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Case Study: The Southern Africa Initiative of German Business a B2B initiative promotes entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial thinking in southern Africa

Prepared for the International Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 16-18 November 2010, hosted by La Consolacion College, Mendiola, Manila, Philippines, in cooperation with the Hochschule Wismar, Wismar, Germany, and Shijiazhuang University of Economics, Hebei, China Nina E. Mapili SAFRI Journey to Excellence Program, and Mapili GmbH Alpenstr. 11, Friedrichshafen, Germany [email protected] Tel: +49 7541 33773, Mobile: +49 172 9586271 www.safri.de, www.mapili.com Abstract SAFRI, the Southern Africa Initiative of German Business, is a private B2B initiative created in 1996 by the Afrika-Verein (AV), the Federation of German Industries (BDI) and the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce (DIHK). Headed since its inception by Prof. Juergen E. Schrempp, the now retired Chairman of Daimler-Benz, then DaimlerChrysler (now Daimler AG), it has supported many different initiatives aimed at focusing attention on the economic potential of the member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and further promoting German business activities in the region. One key area of activity has been promoting entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial thinking in the region. Originally through the SAFRI HRD Project, and more recently through SAFRI's Journey to Excellence (J2Ex) Program, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and increasingly micro businesses and enterprising individuals, have been assisted in improving their strategic focus, competitiveness, and levels of organizational/individual excellence via training and mentoring. Local facilitators, mentors, and excellence assessors have been trained in parallel. Workshops have been conducted in 11 of the 15 SADC countries. Well over a thousand people have been trained since the introduction of the Journey to Excellence Program in 2006. The EFQM Excellence Model, an internationally-recognized management tool, is at the core of the J2Ex program, which offers entry points for management teams at different levels of organizational maturity, as well as for individuals wanting to lead an enterprising life. The author consults for the SAFRI Chairman's Office, whose work is funded by Daimler AG (and previously by DaimlerChrysler and Daimler-Benz). She developed the initial program for working with SADC businesses in 1998, and continues program development and implementation to the present. The Journey to Excellence Program IP belongs to her company, Mapili GmbH, based in Friedrichshafen, Germany. This paper explores the motivation, approaches, challenges, successes, lessons learned, and way forward in this unique, long-term, privately-funded initiative's work promoting entrepreneurship in SADC. Keywords: Africa, SADC, entrepreneurship, SME, SMME, training, mentoring, Journey to Excellence, J2Ex, B2B, education, organisational excellence, organizational excellence, SAFRI, Daimler, Juergen E. Schrempp, EFQM, excellence model, Business Development Services, BDS, AV, BDI, DIHK

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Case Study: SAFRI - a B2B initiative promotes entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial thinking in southern Africa

1. Background For decades, even centuries, Africa has been written off by people around the world as a hopeless continent. Its mention conjures images of war, famine, disease, poverty... Yes, there is war, famine, disease and poverty in Africa, but what many have missed is that there is also an exciting flip side to that negative picture. See, for example, the IMF's projected GDP growth for 2010-2011(2IMF):

With South Africa's election of President Nelson Mandela in 1994, South Africa lost its pariah status. The same year it joined SADC, the Southern African Development Community, whose origins lie in the struggle of the "Front Line States" against white minority rule in apartheid South Africa. SADC now aims to promote socio-economic cooperation, regional integration, and political and security cooperation amongst its 15 member states (2SADC). By 1996, the country was well on its way to becoming the new South Africa, the Rainbow Nation, Africa's motor for development. That year, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl paid a state visit to South African President Nelson Mandela. His delegation included representatives of the German business community, whom he challenged to actively welcome their African colleagues into the global business community. SAFRI, the Southern Africa Initiative of German Business, was created later that year by three leading German business organizations: Afrika-Verein (AV, German-African Business Association), the Federation of German Industries (BDI) and the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce (DIHK). Since its creation, SAFRI has supported many initiatives aimed at focusing attention on the economic potential of the SADC member states and further promoting German business activities in the region. (3SAFRI) SAFRI has been headed since its inception by Prof. Juergen E. Schrempp, the now retired Chairman of Daimler-Benz, then DaimlerChrysler (now Daimler AG). Mr. Schrempp had served in the management of Mercedes-Benz South Africa, the Group's South African subsidiary, for over a decade,

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and during this time he developed a deep affection for the country and a commitment to improving the region's social and economic conditions. He has a close relationship with expresident Mandela, served as a member of the International Investment Council of the President of South Africa, and has been South Africa's Honorary General Consul for a number of German states for many years. SAFRI supports different initiatives in Germany aimed at focusing attention on the economic potential of SADC countries and promotes German business activities in the region. In parallel, it has been working in SADC to promote entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial thinking, with the aim to supporting regionalization and improve the quality of life of the people in SADC. Originally through the SAFRI HRD Project, and more recently through implementation of the Journey to Excellence (J2Ex) Program (5Mapili), small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and increasingly micro businesses and enterprising individuals, have been assisted in improving their strategic focus, competitiveness, and levels of organizational/individual excellence via training and mentoring. Local facilitators, mentors, and excellence assessors have been trained in parallel. The J2Ex Program was developed on the basis of the EFQM Excellence Model, an internationallyrecognized management tool. It offers entry points for management teams at different levels of organizational maturity, as well as for individuals wanting to lead an enterprising life. Workshops have been conducted in 11 of the 15 SADC countries (all except Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mauritius, and Seychelles). Well over a thousand people have been trained since the introduction of the Journey to Excellence Program in 2006. In addition, SAFRI, in cooperation with Mercedes-Benz South Africa, runs an internship program for students and recent graduates from SADC. Participants work in Germany for 6 months, gaining both practical work experience and invaluable intercultural experiences. All of the work done by or through the SAFRI Chairman's Office is funded by Daimler AG (and previously by DaimlerChrysler and Daimler-Benz). I developed the initial program for working with SADC businesses in 1998, and continue development and implementation to the present. The continuous improvement of a single program is a great strength when seen in comparison to the short term interventions that are characteristic of many development agencies.

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2.

Focus of the paper

This paper explores the motivation, approaches, challenges, successes, lessons learned, and ways forward in this unique, long-term, privately-funded initiative's work promoting entrepreneurship in SADC. It is broken down as follows: Motivation, Approach, Vision, Goals and Strategies The SAFRI HRD Project: early phases of the program and lessons learned along the way The SAFRI Journey to Excellence Program Ways forward 3. Motivation, Approach, Vision, Goals, Strategies 3.1 Motivation Germany, a country without significant natural resources other than its people, is an exporting powerhouse. Much of its strength is derived from a strong backbone of highly competitive small and medium sized industries (SMEs). German businesses need new markets to grow, and as we can see in Figure 1, GDP growth in SADC is generally high in comparison to Europe. SADC clearly offers opportunities worth exploring. At the same time, all SADC countries are classified as developing economies (6World Bank). Details can be seen in Figure 5. SAFRI's work in SADC is built upon recognition that helping the region become economically strong, stable, and integrated is good for business. It focuses on areas that were key to Germany's own development: export capability and a strong SME sector (7IfM Bonn). By strengthening businesses and promoting entrepreneurship, SAFRI supports the achievement of at least two of the UN's Millennium Development Goals: MDG 1: End Poverty and Hunger. Target 1.B, which concerns achieving full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people, is especially relevant. (9UN) MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for development. Target 8.A, which concerns developing countries gaining greater access to the markets of developed countries, is directly impacted by empowering entrepreneurs, and increasing their ability to trade across borders. (10UN)

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Figure 5. Area, population, density, and GNI (gross national income) per capita in SADC . The World Bank classifies all SADC countries as "developing economies" based upon their annual GNI (gross national income) per capita. They are distributed amongst income classifications as follows: Lower income ( $995), Lower middle ($996-$3945), Upper middle ($3946-$12,195) No workshops have been held in the countries in italics. Additional countries are presented for comparison in the second part of the figure.

SADC Country Zimbabwe South Africa Malawi Botswana Namibia Lesotho Swaziland Mozambique Madagascar Tanzania Zambia DRC Angola Mauritius Seychelles TOTAL for SADC Area km2 390,757 1,219,090 118,484 581,730 824,292 30,355 17,364 799,380 587,041 947,300 752,618 2,344,858 1,246,700 2,040 455 9,883,414 % SADC Area 3.95% 12.33% 1.20% 5.89% 8.34% 0.31% 0.18% 8.09% 5.94% 9.58% 7.61% 23.73% 12.61% 0.02% 0.005% Pop. 2008 (WB data) 12,462,879 48,687,000 14,846,182 1,921,122 2,129,854 2,049,429 1,167,834 22,382,533 19,110,941 42,483,923 12,620,219 64,256,635 18,020,668 1,268,854 86,956 263,495,029 % SADC Pop 4.73% 18.48% 5.63% 0.73% 0.81% 0.78% 0.44% 8.49% 7.25% 16.12% 4.79% 24.39% 6.84% 0.48% 0.03% Pop. density / km2 32 40 125 3 3 68 67 28 33 45 17 27 14 622 191 27 GNI per capita 2008 ? 5,730 250 5,920 4,111 1,060 2,540 340 420 400 950 150 2,590 5,980 10,220

SADC as % of world land mass

6.64%

3.93% SADC as % of world pop.

Some other countries for comparison Philippines Denmark Germany USA World 300,000 43,094 357,022 9,826,675 148,940,000 90,348,437 5,493,621 82,110,097 304,060,000 6,697,254,040 301 127 230 31 45 1,890.00 58,800.00 42,710.00 47,930.00 8,654.48

(Compiled from 11CIA and 12World Bank)

3.2 Approach From the very beginning, SAFRI has focused on engaging directly with SADC businesspeople on a business-to-business (B2B) basis. Our non-bureaucratic approach made it possible to quickly take advantage of opportunities, and constantly review activities and implement improvements. Even so, the learning curve was steep. There were no similar business-to-business initiatives with comparable goals, and benchmarking with aid-based programs with similar focus areas did not result in examples we felt worth emulating.

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Seen from the current perspective, SAFRI's engagement with SADC entrepreneurs can be broken into two parts: Part 1, "The SAFRI Human Resources Development (HRD) Project" (1998-2005), and Part 2, "The SAFRI Journey to Excellence (J2Ex) Program" (as of 2006). 3.3 Vision for SAFRI's work in SADC In our engagement with SADC businesses, organizations and individuals, we work to create a future in which "Enterprises in southern Africa are flourishing." We do so by empowering entrepreneurs, management teams and nascent entrepreneurs through training and mentoring; by preparing local trainers and mentors to work with them; and by strengthening the institutions that support entrepreneurial growth and development. 3.4 Goal of SAFRI's Journey to Excellence Program The program's primary goal is to increase the numbers and competitiveness of enterprises in SADC. Indicators include: Degree to which workshop / mentoring program participants achieve the goals set out in their action plans. Level of satisfaction in the program indicated in feedback forms Numbers of workshops and participants Number of mentors and facilitators qualified through the program 3.5 Strategies of SAFRI's Journey to Excellence Program The overarching strategy is to work in conjunction with local and international partners in SADC to offer an excellent, user-centered program for developing entrepreneurial skills and improving organizational excellence and competitiveness. This strategy has essentially been in place since the early days of engagement in SADC. Tactics and plans, however, have changed. Deconstructed, the individual elements as currently implemented become clear: We work in conjunction with local and regional partners with congruent goals and direct access to potential program participants, trainers and mentors. Ideally, these partners have significant own funds to invest in our joint efforts. The excellent quality of the J2Ex Program has grown on the basis of a world class management tool, the EFQM Excellence Model, coupled with well over a decade of experience on the ground in SADC. The Program is continuously improved on the basis of experience in workshops, feedback, learning and benchmarking. From its original high level approach, the J2Ex Program has expanded to offer a wide range of entry points suitable to users ranging from enterprising individuals, through emerging enterprises to mature businesses or other organizations. Skills upgrading and competitiveness are focused primarily around the development and implementation of strategic frameworks and associated action plans while pursuing the greater goal of organizational excellence. The region is awash with consultants wanting to write (cookie-cutter) business plans, strategic plans, marketing plans etc. for MSMEs, often with large government subsidies. In contrast, our emphasis is on empowering people to take charge of their lives, businesses and/or organizations themselves. If consultants are to be engaged, it should only be for clearly defined tasks in alignment with company vision, mission, goals and strategies, and specific tasks and outcomes to be achieved must be clearly delineated by management.

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3.6 Distribution of activities Since the beginning of SAFRI interventions in the region, we have worked in 11 of the 15 SADC countries. Counting from the introduction of the J2Ex Program in 2006, we have worked in 9 SADC countries, and even held workshops in Germany for people/organizations with a SADC connection. Figure 6. J2Ex Workshops held per country, and some basic information about our engagement. Country # Works. Comments

South Africa has a huge number of MSME (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise) support programs. We take opportunities as they come, but do not spend a lot of time pursuing them. Our work in South Africa has been with a wide variety of partners. High number primarily due to the focus of a regional partner. Germany does, however, have a shared history with Namibia, and we have a variety of local contacts and partners. Zimbabwe, despite all of its difficulties, has the advantage of significant natural resources, the highest level of literacy (with the exception of tiny Seychelles (13Aitchison and Rule), and, in the author's experience, the most enterprising population. It is therefore a focal point for our work. We began work in Madagascar at the request of now deposed President Marc Ravalomanana, and built up a small team of local facilitators who can present in French and Malagasy. Work has come to a halt because of the 2009 coup. Home to one of our success stories, a company that regularly organizes workshops, and has tried, unsuccessfully, to help identify new local organizing partners. We are exploring options for increasing engagement. Combination of work with very old partners from HRD Project workshops and in connection with a regional partner. A focus country for a regional partner. Workshops for people/organizations with a SADC connection Intermittent work with a very old partner: a Swazi consulting company that grew out of the early days of the SAFRI HRD Project. Workshops held in connection with a regional partner. Tanzania is a "donor's darling", is receiving a lot of attention, and has proven a "difficult nut to crack" for a program not bringing along a lot of money. Held a number of HRD Project workshops, but have not found a partner with whom to make an entry with J2Ex. Work during HRD Project was very challenging. Have not found a partner with whom to make an entry with J2Ex. Concern for personal safety and reports of widespread corruption, as well as lack of a local partner have led to very low prioritization. Very high financial and language hurdles to entering the market. Partners are currently being sought. Not targeted due to low relative need. Not targeted due to low relative need.

RSA Namibia

12 12

Zimbabwe Madagascar Malawi Lesotho Botswana Germany Swaziland Tanzania Mozambique Zambia DRC Angola Mauritius Seychelles TOTAL

11 10 5 5 5 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 69

4. The SAFRI HRD Project: early phases of the program, and lessons learned along the way (14Mapili) The SAFRI HRD Project, which ran from 1998-2005, focused on promoting entrepreneurship, competitiveness, regional integration and trade through the development and upgrading of entrepreneurial skills and organizational performance excellence in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in SADC. Since so many projects were being centred on South Africa, and because we quickly developed a strategic partnership with the South African Excellence Foundation (SAEF), we put most of our energy into other SADC countries. The SAFRI HRD Project coincided to a great extent with the partnership with SAEF and the use of the South African Excellence Model and its public domain version, the SADC Quality Model in our work. The Model served, almost from the beginning, as the organizing force in what were known as "SAFRI

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Entrepreneurs' Workshops". SAEF was our sustainability plan: it would focus first for promoting organizational excellence in South Africa, and then follow our footsteps into the region. Though it was not done implicitly at the time, the SAFRI HRD Project can be divided into four general, sometimes overlapping, phases, named here for the major activity or new development during that time period. 1. Phase 1, 1998-99: Entering Foreign Markets 2. Phase 2, 2000-01: Excellence ­ the Key to Competitiveness 3. Phase 3, 2002-03: The Road to Excellence 4. Phase 4, 2004-05: Entrepreneurial Mentoring 4.1 Phase 1, 1998-1999: "Entering Foreign Markets" The SAFRI HRD Project kicked off with a workshop/conference "SAFRI and the Promotion of Entrepreneurial Skills in SADC" held in May, 1998 in Namibia. It focused on analysing entrepreneurs' needs in relation to what SAFRI could potentially offer. Representatives of southern African business organizations (Chambers of Commerce and etc.), the SADC Secretariat, the World Bank, and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and German NGOs active in relevant areas in the region attended. Out of this we developed the concept of Entrepreneurs' Workshops. With an eye to promoting regionalisation via cross border trade, we settled on the theme Entering Foreign Markets. Germany is an export powerhouse, and the idea was to help SMEs understand export markets and the associated opportunities and challenges - partially by sharing German export experience. The program was developed with the assistance of a German technical college that specialises in export. Presenters were all affiliated with German companies active in the region, or Germans working in the region. The first two Entrepreneurs' Workshops were held in 1999 in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Partners included the national Chamber of Commerce organizations, the Confederation of Zimbabwe Industry, and in Mozambique, the Southern African Enterprise Network (SAEN), a small organization of "new generation African entrepreneurs". These workshops took place shortly after the founding of the South African Excellence Foundation (SAEF), which was modelled after the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM). The South African Excellence Model (similar to the EFQM Excellence Model) and the concept of SelfAssessment were introduced in plenary and further explored in working groups. These ideas caught the interest of participating entrepreneurs in both countries. In Mozambique, the attending entrepreneurs surprised us at the close of the workshop with a formal declaration of their intention of creating a Mozambican Excellence Foundation. Unfortunately, in early 2000, Mozambique was hit by devastating floods. The entrepreneurs that had been working on creating an excellence foundation diverted their energies to disaster relief, and the momentum for development of a foundation seeped away with the flood waters. Major political difficulties contributed: existing government organizations didn't want to see an excellence foundation established because they felt that its proposed activities fell within their area of responsibility. In the end, the entrepreneurs turned their efforts to improving the business climate in the country by engaging the government in dialogue at the top level Lessons learned: The choice of partners is crucial. Business organizations such as Chambers of Commerce were not able to perform at the level needed for a successful workshop. Our most fruitful cooperation was with SAEN. Workshop content must be relevant to participants now, not at some undefined time in the

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future. People want help with today's challenges, not tomorrow's. 4.2 Phase 2, 2000-2001: "Excellence ­ the Key to Competitiveness" In reviewing our experiences in Zimbabwe and Mozambique, we concluded that the basic format was effective and successful. SME entrepreneurs like to come together in nice surroundings and talk about business with respected colleagues from near and far. It was clear, however, that we could better meet entrepreneurs' needs by making the content more immediately relevant. Some of our participants had MBAs from very reputable universities. Some were "seat of the pants" entrepreneurs with no formal business education, but lots of "on-the-job" experience. We needed to find a less academic, more "real world" approach that would engage participants with heterogeneous business experience and various levels of formal business education. I thought that the South African Excellence Model, as implemented in a questionnaire approach to Self-Assessment being developed by people with DaimlerChrysler South Africa and SAEF, might offer a solution, and developed a two-pronged strategy to take the idea forward: Train strategically placed people on the Model--people who were in a position to continue "spreading the word" by including organizational performance excellence in their curricula and/or private consulting offerings. Find and recognize role model businesses and entrepreneurs. Assessment would be done using the Model. DaimlerChrysler sponsored two complementary activities during this phase, but implementation proved challenging: A high level staff position at SAEF specifically for the development of SME training. This person was included in SAFRI HRD activities and SAEF training. - Unfortunately, he was completely unable to meet the challenge and his contract was terminated. The Juergen E. Schrempp ­ SAFRI Award for Excellence. The award was designed especially to recognise excellent SADC SMEs outside South Africa (which was developing its own award program). - It was an idea ahead of its time. There was a complete dearth of candidates with the requisite levels of excellence to be recognised in an internationally-benchmarked competition ­ especially amongst black-owned SMEs. Five Entrepreneurs' Workshops were held in 2000-2001: in Swaziland, Botswana, South Africa, Lesotho, and Mozambique. Each was attended by about 30 local entrepreneurs, all of whom completed a Self-Assessment of their organizations in the course of the workshop. South Africanbased German executives dominated the facilitation teams, but a small corps of local trainers was being groomed to continue with the work. During this phase, increasing use was made of Self-Assessment and Assessor training for entrepreneurs. Of those who attended pre-workshop training, the most promising companies were assisted in follow up activities, i.e. implementation of changes in their business resulting from the self assessment and identification of key performance gaps. In return, they prepared case studies and presented these at the workshops. These exercises repeatedly highlighted the inappropriateness of the SAEF Self-Assessment and Assessor training (modelled on EFQM training of the same name) for our ­ and the entrepreneurs' needs. Though it had long been promised, SAEF's efforts to develop SME-appropriate training were way behind schedule, and what had been produced was not up to our needs or expectations. By this time the SAFRI HRD Project had more directly relevant experience than anyone else, so I began SME training module development in late 2001.

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Lessons learned: We needed a mass market instrument ­ a training course appropriate for SME owners and managers - that would enable us and others to bring the model to more people. SAFRI Entrepreneurs' Workshops could only reach the tip of a huge iceberg. We needed to address the issue of follow up after training/workshops. People reported making good starts at implementing improvements, but then "falling off the boat" after a few weeks. 4.3 Phase 3, 2002-2003: "The Road to Excellence" During the development of the new training module, The Road to Excellence, we invited input from entrepreneurs and trainers with whom we had worked in the past. I guided, and then finalised, the structuring and content of the course and prepared the trainers manual in outcome based training format. A training-of-trainers course for the presentation of the new module was held in August, 2002. All participants had "come up" through our program. All were SAEF-certified Assessors, and most had been trained by SAEF to the level of Executive Facilitator. Testing began immediately, and results were very positive. We were thrilled to see participants "getting it", i.e. understanding the logic behind the model. They spoke of eye-opening experiences. This was a major breakthrough. The combination of the user-friendly SADC Quality Model (or SAEM) Questionnaire and Workbook and Road to Excellence (RtE) training finally gave us what we needed to reach more SMEs than would ever have been possible through the high profile Entrepreneurs' Workshops alone. Whereas an Entrepreneurs' Workshop required a major investment of time, effort and money, RtE could be run for up to 15 participants with a single trainer, and was therefore much more cost effective. Interestingly, we discovered that the RtE also worked well in a corporate environment. DaimlerChrysler South Africa (DCSA) adopted the program immediately, and a whole team of young managers was trained to present the Road to Excellence module for in-house use. Unfortunately, the DCSA CEO, who had been a major supporter of our work, was later transferred to Germany, and his successor discontinued the in-house program. The very great majority of DCSA people trained through the program subsequently left the company. The Schrempp Award The Schrempp Award process remained very challenging in 2002. Even the most sophisticated SMEs needed significant assistance to prepare for, and then put together, an award application. Lots of money went into administration, promotion, assessment and site visits, but the results were thin. No company even came close to the internationally benchmarked threshold for Award level. We had an award, but no award winners. On the positive side, we found that working with the companies in a mentoring relationship produced good results. In 2003, the final year of its funding, the Schrempp Award was therefore transformed into The Juergen E. Schrempp ­ SAFRI Award for Excellence Mentorship Program. Practically speaking, this meant that the available funding was focused more on mentoring the companies than on assessment, and the emphasis was no longer placed on getting an award, but on progressing as a company. There was still an assessment, though, based on a completed SADC QM questionnaire. All companies that completed the process were recognised for their "Dedication to Excellence". The participating companies were honoured at the 2003 international SAFRI Entrepreneurs' Workshop, where the CEOs/MDs and some of their top managers acted as resource people. Lessons learned: The training success of the Road to Excellence module is very positive, but it does not solve two issues: - Post workshop action plan implementation by entrepreneurs was often weak - The trainers we had trained were not presenting RtE workshops on their own. SME entrepreneurs have a basic unwillingness to invest in training and consulting. This made

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it very hard for local consultants to sell training on the open market without the support of some kind of SME promotion funding. Mentoring is more effective than anything else we have seen when it comes to ensuring follow through after Self-Assessment. The mentoring process needs to be carefully defined and monitored, and appropriate measures of success developed. 4.4 Phase 4, 2004-2005: Entrepreneurial Mentoring Mentoring was positioned at the heart of our work. In preparation for 2004 activities, a mentoring program handbook was developed that clearly outlined the mentoring process, explained expectations and participation requirements in a Terms of Reference, and provided templates for consensus finding, action plans, weekly reports, mid term reports, and case studies. A monitoring process was set up and used to track progress. The Mentoring Cycle: charting and following a course to sustainable Excellence The Road to Excellence, initially the name given to the training program, slowly became synonymous with an entire process: the path taken by an organization striving for excellence within the framework of the SAFRI HRD Project. Road to Excellence (RtE) training, mentoring, and Excellence - the Key to Competitiveness (EKC) Entrepreneurs' Workshops were aligned and created a cycle that organizations could follow: 1. EKC Workshops, with their exclusive positioning, were offered to entrepreneurs, MDs and CEOs. Resource people were primarily top executives from companies that have completed one mentoring cycle, augmented by special guests (the German connection). 2. During the Workshop, resource people made model-centric presentations and led small working groups. Participants completed a Self-Assessment of their business using the questionnaire, prepared a preliminary action plan to address their key improvement opportunities, and learned about the mentorship program. 3. Those interested in bringing their company into the process could make arrangements for training to be held for their entire management team. They were encouraged to invite other companies to join them in order to reduce costs, as these had to be carried by the participating companies. 4. Road to Excellence training was held for management teams. Upon successful completion, the company head could immediately apply for admission to the mentorship program. 5. Upon acceptance, the trainer/mentor began work with the individual management team. The teams prioritised improvement opportunities, and prepared action plans to address them. The action plans had weekly deliverables that were to be reported/discussed with the mentor in weekly e-mail / telephone contact. 6. After 8-12 months, they prepared a simple case study to be presented by the company head at an Entrepreneurs' Workshop. Post mortem discussions are held on how the process can be improved, and the next cycle began - with improvements in place. Mentor development We tried repeatedly, and often not terribly successfully, to work not only with "virtual" long-distance mentors, but also with local ones. The often-encountered perception that "quality comes from abroad" was surely part of the problem: if you are an entrepreneur in a small southern African country, you find it much more impressive to have a mentor from big South Africa than to have one from your own country, or even from a small neighbouring country. On the flip side of the same coin, it was, and remains, very hard to find local mentors. 2004 Workshops In 2004, national workshops were held in Swaziland and Zimbabwe. An international workshop in South Africa once again served as the recognition platform for companies that participated in the

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year's mentorship program. During that workshop, "way forward" discussions held with executives from mentee companies. They agreed that they needed to become more active in promoting business excellence, and committed themselves to seeking new companies well-suited to the mentorship program for 2005, and to help organise Road to Excellence training for them. They also suggested a "benchmarking trip to Germany", which became reality for three entrepreneurs. Distinctions blur between workshops and training In SAFRI HRD Project parlance we used the word "workshop" to denote the big, high profile "Entrepreneurs' Workshops, and the word "training" to refer to Road to Excellence interventions. Over time this distinction became irrelevant, and we now refer to all of our facilitator-led events that bring together a group of people to learn and network, as workshops. Lessons learned (and re-learned): Mentors must be carefully developed. Not all good trainers are good mentors. Local mentors are very useful, but finding, training and mentoring them is a huge challenge (that for the most part exceeds our financial means) Depending entirely upon current mentee companies to identify and win new companies and organise training is not a successful strategy. Some are good at it, many aren't. 4.5 2005: Tectonic movements change the game Two major changes occurred within a short span of each other in 2005: The South African Excellence Foundation "disintegrated", and SAFRI Chairman Juergen E. Schrempp resigned as Chairman of the Board of Management of DaimlerChrysler AG. The SAFRI HRD Project had positioned SAEF as the organization that would carry on with its work on the longer term. With its collapse (a subject worthy of a paper in itself, but strongly connected with issues of race, politics and skills gaps) the plan for the sustainability of our work also collapsed. On top of that, Prof. Schrempp's resignation from his DCAG position led to all HRD Project activities being frozen for more than half a year during the reorganization and re-prioritisation introduced by his successor. 5. The SAFRI Journey to Excellence (J2Ex) Program Convinced that there was a need - and a market - for the kind of program described here, I used the months of "down time" following Prof. Schrempp's retirement to: register a new company, Mapili GmbH (GmbH is approximately equivalent of a (Pty) Ltd.) (5Mapili), qualify as an EFQM Excellence Award assessor, develop a new EFQM Excellence Model-based workbook, and apply the lessons learned from my SAFRI experience to develop the Journey to Excellence Program. No longer tied to the regionally limiting SADC Quality Model, but affiliated with the EFQM Excellence Model (15EFQM), a global benchmark, the Program could now be used anywhere in the world. My initial focus, however, was on filling the organizational excellence gap in southern Africa. On this basis, I was given the opportunity to continue with SAFRI in 2006. SAFRI adopted the use of the Journey to Excellence Program on a non-exclusive basis under the name "SAFRI Journey to Excellence Program". Whereas I had previously focused on organization, curriculum development and empowerment of a team of local trainers and mentors, I was now a one woman show with a very small budget and some very big challenges.

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The first Journey to Excellence Workshop was held in Lesotho in August of 2006. Six more followed in the next 4 months. All were 3-day workshops in which participating management teams conducted EFQM-based Self-Assessments of their organizations at a fairly high level of rigour. This is the workshop, initially called J2Ex Level 3, that became the Striving for Excellence workshop once program expansion exceeded initial plans. Participating company sizes varied from 1-1200 employees. There was not a formal mentoring program due to lack of funding, but in many cases follow-up meetings were held on site with participating management teams in the days following the workshops to help them individual teams develop their action plans beyond the point possible in the workshops. Hugely increased agility is perhaps the major benefit derived from the loss of the South African Excellence Foundation as our main partner. With my company, Mapili GmbH, now the owner of the curriculum, I could quickly expand the Journey to Excellence Program to better meet user needs. In March of 2007, the next new Journey to Excellence Workshop was presented: Committed to Excellence (initially known as J2Ex Level 2). Still explicitly Model-centric, it was based on a simplified Self-Assessment questionnaire, and proved its use with both less sophisticated SMEs and mid-level corporate managers. By late 2007 the Program's future center of gravity was crystallizing: we moved increasingly toward workshops focusing on strategic alignment and planning. First came "Strategic Alignment", and then, in 2008, a workshop for "individuals wanting to lead an enterprising life", called Take Charge!. By 2009, Take Charge! had developed into two separate workshops: Take Charge of Your Life! and Take Charge of Your Business!. There are now seven possible points for beginning the Journey. These are divided into two contiguous and intertwined programs, Preparing to Excel and Assessing Excellence. Both are flanked by supporting workshops designed to help businesses and organizations address the areas for improvement identified in the core programs (see www.mapili.com). The Journey to Excellence Program can be broken into two parts, with names coinciding with the program's two core workshop series. The first year focused on "Assessing Excellence", but we soon started moving into "Preparing to Excel", and we have been working exclusively in this area since early 2009. 5.1 The core Journey to Excellence Program Preparing to Excel Preparing to Excel series workshops are dedicated to helping businesses, organizations, and also individuals, take the first steps on their Journey to Excellence. They help individuals and management teams develop, implement and improve their strategic framework. Take Charge of Your Life! (TCYL): For individuals wanting to lead an enterprising life: aspiring entrepreneurs, young people, new managers, etc. - Duration: 16 hours over 2 or 3 days. Take Charge of Your Business! (TCYB): For entrepreneurs and management teams that see the need to introduce more structure into the way they do business. Multi-company workshop. - The workshop is also appropriate for individuals who have fairly detailed plans for starting a specific business. - Duration: 3 days. Best done residentially, as teams benefit from concentrated work on evening assignments. Strategic Alignment (StratA): For those with a strategic framework in place. The first review for those who began with TCYB. The workshop can be used to prepare teams for Strategic Planning and/or Self-Assessment. Generally presented as a single company workshop. - This is not a strategic planning workshop, but can lead directly into one. - Duration: 2-3 days. Best done residentially, as teams benefit from concentrated work on

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evening assignments. Strategic Planning (StratPlan): This workshop can either follow on a Strategic Alignment workshop, or incorporate its core content within the larger strategic planning framework. The workshop is customized for each company. - In line with the overall philosophy of the Journey to Excellence Program, we facilitate management teams in conducting their own strategic planning process. We do not do it for them. - Duration: 2-3 days. Best done residentially, as teams benefit from concentrated work on evening assignments.

Assessing Excellence The Journey to Excellence Program engages entrepreneurs, MDs/CEOs and their management teams in a process that initiates a robust cycle of continuous improvement - if followed over time. As with any other journey, though, travellers want to know periodically how far they have progressed. The three levels of the Assessing Excellence program provide them with the means to measure their progress--always at a level of rigour appropriate to the organization's level of maturity. All assessments are done by the managers/entrepreneurs themselves, using the EFQM Excellence Model, a globally respected management tool.(15EFQM) It enables them to very objectively and holistically assess their company's performance excellence relative to good and best practices, determine strengths and areas for improvement, and identify key improvement opportunities. Their assessment results guide the planning and implementation of improvement activities, and initiate a cycle of continuous improvement. Introduction to Excellence (I2Ex): For those with a solid strategic framework in place, who now

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want to grow, improve, and introduce cycles of continuous improvement to their business. For example: those who have consolidated the results of TCYB or StratA workshop and now aspire to reaching the next level, or simply for the entrepreneurially curious (who may then continue as is appropriate). - Duration: this presentation/workshop is highly customizable and can last from 2-16 hours. Short presentations focus on theory, whereas the 2 day version ends with participants preparing action plans. Committed to Excellence (C2Ex): For organizations with well-established strategic frameworks that are ready to challenge the status quo. Participants will ideally have completed the Strategic Alignment workshop and implemented resulting improvements. - Duration: 3 days in residence. Teams must work together on evening assignments. - Designed to be followed by C2Ex part two, which entails 2-3 days spent on site with action plan teams. Striving for Excellence (S4Ex): For businesses and other organizations seriously aspiring to becoming world class. Participating businesses / organizations must have at least a moderate level of organizational maturity and sustainability and a well-entrenched dedication to excellence. - Duration: 3 days in residence. Teams must work together on evening assignments. - Designed to be followed by S4Ex part two, which entails 2-3 days spent on site with action plan teams.

5.2 Observations and Experiences The Challenges of Mentoring The J2Ex workshops described here end with participants preparing Improvement Activity Charters and Action Plans. As described in this paper, experience has highlighted the advantages of implementing action plans within the framework of a mentoring relationship. As one manager told me: "Our mentor kept us motivated when the going got rough and we were tempted to give up." Mentoring generally takes place in a yearly cycle. Multiple cycles may be needed to anchor new mindsets. In the traditional sense, mentoring is a relationship in which an older, more experienced and/or skilled

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person helps a younger, less experienced / skilled person develop and grow. Whenever possible, we work within the scope of a facilitated mentoring program that is designed to: create effective mentoring relationships, guide the desired behavior and organizational change of those involved, and evaluate the results for the mentees, their mentors, and the sponsors. Business or entrepreneurial mentoring has become fashionable, with countless organizations offering mentoring programs. In my experience in southern Africa, very few are well conceived and deliver results. In one SADC country, for example, I worked with 2 national government organizations that have large "mentoring" programs for MSMEs. They use the term to cover everything from consulting to coaching, but did not really offer anything that was in line with our use of the word. Skills gaps, combined with the perceived low pay and low prestige connected with consulting for such agencies, resulted in low program performance (expressed, for example, in the low collection rate on loans). More than one local consultant admitted to only working with the agencies when no other work was available. In conjunction with a regional partner, a three-pronged program, designed to upskill the organizations themselves, the business consultants "mentors" with whom they worked, and MSMEs, was implemented.

Early in the program, I led a Strategic Alignment (StratA) workshop for about 20 business consultants who had been recommended by the organizations--development finance institutions--as people wellsuited to be trained as J2Ex facilitators and business mentors. During interviews, candidates characterized themselves as "mentor", "strategic turnaround specialist", "highly experienced business consultant", etc. Their initial task was to complete the StratA workshop on the basis of their own consulting business, use the results to prepare action plans, implement these within a mentored framework, and then train to mentor MSMEs through a similar process in connection with the less sophisticated Take Charge of Your Business! workshop. Though participants were generally familiar with the terminology used-- things like vision, mission, values, critical success factors, goals, measures, indicators, PEST, SWOT, action plan--many were unable to effectively put them to use in their own real-world setting.

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In addition, we encountered major problems with the quality and timeliness of progress reports, and the ability to explain even simple concepts to others, i.e. entrepreneurs. In parallel, the highly bureaucratic local organizations did not see the need to take ownership and empower their own people to require the requisite levels of delivery from their consultants, the mentors-in-training. Ultimately, a small number of good mentors developed, achieving, in conjunction with their own development, some respectable results with the entrepreneurs they were mentoring. Three of them formed a new company with which both SAFRI and Mapili GmbH signed MOUs regarding future cooperation. The fourth person to qualify to that level is currently considering joining them. That cooperation itself is positive, but not without challenges. Our MOU partners are not demonstrating near the level of entrepreneurial energy we had hoped. Instead of acquiring work by leveraging the partnership, there is a decided tendency to simply wait for work to be sent their way. Figure 10: Types of local organizing partners and observations on each Observations and challenges Types of organising partners Local consultants A regional organization itself mandated to empower others. (Had significant own financing. SAFRI sponsorship complemented Mapili GmbH consulting) National development finance agencies dev. banks and MSME promotion agencies

Potential

H

Mixed results. Vary widely in levels of professionalism and qualifications. Often have very narrow qualifications and are not comfortable with a holistic approach such as ours. Very challenging, but success is a prerequisite for sustainability.

Very well positioned , but subject to its own skills gaps, and hindered by both bureaucratic structures within which it works M and inconsistent financing. Generally good partners in theory, but in practice hampered by own skills gaps.

M

Local businesses (African and German businesses in Africa)

Very positive results, for example with companies that upskill own staff with TCYL, do StratA with own mgmt, and introduce new companies. An SME customer development H project is in development with a commercial bank, and a supplier development program is in discussion with a large German company. Very challenging. Not the best value for money for SAFRI investment due to bureaucratic structures. In general very ineffectual partners. Big internal skills gaps. Positive until it was sacked in Madagascar's political coup Very positive. Cooperation in place in South Africa and Namibia, relationship under development in Zimbabwe. L L L H

Large parastatal enterprises Chambers of commerce A national leadership institute Junior Achievement, an NGO that promotes entrepreneurship amongst 8-25 yr. olds

NGOs in general

Though estimates of the size of their investment vary widely, (16Shaw), NGOs play important roles in Africa's development. There is good potential for various types of cooperation, M ranging from empowering the NGOs themselves to more professionally deliver on mandates aligned with our goals, to cooperating on joint projects. One such project is in progress. Mixed experience, good potential M

Tertiary institutions & student leaders

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6. Ways forward As outlined earlier, our overarching strategy is to work in conjunction with local and international partners in SADC to offer an excellent, user-centered program for developing entrepreneurial skills and improving competitiveness. 6.1 Partners Partners fall into two broad, sometimes overlapping, categories: service providers and organizational partners. Service providers Though we have emphasized training of local facilitators and mentors from the early days of the program, there was minimal carry-over between the Road to Excellence and the Journey to Excellence. Post 2005 budget cuts severely limited SAFRI funding for local facilitators and mentors. There was no money with which to upskill a new team on the EFQM Excellence Model. This bottleneck eased significantly with the introduction of the Preparing to Excel Series workshops, as entry level knowledge requirements for facilitators and mentors were much lower. In fact, some of the earliest new facilitators were not business consultants at all. In Madagascar we had a medical doctor, an English teacher, and an entrepreneur in the facilitation team. Our cooperation was unfortunately brought to an end with Madagascar's coup, and its suspension from SADC. Though TCYB facilitators are taken from the ranks of business consultants, TCYL facilitators need not have that kind of background. I see huge growth potential with young TCYL facilitators reaching out to the region's legions of young people. This may well be where we make the largest impact. High potential local / regional organizing partners We have worked with a broad variety of local / regional organizing partners in SAFRI's J2Ex Program. Types, comments and potential for future cooperation can be seen in Figure 10. In parallel with our work with local service providers, and in line with our strategy of working in conjunction with local and regional partners with congruent goals and direct access to potential program participants, we are moving forward with the sharpest focus on the partners identified as having high potential in Figure 10: businesses with an interest in developing other businesses, and Junior Achievement. Junior Achievement (JA) is a well-established international NGO with systems and curriculum in place. We add value as the local leadership sees best. In Namibia this has been to offer workshops for outstanding performers from around the country. In South Africa next intervention will be with its national Youth Council (mid October, 2010). The potential return on investment is high when working with JA, as those involved are enterprising, and have long careers ahead of them. Businesses can be exciting partners. Though there are skills gaps, there is a noticeable difference in mindset between managers in businesses, and those in parastatals or government-related organizations such as development finance institutions. Partnerships with companies fall into 3 main types: Those that have been on "Journeys" for a number of years, and return regularly to review progress · (via strategic workshops) and upskill their people and those of partner businesses (via TCYL), - These tend to be local medium sized companies Those whose primary interest is upskilling their people and businesses in their supply chain - These tend to be German companies A major African bank that sees co-sponsoring J2Ex workshops as a way to develop its customer

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base

-

Whereas experiences with parastatal banks were sometimes very challenging, a recently launched partnership with this commercial bank began very well, and is looking quite promising.

High potential local / regional organizing partners While our focus is currently elsewhere, given the sheer size of the market, government supported MSME development agencies cannot be ignored. Work with them tends to be very frustrating and time-consuming, however, as their self-images and aspirations are at odds with the levels of organizational excellence one experiences when interacting with them. Despite their mandates to promote MSME development, very few people I have encountered in such organizations had even worked in the private sector, much less run a business. Fresh university graduates find themselves on the front lines, tasked with advising entrepreneurs and those who want or need to start a business. Needless to say, they are not optimally prepared for the tasks at hand. In such cases, the organizations' needs far outstrip our ability to address them--from a financial standpoint. Massive improvements in entire support structures are required. Working with such organizations becomes a viable option if they bring along own financing for much of the work to be done. Tertiary institutions and student groups both offer good potential, but a good fit of partners is necessary. 6.2 To what extent are we achieving our goal of increasing the numbers, and competitiveness, of enterprises in SADC? Paradoxically, I am convinced that the lack of tightly-defined measures of success was a strength of the early program. We had a lot to learn, and were able to implement improvements quickly. We were able to pursue the meaningful, not just that which would contribute to achievement of pre-defined targets. It allowed us to search for the niche in which we could get the best possible results on investment All of the lessons learned in the first phase of SAFRI's interventions were fed into the development of the Journey to Excellence Program. Though financial limitations were more stringent than before, the overall situation was more supportive of innovation and creativity. Degree to which workshop / mentoring program participants achieve the goals set out in their action plans. Level of satisfaction in the program indicated in feedback forms Numbers of workshops and participants (which is linked with partnerships) Number of mentors and facilitators qualified through the program Degree to which program participants achieve the goals set out in their action plans. Though we do not have complete coverage, I am improving the follow-up on workshop participants, be they companies or individuals. Documentation is being done by interview, when possible, captured on video. Results are very positive, for example: "We have tripled our turnover since the workshop" and "We now have our supplier relations under control". "I have now started my business, and it is making good progress." "I'm now a serious entrepreneur!"

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Figure 11: Journey to Excellence Workshops held with SAFRI support since 2006. The table features: Nr.: a running count of the number of workshops since 2006 Yr. Nr.: annual count of workshops Type: workshop type Days: length of workshop Pax: number of participants # Units: this reflects the number of discreet "units" addressed: this is the number of companies or organizations that participated, OR, in the case of TCYL workshops, the number of participants. Facilitation effort is strongly tied to the number of "units" being addressed: a workshop with three companies participating with a total of 20 individuals will require less facilitation effort than a workshop with 6 individuals, as the facilitator must address each "unit", be it a company or an individual. I believe this number is a very important indicator, as it reflects the number of current and (potential) future businesses addressed by the program. TCYL and TCYB have become the most popular workshops by far. Follow-up interviews with both companies and individuals show that good results are being achieved as a result of the workshops. All workshops except TCYL are generally accompanied by one or two days spent making site visits to participating companies. Repeat visits to a country are also used to make follow-up visits to earlier participants. For many, but not all workshops, I am assisted by one or more assistant facilitators. In future, when assistant facilitators have acquired licenses, they will be able to facilitate workshops on their own, in some cases with SAFRI support.

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Level of satisfaction in the program indicated in feedback forms Feedback forms are anonymously completed and collected at the end of each workshop. Comments are read and contribute to the continuous improvement of facilitation and workbooks. Levels of satisfaction are consistently very high. Numbers of workshops and participants By the end of 2010 there will have been 69 SAFRI-supported workshops since the program was introduced in 2006. The level of support varies from sponsorship of my flights and the workbooks, to all of my expenses, workbooks, and fees for assistant facilitators. This is negotiated for each workshop separately, and is correlated with ability to pay. Our guiding philosophy is "That which has no price has no value." The target number of workshops for 2010 was 16. The actual number will be 20. Numbers vary from year to year, and are strongly linked to active partnerships. If partners are able to put significant own finances into cooperative efforts, the numbers of both workshops and participants go up. My contract with SAFRI is for part time work. If I have additional consulting in the region, the numbers also go up, as I leverage contacts and proximity to organize SAFRI supported workshops. This, for example, is the driver behind high numbers in 2008. In 2009 a key partner failed to get financing as expected, and numbers went down. In 2010, we no longer counted on that partner, but rather developed new ones, and reinvigorated old ones. We will be ending the year with record numbers of both workshops and "units". "Units", as explained in Figure 11, are a potentially very important measure in the future: the more discreet units, be they companies or individuals, the greater the potential for successful entrepreneurial activity. With the introduction of the easy to organise TCYL, workshop numbers went up, average numbers of participants went down (it has the lowest participant/facilitator ratio, being the most intense per person to facilitate), but "unit" numbers went way up. Number of mentors and facilitators qualified through the program Four mentors are able to work at a level I would use in consulting assignments. 1 business consultant can be licensed to present both TCYL and TCYB, but has not yet bought the licenses. Four business consultants are on track to qualify for TCYB licensing. This could easily be expanded to include TCYL. Three people are in training as TCYL facilitators. Three people were trained to present TC (TCYL) workshops in Madagascar. They need followup, but this is hindered by the current political situation. About 10 people from companies that have been "on the Journey" for a while are able to assist with TCYL, and have done so in conjunction with workshops organized by their companies for staff and suppliers/customers. The numbers are not high, but each person requires individual attention and workshops within which s/he develops and demonstrates her/his skills. In 2011 I will focus on getting the TCYB and TCYL facilitators currently in the pipeline qualified and licensed, on identifying and building up the next generations of TCYL and TCYB facilitators.

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In closing SAFRI has now been engaging with entrepreneurs in SADC for over 14 years. In this age of short term projects and goals, that in itself is unusual. The sponsoring company has undergone massive changes--from Daimler-Benz, through DaimlerChrysler, to Daimler--while still continuing support, thanks, of course, to SAFRI Chairman (and ex Daimler-Benz and DaimlerChrysler Chairman) Juergen E. Schrempp. During that time, the conventional borders of corporate social responsibility projects were redefined: moving well beyond traditional short term and directly self-serving activities. From the very beginning it took the long view, seeking to prepare the ground for future growth and development in the region. Already in 2006 (14Mapili), I wrote that the long life and flexibility of the project had been a great advantage, allowing for continuous learning, review and improvement. Freed from the limitations of working with SAEF, the program has blossomed - and that within much greater financial constraints than before. SAFRI has a four year horizon. I believe that we are now poised to move to a new level with SAFRI's Journey to Excellence Program, driven primarily by demand for the TCYL and TCYB programs and business mentoring. There is huge potential for the J2Ex Program to be a significant motor for development. All the same, African Journeys to Excellence remain hugely challenging. Playing fields are not even, and the "enabling environment" found in many other parts of the world is often simply not there: the entrepreneurial tradition so taken for granted in many societies - a culture in which entrepreneurs are highly respected members of the community a local business community in which appropriate role models can easily be found a prevalence of mental horizons that extend beyond tomorrow and the next hill a good basic level of education in the society a supportive legal environment. The battle must therefore be fought on two fronts: first in people's minds, and then on the ground. By taking charge of their lives and their businesses, people are building foundations upon which they can develop a sustainable future.

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IMF (2010) "World Economic Outlook 2010" a survey by the staff of the International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, IMF Multimedia Services Edition, page 43 <http://www.doxtop.com/browse/b4bfba0b/world-economic-outlook-2010.aspx> retrieved 04 October, 2010. SADC (2010) "Introducing SADC", SADC, <http://www.sadc.int/index/browse/page/715>, retrieved 04 October, 2010 SAFRI (2010) "Our Mission: Working for a Region with a Promising Future", SAFRI, <http://www.safri.de/english/mission/Mission.aspx>, retrieved on 04 October, 2010. Ngoma, Naison, "Prospects for a Security Community in Southern Africa", page xix, Institute for Security Studies, <http://www.issafrica.org/uploads/PROSPECTSINTRO.PDF>, retrieved 02 Sept. 2010. Mapili, Nina E. (2006-2010) "Empowering Organisations and their people ­ one step at a time", Mapili GmbH, www.mapili.com, retrieved 02 Sept. 2010. World Bank (2010) "Country and Lending Groups" World Bank, <http://data.worldbank.org/about/countryclassifications/country-and-lending-groups>, retrieved on 02 Sept. 2010. IfM Bonn (2010) "KMU-Anteile 2006 in Deutschland nach KMU-Definition der EU", calculations by the IfM Bonn on the basis of data from Statistisches Bundesamt: Register of Businesses, <http://www.ifmbonn.org/index.php?id=547>, retrieved on 2 Sept. 2010 WBCSD (2007), World Bank data interpreted in "Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises for Sustainable Development", WBCSD, p. 2, ISBN 978-3-940388-07-0, <http://www.wbcsd.org/DocRoot/pZgjPEvxdGu6hk9noQUM/PromotingSMEs_latest.pdf> retrieved on 01 October, 2010. UN (2000) "Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger", United Nations, <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/poverty.shtml>, retrieved on 03 October, 2010. UN (2000) "Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development", United Nations, <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/global.shtml>, retrieved on 03 October, 2010. CIA (2010) "The World Fact Book", CIA, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/rankorder/2147rank.html>, retrieved 02 Sept. 2010. World Bank (2010) "GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)", World Bank, <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD/countries/latest?display=default>, retrieved 02 Sept. 2010. Aitchison, John and Rule, Peter (2005), "A quick survey of SADC literacy statistics and projections", Centre for Adult Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, UNESCO, <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001459/145998e.pdf>, retrieved on 01 October, 2010. Mapili, Nina E. (2006) "African Roads to Excellence­ a private sector sponsored entrepreneurial mentorship programme helps African SMEs strive toward organisational excellence", paper presented at the 2nd International Integrating for Excellence Conference, June 28-30, 2006, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, England EFQM (2010) "EFQM Shares What Works", EFQM, <http://www.efqm.org/en/>, retrieved on 05 October, 2010. Shaw, Anup (2005) "Non-governmental organizations on Development Issues", Global Issues, <http://www.globalissues.org/article/25/non-governmental-organizations-on-development-issues> retrieved on 05 October, 2010

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