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Capital: Maputo, largest city and port Area: 801,590 km2

Samira Izidine* & Salomão O. Bandeira

Introduction Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of southern Africa (between 10°27'S and 26°52'S, and 30°52'E, 30°12'E and 41°51'E). The country occupies an area of approximately 800,000 km2. It shares common borders with Tanzania in the north, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in the west, and South Africa in the south. The Indian Ocean coastline of Mozambique is over 2,700 km in length. The flora of Mozambique is characterised by miombo and mopane woodlands, grasslands, mangroves, and coastal mosaics (Wild & Barbosa 1967, White 1983). With 5,692 species of higher plants currently recorded for Mozambique, it is believed that some of these species are under pressure from human activity and natural causes. At total of 2,676 km2 lies within protected areas, representing 11% of the country (Bandeira et al. 1994). Two main centres of endemism occur in Mozambique: Maputaland in the south-- which includes areas in South Africa and Swaziland--and Chimanimani that is shared between Zimbabwe and central Mozambique (Hatton & Munguambe 1998). Consequently, some plant species that occur in these centres of endemism and are listed as endemic, could well be near-endemic (and vice versa). Endemic species whose distribution ranges are dubious include Hexalobus mossambicensis and Xylopia torrei; examples of those sceptically considered near-endemic include Pseudosbeckia swynnertonii and Anthospermum ammannioides. Most of the botanical inventories undertaken in Mozambique have been conducted mainly in the south of the country; the centre and north have been less well documented. High population densities in towns, however, in conjunction with poverty-stricken conditions, stimulate forest and savanna depletion for fuelwood requirements; this has been the major cause of forest and savanna degradation in Mozambique. Deforestation rates reach up to 147,077 ha per year. Mangroves, one of main vegetation types in coastal Mozambique, are being subjected to deforestation at a rate of 1,821 ha per year (Barbosa et al. 2001); mangrove degradation is particularly high in the rapidly expanding cities of Maputo and Beira. Other causes for the loss of species are traditional agricultural practices, monoculture systems, and unsustainable development. A Red Data List for Mozambique is therefore a necessity to identify species at risk of extinction, and can assist in defining priorities, strategies, and actions towards their conservation.

Languages: Portuguese (official), Macua, Ndau, Tsonga, Maconde, Swahili Currency: Meticais (MT) Total plant species: 5,692 Total plant endemics: 177 Total RDL plants: 300 Focal RDL institutions: LMA, LMU Number of Protected Areas: four National Parks, five Game Reserves, Coutadas ("Official Hunting Areas"), one Transfrontier Park (Mozambique­South Africa­Zimbabwe), and several other proposed protected areas (including Transfrontier Parks) Population: 17,299,000 Growth Rate: 1.9% Density: 21.2 people/ km2 Phytogeography: Predominantly Zambezian, with Afromontane elements at higher altitudes. There is a broad belt of Zanzibar­Inhambane Regional Mosaic along the entire coastline and interior river valleys in the north except for a small area of Tonga­Pondoland Regional Mosaic in the extreme south. Flora: Mainly miombo woodland, with mopane woodland in the Zambezi and Limpopo Valleys. Montane forests and grasslands found at higher elevations. Mosaic of coastal woodlands, as well as forest/mangrove patches. Sources: Anonymous 2000, Bandeira, Hatton, Munisse & Izidine 1994, Stuart & Adams 1990, White 1983



Table 1. Number of taxa in each RDL category in Mozambique. RDL status Extinct (EX) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Lower-Risk near threatened (LR-nt) Lower-Risk least concern (LR-lc) Data Deficient (DD) Total Number of taxa 1 6 6 109 16 23 139 300

*National Institute of Agronomic Research, LMA Herbarium, Maputo, Mozambique Eduardo Mondlane University, Botany Department, LMU Herbarium, Maputo, Mozambique


Table 2. Families containing the highest numbers of RDL species. Family Rubiaceae Fabaceae Euphorbiaceae Zamiaceae Number of species 26 20 15 13

Table 3. Endemism on the RDL for Mozambique. Endemism Confirmed endemic Suspected endemic Confirmed near-endemic Suspected near-endemic Total Number of taxa 166 11 60 17 254

Red List evaluations were done for species falling into the following categories: · Species endemic or near-endemic to Mozambique · Species restricted to small areas or limited habitats · Utilised taxa (timber, medicinal, and ornamental purposes) · Taxa in close proximity to high impact areas (settlement areas, agricultural and industrial developments) Application of the Red Data List Categories The IUCN (1994) Red List categories and criteria were applied, based on evidence concerning numbers, trends in disappearance, and the distribution of taxa. Factors such as population pressure on a species, proximity to human settlements, and agricultural and industrial activities were taken into consideration. For example, if a species occurs near human settlements or agricultural and industrial activities, then it is more likely to be lost. The Vulnerable D2 category was applied judiciously in cases where species were found only in type localities, the distribution range was likely to be narrow, and if threats were known. The Data Deficient category was applied in cases where species were known only from the type collection or from a single locality and where no information regarding threats was available. The threatened categories (Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) were applied when the risk of extinction was certain and known to be high. Only in a few exceptional cases--for example, Raphia australis and the 13 Encephalartos species recorded for Mozambique--was complete information available, that is, throughout the entire distribution range for the species concerned. Results and Discussion Red Data List Some species found in the RDL presented here occur in previous, very prominent publications; the World List of Threatened Trees (Oldfield et al. 1998) listed 78 species and the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants (Walter & Gillett 1998) listed 89 vascular plants (including trees) for Mozambique. In addition, several near-endemic species that occur in Mozambique were listed in Hilton-Taylor (1996) in the RDLs for Swaziland (Lebombo Mountains) and South Africa (Maputaland).

Some 300 species, by contrast, are listed in the list presented here. Of these, 122 are listed as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), and Vulnerable (VU). Many species (139) have, however, been categorised as Data Deficient (DD). Virtually all of the DD species are known from only one or a few herbarium collections, with very sparse and irrelevant information on the specimen labels. Many species, moreover, are not properly identified or possess uncertain taxonomic identification. In addition, the fact that few inventories were compiled for the interior and north of Mozambique, led to a far higher representation of southerly distributed plants on the Red Data List. Certain plant species like Dombeya cymosa, Carpodiptera africana, Corchorus junodii, and Grewia glandulosa, which were represented in previous Red Data Lists, have been excluded from this List. This is partially because the IUCN (1994) categories take into account quantitative data and exclude these species as candidates for a Red Data List owing to their abundance in the wild. With regard to plant families on the Red Data List, the Rubiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), and Euphorbiaceae are well-represented compared to other families (Table 2); this was an expected result, as these families are well-studied. The Orchidaceae of Mozambique, on the other hand, have been relatively poorly studied and are poorly represented because of a lack of field information. For example, Eulophia biloba is known only from a single specimen that was collected in 1895 near Beira, which today is a large coastal town. There are several similar examples from the Orchidaceae: Eulophia bissacata, Disperis mozambicense, Habenaria mossambicensis, and Liparis hemipiloides. Similarly, little is understood about the Poaceae of Mozambique, as many species are known only from a specific location; this may be an artefact resulting from the general unpopularity of collecting grasses. Furthermore, many grasses particularly from the coastal areas, may have been introduced from other countries--the Mozambique coastline has hundreds of years of trade history with neighbouring countries on the African mainland and the surrounding islands. Some 177 endemic species appear on the List (Table 3)--these endemics are found mainly in the Maputaland zone and the Chimanimanis. Some taxa have been listed as near-endemic (77 species), as they are

Methods Information Synthesis During the first phase of RDL compilation, information regarding threatened plant species or those potentially at risk of extinction was synthesised. Data were gleaned from lists by Bandeira et al. (1994), Van Wyk (1996), Hatton & Munguambe (1998), Oldfield et al. (1998), and Walter & Gillett (1998). These lists tended to concentrate on endemic, medicinal, and woody species. After the compilation of the draft list, a Red Data List workshop was held in Maputo from 23 to 27 October 2000. Participants were trained in the use of the IUCN criteria and categories (IUCN 1994). Flora de Moçambique and Flora Zambeziaca were used to refine the preliminary list of species that merited Red List status. Additional information on some of the better known plant species from southern Mozambique was obtained from field observations by botanists. Herbarium specimen information from LMA and LMU was used to identify additional species localities, but was subsequently found to be of extremely limited value. Vegetation maps were used to determine the distribution of habitats in which the Red Listed species occur and were also used to estimate threats. We attempted to estimate distribution ranges (Extent of Occurrence and Area of Occupancy) but data were so unreliable (taxonomically), sparse, and outdated, and revealed so little about the threats in the habitats of many species, that it became extremely difficult to make assumptions and inferences. 44


also found in South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. It is, however, suspected that Mozambique possesses many more range-restricted species, especially in the north of the country. More inventories and field explorations are recommended in the northern countryside, as many species are likely to be shared across the Rovuma River and other political boundaries with Tanzania, presenting opportunities for collaborative field research. Useful and Threatened Species As in most other southern African countries, timber, medicinal, edible, and ornamental species are the most important groups of plant used in Mozambique. Close to 70% of the Mozambican population uses medicinal plants for basic healthcare (World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1992); urban markets in Maputo and Beira sell medicinal plants derived from many parts of the country. In general, all utilised plants should be monitored, as they may be eligible for Red Lists, and their depletion will undoubtedly have serious socio-economic consequences. Timber species that were included in this List, such as Milicia excelsa (LR-nt) and Afzelia quanzensis (LR-nt), should be monitored. Medicinal plants such as Warburgia salutaris (VU A2cd), used for alleviating throat complaints (Bandeira et al., in press), should also be monitored. Species of Encephalartos are believed to be illegally exported for use as ornamental plants, mainly to neighbouring countries. The major threats to plant species in Mozambique are related to uses of a non-sustainable nature and include: · Heavy exploitation of natural resources for fuelwood · Industrial development · Traditional agricultural practices · Human settlements and urbanisation The most sensitive ecosystem zones include coastal areas and the areas surrounding main towns, owing to high population densities. In poverty-stricken areas, the main threat is deforestation for fuelwood and charcoal. Commercial deforestation takes place mainly in south-central Mozambique and in mangrove areas where there is a high abundance of woody tree species whereas industrial development and urbanisation are very high in Maputo and Sofala Provinces. In addition, destructive agricultural practices take place on a large scale, mainly in rural areas.

Inhamitanga Forest in pristine condition. (Photo: J. Burrows)


Inhamitanga Forest--the trail of destruction. (Photo: J. Burrows)

Conclusions and Recommendations While compiling this List, several constraints were encountered: these range from a lack of information to the lack of a national checklist and incomplete and outdated information. We found that herbarium specimen information is an inadequate basis for determining Red Data List status for the plant species of Mozambique. Our knowledge of the flora of Mozambique is mostly restricted to southern Mozambique and field exploration in northern and central Mozambique is needed to update scientific information, as well as to increase the numbers of herbarium collections. Gathering information on endemics and near-endemics is especially important. Collaboration with neighbouring countries (Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe) and sharing of expertise are important elements that can assist in the compilation of botanical inventories.

These inventories will form a basis for directly assisting in national conservation planning, sustainable resource utilisation strategies, and further research priorities.

Acknowledgements We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the Red Data List National Working Group: Filomena Barbosa, Angelina Martins, Ana Bela Amude, Carla Ruas, Eduardo Massingue, Felisbela Gaspar, Silva Mulhovo, Köeti Seródio, Catarina Chidiamassamba, Maria da Luz Dai, and Agostinho Lisboa. Our thanks are extended to Janice Golding and Peter Phillipson who compiled and edited the Red Data List assessments. Marta Monjane and Paul Dutton, staff of Kew Herbarium (K), and anyone who directly or indirectly contributed to this work are also thanked.



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