. Targeting Pronunciation, Second Edition 32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

p. 108. Learn By Listening 5: Overview of American English Vowels This exercise sets in motion a process for teaching vowels that is different from methods that were used historically based primarily on minimal pair practice. It starts during the first class with choral practice. Students, without looking at the words, say the following vowel phrases along with the speaker. These are a slight variation of phrases that were introduced by Joan Morley more than 25 years ago. SEE IT SAY YES a FAT BIRD at a BUS STOP TWO BOOKS SHOW the BOSS HI, COWBOY Repeat this choral practice, taking about a minute, during each subsequent class. After a while, students see the phrases and begin to associate them with numbers. This system of numbers identifying the fifteen vowel sounds can be picked up as you teach vocabulary and grammar. For example, with the words possible, opposite, hospital, not, or optical, as in the dialogue on p. 118, point out that the spelling of these words doesn't provide a clue that this is the #8 vowel, as in stop. You might say: You have to open your mouth to say the number 8 vowel. p. 109. Learn By Listening 6: Long Vowels. Dividing vowels into two main categories, long and short, is a slight deviation from traditional categories because it combines diphthongs with other "long vowels." This simplification is practical and easy to understand. Many NNS shorten long vowels because most languages do not have vowels that glide or move, so this distinction is a reminder to tighten the tongue or move the tongue backward or forward. Use choral practice and many repetitions to say the sentences for each long vowel sound. p. 110. Moving Your Mouth for English: Contrast three long vowels. This exercise and pictures shows how the lips and mouth move along with the tongue to pronounce the vowels in SAY, SHOW, and HI. p. 113. Partner Practice This "minimal pair" activity contrasts the stressed schwa with a clear vowel /a/. Sometimes practice with the stressed schwa helps students hear the unstressed vowel more easily. Point out that /a/ is often spelled with an "o". (e.g. pot, possible, modern, a lot, opposite, etc.) Students often pronounce this vowel closer to an "o" sound because of the spelling. Have the class practice listening and saying these key words and sentences with you before they do the speaking activity. Additional practice: Give students this list of common words pronounced with // in the stressed vowel: country, mother, brother, love, suffer, puzzle, and trouble. Call attention to the spelling and the difficulty of predicting what a vowel will sound like from looking at the written word. Have them add more words to the list and make up sentences using the words. Here are more common contrasts between these vowels: nut-knot; custom-costume; duller-dollar; bucket-pocket; stuck-stock; fund-fond. Have students work in pairs making up sentences and practicing these words. Spelling vowel sounds: Look on the web site for a supplement about spelling tips. It provides examples of spelling variations for different vowel and consonant sounds. p. 114. Learn By Listening 8: Unstressed Syllables with Clear Vowels Most words have schwa vowels in the unstressed syllables. In this exercise, students listen to words with clear vowels in the unstressed syllables, a subtle aspect of unstress. They contrast these words with similar words with an unstressed schwa vowel. Some students over generalize and use a schwa vowel in all unstressed syllables. This shortens the clear vowel. For example, they may say c'mPAIGN instead of camPAIGN. Point out the unstressed clear vowels in the examples: comment (/@/) mandate /ey/ baking /iy/ progress /@/; weekend /@/; concrete /a/

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p. 117. l. Story: "Breakfast Conversation" In Breakfast Conversation, as in dialogues, have students listen, repeat in choral fashion with the teacher and the class, and repeat again one line at a time before they practice the selection on their own. First, have students pay attention to stress by underlining the focus words before they try to notice unstress. Then have them monitor for unstressed words with schwa vowels. The preparation for this story is not on tape, so provide as much modeling for your class as they need by saying the words with the raised schwa vowels. Suggestion: Assign each student one of the eleven sentences to prepare at home. Videotape the class saying the story. Watch the video as a class and give each student a chance to comment or improve his own line before the group comments. This is a lot of fun and is an excellent way to improve monitoring. p. 118. n. Partner Practice: Scrambled proverbs After completing the dictation for the proverbs on p. 117 and discussing their meaning, have students practice saying them in two thought groups. Additional practice: Assign vowel numbers to the bolded stressed syllables in the focus words. For example, HAND = vowel #5 vowel. TIME = vowel #13 EGGS = vowel #3. p.120. p. . Talk: A proverb and a personal experience Make sure students keep their talk short. See the tips about talk assignments in the Teaching Tips section of this manual. p. 121 Dictation 1. You can't have everything you ordered. 2. We ate our breakfast on our patio. Say the reduction: on `r. 3. He lived on a big estate in Texas. 4. Do you agree with it or not? 5. He was arrested in the morning p.122. On Your Own. 2. Recorded practice. The Photographer The paragraph "The Photographer" provides listening and speech practice with a large concentration of schwa vowels. It is a demanding controlled production activity for those who want to tackle all these schwas. When working on their own, have students listen and track the speaker at least 10 times. If you have time in class to prepare for this home assignment, play the tape and have students track the speaker with you. After listening and tracking, remind students to practice the paragraph one line at a time by putting their tape recorder on pause before they attempt to tape the whole paragraph.

Chapter 7: Sing Along. The Melody Of Speech

Overview This chapter offers guidelines and practice with some ways that melody provides important information in English speech. Pitch and melody have been recycled throughout all of the chapters to date, however Chapter 8 has more details. Unfortunately, many nonnative speakers miss subtle communication cues because they are not familiar with the ways intonation can affect meaning. Similarly, listeners can misunderstand the intentions of, or feel annoyed, by some nonnative speakers, not because of their language limitations, but because their intonation may be inappropriate, too flat, or too choppy. Intonation can carry emotional messages over and above the words themselves, and therefore can inadvertently give the wrong message. It takes time to internalize all the ways that intonation can influence meaning and emotion in English speech. The best way to start is with listening.

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Review Activity Types in the Teaching Tips section of this manual for suggestions. Tips for teaching intonation and natural speech · Use hand movements as you teach and talk. The text uses visual cues such as contour lines to show intonation and bold type and capital letters to show stress. · Although the speech you model should be natural, use a moderate speech rate with prominent focus words. This helps nonnative speakers to sort out the many variations of English intonation. Later they will be better able to understand more rapid speech with fewer cues. · Use a lot of repetitions and choral practice where students repeat the more subtle intonation patterns along with the teacher and the class before you expect students to reproduce these on their own. · Don't try to cover too much in an introductory class. The more subtle aspects of intonation may have to wait for a follow-up course. Suggestion: Show the class a video of very short scenes from a TV sit-com or drama. Go over the scene line by line discussing the intonation. Transcribe the scene and have students act it out from the script. After seeing the video a number of times, they will memorize the intonation and continue to improve their performance. p. 140. Common Expressions - Little songs Reductions are unfamiliar and uncomfortable for many nonnative speakers, and careful listening helps students get used to them. Although students may be interested in looking at the book to see which sounds have been altered, they also should first listen with their books closed and repeat in choral fashion. p. 141. How much melody do people use? For the many students who are uncomfortable with the melody variations of English speech, learning to use more speech melody is challenging. Some students come from language backgrounds such as Korean or Japanese where both men and women are taught that too much melody is unseemly. These people need to be reassured that in English, variation in speech melody is important and appropriate. Comparing what sounds appropriate in their native language and in English makes a good discussion. A speaker who uses an animated voice sounds friendly and interested. On the other hand, too little speech melody can make the speaker sound unfriendly, distant, or even angry or annoyed. Speakers who fall to a lower pitch at the end of a sentence tend to sound more certain and convincing than speakers whose pitch line trails off. Male students may express discomfort with speech melody because they associate melodious speech with sounding feminine or emotional. These students benefit from hearing good male speakers using normal melody variations (levels 2 and 3) in English. Male speakers on television or radio can provide excellent models for male speech with a lot of melody variation. p. 124. Group Practice: Conversation with Melody In this conversation between neighbors, Neighbor B uses intonation rather than words to communicate. Have students act out this scenario in front of the class. p. 126. a. Improve your Monitoring: Finished and unfinished sentences This exercise, as do the other monitoring exercises, asks students to make a decision about what they hear. This helps students to develop the skills they need in order to hear their own errors and take responsibility for correcting them. In this case, they are listening to end of the sentence intonation to decide if the speaker sounds finished. Speakers can sound unfinished and tentative when they do not fall low enough in pitch at the end of a sentence. Additional practice with finished and unfinished sentences Give your students examples of a sentence that sounds unfinished and a sample ending. Then ask them to finish other sentences using a falling pitch line.

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Examples 1. Unfinished: They left town quickly.... Finished: They left town quickly, before they sold all their furniture. 2. Unfinished: I thought the rent included utilities... Finished: I thought the rent included utilities, but I was wrong. 3. Unfinished: Before they left town... Finished: Before they left town , they sold all their furniture 4. Unfinished: I submitted the report yesterday. Add more: I submitted the report yesterday _______________

5. Unfinished: I used my credit card to buy a computer. Add more: I used my credit card to buy a computer _____________________ p. 131. Learn By Listening 2: Answering questions with a slightly rising pitch line In recent years there has been a trend for some speakers to respond using a rising tone in sentences that would normally fall in pitch. This tone has been named "upsweep." Although it is not clear what started this trend, which is more common among younger speakers, most agree that it projects an air of deference that is lacking in authority or certainty. This listening activity along with others in this chapter can help students understand how intonation affects mood and how the listener can draw certain conclusions about the speaker from his intonation. Example A: Where do you work? <down arrow> B: At the Student Store. p. 146. Intonation Variations This chapter gives only a few of the ways intonation can be varied to change meaning. Students need a lot of listening to become familiar with basic patterns before they hear the more subtle variations You might review the dialogues in "Changes of Focus" (Chapter 4, p. 71), paying attention to the pitch changes on the focus words. For more practice, print out and demonstrate the following phone conversation for your students. Speaker B's words stay the same, but the meaning changes by changing the intonation and the focus words. A: Hello. I'd like to make an appointment this week with Dr. JAMES. B: I'm SORry, but Dr. James doesn't have any appointments until MARCH. A: Why not until MARCH? This is only JANuary. B: I'm SORry, Dr. James doesn't HAVE any appointments until March. (Answers "why.") A: Really? I only need a very SHORT appointment. B: I'm SORry, Dr. James doesn't have ANY appointments until March. (short or long) A: Can't I POSsibly get an appointment sooner than THAT? B: I'm SORry, Dr. JAMES doesn't have any appointments until March, but you can have an appointment with Dr. WILliams. p. 131. Learn By Listening 3. Abbreviations Abbreviations are common in English, but many nonnative speakers do not say them clearly because they don't know the pattern. All the vowels are clear with no reductions. The melody usually

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starts high and steps down. The last letter gets the focus and glides in pitch (e.g., CEO or ABC). Listeners become confused when speakers reduce any letters in abbreviations or change the stress to the middle initial. p. 132. g. Join the Chorus: "Get To The Airport Early" In this chant, with its slightly irregular beat, students practice saying abbreviations and the names of common cities. When the chant is familiar after a lot of choral repetition with the teacher, the class can make up new verses using the American pronunciation of other cities. If no one can think of an airport with three initials, just say any abbreviation that fits the rhythm, such as the following: LONdon, PARis / TOkyo, SEOUL / HelSINki, BANGkok / U F O MELbourne, LIma / DUBlin, ROME / ViENna, JeRUsalem / CEO p. 136 Learn By Listening 5: Beyond the Words For more practice, take a phrase such as "It's not that bad." Change the intonation in different ways to change the meaning. It's not that bad! (mild surprise) It's not that bad. (sarcasm, disbelief, surprise.) It's not THAT bad! (You're complaining too much!) p. 136. Sing Along: "Home on the Range" The melody and rhythm of folk songs translate easily into speech. Review the section on songs on p. 8 in this manual. In "Home on the Range" each verse is one long sentence, which is why the song was included in the section Longer Sentences. The focus words stand out and the melody drops to its lowest point at the end of the sentence. Point out the stressed syllables to your students in words such as GLOry, exCEED, SELdom, disCOURaging. If you do not have time in class to play the song more than once or twice, encourage your students to listen to the tape on their own, if available. p. 139. i. Partner Practice: An Ad for BASF This commercial is a good example of a slower speaker using clear thought groups and an abbreviation. Suggest that students pay attention to other commercials on television or radio because the speakers often use clear thought groups that are easy to follow.

p. 139. m. Communicative Activity: Talk about yourself In this semi-controlled activity provides one partner says starts the conversation with a common conversational gambits (e.g., as a rule, generally speaking). He uses intonation that shows that there is more to say and then finishes the sentence with any phrase from column 2. The pitch line at the end of each gambit sounds unfinished. Expand the activity: Create a list of more gambits and have students provide their own ending. Example As you probably heard, I couldn't get a ticket to go home. For many years, our family vacationed in Canada every summer.

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p. 142. Communicative Activity: Compare the pictures For a more controlled activity, have students write key words or sentences about their picture and mark the pitch lines before they try to have a spontaneous conversation. As with all communicative activities in this book, students need to have a clear monitoring target. p. 143. p. Talk: In my opinion... See the tips about talks in the Teaching Tips section of this manual. Students should establish their own monitoring targets and the talks should be videotaped, whenever possible.

UNIT IV Sounds: Consonants and Vowels Chapter 8: The Speech Pathway--What's Happening Where?

Overview Many students start a pronunciation class mistakenly believing that pronouncing certain sounds is their main problem. This chapter is what they have been waiting for -- practice with sounds that many of them find difficult. Chapter 8 introduces consonant sounds in terms of where along the speech pathway they are produced, whether they are stops or continuants, and whether they are voiced or voiceless. After establishing a base in suprasegmentals, students now can practice sounds in meaningful contexts and reinforce the suprasegmentals along with the sounds. Nonnative speakers tend to have problems with consonant sounds in the following three areas: · Difficult sounds. Some consonants can be hard to say. This chapter and Appendix C provide practice with challenging consonants such as /r/ and /l/, /f/ and /v/, or /th/ and /th/. · Missing sounds. Some students leave off one or more final consonants, especially students whose original language doesn't end words or syllables with consonants. · Consonant clusters. Even students who can say English consonants alone or in short words can have trouble when consonants are strung together in clusters. English, unlike many other languages, requires speakers to cluster consonants at the beginnings and ends of words and syllables, as well as across word boundaries. Because it takes practice over time before new pronunciation habits can be integrated into everyday speech, help students realize that they don't need to perfect one set of sounds before they move on to another. Review "Teaching Tips-Activity Types" in this manual. See Appendix C for more practice with consonant sounds. p. 147. Follow the Speech Pathway This drawing shows the pathway for the exhaled air that powers speech. The air moves up the pathway where the tongue, teeth, or lips either slow down or completely stop the air to produce different sounds. The air starts in the lungs (Location 1) and moves through the vocal cords (Location 2). We stop the air at the back of the throat (Location 3) to produce /k/ and /g/. We slow down the air between the tongue and the roof of the mouth (Location 4) to say /sh/. We stop the air by touching our tongue to the gum ridge behind the top front teeth (Location 5) to say /t/ and /d/. We stop the air at the lips (Locations 6 and 8) to say /p/ and /b/. We slow down the air for /v/ and /b/ by touching our lower lip (Location 8) to our top teeth (Location 7). Showing an overhead transparency of the head drawing on page 147 is helpful. Walk students along the speech pathway as you teach the sounds at the various locations. p. 151. a. Watch the Air Release: Voiceless stops Depending upon the composition of your class, aspiration may not merit much time. However, in learning about aspiration, students learn about the places in their mouth where stops are made. This makes students more aware of final consonants that they may be omitting. In some languages, initial /p/, /t/, and /k/

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are only lightly aspirated or not aspirated at all. This can cause confusion between word pairs such as do and two, or pack and back. Have students who need more practice aspirating initial unvoiced consonant stops make up sentences for the word pairs such as pat-bat, time-dime, tip-dip, or coat-goat. p. 151. 3. Tongue Exercise for Voiceless Stops Students learn a traditional exercise for voiceless stops. The rapid repetition of "PUH-tuh-kuh" teaches awareness of the places in the mouth where stops are made. In saying this sequence, students move from their lips to their gum ridge to the back of their throat. This kinesthetic awareness helps students who tend to leave off final sounds. In addition, to quickly repeat the "PUH-tuh-kuh" sequence requires a relaxed, yet controlled, coordination that is good training for the mouth gymnastics of English speech. p. 151-2. Group Practice 6: Holding Final Stops In casual conversation many American English speakers simply hold the final position for the stop at the end of a word. In other words, they keep their lips shut at the end of up, (Fill it up), their tongue on their gum ridge at the end of fit (Does it fit?), and the back of their tongue against their throat at the end of back (Put it back). This exercise is good for building kinesthetic awareness about final sounds. When holding the final stop, the difference between words such as right and ride the vowel length, not the final sound. The pronunciation tip on p.152 explains this rule. The vowel before the voiced final consonant (ride) sounds longer than the vowel before the voiceless final consonant (right). Other examples are seatseed, feet­feed, and pick-pig. For students who have difficulty distinguishing between voiced and voiceless stops, it might come as a surprise to learn that lengthening the vowel before the voiced stop helps make this distinction clear. Students will practice voicing and vowel length more completely in Chapter 10. Some students from languages that have a consonant-vowel pattern, such as Korean, have another problem. These students might say rye for both right and ride. However, they may also add a schwa vowel after the final consonant, saying Take a seata for Take a seat. Model the phrase correctly and suggest that they stop talking right after they say the final /t/. Use a hand gesture to show the end of the word. This cue usually works for the moment, but it takes time for these students to change their habit. p. 152. Learn By Listening 1: A Flap (or tapped "t") Students don't realize that all "t's" are not alike. A "t" can be released as in "two times two." It can be held as shown in Group Practice 6. A "t" can be a "flap" and sound closer to a /d/ in American English. A flap is an important feature of rapid linked speech and usually occurs when a /t/ precedes an unstressed syllable. This may come as a surprise to students who thought they always had to released air at the end of a /t/. The flap is characteristic of North American English and requires a relaxed mouth and tongue. p. 155. Continuants: The air flows out the pathway. This teaching segment contrasts continuants and stops. When students understand this distinction they will be more aware of the sounds that they may be omitting or distorting. Encourage self-monitoring. p. 155. Group Practice 7: /f/ and /v/: Locations 7 (upper teeth) and 8 (lower lip) When discussing the drawings, point out that the lips are open for /f/ and /v/ so that the air flows across the lower lip. /p/ and /b/ are made by closing the lips and briefly stopping the air. p. 156. d. Partner Practice: Contrast /b/ and /v/ Remind students to hide their mouths during partner practice to eliminate the possibility of visual cues. This and other minimal pair exercises are set up as short conversations.

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p. 159. Group Practice 9: The voiced and voiceless /th/ sounds NNS find "th" challenging because most other languages don't have this sound. "Th" is a free flowing continuant. The tongue should neither stop nor constrict the air. Although the voiced "th"in common words such as the, this, there, and then is not crucial to intelligibility, and therefore not a high priority sound, speech with an /s/, /z/, /t/, or /d/ substitution for "th," can be distracting to native speakers and can occasionally contribute to misunderstanding. The final voiceless "th" can contribute to lack of understanding, in words such as mat/math, pat/path, mit/myth, or all the ordinal numbers, such as fort/fourth or tent/tenth. How to pronounce /th/. Students are relieved to learn that it is not necessary to protrude their tongue out beyond their teeth or lips to say /th/. For many students this could seem impolite. All they have to do is to part their lips and teeth slightly, keep their mouth and tongue very relaxed, and gently blow air over the tongue. Common errors with "th" Students often exert too much tongue pressure and either slow down or stop the air stream. See the window drawings on p. 110. A little extra pressure results in a /s/ or /z/ sound. More pressure will stop the air altogether resulting in a /t/ or /d/. See the following examples: Key word The car Think about it. Breathe in Pathway Some Tongue Pressure More Tongue Pressure zuh car duh car Sink about it Tink about it Breeze in Breed in pass way pat way

p. 164. Are you ready for "r" and "l"? Some students start a pronunciation class convinced that /r/ and /l/ are their main problems. Because these sounds are common in English, errors tend to be noticeable. In the classroom you can provide general tips and can clear up some of the confusion, but to provide adequate practice with /r/ and /l/ and all their variations would take up a lot of class time. Students who are having difficulty with these sounds most likely will need individual help and practice that extends beyond the class. More practice with /r/ and /l/ is available in Appendixes C and D. Students are often surprised to learn about variations of /r/ and /l/ and that these are not two single sounds. The /r/ and /l/ at the beginning of words or syllables (red, write, run, or lip, light, low) are different from the /r/ and /l/ that come after a schwa vowel in words such as bird, fur, dirt, girl, or hill. The schwa + /r/ is commonly classified as a vowel. There is a word chart on p. A-9 with examples of six clear vowels that come before /r/. Individual differences It is challenging to teach the /r/ and /l/ in a classroom setting because students' abilities with these sounds can be idiosyncratic. For example, one student might be able to say red or right, but be unable say rope or rude, corn or fire. Another student might have trouble with a different set of words. Some students, especially some Japanese speakers, cannot hear the difference between /r/ and /l/. Suggestions for teaching /r/ 3. Use the head drawings on p. 113 to make clear that the front of the tongue touches the top of the mouth for /l/ and does not touch anything for /r/. 4. Hand movements can facilitate a good /r/. See the drawing at the bottom of p. 113 of the textbook. Have students start with fist and a tightly curled tongue as they say /r and release their fists as they say the /r/ word. 5. Aim for approximation, not perfection. Students need help self-monitoring and shaping the /r/.

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6. Have students keep lists of which words or contexts are easy and which are hard for them. When students practice /r/ on their own, they should start with the easy words. Suggestions for teaching /l/. · In any syllable ending with /l/, the tongue has to glide from the vowel position to the /l/ position. Some students try to get to the /l/ too quickly after they say the vowel. Tell them to take their time and glide comfortably into the /l/. · Many students open their mouth too widely for /l/ in order to carefully place the very tip of their tongue on one spot on the gum ridge. This toe dance precision is counter-productive. The position for /l/ moves around according to the sound that comes before or after. As long as some part of the top of the tongue touches some part of the roof of the mouth, and the sides of the tongue pull away from the back teeth, it will sound like an /l/. · Give students the following pronunciation tip for /l/: Get ready to say /d/. Keep some part of your tongue on your gum ridge. Pull the sides away and breathe in. Can you feel the air on the sides of your tongue? That's the position for /l/. · Have students make an /l/ in the easiest and most comfortable way. It is possible to make a perfectly fine /l/ with your tongue tip fastened behind your lower teeth, and indeed many native speakers do. Suggest that students practice repeating luh-luh-luh while opening their mouths as little as possible, and then saying lead, laid, let, load, lip.

Chapter 9 Important Endings

Overview

Grammatical endings can be a problem for many NNS. Some speakers say them incorrectly; others leave them off entirely. This chapter offers extensive practice with "'ed" and "s" endings. Listening is emphasized because students need to hear these endings clearly in order to say them and selfmonitor. Review the section "Teaching Tips-Activity Types" in this manual for suggestions. PART 1. "ED" ENDINGS p. 182. d. Linking "ed" Even students who know the grammar or the pronunciation rule for "ed" may have a hard time saying the consonant clusters when the "e" is silent or when "ed" is linked to the next word. Examples backed up (kd) charged four dollars (rgdf) As students learn to feel the "ed" on their gum ridge and hear the linking, they are more apt to say the "ed." In English speech, the tongue hits the gum ridge frequently, often many times per sentence, for /t/, /d/ or /n/. The traditional "PUH-tuh-kuh" exercise on page 103 is helpful for building kinesthetic awareness for this. This exercise touches on the following three aspects of linking "ed." · The flap is an important part of North American English. The "ed" that comes after both voiced and voiceless consonants sound like a flap when linked to a vowel. Examples tired out walked alone · Linking "ed" to a /t/ or /d/. Nonnative speakers don't realize that they should hold the /d/ or /t/ longer, as shown by the ":" Model the examples in the book for them. Examples He called:Tom. We pulled:together. I enrolled:today. · Linking "ed" to other consonants. Sentences with past tenses frequently create consonant clusters across word boundaries. You will find more practice with this kind of linking in Chapter 10, p. 204 and Appendix A, pp. A-10-11

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p. 174. b. "ED" Endings: What is the rule? "Ed" sounds like a separate syllable with a schwa vowel after words that end in a /t/ or /d/ sound. Examples heated traded completed faded When figuring out the rule, remind students that the last letter of the base verb may not necessarily be the last sound. For example, in skate the last sound is /t/ but the last letter is "e." These rules can be helpful when students are figuring out the pronunciation of a new word, but the habitual use of the correct "ed" comes from listening and practice. p. 176. d. Join the Chorus: "The Visitor" When practicing this rhythmic chant, help your students develop kinesthetic awareness. Direct them to the feeling of their tongue touching their gum ridge to link the "ed" to the next sound. As with all chants, use choral practice, with many repetitions line by line. p. 177. e. Improve Your Monitoring: Past or present? Monitoring exercises where students listen for someone else's errors are good preparation for self-monitoring. Be sure to point out that the present tense form that the speaker may substitute in this exercise is grammatically incorrect.

p. 178. h. Dialogue: "Basket on the Bus" See the tips for dialogues in the Teaching Tips section of this manual. In this exercise: 1. Use movement. Students underline the bolded focus words as they listen, which reinforces the speech rhythm. 2. Use choral practice. Have students join you saying the lines of the dialogue using a rhythmic gesture such as tapping the desk for each focus word. 3. Notice the shift of focus in sentences 8 and 9. Talk becomes old information in 9 and the focus shifts to started. Did she TALK to you? She STARTed to talk to me... 4. In the phrase dog training school, DOG TRAINing is a compound noun that becomes the first element of a descriptive phrase. The focus is on the last element: DOG TRAINing SCHOOL. p. 179. Learn By Listening 2: Review "ed" Endings Extend this activity by having students practice monitoring by catching your mistakes. Read the paragraph about Binti, the Heroine to your class leaving off some of the "ed" endings and have them raise their hands when they hear an error. End the activity by practicing the paragraph correctly. p. 180. Part 2. "s" Endings The rule for /s/ endings necessitates teaching about sibilants. Sibilants such as /ch/, /sh/, /j/ and /x/ can be problem sounds for some students, especially when the sibilant links to a word starting with one or more consonants. Linking results in unusual consonant clusters such as dogs barking, fax machine, or The market's closed. p. 181 b. /s/ or /z/ This exercise builds awareness of voiced and voiceless final "s," but will not provide enough practice for students who make this kind of error when speaking. Some students may find the distinction between final /s/ and /z/ hard to hear and need extra help. The rule has to do with the final consonant sound before the final "s." When the sound is voiced, the "s" sounds like a /z/.

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p. 184. Group Practice 2: Introducing Sibilants

Point out that bus is late sounds like buses late in conversational speech and box is big sounds like boxes big.

p. 187. Join the Chorus: S's, Messes

Use choral practice. It will help to stabilize the sound of the plurals with the schwa syllable. p. 185. d. Endings: What is the rule? p. 185. figure out the rule. Students like rules, and if they figure out the rules themselves, they are more likely to remember them. The truth is, however, that these rules are not that helpful when you are in the middle of a conversation, because people don't change pronunciation habits just from learning the rules. Also, this rule about final "s" is complex. There are several aspects to it that answer the following questions. 8. Is the "s" ending voiced? Does it sound like /z/ although it is spelled with an "s." Rule: If the "s" ending, whether it is plural, possessive, contraction, or verb, follows a voiced sound, the ending will sound like /z/. Most of the time a final "s" sounds like /z/. Examples plays begs planes Jane's Lee's times pickles mobs hides pigs 9. Is the "s" ending voiceless? If you see an "s," does it sound like an "s"? Rule: If the "s" ending follows a voiceless sound, it will sound like /s/. Examples maps hits picks 10. When does pronouncing the "s" ending involve adding an extra schwa syllable? Rule: If the "s" ending is added to any sibilant sound at the end of a verb or noun, you say a schwa syllable. Examples fixes pages beaches misses buzzes 11. When you see "es" at the end of a word, when is the "e" silent? Students can be confused when they see "es" at the end of a word and pronounce it with a schwa syllable. They don't realize that the "e" is silent. Rule: When "es" does not follow a sibilant sound, the "e" is silent. Examples bakes appreciates sales examines Help students to see that the final sound can be different from the final letter, and that they need to look for a final sibilant sound in words such as cage or place. Some students have a hard time remembering the list sibilant sounds making the rules about final "s" hard to learn. p. 188. Group Practice 3: Four more sibilants /sh /zh/ /ch/ and /j/ Use backward build-up to practice the sentences about shoe shopping. Start with the last word in the sentence and have the student repeat that word. Then add the second to the last word, etc., until you have built the whole sentence from back to front. Teach backward build-up by asking students to listen and repeat before they try it on their own. The challenge is keeping the stress and intonation consistent as you build the sentence backwards. Practice this a few times on your own before you try to teach it to your class. /ch/ The most common substitution for /ch/ is /sh/. You can usually stimulate /ch/ just by suggesting that students put their tongue on their gum ridge in the /t/ position and then slide into the /sh/. Once they can do this, as a reminder, you can say "start with /t/." From that point on, it just requires practice and monitoring. Pronunciation habits take time to change. Identifying errors

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There are a variety of things you can say to encourage students to discover their own errors with final sounds, such as Did you hear any problems with final "s" in last sentence? I heard a problem with a sound in that last sentence. Do you know which sound? I heard a problem with a sibilant sound. Do you know which one? Encourage students to feel the place in their mouth where they originally said the problem sound and the place where they corrected the sound. Praise students warmly if they discover an error. That's wonderful! You were able to hear that missing "s." That shows that you are really making progress. Encourage self-monitoring when they have said the sound correctly as well as when they make an error by asking Did you hear a final "s" in that sentence? p. 191. Group Practice 4: Have fun with tongue twisters Model backward build-up before you ask students to practice on their own. The first sentence about the jeep is modeled on the tape. Be sure to maintain the same intonation as you say the sentence adding one word at a time from back to front. After using choral practice with the class, have students further stabilize these by working with a partner. The partners should alternate lines using backward build-up to build the tongue twister backwards. p. 192. Review "s" endings Suggestion: Do a monitoring activity. Read the paragraph about Jesse Owens to your class, but leave off some of the "s" endings. Have students catch your mistakes by raising their hands when they hear an error. Finish by reading the paragraph correctly so they end with a positive auditory model. p. 195. Dictation Once again, you can do the dictation with the whole class or have students take this as a self-quiz. Suggestion: With the class, have a different student write each dictation sentence on the board and correct each one as a group.

Chapter 10: More About Vowels and Consonants

Overview This chapter provides more guidelines and practice with consonants and vowels. It coves some of the lesser-known facts about sounds, including rules for the following: · voicing and vowel length · "teen" and "ty" numbers, such as sixteen and sixty · the syllabic "n" · the difference between can and can't · pronouncing consonant clusters, both within words and across word boundaries · /r/ and /l/ sounds that come after vowels at the ends of syllables and words p. 197. Group Practice 1: Voicing and vowel length In addition to lengthening the vowel in stressed syllables and focus words, you need to lengthen the vowel before a voiced consonant. For example: Which one did he USE? (verb) sounds longer than What's the USE? (noun). These differences are especially noticeable when the key word is also the focus word. Here are two true stories about lengthening the vowel before a voiced consonant.

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A student working at a market checkout counter had repeated trouble being understood by his customers. Student: Do you want paper or PLAStic back? Customer: What? Get WHAT back?

BAG,

There are a number of things going on here. For one thing, the student is trying to say plastic but is shortening the vowel in bag, which ends with a voiced consonant. He needs to lengthen and glide in pitch on the focus word (bag). He is also using the stress pattern for a compound noun. It should be PLAStic BAG, not PLAStic BAG. He also should use the intonation for a giving a choice between paper and plastic. Do you want a PAper / or a PLAStic BAG? Another conversation took place at a sandwich counter. Customer: I'll have a turkey sandwich and some coleslaw. The disappointed customer received the coleslaw, but only half of the turkey sandwich. The waiter heard half instead of have, unaware of the subtle difference in vowel length and voicing. He thought the order was for half of a sandwich and a salad, one of the menu choices. Breaking the rule about voicing and vowel length can affect comprehensibility, as shown in the previous stories. Substituting the voiceless final consonant also calls attention to itself because this modifies speech rhythm by shortening the vowel. For students substituting a voiceless final consonant for the voiced one (e.g., The phone is rinkink, or It rinks a lot), demonstrate how to lengthen the vowel. Suggest that they place their hand on their throat to keep the voicing going between the vowel and the final consonant. This will automatically lengthen the vowel. Keep your ears open for the various times when your students shorten vowel length. p. 200. Learn By Listening 2: Vowels and numbers

Students often have difficulty understanding and making clear the difference between numbers ending in "teen" and "ty," such as sixteen and sixty, fifteen and fifty. The second syllable in sixty and fifty is unstressed and open (not finished with a consonant sound). Teen receives some stress and is closed with an "n." Dictionaries don't always point out that there are two pronunciations for the "teen" numbers. When counting, native speakers strongly stress the first syllable and lightly stress the "teen," (e.g., FIFTEEN, SIXTEEN, SEVenTEEN, EIGHTEEN). When "teen" gets the focus at the end of a sentence, it is strongly stressed and lengthened, such as in She's only SIXTEEN. p. 202. Learn By Listening 3: Two pronunciations for /uw/. It is useful to point out that there are two pronunciations for /uw/. Many students don't pick this up on their own. Additional examples of words with the /y/ sound before the /uw/ are: use, fuel, fumes, futile, huge, humor, and usually p. 203. g. Join the Chorus: "Timothy Boon" This poem is a wonderful way to practice speech rhythm along with long vowels and vowel + /r/ words. Encourage students to link the words in each line and speak in unison, emphasizing the focus words. Clarify new vocabulary, such as tossed, mirth, and ere. Then have students break into groups to practice one of the verses. Spend time helping each group. When one group is saying their verse for the class, have the listeners take notes about the pronunciation and make suggestions. p. 204. Building Longer One-syllable Words. One-syllable words can get longer by adding more consonant sounds at the beginning or at the end of the word, but still have only one syllable. Point out the silent letters and the consonant clusters.

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p. 205. Learn By Listenintg 5: Clusters across word boundaries. Unusual consonant clusters are formed across word boundaries when words are linked in thought groups. For example, although no English words start or end with "nr" or "tsth," these clusters are formed from saying vine ripened and What's the problem? Many students need practice saying all the consonants in a cluster. To build awareness of this, write the following examples on the board to examine with your class. Explain where the tongue is and needs to go in order to negotiate the cluster. light snack (tsn) backpack (kp) train station (nst) fax machine (ksm) fresh bread (shbr)

There are several exercises on p. 206 and 207 related to clusters that cross word boundaries. Practice and awareness of clusters runs throughout any pronunciation course because these are common problems for many different language groups. p. 205. i. Partner Practice: Linked clusters Students may need help with this exercise. Remind them to omit the silent letters and only list the consonant sounds, and to write the sound rather than the letter. p. 206. Learn By Listening 6. Linked triple clusters The various rules for linking clusters can be confusing. After all the warnings not to omit sounds, now students learn that there are times when even native speakers leave out consonants. Words with three-consonant clusters speech, such as tests, directs, often lose the middle sound in rapid or informal speech. These are more examples of why English pronunciation is so challenging. p. 207. Learn By Listening 7: The Syllabic "n" Another variation of "t" comes at the beginning of an unstressed syllable that ends with an "n," such as mountain or button. The sound in this syllable is made in the throat and is called "a syllabic `n'. Most students are unaware of syllabic /n/ sounds. They think they should say the syllable as it is spelled. The technical explanation of what is happening phonetically is complicated. Try the following two simple ways of eliciting it. · Demonstrate first and then ask students to shake their head to mean "no" and say nnh-nnh (lips slightly open). This "no" sound is a syllabic /n/. Remind them to keep their tongue on their gum ridge. Then ask students questions that will elicit negative answers, such as Is it snowing/raining today? and model the response nnh-nnh) · Demonstrate first and then ask students to say the first syllable of BUTton and hold their tongue against the gum ridge for the second syllable. Instead of saying ton, have them leave their tongue where it is and make a quick /n/ sound in their throat. There is no vowel in the second syllable. The sound comes out their nose. Have students put their thumb and fingers on their nose to feel the vibration. p. 208 Group Practice 2: A Family Mystery Before students practice saying the paragraph on their own, check with the class to make sure everyone has underlined the correct words with a syllabic "n." Have your class practice the paragraph repeating one line at a time choral fashion. p. 211. Sing Along: "Oh! What a Beautiful Mornin'" This song, new to the second edition of Targeting Pronunciation, follows the stress and intonation of conversational speech. It uses vocabulary and pronunciation suggesting local, rural dialects. This is an opportunity to discuss the fact that native English speakers have "accents." Although the lyrics were written with "ing" sounding more like "in'" Stress the fact that this is not standard American

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pronunciation and encourage the use of the long vowel and the "ng." "It don't miss a tree." is a grammatical error common to certain rural, less educated populations. You might want your students to say, "It won't miss a tree," to avoid reinforcing a grammatical error. p. 213. Self-Quiz For a more challenging quiz, have students fill in the following chart with pairs of words that end with sounds made at the lips, the gum ridge, and the back of the throat. Lips Voiced Voiceless Voiced Gum Ridge Voiceless Voiced Back of Throat Voiceless

Here are possible answers. Lips Voiced cab rib Voiceless cap rip Voiced ride made Gum Ridge Voiceless right mate Voiced bag flag Back of Throat Voiceless back flack

UNIT V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER Chapter 11: More about Conversational Speech

Overview In chapters 2 through 10 students practiced the basic features of American pronunciation. These chapters introduced and provided practice with the eight key pronunciation targets presented on page 2. In this chapter, students examine and practice in more depth how English speakers put words together in conversational English. Reviewing reductions, using authentic speech samples, poetry, and a song they become more familiar with natural speech patterns. p. 216. Reviewing Reductions and Chunks of Speech. Have students review p. 27 and p. 104, (Questions and Answers), and look through Chapter 6 on schwa vowels and speech music. · · · · Although students need to understand reductions because native speakers use them, they don't have to use reductions to sound intelligible. The more informal and casual the conversation, the more reductions you are likely to hear. Speakers use more reductions in conversations with family and friends than they use when speaking in a more formal setting or giving a talk. Faster speakers tend to use more reductions than slower speakers. When native speakers use reductions, some weak syllables and sounds recede so much that they drop out altogether. Vowels are often reduced to schwa.

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·

Reductions vary among different dialects and speakers. Also, native speakers do not always say reduced chunks in the same way each time. It is hard to justify to students why all these variations are equally native-like. For example: · Do you really think so? -- D 'ya really THINK SO?/-- Ya really THINK so? · A slightly slower speaker might say D'you REALly THINK so, not reducing the word you. · In emphatic speech, the speaker might not reduce any of the words. DO YOU REALly THINK SO? · Are you ready?---->Are ya ready?---->y'ready? · Did you hear me?----> Did ya hear me?---->Didja hear me?---->j'hear me?

Although reductions make speech sound more native-like, they are difficult for nonnative speakers to master. For one thing, reductions are tied to speech rhythm, which is strongly influenced by our original language. Also, students frequently resist changing individual words or eliminating sounds, which they view as either slang or uneducated speech. It can be hard to convince these students that educated speakers all use reductions. Tips about teaching reductions 1. Reduced speech is shaped over time, rather than achieved all at once. Start out by making the stressed words much more prominent than the unstressed words. 2. Focus on listening and choral practice, as well as other techniques that stabilize and reinforce speech rhythm and intonation, such as humming, whispering, moving the hands, feet and body, and tracing the intonation patterns. 3. At first, students may find it helpful to see the full form and what words or sounds are changed or omitted so they have a cognitive understanding of reductions. You might give additional examples of times when speakers omit words in everyday speech. Are you hungry?-----> 'ya hungry? Do you want to go now?--->'ya wanna go now? 4. However, most practice to stabilize speech rhythm should be without looking at the words. Looking at all the words as they speak can interfere with concentrating on the sound and rhythm of the speech and reinforcing the reductions. p. 219. Group Practice 2: Review the flap The flap is an essential feature of reduced American speech. When the tongue lightly taps against the gum ridge, it is easier to negotiate the rapid, reduced syllables that come after it. Use choral practice to reinforce these common expressions. p. 220. d. Partner Practice: The flap Have students practice the common chunks of speech with reductions in pairs. First, make sure the reductions are established in group practice. p. 221. More questions and answers. Students seem to need encouragement and reassurance about the use of reductions. These questions may generate an interesting discussion. p. 222. e. Join the Chorus: Sneezles The stressed words in this poem stand out because of the strong rhythm. The class should practice Sneezles naturally, using reductions on some of the commonly reduced words, such as for and his and of. Whether or not poetry is read with reductions depends upon the reader, but poems with a strong regular beat tend to elicit more reductions than does less structured poetry. p. 223. h. Dialogue: Willpower You can have students listen and practice the reduced chunks of speech from the dialogue. Make them aware of these reductions, even if they do not always say them. 1. believe it or not 5. the chocolate or the vanilla

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2. do you know ... 3. the nonfat or the regular 4. what kind do you want

6. what kind do you want to order 7. a small dish of vanilla 8. that's what you call "willpower"

More speech practice: After they have listened to and practiced the dialogue choral fashion one line at a time and with a partner, have two students act out the dialogue in front of the class and continue the conversation. p. 223. Practice with Authentic Speech. The generic instructions for using the PSA's are repeated here. The fourth step, tracking the speaker, is what can take the student closest to transferring and internalizing the rhythm patterns of natural conversational speech. Tracking and transfer both take time. If there is not time for your students to track all the PSA's, explain the process, demonstrate tracking with the class. Encourage them to track their favorite PSA's on their own. The four PSA's on p. 224-226 demonstrate different types of natural speech with increasing amounts of hesitations and dysfluency. Students should be aware that spontaneous speech does not always flow as smoothly as prepared speech. p. 226. l. Role Play: Two invitations As preparation for the role play, have students describe the information outlined on the invitations. Invitations, advertisements, and written announcements provide good topics for semicontrolled speech assignments. p. 227. Sing Along, "Leaving On A Jet Plane" See tips on teaching Songs in the Teaching Tips section of this manual. Songs are an effective and pedagogically sound way to practice speech rhythm and internalize it. You can hear the reductions of common structure words in the thought groups in this song. It is good for practicing /r/ and vowel + /r/ words.

p. 229 Dictation

The sentences for this dictation are in the Answer Key if you want to do the dictation in class and provide students with instant feedback. Alternatively, you can handle this by having students listen and correct the dictation on their own and compare answers during a subsequent class. Suggestion: Expand the review with another dictation. Use this dictation as further review or to test your students understanding of reduced speech. Speak informally using reductions. 1. Is he here yet? 2. I looked at her letter. 3. We can ask her later. 4. He changed his mind, didn't he? 5. We'll be gone from December to March. 7. It is as long as it is wide. 8. Believe it or not, he is an old friend. 9. What do you think of the new campus? 10. I'm sorry, but he's out of the office.

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Chapter 12. More about Thought Groups

Overview This chapter offers more practice with thought groups and how pauses and thought group signals can affect meaning. Students should realize that individual native speakers make different choices about where to divide longer sentences into thought groups. Many sentences can be divided in a variety of appropriate ways. Nonnative speakers, on the other hand, may choose inappropriate focus words, pause in the wrong place or not at all, or use too little or inappropriate intonation, making their speech hard to understand. Once again, having students listening and repeating the flow of English speech accompanied by some kind of hand or body movement is most helpful. By providing a variety of speaking opportunities, students can revisit all the targets of the book and monitor for the ones that are most important to their speech. p. 231. a. Guidelines for Thought Groups The guidelines in this exercise encourage students to use more thought groups, with prominent focus words and more speech melody to make their speech easier to understand. The pauses or pitch changes at the end of thought groups within a sentence may be subtle, whereas the pauses and pitch changes at the ends of sentences are more obvious. There are not always clear rules for all the suitable choices. These divisions may conform to written punctuation markers such as periods and commas, but are not limited to these. Slow speakers and speakers delivering a talk tend to use more thought groups and more focus words than do speakers talking quickly or informally. p. 233 b . Partner Practice: An Ad for Delta Air Lines The speaker in this ad uses clear thought groups and frequent pauses. However, he chooses some focus words in the longer sentences that, although appropriate, would not necessarily be made by all native speakers. After students listen, have them look at the marked ad in the answer key and track the speaker. This will help them internalize the flow of speech and where the speaker divides the thought groups. p. 234. c. Dialogue: "The Missing Room" This is an excellent dialogue for students to learn using tracking and choral practice, and then perform for the class. Pairs of students can act out the dialogue and create their own similar dialogues and scenario about a dispute between a customer and a manager. p. 235. Learn By Listening 2: PSAs and thought group signals. Once again, students are asked to follow the generic instructions for the PSA's. Demonstrate tracking with the whole class. If there is not time to track all the PSA's, ask students to track one or two PSA's on their own. The thought group signals for casual conversation will be less regular and less predictable than the signals in a formal talk. The PSA's all use natural speech, but some of the speakers use a script and others speak without a script. p. 237. Learn By Listening 3: Two PSAs presenting information. These two PSA's are scripted, natural speech. After marking the thought groups, if there is time, have students track the PSA with the class until they can say it along with the speaker. Ask students to track again on their own after class.

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p. 239. d. Communicative Activity: An Answering-machine ad Students listen to an answering machine message about "The Book Bakery" and then create a phone message for the motorcycle shop or the florist shop shown in the ads from the Yellow Pages. Have students either say their message for a partner or make a tape of their message to play for the class. p. 239. Learn By Listening 4: PSAs 6 and 7 These PSAs present less scripted and more unrehearsed, spontaneous speech. In PSA 7, Richard Marx's speech is particularly lacking in fluency and his pausing is difficult to mark. It is valuable to have students listen over and over until they can mark the thought groups rather than check the answers in the Answer Key. Discuss the lack of fluency, the fact that this is not uncommon in unrehearsed speech, and how they affect the listener or the ability to follow the meaning. p. 241. e. Final Talk: "A Special Celebration" This final talk is a good culmination for the class and gives students a chance to practice and record what they learned and share something of themselves and their culture. The important thing about any talk is that the students choose appropriate and realistic monitoring tasks. I encourage students to bring pictures or objects to share along with their talk. Suggestions for exercises for the celebrations talk: 1. Word Stress. Write some words from your talk with more than one syllable. Draw a dot over the stressed syllable. Draw the stress pattern. syllables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2. Focus words Write five sample sentences from your talk. Try to use sentences with more than one thought group. Underline the focus words and draw slashes to show the thought groups. Example When I was a little,/ I always looked forward to my birthday. / The whole family enjoyed being together,/ but I was the center of attention. / Example One of my earliest memories/ was when my grandfather died. / After the service at our (church/synagogue/temple/mosque),/ family and friends gathered together/ and talked about things we remembered about him./ Draw the pattern.

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3. Vocabulary: How many of these words and expressions do you already know how to pronounce? Draw a dot oer the stressed How many Draw the syllable. syllables? pattern. 1. season 2. symbols 3. traditional 4. religious 5. ceremony 6. invitation 7. costumes 8. holiday 4. Compare the pronunciation in these related words. celebrate--celebration decorate--decoration symbols--symbolic--symbolize invite--invitation Phrases the holiday season meaningful symbols a traditional celebration, a festive celebration a religious holiday, religious symbols a religious ceremony, a beautiful ceremony received an invitation, mailed the invitation elaborate costumes, brightly colored costumes a popular holiday, a religious holiday,

5. Descriptive phrase or compound noun? Listen to your instructor say these phrases and compare the intonation. Check the answer under the correct heading. Add more compound nouns and descriptive phrases related to celebrations to the list. birthday cake family gathering elaborate preparations traditional costumes the holiday season a religious ceremony candlelight Descriptive Phrase ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Compound Noun ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

p. 242-3. f. Join the Chorus: Pronunciation Rap Students enjoy this rap with its typical rap beat. Listening and tracking are the best way to learn this. Students usually enjoy the fact that the lyrics refer to targets they learned about in the book. p. 245. What's next? This questionnaire culminates a program that attempts to build student responsibility. Students assess and compare their progress with the amount of effort they expended. They are encouraged to congratulate themselves for their effort and progress, and to keep working toward their speech goals.

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