Read INTRODUCTION text version

Intravenous Cannulation Training Workbook

Name _____________________________ Ward _____________________________ Date: ______________________________

Last Revised: Authors:

August 2007 Koli Ali, Clinical Nurse Consultant, Ward 5F Sandra Ridings, Nurse Educator, Centre for Nursing & Midwifery Education and Research 1998 IV Cannulation Working Group Annette Boonen (Chair Person), Nursing Director Surgical & Specialty Services Division Dr Marion Eckert, Director, Nursing and Midwifery Education Jennifer Kempson, Nurse Unit Manager, Medical Imaging Helen Fuss, A/CNC, Ward 5C Kylie Hamblin, A/CNC, Ward 5E Sandra Ridings, Nurse Educator, Centre for Nursing & Midwifery Education and Research We wish to acknowledge: · the significant contribution of the Infection Control Unit at Flinders Medical Centre in the development of the Guidelines for Prevention of Peripheral Intravascular Device-Related Infections · the skills and clerical support of the Centre for Nursing & Midwifery Education and Research in the design, layout and word processing of this learning package

Consultation with:

Acknowledging:

·

the clinical areas who contributed expertise and resources adapted for use within this package. Thank You

Administrative Assistance:

Heather Powell Centre for Nursing & Midwifery Education and Research

Disclaimer This program/learning package was produced for the education and use of health care professionals at Flinders Medical Centre/Southern Adelaide Health Service. While every effort has been made to ensure that this learning package information is correct and in accordance with current recommendations in clinical practice at the time of publication, it is not designed to replace independent professional judgement and understanding of the clinical situation.

© Flinders Medical Centre 1998 - 2007

For a copy of this booklet please contact Centre for Nursing & Midwifery Education and Research on extension 64227

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IV Cannulation Training Workbook

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS CANNULATION , PATIENT CONSENT AND SCOPE OF NURSING MIDWIFERY PRACTICE OBJECTIVES ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF VEINS ACTIVITY 1 ACTIVITY 2 ACTIVITY 3 INDICATIONS FOR INTRAVENOUS CANNULATION ACTIVITY 4 Guidelines for Prevention of Peripheral Intravascular Device-Related Infections CANNULATION INTRAVENOUS CANNULATION WORKSHEET REFERENCES RECOMMENDED RESOURCE APPENDIX 1 ANSWER: ACTIVITY 1 ANSWER: ACTIVITY 2 ANSWERS TO WORKSHEET APPENDIX 2 AUDIT INSERTION OF PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS CANNULA AUDIT COMPLETION RECORDED BELOW APPENDIX 3 PERIPHERAL IV CANNULATION/NURSE PROCEDURE (C3) WARD ADDENDUM MATERIAL EVALUATION FORM

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IV Cannulation Training Workbook

Introduction

Peripheral intravenous cannulation is an invasive medical procedure performed by clinicians that have received appropriate training in the procedure and have been deemed competent through an audit process. Increased numbers of nursing staff competent in intravenous cannulation in a clinical unit has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes (ie. reduction in delays for peripheral intravenous cannulation by medical staff). THE PURPOSE OF THIS WORKBOOK The workbook aims to provide a starting point for you to develop and acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to competently insert peripheral intravenous (IV) cannulae. Some clinical specialities may have additional needs, so please talk with your Clinical Nurse/Midwife Consultant (CN/MC) about specific ward needs before commencing the workbook, and ensure you have a copy of your ward-specific addendum.

EDUCATIONAL GUIDELINES

Nurses/ midwives who can evidence the following criteria may insert intravenous cannulae as per procedure C3 in the Nursing/Midwifery Policies & Procedure Manual. 1. completion of this workbook, 2. attendance at an IV cannulation workshop, 3. achievement of at least 3 successful supervised cannulations, (the learner can request more supervision if desired) 4. self declaration of clinical competence (annually) Recognition of prior learning of achievements from an equivalent training program may be granted by the appropriate clinical manager. The Clinical Nurse/Midwife Consultant/Manager of the Clinical Unit/Service is responsible for identifying nurses/midwives suitable for entry into the training program. Progress toward achievement of competency is documented on the Audit Tool located in Appendix 2. If you would like more information, please contact your CNC or Nurse Educator. Under no circumstances shall Students of Nursing be trained to insert peripheral intravenous cannulae. MAINTAINING IV CANNULATION COMPETENCE Following accreditation, it is your professional responsibility to maintain your competence in the procedure and to request further education and audits if you do not perform the procedure with sufficient regularity to maintain competence.

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Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation , Patient Consent And Scope Of Nursing Midwifery Practice

The scope of practice of nurses/midwives to insert peripheral intravenous cannulae (PIVC) at Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) is outlined below using the Scope of Practice Decision Making Flow Chart. NBSA 2006. Public Interest & Client Centred A client need for insertion of peripheral intravenous cannulae is evident, with the procedure being the second most common invasive procedure for patients in hospital. (Dougherty 1996). Benefits to the client of nurse insertion of PIVC include reduction of waiting time for analgesia in the Emergency Department and reduction in waiting times, particularly after hours for initiation or recommencement of intravenous therapy. Historically, peripheral intravenous cannulation has been a clinical skill not associated with the nursing/midwifery profession. However, over the last 30 years the number of nurses/midwives trained and proficient in the skill has increased. Consultation with the client prior to invasive procedures is mandatory under Australian Law. The Australian Nursing & Midwifery Council , Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia states a nurse must: 1. Practise in a safe and competent manner 2. Practise in accordance with laws relevant to the nurse's area of practice. Scholefield et al (1997) in Lavery I (2003) stated that for consent to be legally valid, the patient must: · Have capacity in law · Be properly informed beforehand · Give consent voluntarily. (Verbal consent is satisfactory for PIVC) Nurses/midwives whose scope of practice includes PIVC at FMC must be familiar with these concepts as outlined in Procedure/Guideline LM2.6 : Consent to Treatment and Related Medical Procedures. FMC procedures/guidelines/protocols online 2006. Information to be discussed with the patient must show a balanced view of options and include sufficient information to enable a choice to proceed or refuse the cannulae placement. Lavery, 2003 asserts that information given about cannulation should inform and educate, be timely and include details of the procedure and post procedure care at a level appropriate for the individual. "Education must include appraising patients of their responsibilities to report pain, swelling, discomfort, redness, leakage or loose dressings, as well as giving advice about not touching the site/cannula, and care when dressing/undressing. If it is a site of flexion, the patient must be advised to minimise movement. Many patients think they are being left with a needle in their arm, so each nurse has a responsibility to ensure educating the patient includes giving information about the cannula."(Lavery, 2006, p41) Consultation with medical staff prior to placement of PIVC is mandatory where a clear clinical rationale for cannulation is not evident to the nurse/midwife, concerns are raised by the patient about the necessity for the procedure or nurse workload is such that patient care could be compromised by performance of the procedure.

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Regulation / Professional Explanatory notes extracted from the Australian Nursing & Midwifery Council , Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia clarify the meaning and scope of operation of the provision: " 1. A nurse must practise in a safe and competent manner · A nurse is personally accountable for the provision of safe and competent nursing care. Therefore it is the responsibility of each nurse to maintain the competence necessary for current practice. · Maintenance of competence includes participation in ongoing professional education to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills relevant to practice in a clinical, management, education or research setting. · A nurse must be aware that undertaking activities that are not within their scope of practice may compromise the safety of an individual. The scope of practice is based on each nurse's education, knowledge, competency, extent of experience and lawful authority." (p2) Once nurses/midwives at FMC have successfully completed the Intravenous Cannulation Training Workbook & demonstrated competence and knowledge at a practical workshop they may commence insertion PIVC under supervision of a person delegated by their CN/MC until competence is demonstrated. Following accreditation, it is the nurse's/midwive's professional responsibility to maintain competence in the procedure and to request further education and audits if they do not perform the procedure with sufficient regularity to maintain competence. The procedure for insertion of PIVC is explained in Procedure C3: Peripheral IV Cannulation in the FMC procedures/guidelines/protocols. The procedure/guideline: Guidelines for prevention of peripheral intravascular device-related infections (IC 7) advises responsibilities during and after insertion of PIVC and includes Department of Health recommendations in care for South Australia. Organisational Nursing skills/competencies maintenance procedure guideline: No HR2.5 identifies organisational responsibilities for skills development, training programs and review processes. Individual responsibilities for clinical practice are described in job and person specifications for each classification of nurse/midwife. The need for skills development in nurse insertion of PIVC has been identified following collection of after hours clinical data that indicated that patients were experiencing potentially avoidable delays in intravenous therapy, due to workload issues related to limited numbers of medical staff available to perform cannulation at this time. A working group was established to review clinical and educational processes associated with PIVC and facilitate an evidenced based and educationally sound approach to improving the numbers of nurses competent in cannulation.

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Outcomes included a review of scope of practice for nurses and midwives at FMC and determination of best practices to achieve an increase in skill levels of nurses & midwives in cannulation. Recommendations were forwarded and ratified by the Professional practice Committee 2006. Individual Prior to inclusion of PIVC into their scope of practice, individual nurses & midwives must answer affirmatively to the following: · · · · Do I have the educational preparation to insert a PIVC? Do I have the knowledge and skills to insert a PIVC? Do I have the appropriate experience or do I require supervision? Am I competent to insert a PIVC in this patient, for this purpose?

Note: PIVC inserted for chemotherapy must be performed by nurses specifically trained for this procedure. Declaration of self competence requires supporting evidence be available to validate the claim if required. Accurate documentation of patient assessment, education provided and outcome of PIVC insertion are essential elements of clinical competence. Additionally, nurses/midwives performing advanced skills are advised to maintain a personal log of continuing education and feedback to demonstrate ongoing clinical competence. Records of nurses & midwives delegated, through successful application and demonstration of skills and knowledge outlined in this training workbook, to insert PIVC are to be maintained by relevant Clinical Nurse / Midwife Consultants. References: ANMC (2005) Code of Professional conduct for Nurses in Australia www.anmc.org.au accessed 18/09/06 Lavery, I (2003) Peripheral intravenous cannulation and patient consent, Nursing Standard, March 2006 vol17/No 28 pp40-42. NBSA (2006) Scope of Practice Decision Making Flow Chart. Procedure/Guideline LM2.6 : Consent to Treatment and Related Medical Procedures. FMC procedures/guidelines/protocols online 2006. Procedure/guideline: Guidelines for prevention of peripheral intravascular device-related infections (IC 7) FMC procedures/guidelines/protocols online 2006. Procedure/Guideline No HR2.5 Nursing skills/competencies maintenance procedure guideline FMC procedures/guidelines/protocols online 2006.

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Objectives

On completion of the package, you will be able to: · · · outline the anatomy of veins state indications for intravenous cannulation discuss infection control issues related to insertion and maintenance of peripheral venous cannula appreciate the psychological responses of patients to insertion of an intravenous cannula and the physical changes which may ensue select a vein suitable for cannulation select an appropriate cannulae for the patient's needs demonstrate knowledge of techniques to promote successful intravenous cannula placement insert a peripheral intravenous cannula

· · · · ·

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Anatomy and Physiology of Veins

Veins have three layers: a) tunica intima (inner layer) An elastic, endothelial lining which also forms the valves. Valves are semilunar folds of endothelium and their function is to keep the blood flowing towards the heart. They occur more frequently at junctions and can be observed as a small bulge in the veins. Valves can interfere with the withdrawal of blood as well as the advancement of a cannula. (Dougherty 1996) b) tunica media (middle layer) Muscular and elastic tissue, as well as nerve fibres. These keep the vessels in a state of tonus and stimulate the vein to contract and relax. Stimulation by a change in temperature or by mechanical or chemical irritation may produce venospasm, which impedes the flow of blood and causes pain. (Dougherty 1996) c) tunica adventita (outer layer). Comprises the epidermis and the areolar connective tissue which surrounds and supports the vessel.

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Activity 1

Consider the effect of the application of warmth over the vein and the converse effect of a rapid infusion of cool or irritating infusate into the vein. Outline the clinical implications:

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Activity 2

Locate and name the landmarks indicated on the following diagram:

Sites of selection for the insertion of intravenous needles for the parenteral administration of fluids, medication or for blood transfusion. Brunner, Suddarth (1988), Textbook of Medical - Surgical Nursing. Chpt. 9, p 127, 6th Ed, JB Lippincott Co, Philadelphia.

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The superficial veins of the arms should be used for the placement of intravenous cannulae in adults. · · easily accessed allow patients to perform activities of daily living with minimal impairment to function. (Dougherty 1996) Digital veins/Metacarpal veins easily visualised and palpated leaves proximal sites on the limb for cannulation use with caution in elderly people and where skin turgor and subcutaneous tissue is diminished

1

2

Cephalic vein large vein, which is easily stabilised and accessible. Its size and position make it an excellent choice for intravenous therapy good vein for large bore cannula, and useful for rapid infusions, including blood more comfortable for patient, as hand is free

3

Basilic vein large easily palpable vein but may be difficult to access and stabilise due to its location.

4

Median Cephalic and Basilic veins usually used for venipuncture. Their size and superficial location make them easy to palpate and visualise and they are well supported by connecting tissue can be difficult to stabilise (in joint) risk of dislodgment , infiltration, extravasion and mechanical phlebitis median cephalic vein crosses in front of the brachial artery and care must be taken to avoid puncturing the artery. (Dougherty 1996)

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Activity 3

Inspect your own and a colleague's arms and locate veins indicated on diagram 1.

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Indications for Intravenous Cannulation

It is important to find out the reason for IV placement before you approach the patient to avoid potentially unnecessary procedures and because the indication for IV cannulation will affect site and cannula selection. Four broad categories for intravenous cannula placement include: · · · · restoration and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance administration of drug therapy transfusion of blood products access in the case of potential complications. (Lawrence: unpublished)

Routine replacement of cannulae after 72 hours (per procedure C3) is performed as the result of research evidence. (CDC Guidelines)

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Activity 4

GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTION OF PERIPHERAL INTRAVASCULAR DEVICE-RELATED INFECTIONS

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Cannulation

Refer also: Procedure 4.10 Manual of Nursing Policies and Procedures 1 Gather equipment Chlorhexidine in alcohol solution/Persist Plus gauze swabs tourniquet non sterile gloves IV cannula of appropriate size primed IV line interlink bung transparent film absorbent sheet to protect linen +/- local anaesthetic 2 Approach to the patient

Fear or anxiety related to IV cannulation may trigger a response by the autonomic nervous system. This may manifest as syncope and/or peripheral vasoconstriction, making venous access more difficult. You should therefore; · · · ask the patient about previous experiences with IV cannulation explain the procedure prior to commencement encourage the patient to participate in the decision making process of site selection.

Whilst you are learning, you should not attempt cannulation on patients: · · · · · with blood clotting disorders on anticoagulant therapy who have extreme needle phobia with fragile veins who have a history of prolonged/multiple IV accesses.

The patient should be afforded privacy and be made as comfortable as possible prior to commencement. Adequate lighting and ambient warmth is necessary to facilitate a successful cannulation. If the patient has extremely hairy arms, clip the hair to remove, do NOT shave the site as shaving can increase the risk of infection.

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3

Select a vein tight enough to occlude veins check pulse present BP cuff 60 mmHg

Apply tourniquet:

Perform a visual inspection of both upper limbs, followed by palpation of the veins likely to be used. Palpation is performed using the flat pads of two fingers. The same two fingers should be used consistently to increase sensitivity and accurate assessment skills. Visualisation of the vein as a tube resembling a noodle lying under the skin may assist in assessment. A suitable vein should feel round, firm, elastic and engorged. It should also be visible, straight and well supported. Hardened, knotty torturous veins are often sclerosed and not suitable for cannulation as they are fragile and lead to premature extravasion. The size of the vein should be suitable for the volume of solution to be infused. Select the most distal site initially so subsequent cannulae can be moved progressively upward. It is recommended to use the non dominant hand/arm. Vesicant medications may cause necrosis and should only be infused through large, stable veins. Generally, the central venous route is preferred, however some chemotherapy may be administered peripherally. Only RNs who have rotated through the Haematology/Oncology Day Unit and have been specifically accredited, may insert an IV cannula for chemotherapy. Areas such as the wrist and the dorsal aspect of the hand should be avoided. These areas have delicate structures with little protection provided by body tissue and fat. Infiltration may cause extensive damage and functional loss.

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AVOID · · · · · · · · · · areas of flexion because of risks as outlined above, and bruising/difficulty with stabilisation areas over arteries. In the cubital fossa, veins and arteries lie close together. Palpate for arterial pulsation before venipuncture. arms with existing arterial line arm that has had brachial angiogram performed less than three days before arms with veins that have been surgically compromised, eg; mastectomy or axillary/arm surgery. Peripheral return may be severely reduced. limb with Arterio Venous fistula. By using this limb you may compromise the AV fistula cannulation below a previous infiltration or phlebitis cubital fossa (where possible) lower extremities in adults, because of the increased risk of thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolism veins near bony prominences. (Evans, 1998) 4 Select a Cannula

Assess the condition of a patient's veins and consider the prescribed therapy. Select the smallest cannula that will accommodate the prescribed therapy. "A large cannula will occlude the flow of blood, leading to chemical phlebitis from irritating solution, or mechanical phlebitis from friction exerted by the device on the intima of the vein."(Dougherty 1996) 24 g 22 g 20 g 18 g 16 g 14 g paediatrics, cytotoxic therapy paediatrics, cytotoxic therapy, blood products maintenance fluids, minor day surgery, infusion of medications (most commonly used gauge), blood products antibiotics, blood and blood products, multiple line access, large volume fluid, trauma, major surgery. high volume fluids, major surgery, multiple blood transfusions >200 ml/hr fast high volume fluid replacement, haemorrhage. (Evans, 1998)

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5

Consider use of local anaesthetic - Pain Reduction Good technique, skill and vein selection will reduce the amount of pain experienced by patients. Some patients, however, may request a local anaesthetic. The usefulness of lignocaine is debatable, although it can reduce the pain of the insertion, especially when large gauges are used. However, it stings (unless buffered), can obscure the vein, and should not be used if vesicants are to be administered immediately following insertion as it could mask signs of extravasion. Topical anaesthetic creams such as Emla have been found to be useful, but may cause vasoconstriction.' (Dougherty 1996) If indicated, use a small needle and inject approximately 0.1 mL of Lignocaine 1% or Procaine Hydrochloride 1% intradermally or subcutaneously. A small weal is created. Prior to injecting, withdraw the plunger to ensure needle is not in vein.

6 7 8 9

Prepare the site · clean area with chlorhexidine in alcohol solution or Persist Plus Obtain assistant (if not done previously) Wash hands and don gloves Emulate pictorial demonstration of technique of appropriate cannula.

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Intravenous Cannulation Worksheet

(Additional reading may be required - see references) 1 List four factors to consider when assessing the patient for intravenous cannulation.

2

List two groups of patients who should be approached cautiously with regards to intravenous cannulation.

3

List contraindications for arm choice for IV cannula placement.

4

Briefly state the physiological response which may hinder venous cannulation, if the patient does not receive an adequate explanation of the procedure.

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5

State the implication of long term intravenous therapy on vein choice for cannula placement.

6

List three veins found in cubital fossa.

7

How far above the intended puncture site should the tourniquet be placed?

8

Is it necessary to check for a radial pulse when the tourniquet has been applied?

9

List actions to help raise a vein not dilated after tourniquet application.

10

What should the cannula be inspected for, prior to insertion?

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11

What is the purpose of stretching the skin taut below the puncture site?

12

Describe the technique used to advance a cannula if resistance from a valve is encountered.

13

If the patient is elderly or has sensitive skin, what nursing action can be taken when applying the tourniquet?

14

What is the nursing responsibility when the procedure is complete?

15

State two reasons for avoiding the cubital fossa when inserting an intravenous cannula.

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16

What puts a patient at risk of developing a peripheral line infection?

17

Name two potential further complications of a peripheral line infection.

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References

Best Practice, Management of Peripheral Intravenous Devices. Vol. 2, Issue 1, 1998. Dougherty, L., 1996, Intravenous Cannulation, Nursing Standard, Vol 11, No 2, pp 47 ­ 54. Evans, P et al, 1998, Emergency Department-Intravenous Cannulation For Registered Nurses Flinders Medical Centre, Clinical Nursing Policies and Procedures Manual Inwood Sheila, 1996, Designing a Nurse Training Program for Venepuncture. Nursing Standard, Feb 14, Vol 10, No. 21. Lawrence, B., Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation Learning Package (unpublished) Millam, D A., 1992, Starting IVs Nursing 92, September, pp 33 ­ 46 Redden, M., Bates, W., Intravenous Cannulation Learning Package, Haematology/Oncology Day Unit Orientation Package.

Recommended Resource

Dougherty, Lisa., Lamb, Julie., (1999) Intravenous therapy in nursing practice, Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh.

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Appendix 1

Answer: Activity 1

Application of warmth will cause venous dilatation and promote engorgement of the vein. The vein should be more easily palpable and cannulated. To improve the chances of successful cannulation in patients with veins that are difficult to locate/palpate, apply a warm pack over the chosen site. Conversely, rapid infusions of cool fluids cause vasoconstriction and vasospasm. This will make the vein more difficult to cannulate and increase the pain of the procedure. If the patient is in a cold environment, vasoconstriction may occur as the body attempts to prevent heat loss. It is therefore important that this procedure be performed in a warm environment.

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Answer: Activity 2

Sites of selection for the insertion of intravenous needles for the parenteral adminstration of fluids, medication or for blood transfusion. Brunner, Suddarth (1988), Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. Chapter 9, p127, 6th edition, J..B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. The veins are numbered according to the preferred choice of cannulation. 1 being the most preferred.

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Answers to Worksheet

Question 1

(include 4)

· · · · · ·

patient's medical history size, age and general condition condition of veins previous experience of patient with IV cannulation type of fluid/medication to be administered expected duration of therapy

Question 2

(include 2)

Patients with: · blood clotting disorders · on anticoagulant therapy · extreme needle phobia · fragile veins · a history of prolonged/multiple IV access Question 3 Avoid: · arms with existing arterial line · arm that has had a brachial angiogram performed less than three days before · arms with veins that have been surgically compromised; eg mastectomy or axillary/arm surgery · limb with Arterio Venous fistula · arms with burns/sclerosis · if possible, avoid the dominant arm Question 4 Patient anxiety increases. Increased adrenaline. Peripheral vasoconstriction. Question 5 Select most distal site possible, so you can move up the limb if necessary.

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Question 6 Median cubital vein Basilic vein Cephalic vein Question 7 10 - 20 cm Question 8 Yes Question 9 · · · · Tap finger gently over vein position arm below heart level to encourage capillary filling apply a warm pack/cloth over vein release and reapply tourniquet. Veins may refill better on the rebound

Question 10 Burrs/damage. Discard imperfect cannulae. Question 11 Assists in stabilisation of the vein Question 12 Retract stylet. Attach 2ml syringe of N/Saline to catheter. Advance catheter whilst injecting N/Saline, ie. float the catheter past the valve. Question 13 Apply tourniquet on top of the patient's gown

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Question 14 · · · Patient comfort Safe disposal of sharps Documentation of date, site, operator - use green sticker in medical record.

Question 15 · · · · Avoids nerve damage Save for emergency access Avoids premature dislodgment. Reduces risk of infection.

Question 16 · · · · Inadequately prepared site Poor technique Use of alcohol alone Leaving the line insitu > 48-72 hrs

Question 17

(include 2)

· · ·

Bacteraemia Endocarditis Valve replacement surgery

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Appendix 2

Audit Insertion of Peripheral Intravenous Cannula

IV Cannulation Accreditation and Audit Recording The staff member can be accredited in peripheral IV cannulation insertion when the following have been achieved. · workbook complete · · · all activities undertaken worksheet satisfactorily completed at least three audits performed by a person designated by your CNC - (there is no limit to the number of audits and supervised insertions. You may request as many as you feel you need).

AUDIT Insertion of Peripheral Intravenous Cannula Name: Staff Member Date:

Instructions: The assessor observes the staff member's IV cannulation technique and places a YES/NO in the appropriate column to indicate achievement of performance criteria. All aspects must be achieved for satisfactory completion.

Criteria achieved YES/NO 1 1 Checks · · · correct patient cannulation clinically indicated MO authorisation for cannulation (if required). 2 3 Optional Optional

2 Obtains informed consent from patient and checks for allergies. 3 Performs hand wash prior to preparation.

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Criteria achieved YES/NO 1 4 Prepares equipment prior to commencement of procedure. · Appropriate size safety cannula (smallest gauge possible) · Does not rotate cannula prior to insertion · Chlorhexidine (1%) Ethanol (75%) (Persist Plus) · Tourniquet · Non-sterile gloves · Interlink cannula and bung · Tape (if required to secure IV tubing) · Transparent film dressing · Syringe and ampoule 0.9% saline for flushing · Sharps disposal container Ensures second assistant is present · 6 To support patient and assist in insertion as required. 2 3 Optional Optional

5

Prepares patient for procedure · Positions patient comfortably and ergonomically (for operator) · Explains procedure to patient · Assesses and selects appropriate vein · Clips hair from site if necessary · Ensures equipment prepared · Performs surgical handwash · Dons gloves · Applies tourniquet 20cm above insertion site · Re-assesses selected vein (palpate and visually inspect) · Cleanses skin 5cm in circular motion around selected site with chlorhexidine and allows to dry Performs cannulation procedure if indicated: · Infiltrates around site with local anaesthetic (must be ordered MO) · Draws skin taut below site · Inserts cannula stylet with bevel uppermost (angle 30°) · Ensures `flashback' of blood into chamber · Releases tourniquet · Lowers cannula stylet by 5°-10° towards skin · Advances whole assembly approx. 5mm · Holds stylet and completes insertion of cannula until HUB is flush with skin · Places finger over vein distal to catheter tip · Removes stylet and disposes it into sharps container · Attaches IV line to cannula and ensures patency on commencement of infusion OR · Ensures patency with IV flush and attaches bung to cannula · Seals IV site with transparent dressing (dated) · Secures IV tubing with tape in J loop 48 of 64

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Criteria achieved YES/NO 1 8. 9. Ensures patient comfort and safety. Disposes of used equipment maintaining standard and additional precautions. 2 3 Optional Optional

10. Performs handwash. 11. Documents in progress notes appropriately. 12. Codes Procedure in Excelcare

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Audit completion recorded below

1 All criteria met as above. Comments:

Signature: Assessor 2 All criteria met as above. Comments:

Date:

Signature: Assessor 3 All criteria met as above. Comments:

Date:

Signature: Assessor 4 (Optional) All criteria met as above. Comments:

Date:

Signature: Assessor 5 (Optional) All criteria met as above. Comments:

Date:

Signature: Assessor

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Appendix 3

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Peripheral IV Cannulation/Nurse Procedure (C3)

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Ward Addendum Material

Ensure you have a copy of your ward-specific IV cannulation addendum; available from your CNC.

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Evaluation Form

IV Cannulation Training Workbook/Training Process Your comments and opinions on the content of the IV cannulation workbook & training process are very important to facilitate review and development for the future. All information will remain anonymous.

Please circle your response and comment specifically

1. The workbook achieved its overall aim to provide me with sufficient information on IV cannulation to commence the clinical procedural training. YES Comments NO UNSURE

2.

The clinical procedural training was (circle appropriate response): a. Delivered in my clinical unit(if not, please comment) b. Relevant to my learning needs c. Enabled sufficient development of skills to progress confidently to supervised clinical practice Yes No Yes Yes No No

Comments

3.

The supervised clinical practise enabled me to be confident in my ability to proceed to independent clinical practice within the scope of my professional designation/role. YES Comments NO UNSURE

PTO

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4.

I understand my role in peripheral IV cannulation procedure. YES NO UNSURE

Comments

5. -+

I am aware of my professional responsibility to maintain clinical competence through regular practice and to request additional training if required.

Comments

Provide any suggestions to assist with future planning below. Comments

Thank you for your valued comments. Please return, either personally or via internal mail system to Administration Staff at Centre for Nursing & Midwifery Education and Research (CNMER) Level 7.

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Information

INTRODUCTION

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