Read Microsoft Word - AP Bio Expectations and summer work 2003.doc text version

A.P. Biology Summer 2003 The Advanced Placement Biology course is designed to be the equivalent of a college introductory biology course usually taken by biology majors during their first year. The AP Biology course is designed to be taken by students after the successful completion of a first course in high school biology and one in high school chemistry. (Usually with grades of "B" or better and who are possibly contemplating a major in a science related field. All students are strongly encouraged to take the A.P exam) The overall success of the A.P. program depends, in a large part, on students meeting their individual responsibilities. A significant portion of the content of this course will be covered independently by each student. To many AP Biology is considered the most difficult of the AP Science courses. Your grade will probably be closer to your chemistry grade than your Biology grade. You might expect a letter grade lower than your chemistry grade. There are many variables but it is a difficult class. I am not trying to scare you because you can be successful if you want to, but you need to know the class will require a lot of effort. Allowances should be made for substantial study time. Some studies have shown seven to ten hours per week outside of class is necessary to be really successful. After showing themselves to be qualified on the Advanced Placement Examination, some students, as college freshmen, are permitted to take upper-level courses in biology or register for courses for which biology is a prerequisite. Other students may have fulfilled a basic requirement for a laboratory science course and will be able to take other courses to pursue their major. Each college makes its own determination of what is a qualified score. The two main goals of AP Biology are to help students develop a conceptual framework for modern biology and to help students gain an appreciation of science as a process. The ongoing information explosion in biology makes these goals even more challenging. Primary emphasis in an Advanced Placement Biology course should be on developing an understanding of concepts rather than on just memorizing terms and technical details.(But memory is also important). Essential to this conceptual understanding are the following: · a grasp of science as a process rather than as an accumulation of facts; · personal experience in scientific inquiry; · recognition of unifying themes that integrate the major topics of biology; and · application of biological knowledge and critical thinking to environmental and social concerns. There are eight major themes that recur throughout the course. AP Biology will emphasize these themes and assist you in organizing concepts and topics into a coherent conceptual framework: 1. Science as a Process 2. Evolution 3. Energy Transfer 4. Continuity and Change 5. Relationship of Structure to Function 6. Regulation 7. Interdependence in Nature 8. Science, Technology, and Society Expectations: 1. A record of excellent attendance. Since this will be a MUCH faster paced course than a normal high school course, missing class will be a huge disadvantage. Because of the nature of this course, any time you miss must be made up in an equivalent fashion. You are responsible for any material missed. 2. Make certain that all assignments, reports, and evaluations are completed on time. If there are extenuating circumstances preventing your completion talk with me BEFORE the due date. 3. Due to the nature of the course, doing the laboratory requirement and the amount of material to be covered, there will a zero hour requirement two days each week. 4. You will learn to use a college text as a tool for your own learning. 5. You will develop a working background of common Greek and Latin roots in the development of proficiency in the language of biology. 6. You will become proficient in common lab procedures, perform basic college level laboratories, and design and execute an original experiment. 7. You will write numerous essay responses in both homework and unit tests as preparation for the AP Exam. 8. Again due to the amount of material that must be covered, you will complete the summer assignment attached. There will be a test the first week of school covering this material 9. Present selected topics to the class with handouts, power point, overheads, etc.

Summarizing, I am here to help you learn biology and thought processing skills to help you score as high as possible on the A.P. exam. We will discuss, practice, lecture and probably disagree at one time or another. I will help you any way possible but you will have to prepare before you get to class. Remember this is a college class. The scheduling is different and you will get more personal attention, but the pacing will be that of a college class. Coming from chemistry, you should have an idea how to learn a difficult subject. There is very little problem solving but the vocabulary can be overwhelming. It has been said the vocabulary in the text we use is equivalent to 4 yrs of a foreign language. I know you will be busy with many other activities and classes but you will have to make time to work on this class. There is an excellent essay on study habits on Robert Taylor's website from Stevenson High School. Here is the link http://www3.district125.k12.il.us/science/APBIO/studyskills.html It is on my website under AP Info/Help. You can get to my website: or go to Lafayette's homepage (http://www.lafayettehighschool.org)and navigate through the department/science/teachers websites/AP Bio links. I have the first quarter plan from last year on the last page. This is not your plan but it will give you an idea of the pacing and types of things we do. The class picks up the pace as we continue through the year. Check back over the summer as I will be updating links and such to help us next year. There is an email link on the webwite. It will go to my email address at school. I will check the emails periodically over the summer. If you have questions or need help, send me an email and I will get back to you. If each of you would email me I can get a list to get information to you if I need to over the summer. I look forward to working with you in the fall and having a great class. Biology is a very interesting subject. Some Objectives for your summer work: (This will allow us to have time to review for the AP exam) I. PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY A. Compare and contrast energy flows and productivity within ecosystems. B. Discuss biochemical energy cycles. C. Demonstrate a working knowledge of community structure growth and regulation. D. Discuss the social effects of man on the environment. E. Discuss behavior including societies, communication, territoriality, courtship, aggression, and biorhythms F. Define Ecology and demonstrate the relationships between the biotic and abiotic factors. G. Compare the terrestrial biomes by discussing their characteristics and their relationships to each other. H. Evaluate the various aquatic biomes as to their dependence on light, pH, temperature,and community structure. I. Develop an understanding of population dynamics. Determine the factors that regulate population growth, and be able to describe the phase of growth a given population is in. J. Analyze the process of biological succession. K. Analyze the relationships of the nutrient cycles in relation to living organisms in an ecosystem. Read Chap 1, 50-55. Biology 6 Ed Campbell nd Complete the Questions attached (Due 2 day of school) nd Complete the Essay questions attached (Due 2 day of school) Memorize the Latin roots, etc for quiz 1. A quiz will be the first week of school We will have an exam with Multiple Choice and 1 essay question the first week of school

Summer assignments:

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Chapter 50: AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPHERE

1. Define population, community, ecosystem and biosphere. Indicate how each is related to the others.

AP BIOLOGY

2. Distinguish between biotic and abiotic factors. Describe 6 abiotic factors, including an example of its influence on living organisms. 3. Use the principle of allocation to explain the probable environment of an organism that expends much its energy in growth and reproduction. 4. 5. Discuss several ways in which evolutionary history affects the distribution and ecology of organisms. Organisms can respond to environmental change in three ways. Describe and give an example of each. behavioral response physiological response morphological response adaptive response 6. Are brine shrimp regulators or conformers? Explain your response. How could optimum conditions of salinity be determined? 7. Explain the concept of environmental grain and under what situation(s) a single environment may be both coarse-grained and fine-grained. 8. Explain how the earth's curvature and axis of rotation influence the amount of sunlight reaching a given area, and how this influences the temperature and precipitation in that area. 9. Describe each major terrestrial biome as to climate, location, and representative flora and fauna.

10. What are phytoplankton? Zooplankton? Give examples of each. 11. Distinguish between each of the following pairs of terms: benthic/pelagic photic/aphotic neritic/oceanic 12. Describe the primary characteristics of the 3 major types of aquatic communities, citing typical organisms. Discuss the factors that divide each into zones, and describe each zone. 13. Mountains affect the local climate. Describe their influence in the following 3 areas: a)solar radiation b) temperature c) rainfall 14. Indicate with a + or ­ whether the following are relatively high or low in oxygen level, nutrient content, and productivity Biome O2 Level Nutrient Content Productivity Oligotrophic Lake Eutrophic lake Headwater stream Turbid river Estuary

Chapter 51: BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is anthropomorphism? Should it be applied to animal behavior? What is ethology? Describe a research project of Konrad Lorenz Define and give an example of a fixed action pattern. What is a releaser? Give at least 2 example of releasers. Describe the processes of parental and sexual imprinting and explain what is meant by the critical period. Distinguish between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Discuss two navigational strategies used by birds to navigate on long flights.

9. Explain what is meant by a dominance hierarchy, and indicate the advantages of this system. Include territoriality in your discussion, and cite some examples. 10. Differentiate between monogamy and polygamy, and explain the role of parental investment in determining the evolution of these systems. 11. Use a diagram to describe the honeybee's waggle dance, and the symbolic information it conveys. Given the position of a food source in relation to the hive, predict the angle at which a waggle dance would be performed. 12. Explain the evolutionary advantage to a population of having members who exhibit altruistic behavior. Contrast kin selection and reciprocity as explanations of altruistic behavior. Which one of them is generally more applicable? 13. Why are many interactions between members of the same species agonistic? 14. Which sex usually show more discrimination in choosing potential mates? 15. What is the likely exogenous cue (Zeitgeber) for circadian rhythms? 16. Discuss how bird songs provide a model for understanding behavior development

Chapter 52 Population Ecology

1. Give two methods biologists use to estimate population densities and distinguish between uniform, clumped, and random distributions, and indicate the conditions under which each occurs. 2. Study a graph of the general types of survivorship curves (Fig. 52.3 in Campbell). Sketch: a. A survivorship curve for a population in which the rate of death is independent of age and label it by type. b. A survivorship curve that reflects the loss of large quantities of young, such as would be seen in most plant species and label it by type. 3. Sketch an exponential growth curve. Describe at least one situation in which exponential growth could occur. 4. Sketch a logistic growth curve and label the carrying capacity, the inflection point, the portion of the curve showing an accelerating rate of population growth, and the portion showing a decelerating rate. 5. Draw an exponential growth curve with a sudden crash, and list factors that might cause the crash. Distinguish between those that are density-dependent, and those that are density-independent. 6. Distinguish between an r-selected species and a K-selected species, and type of growth curve (S-shaped or boom-and bust). Use a chart format to answer this question. 7. When populations become overcrowded, the members show physiological evidence of stress. Cite several of these responses. 8. Describe the snowshoe hare/lynx relationship. Explain the population changes in at least two ways. 9. List some density-dependent factors that may limit population growth. 10. List some density-independent factors that may limit population growth.

Chapter 53: Communities

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is G.F. Gauses's Competitive Exclusion principle? Give one example. Define ecological niche. What is the difference between the fundamental niche and the realized niche? Describe Robert MacArthur's research regarding interspecific competition. Distinguish between intraspecific competition and interspecific competition. Give an example of each.

6. Describe several strategies that prey species have adopted for their survival. Include both plant and animal examples. 7. 8. Compare Batesian and Mullerian mimicry. Define and give an example of each of the following species interactions: a) predation b) parasitism c) commensalism d) mutualism e) symbiosis 9. Define the following terms: a) succession b) pioneer species c) climax community d) primary succession e ) secondary succession 10. Describe the steps and name some representative organisms that would be characteristic of succession if the grounds crew stopped mowing the football field. 11. Why aren't hostas and lilies-of-the-valley able to grow well on the sunny south side of a home? 12. What is predicted by the theory of island biogeography? 13. Name and give examples of the interspecific interactions symbolized in the following table ++ +0 +-Interaction Examples

14. List four properties of a community, and explain the importance of each

Chapter 54: Ecosystems

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Define ecosystem. Where does the flow of energy in an ecosystem begin? What are deep sea vents? Where have they been found What are trophic levels? What is always at the first trophic level? What are detritivores? Give some examples. What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? State the trophic level of each of the following: cow, grass, man What is primary productivity? Distinguish between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity. How can primary productivity be increased? Describe a technique for measuring net primary productivity in an aquatic environment. (We will use this in lab.)

10. What is meant by biomass? Which ecosystem would tend to have a greater biomass/unit area, a prairie or a deciduous forest? Explain. 11. Sketch and explain a pyramid of standing crop biomass. 12. Explain why the pyramid of biomass for some aquatic environments is inverted. 13. Use a diagram to describe the water cycle. Specify the roles or evaporation, transpiration and rainfall. 14. Use a diagram to describe the carbon cycle. In doing so, explain how carbon enters the living system, and how it leaves, indicate the role of microorganisms in the cycle, and identify the reservoir for carbon. 15. Use a diagram to describe the nitrogen cycle. In doing so, discuss nitrogen fixation nitrification, and denitrification. Indicate the role of microorganisms in the cycle, and identify the reservoir for nitrogen. 16. What effect has deforestation been shown to have on chemical cycling? 17. Describe the process of eutrophication. What are factors that contribute to eutrophication? 19. What is contributing to the great increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide? What are potential effects of this? 20. What is the greenhouse effect? What contributes to it? Explain. 21. Why do people that live in overpopulated countries tend to eat low on the food chain? 22. Antarctic seas are often more productive than most tropical seas, even though they are colder and receive lower light intensity. Explain 23. Label the levels of this food chain. How does a food chain differ from a food web?

24. Approximately what proportion of the chemical energy produced in photosynthesis makes it to a tertiary consumer?

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"" CONSERVATION BIOLOGY

1. List the major threats to biodiversity and give example of each. 2. Describe why biodiversity is important to humans. 3. Describe the three concepts upon which the field of biodiverstiy emerged. 4. Describe the problems presented to conservation by migratory species 5. Describe how habitat fragmentation affects population dynamics. 6. What are the ultimate energy source and sink for most ecosystems?

ECOLOGY ESSAY QUESTIONS # $%

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1. Describe the trophic levels in a typical ecosystem. Discuss the flow of energy through the ecosystem, the relationship between the different trophic levels, and the factors that limit the number of trophic levels. 2. Describe the process of ecological succession from a pioneer community to a climax community. Include in your answer a discussion of species diversity and interactions, accumulation of biomass, and energy flow.

Here are some tips on writing essays for AP exams. · We will work on many of the techniques you will need for the essay portion of the exam during class. This will be enough to get you started. Unless your write very large try to keep your essay to two pages or less.

In answering these questions: · Be sure that you answer the question asked and only that question, and that you answer all parts of it. · Outline the answer to avoid confusion and disorganization. Thinking ahead helps to avoid scratch outs, astrices, skipping around, and rambling. · Write an essay. Unlike your English essays these do not require introductions transitions sentences and conclusions. The facts are what is important. Outlines and diagrams, no matter how elaborate and accurate, are not essays and will not do you much, if any, credit by themselves on the real exam. · Define your terms. Say something about each of the terms that you use

Latin Terms

Latin is the language of science. There are a few reasons for this but the most obvious is that Latin is "dead". Since no one actually speaks Latin, the language is not evolving(changing) so we have no confusion concerning the definition of a word. While Biology will not be as mathematical as chemistry or physics but it will be even more vocabulary driven. If you can define a word from it's parts rather than experience or going to a dictionary you will be ahead of the game. The following is a list of common prefixes, roots, and suffixes you will see in science. Knowing these will allow you to know the definition of many of the terms seen in A.P. Biolgoy. The words formed from these terms often are not literally fused together. It has often been necessary to add a vowel to combining forms for pleasing pronunciation. For example, bacteri- + logy becomes bacteriology. There are also times to drop or change a vowel in a prefix, suffix, or stem. For example, gastrobecomes gastric, the adjective pertaining to the stomach.", "a-, an-","no; lacking; none", "ab-","away from; out from", "ac-","to; toward", ",aceus; -aceous","of or pertaining to", "acou-","hearing", "act-; acro-","extreme; peak", "ad-","to; toward", "adeno-","gland", "agri-","field, soil", "-al","having character of", "alb-","white", "-algia","pain", "alto-","high", "ameb-","change; alternation", "amphibi-","leading a double life", "ampho-; amb-","both", "an-","not; without", "ana-","up", "andro-","masculine; man", "anemo-","wind", "angio-","vessel", "ante-","before; ahead of time", "antero-","front", "antho-","flower", "anti-","against", "anthropo-","man", "ap-","to; toward", "aqu-","water", "archaeo-","primitive; ancient", "arthro-","joint", "aster-; astr-","stars", "-ate","used in forming verbs from nouns", "-ation","used in forming nouns from verbs", "atom-","vapor", "audi-","hear", "auto-","self", "bactr-","stick; club", "barb-","beard", "baro-","weight", "bath-","depth; height", "bene-","well; good", "bi-","two; twice; double",

"bio-; bi-", "-blast", "brachi-", "branchi-", "brev-", "bronch-", "cilor-", "carb-", "cardi-", "carn-", "carp-", "carpal-", "Caud-", "cell-", "-cene", "centi-", "centr-", "cephal-", "cervic-", "chem-", "chlor-", "chrom-; -chrome", "chym-", "-cide", "circu~-", "cirru-", "co-", "cocc-", "coel-", "coli-", "com-", "con-", "coni-", "contra-", "corp-", "cosmo-", costa"cotyl-", "counter-", "crypt-", "-cule; -culus", "cucmul-", "cuti-", "cyan-", "-cycle; cyci"cyst-", "cyt-; -cyte", "dacty-", "deca-", "deci-'", "deliquesc-", "demi-", "dendr-", "dent-", "derm-", "di-", "dia-",

"life; living", "sprout; germ", "having arms", "having fins", "short", "windpipe", "heat", "coal; carbon", "heart", "meat", "fruit", "wrist", "tail Quiz 1 stop here "storeroom;chamber" "new; recent", "hundredth", "center", "head", "neck", "referring to chemistry", "green", "color", "juice", "killing", "around; about", "harilike curls", "with; together", "seed", "hollow", "glue", "with; together", "with; together", "cone", "against", "body", "world; order; form", rib "cup", "against", "hidden; covered", "added to nouns to form","diminutive", "heaped", "skin", "dark blue", "ring; circle", "bladder; pouch", "cell; receptacle", "finger", "ten", "tenth", "become fluid", "half", "tree", "tooth", "skin", "two; double", "through; across",

"digit", "din-", "dis-", "dorm-", "dors-", "du-; duo", "-duct", "dynam-", "dys-", "ec-", "echin-", "eco-", "ect-", "electro-", "en-", "-en", "enuephal-", "end-; ent-", "enter-", -eous", "epi-", "-err", "erythro-", "ethno-", "eu-", "extra-", "ex-", "-fer", "ferro-", "fibr-", "-fid; fis-", "-flect; flex", "flor-", "fluor-", "foli-", "fract-", "galact-; galax"gastro-", "geo-", "-gen; gine", "-gene; gene", "-gest", "glob-", "glottis", "-gon", "-gony", "-grade "-gram , "-graphy; graph "grav"gross", "gymno-", "gyn-", "gyr-", "haem-; hem-" "hepat-",

"finger; tow", "terrible", "apart; out", "sleep", "back", "two", "lead", "power", "ill; bad", "out o~; outside", "spiny; prickly", "house",Quiz 2 stop here "outside; without", "electric; electricity", "in; into", "made of", "brain", "within; in", "intestines", "nature of; like", "on; above", "wander; go astray", "red", "race; people", "well; good", "beyond; outside of", "out of", "bear; carry; produce", "iron", "fiber; thread", "divided into; split", "bend", "flower", "fluorine", "leaf", "break", "milk; milky fluid", "stomach", "land; earth", "producer; former", "origin", "carry; produce", "ball; round", "mouth of windpipe", "angle; corner", "offspring; generation;", " coming into being" "step; division", "writing; record", "writing; record", "heavy", "thick", "naked", "female", "ring; circle; spiral", "blood", "liver",

Ecology Multiple Choice Practice Questions Chapters 50-55 "1. Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its description? "a, neritic zone--shallow area over continental shelf" "b. abyssal zone- benthic region where light does not penetrate" "c. littoral Zone- area of Open water "d. intertidal zone, shallow area at edge of water "e. profundal Zonc deep, aphotic region of lakes 2. A conformer is most likely to be successful in a(n)", "a. intertidal zone.", "b. coral reef.", "c. taiga.", "d. chaparral.", "e. estuary.", 3. TWO communities have the same mean temperature and rainfall but very different compositions and characteristics. The best explanation for this phenomenon is that the two", "a. are found at different altitudes "b. are composed of species that have very low dispersal rates.", "c. are found on different continents.", "d. receive different amounts of Sunlight.", "e. have a different range of temperatures and pattern of rainfall throughout the year.", 4. "Phytoplankton are the basis of the food chain in", "a. streams.", "b. wetlands.", "c. the oceanic pelagic biome.", "d. rocky intertidal zones.", "e. deep-sea thermal vents.", 5. The ample rainfall of the tropics and the arid areas around 30° north and south latitudes are caused by "a. ocean currents that flow clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern. "b. the global circulation of air initiated by intense solar radiation near the equator producing wet and warm air.", "c. the tilting of the earth on its axis and the resulting seasonal changes in climate. "d. the heavier rain on the windward side of mountain ranges and the "rainshadow" on the leeward side.", "e. the location of tropical rain forests and deserts.", 6. The permafrost of the arctic tundra", "a. prevents plants from getting established and growing.", "b. protects small animals during the long winters.", "c. prevents plant roots from penetrating into the soil.", "d. helps to keep the soil from getting wet since water cannot soak in. "e. both c and d.", 7. Many plant species have adaptations for dealing with the periodic fires typical of a", "a. savanna.", "b. chaparral.", "c. temperate grassland.", "d. temperate deciduous forest.", "e. a,b,or c.", 8. Track athletes may train at high altitudes in order to "a. take advantage of the better weather.", "b. produce more red blood cells through acclimation.", "c. get used to running hills", "d. extend their tolerance limits for altitude.", "e. adapt physiologically and morphologically to cold and wind.",

9. Upwellings in the ocean", "a. are locations of reef communities.", "b. occur over deep-sea hydrothermal vents.", "c. are responsible for ocean currents.", "d. bring nutrient-rich water to the surface.", "e. are most common in tropical waters, where they bring oxygen-rich water to the surface. 10. In a range with a heterogeneous distribution of suitable habitats, the dispersion pattern of a population probably would be", "a. clumped,", "b. uniform.", "c, random.", "d. unpredictable.", "e. dense.", 11. The age structure of a population influences population growth because", "a. Younger females have more offspring than do older females.", "b. Populations with shorter generation times grow more rapidly.", "c. Different age groups have different reproductive capabilities.", "d. Life tables show that mortality rates change with age.", "e. The more individuals that are immature, the faster the population will grow.", 12. A Type I survivorship curve is level at first, with a rapid increase in mortality in old age. This type of curve is "a. typical of many invertebrates that produce large numbers of offspring.", "b. typical of humans and other large mammals.", "c. found most often in r-selected species.", "d.; almost never found in nature.", "e.. typical of all species of birds.", 13. The middle of the S growth curve in the logistic growth model", "a. shows that at middle densities, individuals of a Population do not affect each other.", "b. is best described by the term rmax N.", "c. shows that reproduction will occur only until the population size reaches K and dN/dt becomes 0 "d. is the period when competition for resources is highest "e. is the period when the population is increasing the fastest. 14. A Type III survivorship curve would more likely to be found in", "a. a semelparous species.", "b. a K-selected species.", "c. a species that undergoes", "d. a species that is territorial.", e. a population that is regulated dependent factors." 15. A few members of a population have favorable habitat with few predators and unlimited resources, but their population growth rate is slower than that of the parent population. What is a possible explanation for this situation? "a. The genetic makeup of these founders may be less favorable than that of the parent population.", "b. The parent population may still be in an exponential part of its growth curve and not yet limited by densitydependent factors. "c. The Allee effect may be operating; there are not enough population members present for successful reproduction. "d. a, b, and c may apply.", "e. This scenario would not happen.", 16. The term (K-N)/K", "a. is the carrying capacity for a population.", "b. is greatest when K is very large.", "c. is zero when population size equals carrying capacity. "d. increases in value as N approaches K.", "e. accounts for the overshoot of carrying capacity

17. Density-independent factors", "a. tend to maintain a population around the carrying capacity. "b. are involved in the population cycles seen in some mammals.", "c. are important in the regulation of K-selected populations.", "d. include climatic events and habitat disruptions "e. affect a higher proportion of a small population.", 18. "Which of the following is not a characteristic of a K-selected species? "a. usually one reproductive episode per lifetime with little parental care", "b. extensive homeostatic capability to deal with environmental fluctuations "c. long maturation time", "d. usually low mortality", "e. large offspring or eggs", 19. Which of the following is not an example of coevolution?", "a. adaptations of flowers and their exclusive pollinators", "b. passion-flower vines and the butterfly Heliconius", "c. a parasite that is specific for one host "d. a brood parasite's eggs that mimic the host species' eggs", "e. aposematic coloration of monarch butterflies and predators that learn not to eat them", 20. Through resource partitioning,", "a. Two species can compete for the same prey item. "b. Slight variations in niche allow closely related species to coexist in the same habitat.", "c. Two species can share the same realized niche in a habitat.", "d. Competitive exclusion results in the success of the superior species.", "e. Two species undergo character displacement that allows them to compete.", 21. A species may be restricted to a particular range because", "a. It cannot tolerate environmental conditions outside that range.", "b. It has never dispersed beyond that range. "c. It has retracted from a former range due to local extinctions.", "d. It would outcompete native species if it were transplanted to their habitat.", "e. a, b, and c are all true. 22. The ability of some herbivores to eat plants that have toxic secondary compounds may be an example of", "a. coevolution.", "b. mutualism.", "c. commensalism.", "d. niche partitioning.", "e. parasitism.", 23. A palatable (good-tasting) prey species may defend against predation by", "a. Mullerian mimicry.", "b. Batesian mimicry.", "c. secondary compounds.", "d. aposematic coloration.", "e. either a or b.", 24. "Which of the following is not part of Gleason's individualistic concept of communities?", "a. Communities are chance collections of species that are in the same area because of similar environmental requirements. "b. There should be no distinct boundaries between communities.", "c. The consistent composition of a community is based on interactions that cause it to function as an integrated unit.", "d. Species are distributed independently along environmental gradients.", "e. Most communities studied meet the predictions made by this concept.",

25. Two species, A and B, occupy adjoining environmental patches that differ in several abiotic factors. When species A is experimentally removed from a portion of its patch, species B colonizes the vacated area and thrives. When species B is experimentally removed from a portion of its patch species A does not successfully colonize the area. From this, one might conclude that a. Both species A and species B are limited to their range by abiotic factors.", "b. Species A is limited to its range by competition and species B is limited by abiotic factors.", "c. Both species are limited to their range by competition.", "d. Species A is limited to its range by abiotic factors and species B is limited to its range because it cannot compete with species A.", "e. Species B is K-selected and species A is r-selected. 26. The species richness of a community refers to", "a. the relative numbers of individuals in each species.", "b. the number of different species found in a community.", "c. the feeding relationships or trophic structure within the community.", "d. the species diversity that is characteristic of that community.", 27. When one species was removed from a tidepool the species richness became significantly reduced.", "The removed species was probably", " a. a strong competitor." " b. a potent parasite.", " c. a resource partitioner.", " d. a keystone predator.", "e. the species with the' highest relative abundance.", 28. A highly successful parasite" " a. will not harm its host.", " b. may benefit its host.", " c. will be able to feed without killing its host.", " d. will kill its host fairly rapidly.", " e, will have coevolved into a commensalistic interaction with its host.", 29. The most important factor(s) in determining community structure", "a. may change from one community to another.", "b. is predation.", "c. is competition.", "d. is history.", "e. are structural diversity and environmental patchiness.", 30. During succession, inhibition", "a. may prevent the achievement of a climax community.", "b. is evidence for the equilibrial theory of succession.", "c. is one of the factors that determines the most tolerant species in an area.", "d. interferes with the successful colonization of other species.", "e. may involve changes in soil pH or accelerated accumulation of humus.", 31. According to the nonequilibrial model of succession,", "a. Chance events such as dispersal and disturbance play maior roles in succession, and species composition remains in flux. "b. Species diversity is greatest in the climax community.", "c. When succession reaches a climax community only extinctions make room for new colonists.", "d. The communities with the greatest diversity have the greatest resiliency and resistance to change.", "e. Early colonizers are r-selected and later community members are K-selected.", "32. The island recolonization experiment of Simberloff and Wilson showed that", "a. Species diversity returns very slowly to an island after a disturbance.", "b. The species diversity was highest when disturbances were intermediate in frequency and severity.", "c. Whereas the same numbers of species of arthropods returned to each island, the species composition was different, indicating the importance of chance events.", "d. Islands closest to the mainland had the greatest numbers of arthropods recolonize, and their community composition and diversity were the same as prior to fumigation.", "e. The largest islands had the greatest species richness but the least species diversity.",

33. In an ecosystem,", "a. Energy is recycled through the trophic structure. "b. Energy is usually captured from sunlight by primary producers, passed to secondary producers in the form of organic compounds, and lost to decomposers in the form of heat.", "c. Chemicals are recycled between the biotic and abiotic sectors, whereas energy makes a one way trip through the food web.", "d. There is a continuous process by which energy is lost as heat, and chemical elements leave the ecosystem through runoff.", "e. A food chain shows that all trophic levels may feed off each other.", 34. Primary productivity", "a. is equal to the standing crop of an ecosystem.", "b. is greatest in freshwater ecosystems.", "c. is the rate of conversion of light to chemical energy in an ecosystem.", "d. is inverted in some aquatic ecosystems.", "e. is all of the above.", 35. The open ocean and tropical rain forest are the two largest contributors to Earth's net primary productivity because", "a. Both have high rates of net primary productivity. " b. Both cover large surface areas of the Earth.", " c. Nutrients cycle fastest in these two ecosystems.", d. The ocean covers a large surface area and the tropical rain forest has a high rate of productivity.", "e. Both a and b are correct.", 36. Productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is affected by", "a. temperature.", "b. light intensity.", "c. availability of nutrients.", "d. availability of water", "e. all of the above.", 37. Secondary productivity", "a. is measured by the standing crop.", "b. is the rate of biomass production in consumers.", "c. is greater than primary productivity.", "d. is 10 percent less than primary productivity.", "e. is the gross primary productivity minus the energy used for respiration.", 38. Biogeochemical cycles are global for elements", "a. that are found in the atmosphere.", "b. that are found mainly in the soil.", "c. such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus.", "d. that are dissolved in water.", "e. in the nonavailable reservoirs.", 39. Which of these processes is incorrectly paired with its description?", "a. nitrification--oxidation of ammonium in the soil to nitrite and nitrate", "b. nitrogen fixation--reduction of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia", "c. denitrification--removal of nitrogen from organic compounds", "d. ammonification---decomposition of organic compounds into ammonia", "e. evaporation of ammonia--loss of ammonia to the atmosphere from nonacidic soils", 40. Carbon cycles relatively rapidly except when it is", "a. dissolved in freshwater ecosystems.", "b. released by respiration.", "c. converted into sugars.", "d. stored in petroleum, coal, or wood.", "e. part of the bicarbonate reservoir in ocean, s.",

41. Which of the following was not shown by the Hubbard Brook Forest study?", "a. Most minerals recycle within a forest ecosystem.", "b. Deforestation results in a large increase in water runoff.", "c. Mineral losses from a valley were great following deforestation.", "d. Nitrate was the mineral that showed the greatest loss.", "e. Nutrient loss returned to normal in less than two years after deforestation.", 42. A change in behavior as a result of experience is called", "a. habituation.", "b. imprinting.", "c. insight "d. learning.", "e, maturation.", 43. A critical period", "a. is the time right after birth when sexual identity is developed.", "b. usually follows the receiving of a sign stimulus.", "c. is a limited time during which imprinting can occur.", "d. is the period during which birds can learn to fly.", "e. is the time during which social animals play. 44. In classical conditioning,", "a. An animal associates a behavior with a reward or punishment.", "b. An animal learns as a result of trial and error. "c. Sensitivity to unimportant or repetitive stimuli occurs.", "d. A bird can learn the song of a related species if it hears only that song.", "e. An irrelevant stimulus can elicit a response because of its association with a normal stimulus.", 45. Circannual behaviors", "a. are often linked to changes in day length.", "b. rely solely on endogenous cues.", "c. involve foraging, reproduction, and migration.", "d. do not occur in free-running conditions.", "e. have a rhythm of 24 hours that is based on exogenous cues and endogenous timers.", 46. A kinesis", "it. is a randomly directed movement that is not caused by external stimuli.", "b. is a movement that is directed toward or away from a stimulus.", "c. is a change in activity rate in response to a stimulus.", "d. is illustrated by trout swimming upstream.", "e. often involves piloting but not orientation or navigation.", 47. A dominance hierarchy", "a. may be established by agonistic behavior.", "b. determines which animals get first access to resources.", "c. helps to avoid potential injury of competitors.", "d. may help to stabilize population density.", "e. applies to all of the above.", "48. An animal's territory", "a. may be larger than its home range.", "b. may decrease in size if resources dwindle and expand if resources become more plentiful.", "c. excludes both conspecifics and members of other species.", "d. may be proclaimed by scent marks, vocal displays, and patrolling.", "e. applies to all of the above.", "49. In a species in which females provide all the needed food and protection for the young, "a. Males are likely to be promiscuous.", "b. Mating systems are likely to be monogamous.", "c. Mating systems are likely to be polyandrous.", "d. Males most likely will show sexual selection.", "e. Females will have a higher Darwinian fitness than males.",

50. The concept of inclusive fitness explains" "a. optimal feeding behavior.", "b. sexual selection.", "c. kin selection and altruistic behavior.", "d. monogamous mating systems.", "e. the coefficient of relatedness. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C B E C B C E B D A C B E A D C D A E B E A B C D B D C A D A C C C D E A A C D E D C E A C E D A C Answers to M.C. Questions

Monday Intro 19

Tuesday 0 hr all 20 Grade Summer Essay Write/Grade Essay Tips for Writing Essay st 0 hr 1 27 Animal Behavior st Lab 11 1 hour No fruit fly Chap 3,4 2nd Read 41-41 3 No School/Staff Dev Read 71-84

Wednesday Voacab Quiz 1 Review 21

Tues/Thurs Zero Hour Thursday Friday 0 hr all 22 23 Eco Test Review Test Chap 46,47,48,49,50 Discuss Prelab Read p. 26-39

Chap 2 Get Roly-Poly's Turn in Prelab Read p 41-50

26

0 hr all 28 Practice AP M.C. exam (90 min) Read p 52-59 Get Roly-Poly's 4 Toothpickase Activity Chap 5 Read 73-86 11

0 hr 2 29 st Chap 3,4 1 Animal Behavior nd Lab 11 2 hour No fruit fly 0 hr 1 5 Enzyme Lab st (Lab2) CBL 1 nd Biochem Essay 2 0 hr all Biochem Exam Chap 2,3,4,5 Grade Essay No 0 Finish Cell Cell Essay 12

st

nd

Practice Essay Read 62-71

30

2 Labor Day/No School

0 hr 2 6 Discuss Lab Biochem Essay Enzyme Lab nd (Lab2) CBL 2 Lab Quiz Review Test Grade Essay? Read 89-76 13

nd

Vocab Quiz 2 Grade Essay

9

0 hr all Unit Themes

10

Review

Intro to Metabolism Read 96-103

16

0 hr all Enzymes Read 108-123

17

0 ?? Organelles Read 123-135

18

19

20 Grade/Discuss Essay Homecoming

Vocab Quiz 3 Prelab Due Read 138-147

23

0 hr 1 24 Osmosis/Diffusion st (Lab 1) CBL 1 Cell Membrane Read 147-156 0 hr 1 1 Cell Membrane Lab st 1 nd Osmosis Essay 2 0 hr all 8 Exam Cell Biology Chap 6,7,8 Read 155-159 0 hr 1 15 st Respiration Lab 1 Read 176-185

st st

st

30 Finish Cell Memb Prelab Due

0 hr 2 25 Cell Membrane Graph Analysis for lab Osmosis/Diffusion nd (Lab 1) CBL 2 2 No School/Staff Dev Finish Lab

nd

0 hr all Review EcoBiochem Discuss Lab

nd

26

Lab Test

27

0 hr 2 3 Osmosis Essay Cell Membrane Lab nd 2 0 hr all 10 Vocab Quiz 4 Jigsaw Respiration Read 169-173 17

Discuss Essay

4

Review Themes

7

9 Grade/Discuss Essay Read 160-168

Finish Jigsaw Respiration

11

Respiration Prelab

14

0 hr 2 16 Respiration nd Respiration Lab 2 Read 185-189

nd

Read 189-193

Respiration Lab st End 1 Q

18

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