Read Microsoft Word - English Hindi Legal Glossary.rtf text version

---K---1. KIDNAPPING - The taking or detaining of a person against his or her will and without lawful authority. KEEPER - An officer that the court appoints to be responsible for money or property legally seized in connection with a pending case. KNOWINGLY - With knowledge, willfully or intentionally with respect to a material element of an offense.

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vigj.k j[kokyk

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fdlh iq:"[email protected]=kh dks mldh bPNk ds fo:) xSj&dkuwuh vf/kdkj ls mBkdj ys tkuk vkSj fgjklr esa j[kukA og vf/kdkjh ftldh fu;qfDr vnkyr }kjk fdlh yafcr eqdíes ds laca/k esa dCts esa yh xbZ /kujkf'k vFkok laifÙk ds fy, mÙkjnk;h ds :i esa dh tkrh gSA tkucw> dj fdlh vijk/k ds laca/k esa HkkSfrd rRo ds ckjs esa tkudkjh] LosPNk vkSj bjkns ds lkFk fd;k tkukA

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-----L-----1. LACKING CAPACITY ­ Lacking qualification, competency, power or fitness. Being incapable of giving legal consent. Lack of fundamental ability to be accountable for actions. LARCENY - Stealing or theft. LAW - Combination of rules and principles of conduct made known by legislative authority, derived from court decisions, and established by local custom. LAW AND MOTION - A setting before a judge at which time a variety of motions, pleas, sentencing, orders to show cause or procedural requests may be presented. Normally, evidence is not taken. Defendants must be present. LAW CLERKS - Persons trained in the law who assist judges in researching legal opinions. LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENT - A sworn peace officer with legal authorization to arrest individuals under suspicion of breaking the law. LAWSUIT - An action between two or more persons in the courts of law, not a criminal matter. LAY PERSON - One not trained in law. LEADING QUESTION - A question which instructs the witness how to answer or puts words in his mouth. Suggests to the witness the desired answer.

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10. LEASE - An agreement for renting real property. Usually written and for a specific amount of time. 11. LEGAL AID - Professional legal services available usually to persons or organizations unable to afford such services. 12. LENIENCY - Recommendation for a sentence less than the maximum allowed. 13. LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSE - A crime composed of some, but not all, of the elements of a greater crime; commission of the greater crime automatically includes commission of the lesser included offense. 14. LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION - Legal document issued by a court that shows an administrator's legal right to take control of assets in the deceased person's name. 15. LETTERS OF CONSERVATORSHIP - A court paper that states that the conservator is authorized to act on the conservatee's behalf. Also called "Letters." 16.LETTERS OF GUARDIANSHIP - The instrument by which a person is empowered to take charge of the person and/or estate of minors and insane or incompetent persons, whenever necessary or convenient. 17. LETTERS ROGATORY - A formal communication, in writing, sent by a court in which an action is pending to a court or judge of a foreign country, requesting that the testimony of a witness who lives within the jurisdiction of the foreign court may be taken under its direction and transmitted to the first court for use in the pending action.

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18. LETTERS TESTAMENTARY - Legal document issued by a court that shows an executor's legal right to take control of assets in the deceased person's name. 19. LEVY - To obtain money by legal process through seizure and/or sale of property. 20. LEWD CONDUCT - Behavior that is obscene, lustful, indecent, vulgar. 21. LIABILITY - Legal debts and obligations. 22. LIABLE - Legally responsible. 23. LIBEL - False and malicious material that is written or published that harms a person's reputation. See DEFAMATION. 24. LIE DETECTOR - A machine which records by a needle on a graph varying emotional disturbances when answering questions truly or falsely, as indicated by fluctuations in blood pressure, respiration, or perspiration. 25. LIEN - The right to keep a debtor's property from being sold or transferred until the debtor pays what he or she owes. 26. LIFE IMPRISONMENT - A type of sentence where the convicted criminal is ordered to spend the rest of his or her life in prison. 27. LIMINE - A motion requesting that the court not allow certain evidence that might prejudice the jury. 28. LIMINE MOTION - A pretrial motion requesting the court to prohibit opposing counsel from referring to or offering evidence on matters. 29. LIMITATION OF ACTIONS ­ The time period imposed by law to bring an action in court. (Example--statutes of limitation) 30. LIMITED ACTION - A civil action in which recovery of less than a certain amount (as specified by statute) is sought. Simplified rules of procedure are used in such actions. 31. LIMITED JURISDICTION - Refers to courts that are limited in the types of criminal and civil cases they may hear. For example, traffic violations generally are heard by limited jurisdiction courts. 32. LINEUP - A police identification procedure by which the suspect to a crime is exhibited, along with others, before the victim or witness to determine if the victim or witness can identify the suspect as the person who committed the crime. 33. LIS PENDENS - A pending suit. 34. LITIGANT - A party, or side involved in a lawsuit. 35. LITIGATION - A case, controversy, or lawsuit. 36. LIVING TRUST - A trust set up and in effect during the lifetime of the person. Also called inter vivos trust. 37. LOCALITY DISCRIMINATION ­ Those either giving undue preference to any locality or subjecting it to undue prejudice.

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38. LOCAL RULES - A set of rules you have to follow to start a court case. Every county and court has different local rules. 39. LOCUS DELICTI - The place of the offense. 40. LOITERING - To stand idly around, particularly in a public place. 41. LYNCHING - Putting a person to death, usually by hanging, without legal authority.

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lkeF;Z dh deh

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;ksX;rk] dkcyh;r] 'kfDr ,oa LokLF; dh dehA dkuwuh lgefr nsus esa vleFkZA vius dk;ks± ds izfr mÙkjnkf;Ro ds fy, izkFkfed lkeF;Z dh dehA

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ykjlSuh dkuwu

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pqjkuk ;k pksjh djukA LFkkfud ijaijkvksa }kjk LFkkfir] QSlyksa ls m/n`r vkSj fo/kk;h laLFkkvksa }kjk izpkfjr fu;eksa vkSj fl)karksa dk lewgA

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dkuwu ,oa izLrko

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fdlh tt ds le{k og eap tgka vusd izdkj ds izLrko] vkosnu ltk ds vkns'k] dkj.k crkvks vkns'k vFkok izfØ;k laca/kh vkosnu is'k fd, tk ldrs gSaA vkerkSj ls xokgh ugha dh tkrh gSA cpkodÙkkZ dh mifLFkfr vko';d gSA

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yk&dydZl dkuwu yk&lwV ys&ijlu yhfMax iz'u iV~Vk dkuwuh lgk;rk ujekbZ iz'kklu ds i=k ykxw

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dkuwu esa izf'kf{kr os yksx tks dkuwuh fopkjksa dh [kkst esa ttksa dh enn djrs gSaA os iDds 'kkafrfiz; vf/kdkjh ftUgsa yksxksa dks 'kkafr Hkax djus ds lansg esa fxj¶rkj djus dk dkuwuh vf/kdkj izkIr gksrk gSA dkuwuh vnkyr esa nks ;k nks ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa ds chp pyh jgh dk;Zokgh ftldk laca/k fdlh vijk/k ls u gksA og O;fDr tks dkuwu esa izf'kf{kr u gksA og iz'u tks xokg dks ;g funsZ'k ns fd mÙkj fdl izdkj nsuk gS ;k mlds eqag esa 'kCn Hkjrk gSA xokg dks visf{kr mRrj lq>krk gSA tehu tk;nkn fdjk, ij nsus dk bdjkjukekA ;g vDlj fyf[kr vkSj fuf'pr vof/k ds fy, gksrk gSA O;olkf;d dkuwuh lsok,a tks vkerkSj ij ,sls yksxksa vkSj laLFkkvksa dks izkIr gksrh gSa tks ,slh lsokvksa dk [kpZ lgu ugha dj ldrsA fu/kkZfjr vf/kdre ltk ls de ltk nsus ds fy, flQkfj'kA fdlh vnkyr }kjk tkjh fd;k x;k og nLrkost+ ftlls fdlh e`rd dh laifÙk dks vius dCts esa ysus ds iz'kklfud vf/kdkjh ds dkuwuh

okys ,tsaV

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vf/kdkj dks n'kkZrk gSA 15) 16) ySPlZ dUtosVjf'ki ySVlZ xkbMZ;uf'ki vkQ % vkQ % vnkyr dk og nLrkost tks ;g ckrkr gS fd j{kd dks jf{kr dh vksj ls dk;Zokgh djus dk vf/kdkj gSA og nLrkost ftlds vk/kkj ij dksbZ O;fDr fdlh O;fDr [email protected] fdlh ckyd ,oa fdlh fof{kIr O;fDr ;k v{ke O;fDr;ksa dh tk;nkn dks t:jr ds le; vkSj tc vko';d gks] vius fu;a=k.k esa ys ldrk gSA 17) ySVlZ jksxsVjh % fdlh vnkyr }kjk Hkstk x;k fyf[kr lans'k ftlesa fdlh fons'kh vnkyr yafcr eqdíes ds laca/k esa ml vnkyr ds vf/kdkj {ks=k esa jgs xokg dh xokgh dks igyh vnkyr esa Hkstus dh izkFkZuk fons'kh vnkyr ;k mlds tt dh gksrh gS rkfd igyh vnkyr esa bldk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldsA 18) ySVlZ VSLVkeSaVjh % fdlh vnkyr }kjk tkjh fd;k x;k dkuwuh nLrkost tks e`rd ds uke laifÙk dks izca/kd }kjk vius fu;a=k.k esa ysus ds dkuwuh vf/kdkj dks n'kkZrk gSA 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) izknsf'kd HksnHkko Y;wM daMDV ykbfcfyVh Ykbcy fycYy ykbZ fMVSDVj % % % % % % dkuwuh izfØ;k }kjk laifÙk dks dCts esa ysdj [email protected] cspdj /ku izkIr djukA v'yhy] dke okluk iw.kZ vkSj vHknz O;ogkjA dkuwuh _.k vkSj ftEesnkfj;ka dkuwuu mÙkjnk;hA fyf[kr vFkok izdkf'kr >wBk vkSj }s"kiw.kZ elkSnk tks fdlh O;fDr dh izfr"Bk dks gkfu igqapkrk gSA ,d ,slh e'khu tks ,d lqbZ dh lgk;rk ls jDr pki] 'okl&fØ;k ;k ilhus esa lp ;k >wB cksy dj mÙkj nsus ij mrkj&p<+ko dks

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xzkQ ij vafdr djrh gSA 25) 26) 27) Yhvu mez dSn Fyfeuh % % % fdlh dtZnkj }kjk vius dtZ dk Hkqxrku u djus rd mldh laifÙk ds fcdus ;k gLrka=k.k ij jksd yxkus dk vf/kdkj ,slh ltk ftlds vuqlkj fdlh ltk izkIr iq:"[email protected]=kh vijk/kh dks viuk 'ks"k thou tsy esa dkVuk gksrk gSA ,slk izLrko ftlesa vnkyr ls izkFkZuk dh tkrh gS fd fdlh fo'ks"k xokgh dh vkKk u nh tk, tks fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa esa iwokZxzg dks tUe ns ldrh gSA 28) fyeuh eks'ku % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys dk izLrko ftlesa vnkyr ls izkFkZuk dh tkrh gS fd foi{kh odhy dks ekeys esa xokgh is'k djus ls jksdk tk,A 29) 30) dk;Zokgh lhek lhfer dk;Zokgh % dh le; % vnkyr esa dh tkus okyh fdlh dk;Zokgh ds fy, dkuwu }kjk fuf'pr le; lhekA ,d ,slh ukxfjd dk;Zokgh ftlesa ¼dkuwu }kjk fu/kkZfjr½ fuf'pr jkf'k ls de jkf'k dh olwyh djuh gksA ,slh dk;Zokgh esa izfØ;k laca/kh ljy fu;eksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 31) lhfer vf/kdkj {ks=k % bldk vFkZ mu vnkyrksa ls gS tks vkijkf/kd ;k ukxfjd fdLe ds eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ djrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, ;krk;kr ds fu;eksa ds mYya?ku ds eqdís lhfer vf/kdkj {ks=k okyh vnkyrksa }kjk gh lqus tkrs gSaA 32) ykbZu&vi % iqfyl dh igpku izfØ;k ftlesa ,sls O;fDr ftl ij vijk/k djus dk lansg gks] dks vU; O;fDr;ksa ds lkFk ihfM+r vFkok xokg ds lkeus [kM+k fd;k tkrk gS rkfd ;g fuf'pr fd;k tk lds fd ihfM+r ;k xokg mldks vijk/k djus okys ds :i esa igpku ldrs gSaA 33) 34) fyl iSubSUl fyfVxSaV % % dksbZ yafcr eqdíekA fdlh eqdíesa esa 'kkfey dksbZ O;fDr ;k i{kA

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fyVhxs'ku fyfoax VªLV izknsf'kd HksnHkko yksdy :yl

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dksbZ elyk] fookn ;k eqdíekA fdlh O;fDr }kjk vius thou esa LFkkfir vkSj dk;Z'khy VªLV fdlh {ks=k dks uktk;t+ izkFkfedrk nsuk ;k mldh uktk;t mis{kk djukA fdlh eqdíes dks 'kq: djus ds fy, ftu fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk iM+rk gS mudh J`a[kykA izR;sd dkaÅVh vkSj izR;sd vnkyr ds fHké&fHké fu;e gSaA

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yksdy MhfdDVh yks,Vfjax Fdafpax

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og LFkku tgka vijk/k gqvk gksA b/kj&m/kj fuBYys [kM+s jguk] [kkldj lkoZtfud LFkku ij dkuwuh vf/kdkj ds fcuk fdlh dh yVdk dj gR;k djukA

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-----M------1. 2. MAGISTRATE - Judicial officer with the power to issue arrest warrants. MAKE OR DRAW ­ To cause to exist. To fashion or produce in legal form. To prepare a draft; to compose and write out in due form, such as a deed, contract, complaint, answer, petition, etc. MALFEASANCE - Performance of an act that should not have been done at all. MALICE - Ill will, hatred, or hostility by one person toward another which may prompt the intentional doing of a wrongful act without legal justification or excuse. MALICE AFORETHOUGHT ­ Intending to kill another person or intending to do an act with knowledge that it is dangerous to human life. MALICIOUS MISCHIEF - Willful destruction of property, from actual ill will or resentment toward its owner or possessor. MALICIOUS PROSECUTION - An action with the intention of injuring the defendant and without probable cause, and which terminates in favor of the person prosecuted. MALICIOUSLY ­ To annoy, or injure another, or an intent to do a wrongful act, and may consist in direct intention to injure, or in reckless disregard of another's rights MALPRACTICE - Violation of a professional duty to act with reasonable care and in good faith without fraud or collusion. This term is usually applied to such conduct by doctors, lawyers, or accountants.

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10. MANDAMUS - A writ issued by a court ordering a public official to perform an act. 11. MANDATE - A judicial command or order proceeding from a court or judicial officer, directing the proper officer to enforce a judgment, sentence, or decree. 12. MANDATORY - Required, ordered. 13. MANSLAUGHTER, INVOLUNTARY - Unlawful killing of another, without malice, when the death is caused by some other unlawful act not usually expected to result in great bodily harm. 14. MANSLAUGHTER, VOLUNTARY - Unlawful killing of another, without malice, when the act is committed with a sudden extreme emotional impulse. 15. MARIJUANA ­ "Cannabis" is an annual herb having angular rough stem and deeply lobed leaves. It is an illegal drug commonly used through smoke inhalation or ingestion, the use of which results in prolonged intoxication. Any person who cultivates, transports, or possesses marijuana, for personal use or sale, is guilty of a crime, unless they can assert a proper defense. 16. MARIJUANA, defense of compassionate use ­ The cultivation, transportation, or possession of marijuana is lawful for compassionate use under certain circumstances, such as when its medical use is deemed appropriate by a physician and has been recommended by the physician orally or in writing, provided it is for the personal use of the patient and it is a reasonable amount.

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17. MARSDEN MOTION ­ A minor who is represented by appointed counsel requests the Court to remove the attorney and appoint new counsel if the minor's right to effective counsel would be substantially impaired by continuing with the original attorney. 18. MASSIAH MOTION - A motion to exclude fraudulently obtained confessions. 19. MASTER - An attorney who is appointed by the judges of a circuit court with the approval of the Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, to conduct hearings and to make finding of facts, conclusions of law, and recommendations as to an appropriate order. 20. MATERIAL EVIDENCE - That quality of evidence which tends to influence the judge and/or jury because of its logical connection with the issue. 21. MATERIAL WITNESS - In criminal trial, a witness whose testimony is crucial to either the defense or prosecution. 22. MAYHEM - A malicious injury which disables or disfigures another. 23. MEDIATION - A process in which people that are having a dispute are helped by a neutral person to communicate so they can reach a settlement acceptable to both. 24. MEMORANDUM OF COSTS - A certified, itemized statement of the amount of costs after judgment. 25. MEMORIALIZED - To mark by observation in writing. 26. MENACE ­ A threat; the declaration or show of a disposition or determination to inflict an evil or injury upon another. 27. MENS REA - The "guilty mind" necessary to establish criminal responsibility. 28. MENTAL HEALTH - The wellness of a person's state of mind. 29. MENTAL INCAPACITY ­ Where a person is found to be incapable of understanding and acting with discretion in the ordinary affairs of life due to a loss of reasoning faculties. 30. MENTAL STATE ­ Capacity or condition of one's mind in terms of ability to do or not to do a certain act. 31. MERITS - A decision "on the merits" is one that reaches the right(s) of a party, as distinguished from disposition of a case on a ground not reaching the right(s) raised in an action. 32. MINOR ­ A child under the age of 18 years. (See also JUVENILE). 33. MINUTE ORDER - Document prepared by the clerk recording the orders of the clerk. 34. MIRANDA RIGHTS - Requirement that police tell a person who is arrested or questioned their constitutional rights before they question him or her: specifically, the right to remain silent; that any statement made may be used against him or her; the right to an attorney; and if the person cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed if he or she desires. 35. MIRANDA WARNING - See MIRANDA RIGHTS. 36. MISDEMEANOR - A crime that can be punished by up to one year in jail.

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37. MISTAKE ­ Some unintentional act, omission, or error arising from ignorance, surprise, imposition, or misplaced confidence. 38. MISTRIAL - A trial that has been ended and declared void (of no legal effect) due to prejudicial error in the proceedings or other extraordinary circumstances. 39. MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES - Facts which do not constitute a justification or excuse for an offense but which may be considered as reasons for reducing the degree of blame. 40. MITIGATING FACTORS - Facts that do not constitute a justification or excuse for an offense but which may be considered as reasons for reducing the degree of blame. 41. MITIGATION OF DAMAGES ­ Imposes on the injured party duty to minimize his damages after injury has been inflicted. 42. MITTIMUS - The name of an order in writing, issuing from a court and directing the sheriff or other officer to take a person to a prison, asylum, or reformatory, and directing the jailer or other appropriate official to receive and safely keep the person until his or her fate shall be determined by due course of law. 43. MODIFICATION - A spoken or written request that one side makes to ask the judge to make a decision or an order on a specific point. 44. MOOT - A point or question related to a legal case that usually has no practical importance or relevance to the case. A moot point is a point that can't be resolved by the judge, is not disputed by either side, or is resolved out of court. 45. MORAL TURPITUDE - Immorality. An element of crimes inherently bad, as opposed to crimes bad merely because they are forbidden by statute. 46. MOTION - Oral or written request made by a party to an action before, during, or after a trial asking the judge to issue a ruling or order in that party's favor. 47. MOTION DENIED - Ruling or order issued by the judge refusing the party's request. 48. MOTION GRANTED - Ruling or order issued by the judge approving the party's request. 49. MOTION IN LIMINE - A written motion which is usually made before or after the beginning of a jury trial for a protective order against prejudicial questions and statements. 50. MOTION TO QUASH - A request to make something null or ineffective, such as to "quash a subpoena." 51. MOTION TO SEVER - A request usually by defense, to have a separate trial as to either jointly tried defendants or jointly charged counts. 52. MOTION TO SUPPRESS - A request to suppress as evidence at trial things or statements obtained as a result of an allegedly illegal search and seizure (commonly referred to as 1538.5 PC motions.) 53. MUGSHOT - Pictures taken after a suspect is taken into custody (booked), usually used as an official photograph by police officers. 54. MULTIPLICITY OF ACTIONS - Numerous and unnecessary attempts to litigate the same issue.

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55. MURDER - The unlawful killing of a human being with deliberate intent to kill. 56. MURGIA MOTION - A request made by defense counsel to dismiss based on a group of people being systematically discriminated against.

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eSftLVªSv esd ;k Mªk

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og U;kf;d vf/kdkjh ftls fxj¶rkjh ds fy, okjaV tkjh djus dk vf/kdkj gksA vfLrRo iznku djukA dkuwuh :i nsukA bdjkjukek] le>kSrk] f'kdk;r] mÙkj] izkFkZuk vkfn dh mfpr :i esa jpuk vkSj mUgsa fy[kuk] izk:i rS;k djukA

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ESydhlSal ESykbl

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fdlh dkuwu dk rek'kk tks fcYdqy Hkh ugha fn[kk;k tkuk pkfg, FkkA nqHkkZouk] bZ";kZ ;k fdlh ,d O;fDr }kjk fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds izfr fgalk tks dkuwuh vkSfpR; ds fcuk dksbZ xyr dk;Z djus ds fy, izsfjr djrh gSA

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eSdkbl vdksj FkkSV eSdhf'k;l felFkhd eSyhf'k;l izkSlhD;w'ku

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fdlh O;fDr dh gR;k djus dh bPNk djuk ;k tku&cw> dj ,slk dke djuk tks ekuo thou ds fy, [krjukd gksA okLrfod nqHkkZouk ;k blds Lokeh ;k /kkjd ds izfr ukjkt+xh ds dkj.k tku&cw> dj laifÙk dks u"V djukA cpkodÙkkZ dks gkfu igqapkus ds bjkns ls dh xbZ dk;Zokgh vkSj ftldk dksbZ laHkkfor dkj.k u gks rFkk ftldk fu.kZ; cpkodÙkkZ ds i{k esa gksrk gSA

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eSyhf'k;lyh

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nwljksa dks ijs'kku djuk ;k gkfu igqapkuk ;k dksbZ xyr dk;Zokgh djus dk bjknk] ftlesa izR;{k :i ls nwljksa dks gkfu igqapkuk ;k muds vf/kdkjksa dh ?kksj mis{kk djuk 'kkfey gks ldrs gSaA

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eSy izSfDVl

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O;kolkf;d ftEesnkjh dks mfpr lko/kkuh] fo'oluh; <ax ls fcuik Ny&diV ;k lkaB&xkaB ls fuHkkus esa ykijokghA bl 'kCn dk iz;ksx MkDVjksa] odhyksa vkSj ys[kk dkjksa }kjk ,sls O;ogkj ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

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ESUMsel ESUMsV

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vnkyr }kjk fdlh ljdkjh vf/kdkjh dks dksbZ dk;Zokgh djus dk vkns'kA vnkyr vFkok fdlh U;kf;d vf/kdkjh tkjh fd;k U;kf;d vkns'k ftlesa lacaf/kr vf/kdkjh dks vnkyr dk QSlyk] ltk vFkok fMxzh

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ykxw djus ds funsZ'k fn, tkrs gSaA 13) eSuLykSVj] buokSySaVjh % fcuk nqHkkZouk ds fdlh nwljs dh xSj&dkuwuh gR;k] tcfd gR;k fdlh ,sls xSj dkuwuh rjhds ls gqbZ gks ftlesa vDlj xaHkhj 'kkjhfjd pksV dh vk'kk ugha gksrhA 14) 15) eSuLykSVj] okSyVjh ESjhtqvkuk % % fdlh dh xSj&dkuwuh gR;k tks fcuk fdlh nqHkkZouk ls vR;kf/kd vpkud HkkoukRed vkosx ds dkj.k dh xbZ gksA ÞdSukfolß ,d okf"kZd tM+h&cwVh gS ftldk ruk dksf.kd vkSj [kqjnjk gksrk gS vkSj ftlds iÙks vR;kf/kd xksy gksrs gSaA ;g ,d xSj&dkuwuh vkS"kf/k gS ftldk iz;ksx blds /kqa, dks vanj [khap dj fd;k tkrk gSA blds iz;ksx ls dkQh nsj rd u'kk jgrk gSA dksbZ Hkh O;fDr tks bldh [ksrh djrk gS] bldks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd ys tkrk gS ;k vius ikl j[krk gSA vius O;fDrxr iz;ksx ds fy, ;k cspus ds fy, og vijk/k dk nks"kh gksrk gS tc rd fd og mfpr cpko is'k u dj ldsA 16) eSjh tqvkuk ds iz;ksx % ds fy, lgkuqHkwfr iw.kZ iz;ksx dk cpko dqN ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa eSjhtqvkuk dh [ksrh] bldks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd ys tkuk ;k vius ikl j[kuk dkuwuu gksrk gS tSls fdlh MkDVj }kjk nokbZ ds rkSj ij bldk iz;ksx vko';d gS vkSj bl laca/k esa MkDVj us ekSf[kd ;k fyf[kr lykg nh gks c'krsZ ;g jksxh ds O;fDrxr iz;ksx ds fy, vkSj mfpr ek=kk esa gksA 17) ekjlMSu eks'ku % tc dksbZ vo;Ld] ftldk izfrfuf/kRo fdlh fu;qDr fd, x, odhy }kjk fd;k tkrk gS] vnkyr ls vkosnu djs fd ml odhy dks gVkdj u, odhy dh fu;qfDr dh tk,] ;fn iqjkus odhy ds jgrs izHkkoh odhy izkIr djus ds mlds vf/kdkj dk guu gks jgk gksA 18) 19) elhgk eks'ku EkLVj % % /kks[ks ls fy, x, LohdkjksfDr ds c;ku dks [kkfjt djus ds fy, izLrko vihyh; vnkyr ds eq[; tt dh eatwjh ls ljfdV vnkyr }kjk fu;qDr fd;k x;k odhy tks lquokbZ dk lapkyu djus vkSj dkuwu ds rF;ksa rFkk fu'd"kks± dk irk yxkus dk dke djrk gS vkSj mfpr

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

136

vkns'k ds fy, flQkfj'k djrk gSA 20) 21) 22) 23) eSVhjh;y ,ohMSal eSVhjh;y foVuSl EsgSe ehMh;s'ku % % % % izek.k dk og xq.k tks eqís ds lkFk tt vkSj vius rdZ laxr laca/k ds dkj.k vFkok twjh dks izHkkfor djrk gSA vijk/k laca/kh eqdíes dh lquokbZ esa ftl xokg dh xokgh cpko i{k vFkok vfHk;ksx i{k ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gksA nqHkkZoukiw.kZ gkfu tks nwljksa dks fod`r vkSj vleFkZ cukrh gSA ,slh izfØ;k ftlesa dksbZ rVLFk O;fDr >xM+s ls lacaf/kr yksxksa esa ckrphr djkus esa lgk;rk djrk gS rkfd os nksuksa dks Lohdk;Z le>kSrs dh vksj c<+ ldsaA 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) eSeksjS.Me dkSLVl eSeksfj;ykbZTM Ehusl eSaljh;k eSaVy gSYFk eSaVy budSisflVh eSaVy LVsV eSfjVl % % % % % % % fyf[kr :i esa fVIi.kh djukA /kedh] eukso`fÙk dh ?kks"k.kk vFkok izn'kZu ;k fdlh dks gkfu igqapkus dh n`<+rkA vkijkf/kd mÙkjnkf;Ro fl) djus ds fy, nks"kiw.kZ lkspA fdlh O;fDr dh fnekxh gkyr Bhd gksukA tc dksbZ O;fDr foosd dh deh ds dkj.k thou dh lk/kkj.k ckrksa dks le>us vkSj bPNkuqlkj djus esa vleFkZ gksA fdlh dk;Z dks djus ;k u djus dh lkeF;Z ds laca/k esa fdlh dh fnekxh gkyrA rdks± ds vk/kkj ij fd;k x;k fu.kZ; tks fdlh ,d i{k ds vf/kdkjksa ls esy [kkrk gks tksfd fdlh vU; vk/kkj ij tks eqdíesa esa mBk, x, vf/kdkjksa ls esy u [kkrk gks] ij fd, x, fu.kZ; ls fHké gksrk gSA vkQ % vnkyr ds QSlys ds ckn enkuqlkj [kpks± dh jkf'k izekf.kr lwph

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

137

32) 33) 34)

ekbZuj ekbZU;wV vkMZj fejkUMk jkbZVl

% % %

18 o"kZ ls de mez dk cPpk fdlh DydZ }kjk rS;kj fd;k x;k DydZ ds vkns'k dk nLrkost og 'krZ ftlds vuqlkj fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dh fxj¶rkjh ds ckn iwNrkN ls igys iqfyl dks mlds laoS/kkfud vf/kdkjksa dh tkudkjh nsuh gksrh gS ftuesa fo'ks"k rkSj ls pqi jgus dk vf/kdkj] ;g crkuk fd mlds }kjk fn;k x;k c;ku mlds fo:) iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS] odhy dh lsok izkIr djus dk vf/kdkj] vkSj ;fn og O;fDr odhy dk [kpZ lgu u dj ldrk gks rks mldh bPNkuqlkj ,d odhy dh fu;qfDr dk vf/kdkj 'kkfey gksrs gSaA

35) 36) 37) 38)

fejkUMk okjfuax felfMehuksj felVsd feLVªk;y

% % % %

ns[kks fejkUMk jkbZVl ,slk vijk/k ftlds fy, 1 o"kZ dh tsy dh ltk nh tk ldrh gSA fdlh v;ksX; O;fDr ij fo'okl] /kks[ks] vk'p;Z] vufHkKrk ls mRié dksbZ xSj&bjknru xYrh] Hkwy ;k dk;Zokgh og eqdíek ftls dk;Zokgh esa iwokZxzg ds vk/kkj ij ;k fdUgha vU; vlk/kkj.k ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds dkj.k xSj&dkuwuh ¼ftldk dksbZ dkuwuh izHkko u gks½ ?kksf"kr dj lekIr dj fn;k x;k gksA

39) 40) 41) 42)

fefVxsfVax ljdelVkalst+ fefVxsfVax QSDVlZ fefVxs'ku MSest+t fefVel

% % vkWQ % %

os rF; tks fdlh vijk/k ds fy, vkSfpR; ;k cgkuk ugha gksrs cfYd tks nks"k dh ek=kk dks de djus ds dkj.k curs tk ldrs gSaA ns[kks fefVxsfVax ljdElVkalst+ gkfu igaqpkus ds ckn ihfM+r O;fDr dks gtkZus dh jkf'k dks de ls de djus dk vkns'kA fdlh vnkyr }kjk tkjh og fyf[kr vkns'k ftlesa izeq[k ftyk vf/kdkjh ;k fdlh vU; vf/kdkjh dks funsZ'k fn;k tkrk gS fd og

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

138

fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dks tsy] ikxy[kkus vFkok lq/kkjx`g esa Hksts vkSj tsyj fdlh vU; mfpr vf/kdkjh dks funsZ'k fn, tkrs gSa fd og ml iq:"k @ L=kh dks rc rd ogka lqjf{kr j[ks tc rd dkuwuh dk;Zokgh }kjk mlds HkkX; dk QSlyk u gks tk,A 43) 44) eSMhfQds'ku ewV % % fdlh ,d i{k }kjk ekSf[kd ;k fyf[kr vkosnu ftlesa fdlh eqn~ns ij tt dks QSlyk ;k vkns'k nsus ds fy, izkFkZuk dh tkrh gSA fdlh dkuwuh eqdíes ls lacaf/kr dksbZ eqík ;k iz'u ftldk vDlj eqdís ds fy, dksbZ O;ogkfjd egRo ugha gksrkA vfuf'pr eqík ,d ,slk fo"k; gksrk gS ftldk QSlyk tt ds }kjk ugha fd;k tk ldrk gS] nwljs i{k ds }kjk bl ij fookn ugha mBk;k tkrk vFkok bls vnkyr esa mBk;k gh ugha x;kA 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) ekSjy Vj;hP;wM eks'ku eks'ku fMuhM ekS'ku xzkaVsM eks'ku bu fyfeuh % % % % % vuSfrdrk] LoHkkfod cqjs vijk/kksa dk rRo tks dkuwu }kjk izfrcaf/kr vijk/kksa ls foijhr gksA fdlh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys] nkSjku ;kckn esa fdlh i{k }kjk vius gd esa QSlyk ;k vkns'k nsus ds fy, tt dks izkFkZuk fdlh tt }kjk fn;k x;k fu.kZ; vFkok vkns'k ftlesa fdlh i{k dh izkFkZuk vLohdkj dh xbZ gksA fdlh tt }kjk fn;k x;k fu.kZ; vFkok vkns'k ftlesa fdlh i{k dh izkFkZuk Lohdkj dh xbZ gksA ,d ,slh fyf[kr ;kfpdk tks vDlj fu.kkZ;d eaMy }kjk eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh izkjaHk gksus ls igys ;k ckn esa iwokZxzg iw.kZ lokyksa ;k c;kuksa ls cpus ds fy, vkns'k tkjh djus ds fy, dh tkrh gSA 50) 51) ekS'ku Vw DoS'k ekS'ku Vw lSoj % % fdlh pht+ dks voS/k vkSj izHkkoghu cukus ds fy, ;kfpdk vkerkSj ij cpko i{k dh vksj ls dh tkus okyh ;kfpdk ftlesa la;qDr cpko dÙkkZvksa ;k la;qDr vnkyrksa ls vyx lquokbZ dh izkFkZuk dh tkrh gSA 52) eks'ku Vw lIizSl % rFkk dfFkr xSj&dkuwuh ryk'kh vkSj cjkenxh ds nkSjku yh xbZ

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

139

oLrqvksa vkSj c;kuksa dks eqdíes dh lquokbZ ds nkSjku xokgh ds rkSj ij iz;ksx u djus nsus ds fy, ;kfpdkA 53) ex'kkSV % fdlh lansg ;qDr O;fDr dks fgjklr esa ysus ds ckn [khaps x, fp=k ¼iqLrd ds :i esa½ tks vkerkSj ij iqfyl vf/kdkfj;ksa }kjk ljdkjh fp=kksa ds :i esa iz;ksx fd, tkrs gSaA 54) 55) 56) eYVhIyhflVh ,sD'kul eMZj ejftvk eks'ku % % vkWQ % ,d gh eqís ds ckjs esa vuko';d vkSj vla[; eqdíesckth dh dksf'k'ksaA tku ls ekj nsus ds bjkns ls dh xbZ fdlh izk.kh dh xSj&dkuwuh bR;kA yksxksa ds lewg ds izfr ;kstukc) rjhds ls fd, x, HksnHkko ds vk/kkj ij cpko i{k ds odhy }kjk [kkfjt djus dh ;kfpdkA

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

140

------N-------

1.

NECESSITY ­ Controlling force; irresistible compulsion; a power or impulse so great that it admits no choice of conduct. NE EXEAT - A writ or court order which forbids the person to whom it is addressed to leave the country, the state, or the jurisdiction of the court. NEGLECT ­ Absence of care or attention in the doing or omission of a given act. NEGLIGENCE - When someone fails to be as careful as the law requires to protect the rights and property of others. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ­ A written and signed unconditional promise or order to pay a specified sum of money on demand or at a definite time payable to the bearer. NEXT FRIEND - One acting without formal appointment as guardian for the benefit of an infant, a person of unsound mind not judicially declared incompetent, or other person under some disability. NO BILL - This phrase, endorsed by a grand jury on the written indictment submitted for approval, means that the evidence was found insufficient to indict. NO-CONTEST CLAUSE - Language in a will that is meant to keep people from challenging the will. It says that if a person challenges the will and loses, the person gives up anything he or she would have inherited. NO-FAULT PROCEEDINGS - A civil case in which parties may resolve their dispute without a formal finding of error or fault.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. NOLLE PROSEQUI - Decision by a prosecutor not to go forward with charging a crime. It translates, "I do not choose to prosecute." Also loosely called nolle pros. 11. NOLO CONTENDRE - Same as pleading guilty, except that your plea cannot be used against you in civil court. This can only be used in traffic or criminal court. From the Latin for "I do not wish to contend." 12. NOMINAL PARTY - One who is joined as a party or defendant merely because the technical rules of pleading require his presence in the record. 13. NON COMPOS MENTIS - Not of sound mind; insane. 14. NON-CAPITAL CASE - A criminal case in which the allowable penalty does not include death. 15. NON EST (INVENTUS) - A return of process when the sheriff could not find the person who is to be served. Latin meaning "not to be found." 16. NON OBSTANTE VERDICTO (N.O.V.) - A verdict entered by the judge contrary to a jury's verdict. 17. NONSUIT - The name of a judgment given against a plaintiff when he is unable to prove a case,

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

141

or when he refuses or neglects to proceed to trial and leaves the issue undetermined. 18. NOT GUILTY - The form of verdict in criminal cases where the jury acquits the defendant. 19. NOT GUILTY BY REASON OF INSANITY - The jury or the judge must determine that the defendant, because of mental disease or defect, could not commit the offense. 20. NOTARY PUBLIC - A person authorized to certify a person's signature, administer oaths, certify that documents are authentic, and take depositions. 21. NOTICE - Written information or warning. For example, a notice to the other side that you will make a motion in court on a certain date. 22. NOTICE OF MOTION - A notice to the opposing party, that on a certain date a motion will be made in court. 23. NOTICE TO PRODUCE - A notice in writing requiring the opposite party to produce a certain described paper or document at the trial, or in the course of pre-trial discovery. 24. NUISANCE ­ That activity which arises from unreasonable, unwarranted or unlawful use by a person of his own property, and producing such material annoyance resulting in damage. 25. NULL AND VOID - Having no force, legal power to bind, or validity. 26. NULLITY - A legal action that says a marriage never existed and the persons are still single. (Compare DISSOLUTION.) 27. NUNC PRO TUNC - When a court order is issued on one date, but is effective as of a date that is in the past. From the Latin for "now for then." 28. NUNCUPATIVE WILL - An oral (unwritten) will.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

142

1) 2)

ulSLVh uh ,sXthV

% %

fu;a=kd 'kfDr] vizfrjks/; etcwjh] bruh izcy 'kfDr ;k Hkkouk tks O;ogkj esa fdlh izdkj dh ilan dks Lohdkj u djsA vnkyr dk vkns'k ftlesa fdlh ,sls O;fDr ftlds f[kykQ og vkns'k fn;k x;k gS] dks ns'k jkT; ;k ml vnkyr ds vf/kdkj {ks=k ls ckgj tkus dh eukgh dh xbZ gksrh gSA

3) 4) 5)

uSxySDV uSXyhtSal uSxksf'k;scy bLVªweSaV~l

% % %

fn, x, fdlh dk;Z dks djus esa dh xbZ Hkwy vFkok vlko/kkuhA nwljksa ds vf/kdkjksa vkSj laifÙk dh lqj{kk djus esa dkuwu }kjk izR;kf'kr lko/kkuh cjrus esa vlQy jgukA ekaxus vFkok /kkjd dks fdlh fuf'pr le; ij fuf'pr /kujkf'k dk fcuk 'krZ Hkqxrku djus ds fy, ,d fyf[kr vkSj gLrk{kfjr opu ;k vkns'kA

6)

uSDLV QSaM

%

fcuk fu;qfDr ds fdlh f'k'kq ds laj{kd dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okyk dksbZ O;fDr] vLoLFk fnekx okyk O;fDr ftls dkuwuh rkSj ij ukckfyx ?kksf"kr ugha fd;k x;k gks ;k fdlh vU; vleFkZrk ls xzflr dksbZ O;fDrA

7)

uks&fcy

%

fyf[kr vfHk;ksx&i=k dks iw.kZ fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk eatwjh ds fy, lkSairs gq, bl okD;ka'k ls lgefr dk vFkZ gS fd nks"kh Bgjkus ds fy, nh xbZ xokgh i;kZIr ugha FkhA

8)

uks dkaVSLV dykWt

%

olhgr ukes dh og Hkk"kk ftldk iz;kstu yksxksa }kjk bldks pqukSrh nsus ls jksduk gSA blesa fy[kk gksrk gS fd ;fn olhgrukes dks pqukSrh nsus okyk O;fDr gkj tkrk gS rks ml iq:"k @ L=kh dks fojklr esa izkIr gksus okyh oLrqvksa ls gkFk /kksuk iM+rk gSA

9) 10) 11)

uks QkYV izkslhfMaXl ukSyh izkslhfDoV uksyksdksUVS.Mª

% % %

,d nhokuh eqdíek ftldk nksuksa i{k Hkwy ;k xyrh dk irk yxk, fcuk le>kSrk dj ldrs gSaA fdlh vfHk;kstd }kjk eqdíes dks vkxs u pykus dk fu.kZ; Lo;a dks nks"kh Lohdkj djus ds leku] ijUrq nhokuh vnkyr esa

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

143

vkidh LohdkjksfDr dks vkids fo:) iz;ksx ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldk iz;ksx dsoy ;krk;kr vFkok vijk/k laca/kh vnkyr esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA 12) uksehuy ikVhZ % dksbZ Hkh O;fDr ftldks i{k ;k cpkodÙkkZ ds :i esa dsoy bl fy, 'kkfey fd;k tkrk gS D;ksafd lquokbZ ds rduhdh fu;eksa ds vuqlkj nLrkostksa esa mldh mifLFkfr vko';d gksrh gSA 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) uku dkEiksl eSafVl uku dSihVy dsl uku ,sl ¼bu oSaVl½ % % % vLoLFk fnekx okyk O;fDr] ikxy O;fDr ,slk vkijkf/kd eqdíek ftlesa Qkalh dh ltk dk izko/kku ugha gSA tc dksbZ ftys dk izeq[k vf/kdkjh ml O;fDr dks u <wa< ik, ftls lEeu dh rkehy djokuh gks rks izfØ;k dks nksgjkukA uku vksClVSaVs ojfMDVk % ukulwV % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds QSlys ds fo:) fn;k x;k tt tk QSlyk fdlh ;kfpdkdÙkkZ ds f[kykQ fn, x, QSlys dk uke] tc og viuh ckr dks fl) dj ikus] ;k eqís dk QSlyk gksus ls igys dk;Zokgh esa vkxs Hkkx ysus esa ykijokgh vFkok badkj dj nsrk gSA 18) 19) ukSV fxYVh % QSlys dk og :i ftlesa fu.kkZ;d e.My cpkodÙkkZ dks cjh dj nsrk gSA ukSV fxYVh ckbZ jht+u % vkQ bulsfuVh 20) uksVjh ifCyd % fu.kkZ;d e.My vFkok tt ds fy, ;g fuf'pr djuk vko';d gS fd D;k cpkodÙkkZ fnekxh chekjh ;k [kjkch ds dkj.k vijk/k ugha dj ldrk FkkA ,d ,slk O;fDr ftls fdlh O;fDr ds gLrk{kj izekf.kr djus] 'kiFk fnykus nLrkostksa ds vlyh gksus dk izek.k nsuk vkSj xokgh vkfn ysus dk vf/kdkj gksrk gSA 21) 22) uksfVl uksfVl vkQ eks'ku % % fyf[kr lwpuk ;k psrkouhA mnkgj.k ds fy, nwljs i{k dks uksfVl nsuk fd vki Qyka frfFk dks vnkyr esa ,d ;kfpdk nksxsA nwljs i{k dks uksfVl fd Qyka frfFk dks vnkyr esa ,d ;kfpdk nh

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

144

tk,xhA 23) uksfVl Vw izksM~;wl % foi{kh i{k dks fyf[kr uksfVl fd og mfYyf[kr nLrkost dks eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku vFkok dk;Zokgh ls igys rF;ksa dh [kkst ds le; is'k djsA 24) U;wlSal % fdlh O;fDr }kjk viuh laifÙk dk vuqfpr] voS/k vFkok xSj&dkuwuh iz;ksx ls mRié xfrfo/kh vkSj mlls gksus okyh fo'ks"k ijs'kkuh ftlds ifj.kke Lo:i gkfu igqapsA 25) 26) 27) 28) uy ,saM oks,M ufYyVh ud izks Vad uudwisfVo % % % % ftlesa cka/kus dh dksbZ dkuwuh 'kfDr ;k vkSfpR; u gksA og dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ftlds dFkukuqlkj fookg dHkh gqvk ghugha vkSj nksuksa O;fDr vHkh Hkh ,dy gSaA tc fdlh vnkyr dk vkns'k mlds tkjh gksus dh frfFk ls igys Hkwrdky dh fdlh frfFk ls izHkkoh gksA ,d ekSf[kd ¼vfyf[kr½ olhgrukekA

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

145

-----O-----1. 2. 3. OATH - When a witness promises to tell the truth in a legal proceeding. BJECT - To protest to the court against an act or omission by the opposing party. OBJECTION - A formal protest made by a party over testimony or evidence that the other side tries to introduce in court. BJECTION OVERRULED - A ruling by the court upholding the act or omission of the opposing party. OBJECTION SUSTAINED - A ruling by the court in favor of the party making the objection. OBSCENITY ­ Conduct tending to corrupt the public morals by its indecency or lewdness. OF COUNSEL - A phrase commonly applied to counsel employed to assist in the preparation or management of the case, or its presentation on appeal, but who is not the principal attorney for the party. OFFENDER - One who commits a crime, such as a felony, misdemeanor, or other punishable unlawful act. OFFENSE - An act that breaks the law.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

10. OFFENSIVE WORDS ­ Language that offends; displeasing or annoying language. 11. OFFER OF PROOF - Presentation of evidence to the court (out of the hearing of the jury) for the court's decision of whether the evidence is admissible. 12. ON A PERSON'S OWN RECOGNIZANCE - Release of a person from custody without the payment of any BAIL or posting of BOND, upon the promise to return to court. 13. ONE-THIRD THE MIDTERM RULE - The rule that limits a person' sentence when they have been convicted of multiple offenses. 14. OPENING ARGUMENT - The initial statement made by attorneys for each side, outlining the facts each intends to establish during the trial. 15. OPENING STATEMENT - See OPENING ARGUMENT. 16. OPINION - A judge's written explanation of a decision of the court or of a majority of judges. A dissenting opinion disagrees with the majority opinion because of the reasoning and/or the principles of law on which the decision is based. A concurring opinion agrees with the decision of the court but offers further comment. A PER CURIAM OPINION is an unsigned opinion "of the court." 17. OPINION EVIDENCE - Witnesses are normally required to confine their testimony to statements of fact and are not allowed to give their opinions in court. However, if a witness is qualified as an expert in a particular field, he or she may be allowed to state an opinion as an expert based on certain facts.

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18. OPPOSITION - (1) act of opposing or resisting. (2) confronting another. 19. ORAL ARGUMENT - The part of the trial when lawyers summarize their position in court and also answer the judge's questions. 20. ORAL COPULATION ­ the act of copulating the mouth of one person with the sexual organ or anus of another person, however slight. Penetration of the mouth, sexual organ or anus is not required. 21. ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE - Court order that makes someone go to court to explain to the judge why he or she did not follow the rules. 22. ORDER, COURT - (1) Decision of a judicial officer; (2) a directive of the court. 23. ORDINARY NEGLIGENCE ­ The failure to use that degree of care which the ordinary or reasonably prudent person would have used under the circumstances and for which the negligent person is liable. 24. ORDINANCE - A regulation made by a local government to enforce, control, or limit certain activities. 25. ORIGINAL JURISDICTION - The court in which a matter must first be filed. 26. OVERRULE - A judge's decision not to allow an objection. A decision by a higher court finding that a lower court decision was wrong. 27. OVERRULED - See OVERRULE. 28. OVERT ACT - An open act showing the intent to commit a crime. 29. OWN RECOGNIZANCE - Release of a person from custody without the payment of any bail or posting of bond.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

147

1) 2) 3)

vksFk vkCtSDV vkCtSD'ku

% % %

tc dksbZ xokg dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku lR; cksyus dk opu nsrk gSA foi{kh O;fDr dh fdlh dk;Zokgh ;k Hkwy dk vnkyr esa fojks/k djukA fdlh O;fDr }kjk fdlh ,slh xokgh ;k izek.k dk vkSipkfjd fojks/k ftls foi{kh O;fDr }kjk vnkyr esa izLrqr djus dk iz;Ru fd;ktk jgk gksA

4) 5) 6) 7)

vkCtSD'ku :YM

vksoj& % % % %

foi{kh O;fDr dh dk;Zokgh vFkok Hkwy dks ekU;rk nsus dk vnkyr dk fu.kZ; fojks/k djus okys O;fDr ds i{k esa vnkyr dk fu.kZ;A ,slk O;ogkj tks viuh v'yhyrk vkSj vHkznrk ds }kjk lkoZtfud uSfrdrk dks Hkz"V djus dk iz;Ru djrk gksA ,d ,sls odhy ds fy, iz;ksx fd, tkus okyk okD;ka'k ftldh fu;qfDr eqdíes dh rS;kjh vkSj mlds izcU/k ds fy, ;k vihy ds fy, izLrqr djus ds fy, dh tkrh gS ijUrq og ml O;fDr dk eq[; odhy ugha gksrk gSA

vkCtSD'ku lLVsaM vkClhfuVh vkQ dkSaly

8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

vkSQSaMj vkSQSal vkSQSaflo oMZl vkQj vkQ izwQ

% % % %

og O;fDr tks O;fHkpkj vFkok nq"deZ tSls vijk/k djrk gS tks dkuwu ds vuqlkj n.Muh; gSA dkuwu rksM+us okyh dksbZ dk;Zokgh f[k>kus okyh Hkk"kk] ukjkt+ ;k ijs'kku djus okyh Hkk"kk vnkyr esa izek.kksa dk izLrqfrdj.k djuk rkfd izek.kksa dh Lohdk;Zrk ds ckjs esa vnkyr dk fu.kZ; tkuk tk ldsA fdlh O;fDr dks bl opu ij fcuk tekur fn, ;k fcuk ckaM Hkjs fgjklr ls eqDr djuk fd og Lo;a gh vnkyr esa iqu% is'k gks tk,xkA og fu;e tks fdlh O;fDr dks vusd vijk/kksa ds fy, nh xbZ ltk

vku , ijlul vksu % fjdksxuhtSal

13)

ou FkMZ nk feM & VeZ %

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

148

:y 14) vksifuax vkxwZeSaV %

dks lhfer djrk gSA izR;sd i{k ds odhy }kjk fn;k x;k izkjafHkd oDrO; ftlesa eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku izR;sd i{k }kjk fl) fd;s tkus okys rF;ksa dh :i js[kk nh tkrh gSA

15) 16)

vksifuax LVsVeSaV vksihfu;u

% %

ns[kks ^vksifuax vkxwZeSaV* fdlh tt }kjk vnkyr vFkok ttksa ds cgqer ds fu.kZ; dk fyf[kr :i esa Li"Vhdj.kA fojks/kh fu.kZ; ml dkuwu dh rdZ&;ksX;rk rFkk @ vFkok fl)karksa ds dkj.k] ftl ij fu.kZ; fd;k tkrk gS cgqer ds fu.kZ; ls vlgefr izdV djrk gSA erSD; dk fu.kZ; vnkyr ds fu.kZ; ;s lgefr izdV djus ds vfrfjDr fVIi.kh Hkh djrk gSA

17)

vksihfu;u ,sohMSal

%

xokgksa dks viuh xokgh rF;ksa laca/kh c;kuksa rd lhfer j[kuh gksrh gS vkSj vnkyr esa mUgsa vius fopkj izdV djus dh vuqefr ugha nh tkrh gSA ijUrq ;fn dksbZ xokg fdlh fo'ks"k esa dksbZ ekfgj gks rks ml iq:"k @ L=kh dks dqN fo'ks"k rF;ksa ds ckjs esa ekfgj gksus ds rkSj ij vius fopkj izdV djus dh vuqefr nh tk ldrh gSA

18) 19) 20)

viksth'ku vksjy vkxwZeSaV vksjy dksiwys'ku

% % %

¼1½ fojks/k ;k izfrjks/k djus dh dk;Zokgh ¼2½ fdlh nwljs dk lkeuk djukA vnkyrh dk;Zokgh dk og Hkkx tc odhy vnkyr esa eqdíes dk lkj crykrs gSa vkSj tt ds iz'uksa dk mÙkj nsrs gSaA fdlh O;fDr ds eqag ;k xqnk esa fdlh Hkh xgjkbZ rd iq:"k dk fyax Mky dj laHkksx djus dh fØ;kA eq[k&Nsnu] fyax vFkok xqnk Nsnu dh vko';drk ugha gSA

21)

vkMZj Vw 'kks dkt+

%

vnkyr }kjk fdlh O;fDr dks tkjh vkns'k fd og vnkyr tkdj tt dks Li"Vhdj.k ns fd mlus iq:"k @ L=kh us fu;eksa dk ikyu D;ksa ugha fd;kA

22)

vkMZj] dksVZ

%

¼1½ fdlh U;kf;d vf/kdkjh dk vkns'k] ¼2½ fdlh vnkyr dk funsZ'k

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

149

23)

vkfMZujh uSXyhtSal

%

lko/kkuh dh ml ek=kk dk iz;ksx djus esa vlQy jguk ftldk iz;ksx mu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa fdlh lk/kkj.k le> okys O;fDr }kjk fd;k tkrk rFkk ftlds fy, og ykijokg O;fDr mÙkjnk;h gSA

24) 25) 26)

vkMhZuSal vkSjhftuy twfjlfMd'ku vksoZ:y

% % %

dqN fo'ks"k xfrfof/k;ksa dks fu;af=r djus] ykxw djus vFkok lhfer djus ds fy, fdlh LFkkfud ljdkj }kjk cuk;k x;k fu;eA ,slh vnkyr tgka fdlh eqdíes dks 'kq: esa nk;j djuk t:jh gSA fdlh tt }kjk fdlh ,srjkt dks Lohdkj djus ls badkj djukA fdlh Åijh vnkyr dk fu.kZ; ftlesa fupyh vnkyr ds QSlys dks xyr Bgjk;k x;k gksA

27) 28) 29)

vksoZ:YM vksoVZ ,sDV vksu fjdksxuhtSal

% % %

ns[kks ^vkso:Zy* ,d Li"V dk;Z ftlesa vijk/k djus ds bjkns dk irk pyrk gksA fcuk tekur fn, ;k fcuk ckaM Hkjs fdlh O;fDr dh fgjklr ls fjgkbZ

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

150

-----P------

1. 2.

PANDERING ­ Pimping. Arranging for acts of prostitution. PARALEGAL - A person with legal skills, but who is not an attorney, and who works under the supervision of a lawyer or who is otherwise authorized by law to use those legal skills. PARDON - When the chief executive of a state or country releases a convicted person from the punishment given him or her by a court sentence. PARENS PATRIAE - The power of the state to act in the parents' place to protect a child or his or her property. PAROLE - Supervised release of a prisoner that allows the person to serve the rest of the sentence out of prison if all conditions of release are met. PAROLE EVIDENCE - Oral or verbal evidence rather than written. The Parole Evidence Rule limits the admissibility of parole evidence which would directly contradict the clear meaning of terms of a written contract. PARTY - One of the sides of a case. The person who started the case is called the plaintiff or defendant. The person being sued is called the defendant or respondent. PAT DOWN SEARCH ­ A limited search of the outer clothing of a person in an attempt to discover weapons which might be used to assault the officer and may be conducted if the officer has a reasonable belief that the detained person is armed and dangerous. PATENT - A government grant giving an inventor the exclusive right to make or sell his or her invention for a term of years.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. PATERNITY - Who the birth (biological) parents of a child are. 11. PEACE OFFICER ­ Includes sheriffs and their deputies, members of the police force of cities, and other officers whose duty is to enforce and preserve the public peace. 12. PENALTY - Punishment for breaking a law. 13. PENALTY ASSESSMENT - An amount of money added to a fine. 14. PENALTY OF PERJURY ­ Circumstances under which a person takes an oath that he will testify, declare, depose or certify truthfully. 15. PENDING - The status of a case that is not yet resolved by the court. 16. PENETRATION, UNLAWFUL ­ Unlawful insertion of the male part into the female parts, however slight an extent. 17. PENITENTIARY - A prison or place of confinement where convicted felons are sent to serve out the term of their sentence. 18. PEOPLE (PROSECUTION) - A state, for example, the People of the State of California.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

151

19. PER CURIUM OPINION - An unsigned OPINION of the court. 20. PEREMPTORY CHALLENGE - The right to challenge a juror without assigning a reason for the challenge. 21. PERJURY - A false statement made on purpose while under oath in a court proceeding. 22. PERMANENCY HEARING ­ The hearing for children placed in or awaiting placement in foster care who were under age three at the time of detention, and for all children, to monitor the welfare of the child, evaluate the parents' reunification efforts and establish a permanent plan for the child. 23. PERMANENT INJUNCTION - A court order requiring that some action be taken, or that some party refrain from taking action. It differs from forms of temporary relief, such as a TEMPORARY RESTRIANING ORDER or PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION. 24. PERMANENT PLANNED LIVING ARRANGEMENT (PPLA) ­ One of the permanent plans that may be ordered for a child who is not returned to parental custody (formerly long term foster care). 25. PERMANENT RESIDENT - One who lives in a location for a period of time and indicates that it is their official address or residence. 26. PERSON IN NEED OF SUPERVISION - Juvenile found to have committed a status offense rather than a crime that would provide a basis for a finding of delinquency. Typical status offenses are habitual truancy, violating a curfew, or running away from home. These are not crimes, but they might be enough to place a child under supervision. In different states, status offenders might be called children in need of supervision or minors in need of supervision. (See STATUS OFFENDERS.) 27. PERSONAL PROPERTY - Things that you own and can move, like furniture, equipment, or paintings. 28. PERSONAL RECOGNIZANCE - Pre-trial release based on the person's own promise that he or she will show up for trial (no bond required). Also referred to as release on own recognizance or ROR. (See ON A PERSON'S OWN RECOGNIZANCE.) 29. PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVE - A person picked by the court to collect, manage and distribute a person's property (estate) when they die. If named in a will, that person's title is an EXECUTOR. If there is no valid will, that person's title is an ADMINISTRATOR. 30. PETIT JURY or (TRIAL JURY) - A group of citizens that listen to the evidence presented by both sides at trial and figure out the facts in dispute. Criminal juries are made up of 12 people; civil juries are made up of at least 6 people. 31. PETITION - A court paper that asks the court to take action. For example, in juvenile cases, the Petition starts the court case. (Compare MOTION.) 32. PETITIONER - A person who presents a petition to the court. 33. PETTY OFFENSE - An offense for which the authorized penalty does not exceed imprisonment for 3 months or a fine of $500. 34. PETTY THEFT - The act of taking and carrying away the personal property of another of a value usually below $100.00 with the intent to deprive the owner of it permanently.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

152

35. PIMP - (1) the act of getting customers for a whore or prostitute; (2) one who gets customers for a whore or prostitute. 36. PITCHESS MOTION - A request made by the defendant for discovery of a peace officer's personnel file with regards to any complaints or acts of excessive force and violence. 37. PLAINTIFF - The person or company that files a lawsuit. 38. PLEA - In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges. (See also NOLO CONTENDRE). 39. PLEA BARGAIN - An agreement between the prosecutor and the defendant. It lets the defendant plead guilty to a less serious charge, if the court approves. 40. PLEAD - To admit or deny committing a crime. 41. PLEADING - Written statements filed with the court that describes a party's legal or factual claims about the case and what the party wants from the court. 42. POLLING THE JURY - A practice in which jurors are asked individually whether they agree with the final verdict in the case they just decided. 43. POLYGRAPH - Lie detector test and the apparatus for conducting the test. 44. POSSESSION OF DRUGS ­ The presence of drugs on the accused for recreational use or for the purpose to sell. 45. POST CONVICTION ­ A procedure by which a convicted defendant challenges the conviction and/or sentence on the basis of some alleged violation or error. 46. POSTPONEMENT ­ To put off or delay a court hearing. 47. POUR-OVER WILL ­ A will that leaves some or all estate property to a trust established before the will-maker's death. 48. POWER OF ATTORNEY ­ Formal authorization of a person to act in the interest of another person. 49. PRAYER- A request of the court to grant the process, aid, or relief which the complainant desires; also, that portion of a document containing such request. 50. PRECEDENT ­A court decision in an earlier case that the court uses to decide similar or new cases. 51. PREINJUNCTION ­ Court order requiring action or forbidding action until a decision can be made whether to issue a permanent injunction. It differs from a TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER. 52. PREJUDICE ­ When an act or decision affects a person's rights in a negative way. 53. PREJUDICIAL ERROR ­ Synonymous with reversible error ; an error which authorizes the appellate court to reverse the judgment before it. 54. PREJUDICIAL EVIDENCE ­ Evidence which might unfairly sway the judge or jury to one side or the other.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

153

55. PRELIMINARY HEARING ­ The hearing available to a person charged with a felony to determine if there is enough evidence (probable cause) to hold him for trial. 56. PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION ­ In civil cases when it is necessary to preserve the status quo prior to trial, the court may issue this or a temporary restraining order ordering a party to carry out a specified activity. 57. PREMEDITATION ­The planning of a crime before the crime takes place, rather than committing the crime on the spur of the moment. 58. PREMISES ­ That which is put before; that which precedes; the foregoing statements. 59. PREPERMANENCY HEARING ­ The hearing conducted according to Welfare and Institutions Code Section 366.21(e) for foster care placement children who were over age three at the time of detention, to monitor the welfare of the child and evaluate the parents' reunification efforts. 60. PREPONDERANCE OF THE EVIDENCE ­ To win a civil case, the plaintiff has to prove that most of the evidence is on his or her side. 61. PRESENTENCE REPORT ­ A report prepared by the probation department for the judge when sentencing a defendant. Describes defendant's background: financial, job, and family status; community ties; criminal history; and facts of the current offense. 62. PRESENTMENT ­ Declaration or document issued by a grand jury that either makes a neutral report or notes misdeeds by officials charged with specified public duties. It ordinarily does not include a formal charge of crime. A presentment differs from an INDICTMENT. 63. PRESUMED FATHER ­ A man who is married to the mother of the child, who has signed a declaration of paternity, or has received the child into his home and held the child out to the community as his child, whether that man is the biological father of the child, or not. 64. PRESUMPTION ­ An inference of the truth or falsity of a proposition or fact, that stands until rebutted by evidence to the contrary. 65. PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE ­ A hallowed principle of criminal law that a person is innocent of a crime until proven guilty. The government has the burden of proving every element of a crime beyond a reasonable doubt and the defendant has no burden to prove his innocence. 66. PRESUMPTION OF LAW ­ a rule of law that courts and judges shall draw a particular inference from a particular fact, or from particular evidence. 67. PRETERMITTED CHILD - A child born after a will was written, who is not provided for by the will. Most states have laws that provide for a share of estate property to go to such children. 68. PRETRIAL CONFERENCE - Any time both sides of the case go to court before trial. In criminal cases, it's usually when the defendant and prosecutor talk about settling the case. 69. PRIMA FACIE CASE - A case that is sufficient and has the minimum amount of evidence necessary to allow it to continue in the judicial process. From the Latin for "from first view." 70. PRINCIPAL ­ The source of authority or right. 71. PRINCIPALS ­ Persons who are involved in committing or attempting to commit a crime. Includes those who directly and actively commit or attempt to commit the crime, or those who assist (aid and abet) in the commission or attempted commission of the crime.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

154

72. PRINCIPLE TERM - Greatest term of imprisonment imposed by the court on any one count, imposed of base term plus any enhancements, to which subordinate terms are added. 73. PRIORS - Term meaning previous conviction(s) of the accused. 74. PRIOR CONVICTION - As used in Superior Court pleadings, an allegation that defendant has previously been imprisoned. 75. PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENT ­ In evidence, these are prior statements made by the witness which contradict statements the witness made on the witness stand. 76. PRISON ­ A federal or state public building or other place for the confinement of persons. It is used as either a punishment imposed by the law or otherwise in the course of the administration of justice. Also known as penitentiary, penal institution, adult correctional institution, or jail. 77. PRIVACY, RIGHT OF ­ The right to be left alone; the right of a person to be free from unwarranted publicity. 78. PRIVILEGE - An advantage not enjoyed by all; a special exemption from prosecution or other lawsuits. (See also IMMUNITY.) 79. PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATIONS - Confidential communications to certain persons that are protected by law against any disclosure, including forced disclosure in legal proceedings. Communications between lawyer and client, physician and patient, psychotherapist and patient, priest, minister, or rabbi and penitent are typically privileged. 80. PRIVITY - Mutual or successive relationships to the same right of property, or the same interest of one person with another which represents the same legal right. 81. PROBABLE CAUSE - A good reason to believe that a crime has or is being committed; the basis for all lawful searches, seizures, and arrests. 82. PROBATE - The judicial process to determine if a will of a dead person is genuine or not; lawful distribution of a decedent's estate. 83. PROBATE COURT - The court with authority to deal with the estates of people who have died. 84. PROBATE ESTATE - All the assets in an estate that are subject to probate. This does not include all property. For example, property in joint tenancy are not part of the probate estate. 85. PROBATION - A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases a convicted defendant under supervision of a probation officer that makes certain that the defendant follows certain rules, for example, gets a job, gets drug counseling. 86. PROBATION BEFORE JUDGMENT (PBJ) - A conditional avoidance of imposing a sentence after conviction. 87. PROBATION DEPARTMENT - The department that oversees the actions of those who are on probation as well as the location of where probation officers work. 88. PROBATION OFFICER - One who supervises a person placed on probation and is required to report the progress and to surrender them if they violate the terms and conditions of the probation. 89. PRO BONO - Legal work done for free. From the Latin meaning "for the public good."

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

155

90. PROCEDURAL LAW - The method, established normally by rules to be followed in a case; the formal steps in a judicial proceeding. 91. PRODUCTS LIABILITY ­ Refers to the legal liability of manufacturers and sellers to compensate buyers, users and even bystanders for damages or injuries suffered because of defects in goods purchased. 92. PROFFER - An offer of proof as to what the evidence would be if a witness were called to testify or answer a question. 93. PRO HAC VICE - for this one particular occasion. For example, an out-of-state lawyer may be admitted to practice in a local jurisdiction for a particular case only. From the Latin meaning "for this turn." 94. PROHIBITION - Act or law that forbids something. 95. PROMISSORY NOTE - A written document that says a person promises to pay money to another. 96. PROOF - Any fact or evidence that leads to a judgment of the court. 97. PROOF OF SERVICE - A form filed with the court that proves that court papers were properly delivered to someone. 98. PRO PER - Person who presents their own cases in court without lawyers (See also IN PROPIA PERSONA and PRO SE.) 99. PROPERTY ­ Something tangible or intangible that someone holds legal title. 100. PRO SE - Person who presents their own cases in court without lawyers (See also PRO PER and PRO SE.) 101. PROSECUTING ATTORNEY - A public office who prosecutes criminal cases for the state. See PROSECUTOR and DISTRICT ATTORNEY. 102. PROSECUTION - The party that starts a criminal case and files criminal charges. The prosecution is the lawyer for the state. A common name for the state's side of the case. 103. PROSECUTOR - A trial lawyer representing the government in a criminal case and the interests of the state in civil matters. In criminal cases, the prosecutor has the responsibility of deciding who and when to file charges. 104 PROSTITUTION - The performance or agreement to perform a sexual act for hire.

105. PROTECTIVE ORDER - A court order to protect a person from further harassment, service of process, or discovery. 106. PRO TEM - A temporary assigned official with authority to hear and decide cases in a court. 107. PROXIMATE CAUSE - The act that caused an event to occur. 108. PUBLIC DEFENDER - A lawyer picked by the court to represent a defendant who cannot afford a lawyer.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

156

109. PUNITIVE DAMAGES - Money awarded to an injured person, over and above the measurable value of the injury, in order to punish the person who hurt him. 110. PURGE - To clean or clear, such as eliminating inactive records from court files; with respect to civil contempt, to clear the noncompliance that caused the contempt finding.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

157

1) 2)

iSaMfjax iSjkyhxy

% %

nykyh djuk] oS';o`fÙk laca/kh xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, izca/k djukA dkuwuh fuiq.krk okyk O;fDr] ijUrq tks odhy u gks vkSj tks fdlh odhy dh ns[kjs[k esa dke djrk gks ;k ftls fdlh vU; rjhds ls viuh dkuwuh fuiq.krk dk iz;ksx djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksA

3) 4) 5)

ikjMu isjsal iSfVª;s iSjksy

% % %

fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dks dkuwu }kjk nh xbZ ltk dks fdlh jkT; ;k ns'k ds eq[; dk;Zdkjh vf/kdkjh }kjk ekQ dj nsukA fdlh ckyd @ ckfydk ds ekrk&firk ds LFkku ij jkT; }kjk mldh laifÙk dks lqjf{kr j[kus dk vf/kdkjA fdlh dSnh dh ij[k v/khu fjgkbZ ftlds vuqlkj og ckdh dh ltk tsy ls ckgj jgdj dkV ldrk gS ;fn og fjgkbZ dh lHkh 'krks± dks iwjk djsA

6)

iSjksy ,sohMSal

%

fyf[kr xokgh dh ctk, ekSf[kd vFkok cksy dj nh xbZ xokghA iSjksy ,sohMSal laca/kh fu;e ,sls ekeyksa eas iSjksy ,sohMSal dh Lohdk;Zrk dks lhfer djrs gSa tgka ,slh xokgh fdlh fyf[kr le>kSrs dh 'krks± dk Li"V mYya?kuk djrh gksA

7)

ikVhZ

%

fdlh eqdíes ds i{kksa esa ls dksbZ ,d i{kA eqdíek 'kq: djus okys O;fDr dks oknh ;k f'kdk;rdÙkkZ dgk tkrk gSA ftl O;fDr ds fo:) eqdíek fd;k tkrk gS mls cpkodÙkkZ ;k izfroknh dgk tkrk gSA

8)

iSV MkÅu lpZ

%

mu gfFk;kjksa dh cjkenxh ds fy, ckgjh oL=kksa dh lhfer ryk'kh ftudk iz;ksx vf/kdkjh ij vpkud geyk djus ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,slh ryk'kh rc dh tk ldrh gS tc vf/kdkjh dks mfpr fo'okl gks fd fgjklr eas fy;k x;k O;fDr gfFk;kj fy, gq, vkSj [krjukd gSA

9)

isVsaV

%

fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh vkfo"dkjd dks vius vkfo"dkj dk dqN o"kks± dh vof/k ds fy, fuekZ.k vFkok foØ; djus dk ljdkj }kjk fn;k x;k ,dkf/kdkjA

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

158

10) 11)

iSVjfuVh ihl vkQhlj

% %

tks cPps ds ¼thou laca/kh½ tUe ls ekrk&firk gksaA blesa ftyksa ds izeq[k vf/kdkjh] muds lgk;d] 'kgjh iqfyl cy ds lnL; vkSj vU; vf/kdkjh] ftudk dke lkoZtfud 'kkafr ykxw djuk vkSj cuk, j[kuk gS] 'kkfey gksrs gSaA

12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22)

iSufyVh iSuYVh vlSlesaV iSuYVh vkQ ijtjh iSafMax iSuhVªs'ku] Qqy iSuhVSaf'k;jh I;wiy ¼izkSlhD;w'ku½ ij dqfj;e vksihfu;u fijSaiVªh pSysat ijtjh ijekuSalh gh;fjax

% % % % vu&yk& % % % % % % %

fdlh dkuwu dks rksM+us dh lt+kA tqekZus ds lkFk tksM+h xbZ /kujkf'kA os ifjfLFkfr;ka ftuesa dksbZ O;fDr ;g 'kiFk ysrk gS fd og lR;rkiwoZd c;ku o xokgh nsxk vkSj izekf.kr djsxkA ml eqdíes dh fLFkfr ftldk vHkh vnkyr }kjk fu.kZ; ugha fd;k x;k gSA iq:"k ds fyax dk L=kh ds vaxksa esa xSj&dkuwuh <ax ls izos'k djkuk] pkgs fdruh Hkh de xgjkbZ gksA dkjxkj ;k canhxzg tgka ltk ;k¶rk eqtfjeksa dks viuh ltk dkVus ds fy, Hkstk tkrk gSA dksbZ jkT;] mnkgj.k ds fy, dSyhQkSjfu;k jkT;A fdlh vnkyr dk vfyf[kr fu.kZ;A fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fdlh lnL; dks fcuk dkj.k crk, pqukSrh nsukA fdlh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku vnkyr esa 'kiFk ysdj Hkh xyr c;kuh djukA ekrk&firk dh fxj¶rkjh ds le; 3 o"kZ ls de mez ds cPps ftudk ikyu&iks"k.k /keZ ds ekrk&firk ds }kjk fd;k tk jgk gS ;k ftudks vHkh muds ikl Hkstk tkuk gS] muds rFkk lHkh cPpksa ds dY;k.k ds

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

159

fy, mUgsa vius ekrk&firk ls iqu% feykus ds fy, iz;Ruksa ds fy, rFkk cPpksa ds fy, LFkk;h ;kstuk ds fy, dh xbZ lquokbZA 23) ijekuSaV butaD'ku % vnkyr dk og vkns'k ftlesa dksbZ dk;Zokgh djus dk funsZ'k gksrk gS ;k fdlh i{k dks dksbZ dk;Zokgh djus ls jksdk tkrk gSA bldk izk:i vLFkk;h jkgr ls fHké gS] tSls fd VSaizsjh jSLVªsfuax vkMZj ;k fizfyehujh bUtaD'kuA 24) 25) 26) ijekuSaV IySUM fyfoax % vjsateSaV ijekuSaV jsthMSaV % fdlh ,sls cPps ds fy, ftls vius ekrk&firk dk laj{k.k izkIr ugha gqvk gS] ds fy, fdlh LFkk;h ;kstuk] ftldk vkns'k fn;k tkuk gSA og O;fDr tks fdlh LFkku ij dqN vof/k rd jgrk gS vkSj bafxr djrk gS fd ;gha mldk ljdkjh irk vkSj fuokl LFkku gSA ijlu bu uhM vkWQ % lqijoht+u 18 o"kZ ls de mez dk cPpk ftlus vijk/k dh vis{kk LoHkkfod nks"k fd;k gks] mlds fo:) lkekftd nqjO;ogkj dk nks"k lkfcr djus dk vk/kkj curk gSA bl oxZ ds nks"k gSa] vknru dÙkZO;&R;kx] dfdZ;w dk mYya?ku ;k ?kj ls Hkkx tkukA ;s vijk/k ugha gSa ijUrq fdlh cPps dks ns[kjs[k v/khu j[kus ds fy, i;kZIr gSA 27) ilZuy izksiVhZ % os oLrq,a ftu ij vkidk LokfeRo gS vkSj tks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ys tkbZ tk ldrh gSa] tSls QuhZpj] lkt&lkeku ;k isafVaXl vkfnA 28) ijlZuy jSdksxuh tSal % fdlh iq:"[email protected]=kh }kjk fn, x, bl opu f dog eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh esa Lo;a mifLFkr gks tk,xk] ds vk/kkj ij dk;Zokgh ls igys mldh fjgkbZ ¼ftlds fy, fdlh ckaM dh t:jr ugha gksrh½ 29) ilZuy fjizt+SaVsfVo % fdlh O;fDr dh e`R;q ds le; mldh laifÙk dks ,d=k djus mldk izca/k vkSj forj.k djus ds fy, vnkyr ds }kjk pquk x;k dksbZ O;fDrA ;fn olhgr ukes esa mldk uke fy[kk gks rks mls izca/kd dgk tk,xkA ;fn dksbZ oS/k olhgrukek ugha gS rks mldks iz'kkld dgk tk,xkA 30) iSfVV twjh ;k Vªk;y % ukxfjdksa dk og lewg tks eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds le; nksuksa i{kksa

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

160

twjh

ds }kjk is'k fd, x, xokgksa dks lqurs gSa vkSj >jksM+ ds rF;ksa dk vuqeku yxkrs gSaA vijk/k laca/kh fu.kkZ;d e.My ds 12 lnL; gksrs gSaA nhokuh eqdíeksa ls lacaf/kr fu.kkZ;d e.My ds de ls de 6 lnL; gksrs gSaA

31)

iSVh'ku

%

vnkyrh nLrkost ftlesa vnkyr dks dk;Zokgh djus dk vkosnu fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] 18 o"kZ ls de mez ds cPpksa ds eqdíes ;kfpdk ls 'kq: gksrs gSaA

32) 33) 34) 35) 36)

iSVh'kuj iSV~Vh vkSQSal iSV~Vh FkS¶V fiEi fiPpSl eks'ku

% % % % %

og O;fDr tks vnkyr esa ;kfpdk nk;j djrk gSA ,slk nks"k ftlds fy, vf/kd`r 3 o"kZ ls vf/kd dSn ;k 500 Mkyj tqekZus ls vf/kd ltk ugha nh tk ldrhA fdlh nwljs dh 100 Mkyj ls de dher dh laifÙk blds Lokeh dks lnk ds fy, blls oafpr djus ds fy, mBk ys tkukA ¼1½ fdlh jaMh ;k oS';k ds fy, xzkgd tqVkus dk dk;ZA ¼2½ og O;fDr tks fdlh jaMh ;k oS';k ds fy, xzkgd tqVkrk gSA vko';drk ls vf/kd cy iz;ksx vkSj fgalk dh dk;Zokgh ;k fdUgha f'kdk;rksa ds laca/k esa 'kkafr dk;e j[kus okys vf/kdkjh ds deZpkfj;ksa dh QkbZy cjken djus ds fy, cpkodÙkkZ }kjk dh xbZ ;kfpdkA

37) 38) 39)

IysafVd Iyh Iyh ckjxsu

% % %

eqdíek nk;j djus okyk dksbZ O;fDr ;k daiuhA yxk, x, nks"kksa ds mÙkj esa fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa cpkodÙkkZ dk c;ku fd Þnks"kh gwaß ;k Þnks"kh ugha gwaß dk c;kuA vfHk;kstd vkSj cpkodÙkkZ ds chp gqvk le>kSrkA ;g cpkodÙkkZ dks de xaHkhj vijk/k ds fy, nks"kh gksus dh Lohdk;Zrk dh NwV nsrk gS] ;fn vnkyr eatwjh ns rksA

40) 41)

IyhM IyhfMax

% %

fdlh vijk/k djus dks Lohdkjuk ;k udkjukA fdlh i{k }kjk vnkyr esa fn, x, fyf[kr c;ku ftuesa eqdíes ds

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

161

ckjs esa ml i{k ds dkuwuh rFkk rF;ksa ij vk/kkfjr nkoksa dk o.kZu fn;k gksrk gS vkSj ;g Hkh fy[kk jgrk gS fd og i{k vnkyr ls D;k pkgrk gSA 42) ikSfyax nh twjh % og izfØ;k ftlds vuqlkj fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa vyx&vyx iwNk tkrk gS fd D;k os ml eqdíes ds vafre QSlys ls lger gS ftldk fu.kZ; mUgksaus vHkh&vHkh fd;k gS\ 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) ikSyhxzkQ ikstS'ku vkQ MªXl iksLV dfUoD'ku iksLV;ksueSaV iksj&vksoj foy % % % % % >wB idM+us ds fy, fd;k x;k ijh{k.k vkSj ,sls ijh{k.k ds fy, iz;ksx dh tkus okyh e'khu eu cgykos vFkok foØ; ds fy, nks"kh ds ikl u'khyh nokvksa dk gksuk og izfØ;k ftlds vUrxZr rFkk dfFkr mYya?ku ;k xyrh ds dkj.k dksbZ ltk izkIr O;fDr viuh ltk ds vkns'k dks pqukSrh nsrk gSA vnkyrh lquokbZ dks vkxs Mkyuk ;k mlesa nsjh djukA ,slk olh;rukek ftlesa olh;r djus okys us viuh tk;nkn dk dqN Hkkx vFkok iwjh tk;nkn fdlh ,sls VªLV ds uke dh gks ftldh LFkkiuk mldh e`R;q ls igys gqbZ gksA 48) 49) 50) ikoj vkQ vVkuhZ izs;j izSlhMSaV % % % fdlh nwljs ds fgr esa dk;Zokgh djus dk vf/kdkj nsukA f'kdk;rdÙkkZ }kjk okafNr izfØ;k] lgk;rk vFkok jkgr dh eatwjh ds vnkyr ls vkosnu] ,sls vkosnu okys nLrkost dk dksbZ Hkkx HkhA iqjkus eqdíeksa esa vnkyr }kjk fn;k x;k QSlyk ftldk iz;ksx vnkyr }kjk ml tSls ;k u, eqdíes dk QSlyk djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 51) 52) izh&bUtaD'ku izStqMkbZl % % vnkyr }kjk LFkk;h vkns'k ds fu.kZ; rd fdlh dk;Zokgh dks djus ;k u djus dk vkns'kA ;g vLFkk;h LFkxu vkns'k ls fHkUu gSA tc dksbZ dk;Z vFkok fu.kZ; fdlh ds vf/kdkjksa dks udkjkRed <ax ls izHkkfor djrk gksA

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

162

53) 54) 55)

izStqMhf'k;y vkMZj izStqMh f'k;y ,sohMSal fizfyfeujh gh;fjax

% % %

ifjorZuh; xyrh] og xyrh tks vihyh; vnkyr dks fopkjk/khu QSlys dks myVkus dk vf/kdkj nsrh gSA og xokgh tks tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My dks utk;t <ax ls fdlh ,d i{k dh vksj >qdk nsA ;g tkuus ds fy, fdlh dqdeZ djus ds fdlh nks"kh O;fDr ij eqdíek pykus ds fy, I;kZIr izek.kA laHkkfor dkj.k gS ;k ugha] ml O;fDr dks miyC/k lquokbZ dk volj

56)

fizfyfeujh bUtaD'ku

%

tc nhokuh eqdíeksa esa dk;Zokgh ls igys iwoZ&fLFkfr cgky j[kuk vko';d gks rks vnkyr ;g vkns'k ;k LFkk;h LFkxu vkns'k ns ldrh gS ftlesa fdlh i{k dks fdlh fo'ks"k dk;Z dks djus dk vkns'k fn;k gksrk gSA

57) 58) 59)

izheSMhVs'ku izhekbZtst+ izh&ijekuSalh gh;fjax

% % %

,dne vijk/k djus dh ctk, ftls igys djus ls igys vijk/k djus dh ;kstuk cukukA ftls igys j[kk tkrk gS] igys vkus okyk] igys fn, x, c;kuA oSYQs;j ,.M bUlVhV~;w'ku dksM ds lSD'ku 366-21 ¼bZ½ ds vuqlkj ekrk&firk dh fxj¶rkjh ds le; 3 o"kZ ls Åij dh mez okys cPpksa dks /keZ ds ekrk&firk dh laHkky esa Hkstus] cPps dh HkykbZ dk /;ku j[kus vkSj ekrk&firk ds lkFk iqufeZyu ds iz;Ruksa dk ewY;kadu djus ds fy, dh xbZ lquokbZA

60) 61)

izh&ikSaMªSal ,sohMSal

vkQ

nh % %

fdlh iq:"[email protected]=kh oknh dks eqdíek thrus ds fy, fl) djuk gksrk gS fd vf/kdka'k izek.k mlds i{k esa gSaA tt }kjk fdlh cpkodÙkkZ dks ltk nsrs le; fuxjku foHkkx }kjk rS;kj dh xbZ fjiksVZA blessa cpkodÙkkZ dh i`"BHkwfe dk o.kZu gksrk gS] foÙkh;] dkedkth ,oa ikfjokfjd fLFkfr] lkeqnkf;d laca/k] vkijkf/kd bfrgkl vkSj orZeku vijk/k ds rF; vkfnA

izStSaVsl fjiksVZ

62)

izStSaVeSaV

%

iw.kZ fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk tkjh og ?kks"k.kk ;k gLrkost ftlesa lkoZtfud mÙkjnkf;Ro ds inksa ij vklhu ljdkjh vf/kdkfj;ksa ds

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

163

dqd`R;ksa dh rVLFk fjiksVZ ;k mYys[k gksrk gSA lk/kkj.kr;k blesa vijk/k dk vkSipkfjd nks"k 'kkfey ugha gksrk gSA izStSaVeSaV vkSj bufMDVeSaV esa varj gksrk gSA 63) fizT;wEM Qknj % og vkneh ftldk cPps dh ekrk ls fookg gqvk gks] ftlus iSr`drk dh ?kks"k.kk ij gLrk{kj fd, gksa ;k ftlus cPps ?kj esa izkIr fd;k vkSj cPps dks vius cPps ds :i esa leqnk; ds le{k izLrqr fd;k gks] pkgs og vkneh tho&foKku ds vk/kkj ij ml cPps dks firk gS ;k ughaA 64) fiztEi'ku % fdlh izLrko vFkok rF; dh lR;rk vFkok >wBk gksus dk fu"d"kZ tks rc rd ekU; gksrk gS tc rd blds foijhr izek.k }kjk bls xyr fl) u dj fn;k tk,A 65) fiztEi'ku bUukslSal vkQ % vijk/k laca/kh dkuwu dk og lkfRod fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj dksbZ O;fDr vijk/k ds fy, rc rd funksZ"k gksrk gS tc rd fd mls nks"kh fl) u fd;k x;k gksA ljdkj dh ftEesnkjh gS fd og vijk/k ds izR;sd rRo dks izekf.kr djus esa 'kd dh xqatkb'k u NksM+s vkSj cpkodÙkkZ ij vius funksZ"k gksus dk izek.k nsus dh ftEesnkjh ugha gSA 66) fiztEi'ku vkQ yk % dkuwu dk og fu;e ftlds vuqlkj vnkyrsa vkSj tt fdlh fo'ks"k fu"d"kZ ij fdlh fo'ks"k rF; vFkok fo'ks"k izek.k ds vk/kkj ij gh igqapsaxsA 67) izhVfeZVsM pkbZYM % og cPpk ftldk tUe olh;rukek fy[kus ds ckn gqvk gks vkSj ftlds ckjs esa olh;r ukes esa dksbZ izko/kku u fd;k x;k gksA vf/kdrj jkT;ksa esa ,sls dkuwu gS ftuesa ;g izca/k fd;k x;k gS fd tk;nkn esa ,sls dk fgLlk mUgsa feysA 68) izh&Vªk;y dkUÝSal % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys fdlh Hkh le; nksuksa i{k vnkyr ds le{k tk ldrs gSaA vkijkf/kd ekeyksa ;g og le; gS tc cpkodÙkkZ vkSj vfHk;kstd nksuksa le>kSrs ds ckjs esa ckrphr djrs gSaA 69) izkbZlk QslkbZ dsl % og ;ksX; eqdíek ftlesa dkuwuh izfØ;k ds tkjh j[ks tkus dh vkKk

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

164

nsus ds fy, vko';d de ls de izek.k ekStwn gksaA ;g 'kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS] ÞizFke n`f"V lsßA 70) 71) fizalhiy fizalhiYl % % 'kfDr vFkok vf/kdkj dk lzks=kA os yksx tks vnkyr djus vFkok vijk/k djus dh dksf'k'k esa 'kkfey gksa bues os yksx Hkh 'kkfey gksrs gSa tks izR;{k ,oa lfØ; :i ls vijk/k djrs gSa ;k vijk/k djus dk iz;Ru djrs gSa vFkok tks vijk/k djus ;k vijk/k djus ds iz;Ru esa lgk;rk djrs gSa ;k mdlkrs gSaA 72) fizalhiy VeZ % vnkyr }kjk fdlh ,d vijk/k ds fy, nh tkus okyh tsy tkus dh vR;kf/kd vof/k dh ltk] vk/kkjHkwr ltk rFkk blesa dh xbZ o`f);ka] ftlesa vkfJr vof/k;ka Hkh tksM+h tkrh gSaA 73) 74) 75) 76) izk;lZ izk;j dfUod'ku izk;j LVsVeSaV fizt+u % % % nks"kh dks igys nh xbZ ltk dh vof/k;ka Åijh vnkyrksa esa iz;ksx vuqlkj] ;g vkjksi fd cpkodÙkkZ dks igys Hkh tsy tk pqdk gSA budafllVSaV % xokgh esa ;s fdlh Xokg }kjk igys fn, x, c;ku gSa tks xokg }kjk dV?kjs esa fn, x, c;ku ls foijhr gSaA dksbZ la?kh; vFkok izkarh; ljdkjh bekjr ;k dksbZ vkSj LFkku tks yksxksa dks fgjklr esa j[kus ds fy, gksrk gSA bldk iz;ksx ;k rks ltk feyus ds ckn ;k U;k; ds iz'kklu ds nkSjku fd;k tkrk gSA bldks i'pkrki x`g] lq/kkjx`g ;k tsy Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 77) 78) 79) izkbZoslh] jkbZV vkWQ fizfoyst+ fizfoysTM dE;wfuds'kul % % % vdsyk NksM+s tkus dk vf/kdkj] fdlh O;fDr dk vupkgs izpkj ls Lora=k jgus dk vf/kdkjA ,slk ykHk ftls lHkh ugha ys ldrs] bLrxkls ;k fdlh vU; eqdíes ls NwV dqN yksxksa dks Hksts tkus okys xqIr lans'k tks dkuwuh izfØ;k esa tcju [kqykls lfgr lHkh izdkj ds [kqyklksa ds fo:) dkuwu }kjk lqj{kk

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

165

izkIr gSaA odhy rFkk eqofDdy ds chp] MkDVj rFkk jksxh ds chp] euksfpfdRld rFkk jksxh ds chp] iqtkjh] ea=kh rFkk i'pkrki djus okys ds chp laokn blh Js.kh esa vkrs gSaA 80) izkbZfoVh % laifÙk ds leku vf/kdkj ds izfr ijLij vFkok Øekuqlkj laca/k vFkok fdlh ,d O;fDr dk nwljs ds lkFk leku fgr tks lekt dkuwuh vf/kdkj dks izdV djrk gSA 81) izkscscy dkWt+ % ;g fo'okl djus ds fy, fd vijk/k fd;k tk pqdk gS ;k fd;k tk jgk gS] mi;qZDr dkj.kA lHkh oS/k rykf'k;ksa] cjkenfx;ksa vkSj fxj¶rkfj;ksa dk vk/kkjA 82) izkscsV % ;g fuf'pr djus ds fy, fdlh e`rd ;k clh;rukek vlyh gS ;k ugha] viukbZ tkus okyh U;kf;d izfØ;kA fdlh okfjl dh tk;nkn dk oS/k foHkktuA 83) 84) izkscsV dksVZ izkscsV ,sLVsV % % og vnkyr ftls e`rdksa dh tk;nkn dk caVokjk djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksA fdlh tk;nkn esa 'kkfey lHkh laifÙk;ka ftu ij oS/k foHkktu dh 'krZ ykxw gksrh gSA blesa lkjh tk;nkn ugha vkrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] la;qDr iV~Vsnkjh dh laifÙk izkscsV ,sLVsV dk Hkkx ugha gSA 85) izkscs'ku % tsy tkus dh ltk dk ,d fodYi ftlds vUrxZr fdlh nks"kh dks izkscs'ku vf/kdkjh dh ns[kjs[k esa vnkyr fjgk dj nsrh gS tks ;g fuf'pr djrk gS fd cpkodÙkkZ dqN fu;eksa dk ikyu djrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] og dksbZ dke /ka/kk djrk gS] og u'khyh nokvksa ds izfr ijke'kZ ysrk gSA 86) 87) izkscs'ku fcQksj tteSaV izkscs'ku fMikVZeSaV % % nks"kh djkj fn, tkus ds ckn ltk ykxw djus ls l'krZ cpkoA og foHkkx tks mu yksxksa dh xfrfof/k;ksa ij utj j[krk gS tks izkscs'ku ij gSaA lkFk gh mu LFkkuksa ij Hkh utj j[kh tkrh gS tgka izkscs'ku vf/kdkjh dk;Zjr gSA 88) izkscs'ku vkQhlj % og vf/kdkjh tks izkscs'ku ij fjgk fd, x, O;fDr;ks ij ut+j

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

166

j[krk gS vkSj ftls bl ckjs izxfr fjiksVZ nsuh gksrh gSA og mu yksxksa ls leiZ.k djokrk gS tks izkscs'ku dh 'krks± dk mYya?ku djrs gSaA 89) 90) 91) izkscksuks izkslhtjy ykW izksbDVl yk;fcfyVh % % % fu%'kqYd dh xbZ dkuwuh dk;ZokghA ;g 'kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS] Þyksd&dY;k.k ds fy,Aß lk/kkj.kr;k fdlh eqdíes esa viuk, tkus okys fu;eksa }kjk LFkkfir fof/k] U;kf;d dk;Zokgh esa vkSipkfjd pj.kA bldk vFkZ mRikndksa vkSj foØsrkvksa }kjk [kjhnnkjksa] iz;ksxdÙkkZvksa vkSj ;gka rd fd ikl [kM+s yksxksa dks [kjhns x, eky esa [kjkch ds dkj.k gqbZ gkfu ds cnys eqvkotk nsus dh oS/kkfud ftEesnkjh gSA 92) 93) izksQj izks gSd okbZl % % izek.k nsus dh is'kd'k fd ;fn fdlh xokg dks xokgh nsus ;k fdlh iz'u dk mÙkj nsus ds fy, cqyk;k tkrk rks xokgh dSlh gksrhA bl fo'ks"k volj ds fy,A mnkgj.k ds fy,] fdlh ckgjh jkT; ds odhy dks LFkkfud vf/kdkj {ks=k ds fdlh fo'ks"k eqdíesa dh dk;Zokgh esa Hkkx ysus dh vkKk nh tk ldrh gSA 94) 95) 96) 97) izksfgch'ku izksfeljh uksV izwQ izwQ vkQ lfoZl % % % % og dkuwu ;k fu;e tks fdlhckr ij ikcanh yxkrk gksA og fyf[kr nLrkost ftlesa dksbZ O;fDr fdlh nwljs dks /ku pqdkus dk opu nsrk gSA dksbZ rF; ;k izek.k ftlds vk/kkj ij vnkyr fdlh fu.kZ; ij igqaprh gSA vnkyr esa nkf[ky fd;k x;k og QkeZ tks ;g fl) djrk gS fd vnkyr ds dkxt fdlh O;fDr ds ikl Bhd <ax ls igqapk, tk pqds gSaA 98) 99) izks ij izkSiVhZ % % os yksx tks odhy ds fcuk vius eqdíeksa dks vnkyr esa Lo;a is'k djrs gSaA dksbZ Li"V vFkok Li'kkZrhr oLrq ftl ij fdlh dk oS/kkfud LokfeRo gksA

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

167

100) 101) 102)

izks ls izkSlhD;wfVax vVkuhZ izkSlhD;w'ku

% % %

os O;fDr tks vnkyr esa vius eqdíes fcuk odhy ds Lo;a is'k djrs gSaA og ljdkjh vf/kdkjh tks ljdkj dh vksj ls vkijkf/kd eqdíeksa dk vfHk;kstu djrk gSA og i{k tks vkijkf/kd eqdíek nk;j djrk gS vkSj vkijkf/kd nks"k nk;j djrk gSA izkSlhD;w'ku ljdkjh odhy gksrk gSA og eqdíes esa ljdkj dk lkekU; uke gSA

103)

izkslhD;wVj

%

fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh esa ljdkj dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okyk vkSj nhokuh ekeyksa esa jkT; ds fgrksa dk /;ku j[kus okyk odhyA vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa ;g QSlyk djuk vfHk;kstd dk dke gksrk gS fd nks"kkjksi.k dc vkSj fdls djuk gSA

104) 105)

izkSLVhV~;w'ku izkSVsfDVo vkMZj

% %

/ku ds cnys ;kSu laca/kh fØ;k djuk ;k djus ds fy, bdjkj djukA vnkyr og vkns'k ftlds }kjk fdlh O;fDr dks vkSj vf/kd ijs'kkuh] izfØ;k dh rkehy vkSj cjkenxh ds fo:) lqj{kk iznku dh tkrh gSA

106) 107) 108) 109) 110)

izks VSe izkSDlhesaV dkSt+ ifCyd fMQSaMj I;wuhfVo MSestu i.kZ

% % % % %

fdlh vnkyr esa vLFkk;h rkSj ij eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ vkSj mudk QSlyk djus ds fy, fu;qDr fd;k x;k vf/kdkjhA og dk;Z ftlds dkj.k dksbZ ?kVuk ?kVhA vnkyr }kjk fdlh ,sls cpkodÙkkZ dk izfrfu/kRo djus ds fy, pquk x;k odhy tks odhy dk [kpZ ogu ugha dj ldrkA ?kk;y djus okys O;fDr dks ltk nsus ds mn~ns'; ls ?kk;y O;fDr dks ?kko dh ewY;kafdr jkf'k ls vf/kd fn;k x;k /kuA lkQ&lQkbZ djuk] tSls fd vnkyrh QkbZyksa esa ls iqjkus fjdkMZ dks ckgj fudky dj u"V djukA nhokuh vogsyuk ds laca/k esa] ml dk;Zokgh dks lekIr djuk ftlds dkj.k vogsyuk gqbZ FkhA

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

168

------Q-------

1.

QUANTUM MERUIT - Latin meaning "as much as he deserves," and describes the extent of liability on a contract implied by law. QUASH - To overthrow, to vacate, to annul or make void. QUASI JUDICIAL - Authority or discretion vested in an officer whose actions are of a judicial character. QUID PRO QUO - Something for something; giving one valuable thing for another. QUO WARRANTO - A writ issuable by the state, through which it demands an individual show by what right he or she exercises authority which can only be exercised through a grant from the state or why he or she should not be removed from a state office.

2. 3.

4. 5.

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

169

1)

DoSaVl eS;wZV

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;g 'kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS] Þmruk ftrus dk og gdnkj gSß vkSj ;g fdlh le>kSrs esa dkuwu }kjk fufgr mRrjknkf;Ro dk o.kZu djrk gSA

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DoS'k Doklh tqMhf'k;y fDoM izks D;ks Doks okjaVks

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iyVuk] [k.Mu djuk] jí djuk ;k voS/k ?kksf"kr djukA U;kf;d izd`fr okys dk;ks± ds in ij vklhu fdlh vf/kdkjh esa fufgr vf/kdkj vFkok LosPNk dk vf/kdkjA fdlh pht ds cnys dksbZ pht+] fdlh ewY;oku oLrq ds cnys dksbZ vU; ewY;oku oLrq nsukA jkT; }kjk tkjh fd, tkus ;ksX; og vkns'k ftlds }kjk fdlh O;fDr ls ;g iwNk tkrk gS fd og lÙkk dk iz;ksx fdl vf/kdkj ls [email protected] gS ftldk iz;ksx dsoy jkT; dh vuqefr ls gh fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj mls jkT; ds dk;kZy; ls D;ksa u fudky fn;k tk,A

English/Hindi Legal Glossary

170

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