Read The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List text version

A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <[email protected]> 29 September 2003

Abstract

A This document lists 2826 symbols and the corresponding L TEX commands that produce them. Some A X 2 system; others require fonts and packages of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TE that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts and packages used to prepare this document--as well as this document itself--are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).

Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 Document Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Body-text symbols A Table 1: L TEX 2 Escapable "Special" Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Table 2: L TEX 2 Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode A Table 3: Predefined L TEX 2 Text-mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . . . . . . . . . . Table 5: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 6: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 7: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 8: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 9: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 10: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 11: phonetic Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 12: Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 13: tipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 14: wsuipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 15: phonetic Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 16: wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 17: textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18: textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19: marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 20: wasysym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 21: eurosym Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 22: textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 23: textcomp Old-style Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 24: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 25: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 26: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15

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The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander Holt. See Section 7.6 on page 69 for more information about who did what.

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3 Mathematical symbols Table 27: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 28: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 29: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 30: wasysym Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 31: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . . Table 32: mathabx Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 33: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . . Table 34: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . Table 35: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . Table 36: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . Table 37: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . Table 38: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . Table 39: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . Table 40: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators Table 41: esint Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . Table 42: Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 43: AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 44: AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 45: stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 46: wasysym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 47: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations . . . Table 49: mathabx Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 50: mathabx Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . Table 51: trsym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 52: trfsigns Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 53: Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . Table 54: AMS Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . Table 55: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations . . . . Table 56: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations . . . . Table 57: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations Table 58: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations . . . . Table 59: Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 60: AMS Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 61: wasysym Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . Table 63: mathabx Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 64: AMS Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 65: stmaryrd Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 66: mathabx Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 67: Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 68: Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 69: textcomp Text-mode Arrows . . . . . . . . . . Table 70: AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 71: AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 72: AMS Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 73: stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 74: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 75: mathabx Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 76: mathabx Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 77: mathabx Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 78: chemarrow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 79: ulsy Contradiction Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . Table 80: Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 81: stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . Table 82: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters . . . . .

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Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table

83: 84: 85: 86: 87: 88: 89: 90: 91: 92: 93: 94: 95: 96: 97: 98: 99: 100: 101: 102: 103: 104: 105: 106: 107: 108: 109: 110: 111: 112: 113: 114: 115: 116: 117: 118: 119: 120: 121: 122: 123: 124: 125: 126: 127: 128: 129: 130: 131: 132: 133: 134: 135:

mathabx Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upgreek Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large, Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . overrightarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemarr Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esvect Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undertilde Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdots Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Miscellaneous L TEX 2 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous AMS Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous mathabx Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . mathcomp Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode mathabx Mayan Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Science and technology symbols Table 136: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols . . . . . . . . Table 137: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 138: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 139: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols Table 140: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 141: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 142: mathabx Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 143: wasysym Astrological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 144: marvosym Astrological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 145: mathabx Astrological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 146: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 147: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 148: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . . . . . . . . . Table 149: ascii Control Characters (IBM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 150: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . Table 151: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 152: wasysym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 153: marvosym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 154: marvosym Safety-related Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dingbats Table 155: Table 156: Table 157: Table 158: Table 159: Table 160: Table 161: Table 162: Table 163: Table 164: Table 165: Table 166: Table 167: Table 168: Table 169: Table 170: Table 171: Table 172: Table 173: Table 174: Table 175: Table 176: Table 177: Table 178: Table 179: Table 180: Table 181: Table 182: Table 183: Table 184: Table 185: Table 186:

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bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . pifont Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . bbding Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . pifont Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . universa Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols . . . . . skull Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols . . . marvosym Information Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . .

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4

6 Other symbols Table 187: textcomp Genealogical Symbols Table 188: wasysym General Symbols . . . . Table 189: wasysym Musical Notes . . . . . Table 190: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . Table 191: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . Table 192: marvosym Navigation Symbols . Table 193: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . Table 194: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . Table 195: Miscellaneous universa Symbols . Table 196: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . Table 197: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . Table 198: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . Table 199: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . Table 200: skak Chess Informator Symbols 7 Additional Information 7.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . 7.2 Where can I find the symbol for . . . 7.3 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Bold mathematical symbols . . . . 7.5 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference 7.6 About this document . . . . . . . . References Index

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5

1

Introduction

A A Welcome to the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of L TEX A symbol information: font samples, L TEX commands, packages, usage details, caveats--everything needed to put thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria:

1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).

A 2. All of their symbols have L TEX 2 bindings. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name, not just by \char number . A These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List contains samples of 2826 A symbols--quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2 system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help with installing new fonts and packages.

1.1

Document Usage

Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the A corresponding L TEX command to the right of each symbol. A table's caption indicates what package needs to be loaded in order to access that table's symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 23, "textcomp Old-Style Numerals", are made available by putting "\usepackage{textcomp}" in your document's preamble. "AMS" means to use the AMS packages, viz. amssymb and/or amsmath. Notes below a table provide additional information about some or all the symbols in that table. One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth's original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the A default font encoding for L TEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1 (a common 8-bit font encoding). That means that you should put "\usepackage[ encoding ]{fontenc}" in your document's preamble, where encoding is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the current group, use "\fontencoding{ encoding }\selectfont". Section 7 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It shows which symbol names are not unique across packages, gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, A explains how symbols are spaced in math mode, presents a L TEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables, and provides A some information about this document itself. The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various additional useful terms.

1.2

Frequently Requested Symbols

There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you're looking for such a symbol the following list will help you find it quickly. , as in "Spaces are significant." ´ ` ¯ ^ etc. (versus ´ ` ¯ and ^ i, i, i, i, i, i, i, i) ¢ ........ ........ 7 11 13 14 14 15 20 21 22 .. and . ......................... 24 38 39 40 40 58 60 66 67

.............................. .............. ........................ ......................

............................... .............................. ...................... .............................. .............................. ............................... and .........................

e

°, as in "180°" or "15" L, F, etc.

R

-

©, ®, and TM

N, Z, R, etc.

...............................

´ ^ a e ¯, `, etc. (i.e., several accents per character) <, >, and | (instead of ¡, ¿, and --) ^ and ~ (or ) ...... .....................

6

2

Body-text symbols

This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text, such as punctuation marks, accents, ligatures, and currency symbols.

A Table 1: L TEX 2 Escapable "Special" Characters

$

\$

%

\%

\_

}

\}

&

\&

#

\#

{

\{

The underscore package redefines "_" to produce an underscore in text mode (i.e., it makes it unnecessary to escape the underscore character).

A Table 2: L TEX 2 Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode

$ ¶ §

\$ \P \S

c

©

\_ \copyright \dag

... £

\ddag \dots \pounds

{ }

\{ \}

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the "faked" symbol that L TEX 2 provides by default, and the right one is the "true" symbol that textcomp makes available.

A Table 3: Predefined L TEX 2 Text-mode Commands

c

^ ~ \ | { } · © $ ... -- ­ ¡ >

\textasciicircum \textasciitilde \textasteriskcentered \textbackslash \textbar \textbraceleft \textbraceright \textbullet \textcopyright \textdagger \textdaggerdbl \textdollar \textellipsis \textemdash \textendash \textexclamdown \textgreater

a o

r

TM

< ª º ¶ · ¿ " " ` ' ® § £ TM

\textless \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph \textperiodcentered \textquestiondown \textquotedblleft \textquotedblright \textquoteleft \textquoteright \textregistered \textsection \textsterling \texttrademark \textunderscore \textvisiblespace

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the "faked" symbol that L TEX 2 provides by default, and the right one is the "true" symbol that textcomp makes available.

7

Table 4: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) ° a ° A Æ æ

\aa \AA \AE \ae

Ð ð Ð

\DH \dh \DJ \dj

L l

\L \l \NG \ng

ø Ø OE oe

\o \O \OE \oe

ß SS Þ þ

\ss \SS \TH \th

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Ð § ·

\B{D} \B{d} \B{H} \B{h} \B{t} \B{T} \m{b} \m{B} \m{C}

° ð Ð ¡ ¢ £

Table 5: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages \m{c} \m{D} \M{d} \M{D} \m{d} \m{E} \m{e} \M{E} \M{e}

¤ ¦ À à ©

\m{f} \m{F} \m{G} \m{g} \m{I} \m{i} \m{J} \m{j} \m{K}

¨ ª ± ¬

\m{k} \m{N} \m{n} \m{o} \m{O} \m{P} \m{p} \m{s} \m{S}

» º ® ¯ ¶

\M{t} \M{T} \m{t} \m{T} \m{u} \m{U} \m{Y} \m{y} \m{z}

 â Å å

\m{Z} \T{E} \T{e} \T{O} \T{o}

These characters all need the T4 font encoding, which is provided by the fc package.

\m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}.

Table 6: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 « » \guillemotleft \guillemotright < > \guilsinglleft \guilsinglright ,, , \quotedblbase \quotesinglbase " \textquotedbl

To get these symbols, use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Table 7: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks \ding{123} \ding{124} \ding{125} \ding{126} \ding{161} \ding{162} \ding{163}

Table 8: wasysym Phonetic Symbols D Þ \DH \Thorn \dh \inve þ \openo \thorn

Table 9: tipa Phonetic Symbols

8

È b c d é g Ü 1 ª 8 Ý 0 ì B ò X Å Ñ Æ Þ ^ ¡ g è Û ¬

2

C ¢ ¢ý ² J ® ´ ´C ¸ ý dý S } = / { Ã dz E S R ¥ G

\textbabygamma \textbarb \textbarc \textbard \textbardotlessj \textbarg \textbarglotstop \textbari \textbarl \textbaro \textbarrevglotstop \textbaru \textbeltl \textbeta \textbullseye \textceltpal \textchi \textcloseepsilon \textcloseomega \textcloserevepsilon \textcommatailz \textcorner \textcrb \textcrd \textcrg \textcrh \textcrinvglotstop \textcrlambda \textcrtwo \textctc \textctd \textctdctzlig \textctesh \textctj \textctn \textctt \textcttctclig \textctyogh \textctz \textdctzlig \textdoublebaresh \textdoublebarpipe \textdoublebarslash \textdoublepipe \textdoublevertline \textdownstep \textdyoghlig \textdzlig \textepsilon \textesh \textfishhookr \textg \textgamma \textglobfall

P ; » # á ê Á â ä H Ê Î Ò Ó £ É Ö ÿ Û K Ì « : ³ ¦ ¶ Ô ½ M ñ ë Ð Í ° _ O % F | " ¼ § 7 \ 9 3 Q ¹ Ç Ä ~ ¾ ã

\textglotstop \texthalflength \texthardsign \texthooktop \texthtb \texthtbardotlessj \texthtc \texthtd \texthtg \texthth \texththeng \texthtk \texthtp \texthtq \texthtrtaild \texthtscg \texthtt \texthvlig \textinvglotstop \textinvscr \textiota \textlambda \textlengthmark \textlhookt \textlhtlongi \textlhtlongy \textlonglegr \textlptr \textltailm \textltailn \textltilde \textlyoghlig \textObardotlessj \textOlyoghlig \textomega \textopencorner \textopeno \textpalhook \textphi \textpipe \textprimstress \textraiseglotstop \textraisevibyi \textramshorns \textrevapostrophe \textreve \textrevepsilon \textrevglotstop \textrevyogh \textrhookrevepsilon \textrhookschwa \textrhoticity \textrptr \textrtaild

ï ó ù ú ü $ À à ¤ å Ë @ I ¨ Ï ð × ± ö A g V Ú Y º Â tC Ù T þ ¿ µ 5 ¯ 4 © Õ W î ô õ 6 Ø 2 û L U § · ß Z

\textrtailn \textrtailr \textrtails \textrtailt \textrtailz \textrthook \textsca \textscb \textsce \textscg \textsch \textschwa \textsci \textscj \textscl \textscn \textscoelig \textscomega \textscr \textscripta \textscriptg \textscriptv \textscu \textscy \textsecstress \textsoftsign \textstretchc \texttctclig \textteshlig \texttheta \textthorn \texttoneletterstem \texttslig \textturna \textturncelig \textturnh \textturnk \textturnlonglegr \textturnm \textturnmrleg \textturnr \textturnrrtail \textturnscripta \textturnt \textturnv \textturnw \textturny \textupsilon \textupstep \textvertline \textvibyi \textvibyy \textwynn \textyogh

(continued on next page)

9

(continued from previous page)

\textglobrise

í

\textrtaill

tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. It also defines a command \tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 10: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols

3 ¦ 9 F ` e C Y c ' ¥ 5 Q x @ e

\babygamma \barb \bard \bari \barl \baro \barp \barsci \barscu \baru \clickb \clickc \clickt \closedniomega \closedrevepsilon \crossb \crossd \crossh \crossnilambda \curlyc \curlyesh \curlyyogh \curlyz \dlbari \dz \ejective

V " w h ¨ ) 6 7 & 4 D d 8 s S q u £ ¤ 2

\eng \er \esh \eth \flapr \glotstop \hookb \hookd \hookg \hookh \hookheng \hookrevepsilon \hv \inva \invf \invglotstop \invh \invlegr \invm \invr \invscr \invscripta \invv \invw \invy \ipagamma

R G T i I ¢ © $ 1 A P b g y U d a # f % 0

\labdentalnas \latfric \legm \legr \lz \nialpha \nibeta \nichi \niepsilon \nigamma \niiota \nilambda \niomega \niphi \nisigma \nitheta \niupsilon \nj \oo \openo \reve \reveject \revepsilon \revglotstop \scd \scg

! B X t ¡ ( § r H W p v f E

\schwa \sci \scn \scr \scripta \scriptg \scriptv \scu \scy \slashb \slashc \slashd \slashu \taild \tailinvr \taill \tailn \tailr \tails \tailt \tailz \tesh \thorn \tildel \yogh

Table 11: phonetic Phonetic Symbols

j ¡ w n x 4 s d p

\barj \barlambda \emgma \engma \enya \epsi \esh \eth \fj

f c f h k u h

\flap \glottal \hausaB \hausab \hausad \hausaD \hausak \hausaK \hookd

i ¯

¯ h

¢ m r

\ibar \openo \planck \pwedge \revD \riota \rotm \rotOmega \rotr 10

e w y e p

u

u q

\rotvara \rotw \roty \schwa \thorn \ubar \udesc \vara \varg

i ¨ g

v °

h x

\vari \varomega \varopeno \vod \voicedh \yogh

¨a A¨ ´a A´ Aa ¯a A¯ ^a A^

\"{A}\"{a} \'{A}\'{a} \.{A}\.{a} \={A}\={a} \^{A}\^{a} Aa

`a A` Aa ¯¯ Aa ¸¸ Aa .. a A

Table 12: Text-mode Accents a \`{A}\`{a} A \H{A}\H{a} \b{A}\b{a} \k{A}\k{a} °a \r{A}\r{a} \c{A}\c{a} A° \d{A}\d{a} Aa \t{A}\t{a} ¼a A¼ \U{A}\U{a} \G{A}\G{a} A a

a A a A ~a A~

\u{A}\u{a} \v{A}\v{a} \~{A}\~{a}

\newtie{A}\newtie{a}

\textcircled{A}\textcircled{a}

Requires the textcomp package. Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1. Requires the T4 font encoding, provided by the fc package.

Also note the existence of \i and \j, which produce dotless versions of "i" and "j" (viz., "i" and "j"). These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, "na\"{\i}ve" produces a correct "na¨ ive", while "na\"{i}ve" would yield the rather odd-looking "na¨ ive". ("na\"{i}ve" does work in encodings other than OT1, however.)

Table 13: tipa Text-mode Accents

¡© ©a A¡ ¡§ §a A¡

\textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a} \textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a} \textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a} \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a} \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a} \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a} \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a} \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} \textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a} \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a} \textgravemacron{A}\textgravemacron{a} \textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a} \textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a} \textlowering{A}\textlowering{a} \textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a} \textovercross{A}\textovercross{a}

Aa 00 A` `a ¨© ©a A¨ a A ¢a A¢

a A ¨a A¨

¨a A¨ a A a A a A a A ©a A© a A

Aa Aa )) a A $a A$

(continued on next page)

11

(continued from previous page)

"" Aa Aa Aa (( Aa 11 ¦¦ ©a A© a A

\textoverw{A}\textoverw{a} \textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a} \textraising{A}\textraising{a} \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a} \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a} \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a} \textseagull{A}\textseagull{a} \textsubacute{A}\textsubacute{a} \textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a} \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a} \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a} \textsubcircum{A}\textsubcircum{a} \textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a} \textsubgrave{A}\textsubgrave{a} \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a} \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a} \textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a} \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a} \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a} \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a} \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a} \textsubw{A}\textsubw{a} \textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a} \textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a} \textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a} \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a} \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a}

Aa ## Aa Aa Aa ©© Aa Aa ¢¢ Aa Aa Aa !! Aa '' Aa Aa ¦¦ Aa Aa ££ Aa ¤¤ Aa "" Aa §§ A8 8a Aa 4 4 ££ Aa bb Aa

a A

tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 14: wsuipa Text-mode Accents Aa gg Aa \dental{A}\dental{a} \underarch{A}\underarch{a}

12

Table 15: phonetic Text-mode Accents Aa

{ {

\hill{A}\hill{a} \od{A}\od{a} \ohill{A}\ohill{a}

Aa ©© Aa A.. .. a

\rc{A}\rc{a} \syl{A}\syl{a} \td{A}\td{a}

Aa °° { { Aa

Aa ~~

\ut{A}\ut{a}

The phonetic package provides a few additional macros for linguistic accents. \acbar and \acarc compose characters with multiple accents; for example, ¯ ¯ \acbar{\'}{a} produces "´" and \acarc{\"}{e} produces "¨". \labvel joins a e two characters with an arc: \labvel{mn} "mn". \upbar is intended to go between characters as in "x\upbar{}y'' "x y". Lastly, \uplett behaves like \textsuperscript but uses a smaller font. Contrast "p\uplett{h}'' "ph " with "p\textsuperscript{h}'' "ph ".

Table 16: wsuipa Diacritics

s k u m p

\ain \corner \downp \downt \halflength

v n q { z

\leftp \leftt \length \midtilde \open

x ~ w o i

\overring \polishhook \rightp \rightt \secstress

h j r y |

\stress \syllabic \underdots \underring \undertilde

} t l

\underwedge \upp \upt

The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents. However, it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands, which are used to compose diacritics with other characters. For example, \diatop[\overring|a] produces "x", and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces "r". See the wsuipa doca a umentation for more information.

Table 17: textcomp Diacritics ´ \textacutedbl \textasciiacute \textasciibreve ¨ ` \textasciicaron \textasciidieresis \textasciigrave ¯ \textasciimacron \textgravedbl

The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents.

Table 18: textcomp Currency Symbols ¢ ¢ ¤ \textbaht \textcent \textcentoldstyle \textcolonmonetary \textcurrency $ $ \textdollar \textdollaroldstyle \textdong \texteuro \textflorin £ \textguarani \textlira \textnaira \textpeso \textsterling ¥ \textwon \textyen

13

Table 19: marvosym Currency Symbols ¢ \Denarius \Ecommerce

e

d

\EUR \EURcr

D c

\EURdig \EURhv

e ¦

\EURtm \EyesDollar

£ ¡

\Pfund \Shilling

The different euro signs are meant to be compatible with different fonts--Courier (\EURcr), Helvetica (\EURhv), Times (\EURtm), and the marvosym digits listed in Table 134 (\EURdig).

Table 20: wasysym Currency Symbols ¢ \cent ¤ \currency

Table 21: eurosym Euro Signs

A C

\geneuro

B C

\geneuronarrow

C C

\geneurowide

e

\officialeuro

\euro is automatically mapped to one of the above--by default, \officialeuro-- based on a eurosym package option. See the eurosym documentation for more information. The \geneuro. . . characters are generated from the current body font's "C" character and therefore may not appear exactly as shown.

Table 22: textcomp Legal Symbols \textcircledP \textcopyleft c r © ® \textcopyright \textregistered

TM

TM

\textservicemark \texttrademark

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the "faked" symbol that L TEX 2 provides by default, and the right one is the "true" symbol that textcomp makes available. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=tradesyms for solur tions to common problems that occur when using these symbols (e.g., getting a "" when you expected to get a "®").

Table 23: textcomp Old-style Numerals 0 1 2 3 \textzerooldstyle \textoneoldstyle \texttwooldstyle \textthreeoldstyle 4 5 6 7 \textfouroldstyle \textfiveoldstyle \textsixoldstyle \textsevenoldstyle 8 9 \texteightoldstyle \textnineoldstyle

Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle, \texttwooldstyle, etc. commands shown above, consider using \oldstylenums{. . .} to typeset an old-style number.

14

Table 24: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols ¦ · \textasteriskcentered \textbardbl \textbigcircle \textblank \textbrokenbar \textbullet \textdagger \textdaggerdbl \textdblhyphen \textdblhyphenchar \textdiscount \textestimated \textinterrobang \textinterrobangdown \textmusicalnote \textnumero \textopenbullet

a o

ª º ¶ · ¶ ' , ,, § --

\textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph \textperiodcentered \textpertenthousand \textperthousand \textpilcrow \textquotesingle \textquotestraightbase \textquotestraightdblbase \textrecipe \textreferencemark \textsection \textthreequartersemdash \texttildelow \texttwelveudash

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the "faked" symbol that L TEX 2 provides by default, and the right one is the "true" symbol that textcomp makes available.

Table 25: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols \permil

Table 26: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode \checkmark \circledR \maltese

15

3

Mathematical symbols

Most, but not all, of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. That is, they yield a "Missing $ inserted" error message if not used within $. . .$, \[. . .\], or another math-mode environment. Operators marked as "variable-sized" are taller in displayed formulas, shorter in in-text formulas, and possibly shorter still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts. Alphanumeric symbols (e.g., "L " and " ") are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in Table 135 rather than with an explicit symbol command. Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform, number set, or some other alphanumeric. Although there have been many requests on comp.text.tex for a contradiction symbol, the ensuing discussion invariably reveals innumerable ways to represent contradiction in a proof, including "©" (\blitza), "" (\Rightarrow\Leftarrow), "" (\bot), " " (\nleftrightarrow), and "" (\textreferencemark). Because of the lack of notational consensus, it is probably better to spell out "Contradiction!" than to use a symbol for this purpose. Similarly, discussions on comp.text.tex have revealed that there are a variety of ways to indicate the mathematical notion of "is defined as". Common candidates include " " (\triangleq), def "" (\equiv), " " (\coloneqq), and " =" (\stackrel{\text{\tiny def}}{=}). See also the example of \equalsfill on page 61.

Table 27: Binary Operators \amalg \ast \bigcirc \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \bullet \cap \cdot \circ ÷ \cup \dagger \ddagger \diamond \div \lhd \mp \odot \ominus ± \ \oplus \oslash \otimes \pm \rhd \setminus \sqcap \sqcup \star × \times \triangleleft \triangleright \unlhd \unrhd \uplus \vee \wedge \wr

· ·

A Not predefined in L TEX 2 . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 28: AMS Binary Operators \barwedge \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxtimes \Cap \centerdot \circledast \circledcirc \circleddash \Cup \curlyvee \curlywedge \divideontimes \dotplus \doublebarwedge \intercal \leftthreetimes \ltimes \rightthreetimes \rtimes \smallsetminus \veebar

16

Table 29: stmaryrd Binary Operators \baro \bbslash \binampersand \bindnasrepma \boxast \boxbar \boxbox \boxbslash \boxcircle \boxdot \boxempty \boxslash \curlyveedownarrow \curlyveeuparrow \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow \fatbslash \fatsemi \fatslash \interleave \leftslice \merge \minuso \moo \nplus \obar \oblong \obslash \ogreaterthan \olessthan \ovee \owedge \rightslice \sslash \talloblong \varbigcirc \varcurlyvee \varcurlywedge \varoast \varobar \varobslash \varocircle \varodot \varogreaterthan \varolessthan \varominus \varoplus \varoslash \varotimes \varovee \varowedge \vartimes \Ydown \Yleft \Yright \Yup

Table 30: wasysym Binary Operators \lhd \LHD \ocircle \rhd \RHD \unlhd \unrhd

Table 31: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators \circledbar \circledbslash \circledvee \circledwedge \invamp \medbullet \medcirc \sqcapplus \sqcupplus

17

Table 32: mathabx Binary Operators

y

§

§

¨

¦

¦

\ast \Asterisk \barwedge \bigstar \bigvarstar \blackdiamond \cap \circplus \coasterisk \coAsterisk \convolution \cup \curlyvee

©

£ ¡ ¢

x

\curlywedge \divdot \divideontimes \dotdiv \dotplus \dottimes \doublebarwedge \doublecap \doublecup \ltimes \pluscirc \rtimes \sqbullet

¥

¤

\sqcap \sqcup \sqdoublecap \sqdoublecup \square \squplus \udot \uplus \varstar \vee \veebar \veedoublebar \wedge

Many of the above glyphs go by multiple names. \centerdot is equivalent to \sqbullet, and \ast is equivalent to *. \asterisk produces the same glyph as \ast, but as an ordinary symbol, not a binary operator. Similarly, \bigast produces a large-operator version of the \Asterisk binary operator, and \bigcoast produces a large-operator version of the \coAsterisk binary operator.

Table 33: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators

¨

\odplus

f n k e g d h

Table 34: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators \blacktriangledown \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \blacktriangleup \boxasterisk \boxbackslash \boxbot \boxcirc \boxcoasterisk \boxdiv \boxdot \boxleft \boxminus \boxplus

f n k e g d h

i m j o l

\boxright \boxslash \boxtimes \boxtop \boxtriangleup \boxvoid \oasterisk \obackslash \obot \ocirc \ocoasterisk \odiv \odot \oleft

i m j o l

\ominus \oplus \oright \oslash \otimes \otop \otriangleup \ovoid \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup

T\ S[ JK LM

Table 35: Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcup \bigodot \bigoplus

NO FG U] W_

\bigotimes \bigsqcup \biguplus \bigvee 18

V^ `a R Z H I

\bigwedge \coprod \int \oint

QY PX

\prod \sum

Table 36: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \iint

Table 37: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators \bigbox \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlywedge \biginterleave \bignplus \bigparallel \bigsqcap \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup

Table 38: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators \iiint \iint \oiint \varint \varoint

¬ ¦ « Öö Þþ Ûû Õõ ×÷ Óó Ôô Øø Ññ Ðð Ùù

Table 39: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcurlyvee \bigsqcap \bigcurlywedge \bigboxasterisk \bigboxbackslash \bigboxbot \bigboxcirc \bigboxcoasterisk \bigboxdiv \bigboxdot \bigboxleft \bigboxminus \bigboxplus \bigboxright

Ýý Òò Úú ßÿ Üü ¢ Ææ Îî Ëë Åå Çç Ãã Èè Áá

\bigboxslash \bigboxtimes \bigboxtop \bigboxtriangleup \bigboxvoid \bigcomplementop \bigoasterisk \bigobackslash \bigobot \bigocirc \bigocoasterisk \bigodiv \bigoleft \bigominus

Éé Íí Êê Ïï Ìì ¨ ¡ µ½ ´¼ ³ » ·¿ ¶ ¾

\bigoright \bigoslash \bigotop \bigotriangleup \bigovoid \bigplus \bigsquplus \bigtimes \iiint \iint \int \oiint \oint

19

Table 40: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcupplus \fint \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \iint \oiiintclockwise \oiiintctrclockwise \oiiint \oiintclockwise \oiintctrclockwise \oiint \ointclockwise \ointctrclockwise \sqiiint \sqiint \sqint \varoiiintclockwise \varoiiintctrclockwise \varoiintclockwise \varoiintctrclockwise \varointclockwise \varointctrclockwise \varprod

© 1 § ¥ £ 7 5

2 ¨ ¦ ¤ 8 6

Table 41: esint Variable-sized Math Operators \dotsint \fint \iiiint \iiint \iint \landdownint \landupint \oiint \ointclockwise \ointctrclockwise \sqiint \sqint \varoiint \varointclockwise \varointctrclockwise

% # 3 ' )

& $ 4 ( 0

20

Table 42: Binary Relations \approx \asymp \bowtie \cong \dashv \doteq | |= \equiv \frown \Join \mid \models \parallel \perp \prec \preceq \propto \sim \simeq \smile \succ \succeq \vdash

A Not predefined in L TEX 2 . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 43: AMS Binary Relations \approxeq \backepsilon \backsim \backsimeq \because \between \Bumpeq \bumpeq \circeq \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteqdot \eqcirc \fallingdotseq \multimap \pitchfork \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precsim \risingdotseq \shortmid \shortparallel \smallfrown \smallsmile \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succsim \therefore \thickapprox \thicksim \varpropto \Vdash \vDash \Vvdash

Table 44: AMS Negated Binary Relations \ncong \nmid \nparallel \nprec \npreceq \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsucc \nsucceq \nvDash \nvdash \nVDash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim

Table 45: stmaryrd Binary Relations \inplus \niplus

Table 46: wasysym Binary Relations \invneg \Join \leadsto \logof \wasypropto

21

Table 47: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations \circledgtr \circledless \colonapprox \Colonapprox \coloneq \Coloneq \Coloneqq \coloneqq \Colonsim \colonsim \Eqcolon \eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon \eqsim \lJoin \lrtimes \multimap \multimapboth \multimapbothvert \multimapdot \multimapdotboth \multimapdotbothA \multimapdotbothAvert \multimapdotbothB \multimapdotbothBvert \multimapdotbothvert \multimapdotinv \multimapinv \openJoin \opentimes \Perp \preceqq \precneqq \rJoin \strictfi \strictif \strictiff \succeqq \succneqq \varparallel \varparallelinv \VvDash

Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations \napproxeq \nasymp \nbacksim \nbacksimeq \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \nequiv \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceqq \nprecsim \nsimeq \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceqq \nsuccsim \nthickapprox \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \nvarparallel \nvarparallelinv \nVdash

Table 49: mathabx Binary Relations

¶ · ) ) -

\between \botdoteq \Bumpedeq \bumpedeq \circeq \coloneq \corresponds \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \DashV \Dashv \dashVv

Ï Î Æ ¤ Ì À

\divides \dotseq \eqbumped \eqcirc \eqcolon \fallingdotseq \ggcurly \llcurly \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precdot \precsim

Ç ¥ Í Á 6 ( , ( ,

\risingdotseq \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succdot \succsim \therefore \topdoteq \vDash \Vdash \VDash \Vvdash

22

¸ ¹ + / ' + /

Table 50: mathabx Negated Binary Relations \napprox \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \nDashv \ndashV \ndashv \nDashV \ndashVv \neq \notasymp \notdivides \notequiv

M ¢ È ¦ ª Â £ É § « Ã

\notperp \nprec \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nsim \nsimeq \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim

* * . & . Ê ¬ Ä Ë Å

\nvDash \nVDash \nVdash \nvdash \nVvash \precnapprox \precneq \precnsim \succnapprox \succneq \succnsim

The \changenotsign command toggles the behavior of \not to produce either a vertical or a diagonal slash through a binary operator. Thus, "$a \not= b$" can be made to produce either "a = b" or "a = b".

¡ £

Table 51: trsym Binary Relations \InversTransformHoriz \InversTransformVert \TransformHoriz \TransformVert

¢

c c c c

Table 52: trfsigns Binary Relations c \dfourier c \fourier c s \laplace c .... s \ztransf

.. .. .. ..

s s ....

\Dfourier \Fourier \Laplace \Ztransf

Table 53: Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsupset

\sqsupseteq \subset \subseteq

\supset \supseteq

A Not predefined in L TEX 2 . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 54: AMS Subset and Superset Relations \nsubseteq \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqsupset \Subset \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supseteqq \supsetneq 23 \supsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq

Table 55: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations \subsetplus \subsetpluseq \supsetplus \supsetpluseq

Table 56: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset \sqsupset

Table 57: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nSubset \nsubseteqq \nSupset

Table 58: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqSubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nsqsupset \nsqSupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nsubset \nSubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq

\nsupset \nSupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqSubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \sqSupset \sqsupset

\sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \subset \Subset \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \supset \Supset

\supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq \varsqsubsetneq \varsqsubsetneqq \varsqsupsetneq \varsqsupsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq

Table 59: Inequalities \geq \gg \leq \ll \neq

Table 60: AMS Inequalities \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geqq \geqslant \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leqq \leqslant \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lesssim \lll \lnapprox 24 \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \ngeq \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngtr \nleq \nleqq \nleqslant \nless

Table 61: wasysym Inequalities \apprge \apprle

Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities \ngg \ngtrapprox \ngtrless \ngtrsim \nlessapprox \nlessgtr \nlesssim \nll

· ¶ ¥ ¯ " Ï Ë ³ Å Ç Í

\eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geq \geqq \gg \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot

½ ¿ » Á µ ¤ ® Æ Ì ¼ ¾ º

Table 63: mathabx Inequalities \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leq \leqq \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr

À ! Î Ê ¬ ² Ä ´ ¹ ¸ § ±

\lesssim \ll \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq \ngeqq

£ É Ã ¦ ° ¢ È Â « ª © ¨

\ngtr \ngtrapprox \ngtrsim \nleq \nleqq \nless \nlessapprox \nlesssim \nvargeq \nvarleq \vargeq \varleq

mathabx defines \leqslant and \le as synonyms for \leq, \geqslant and \ge as synonyms for \geq, \nleqslant as a synonym for \nleq, and \ngeqslant as a synonym for \ngeq.

Table 64: AMS Triangle Relations \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \trianglelefteq \triangleq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright

Table 65: stmaryrd Triangle Relations \trianglelefteqslant \ntrianglelefteqslant \trianglerighteqslant \ntrianglerighteqslant

\ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright

Table 66: mathabx Triangle Relations \ntrianglerighteq \triangleleft \trianglelefteq

\triangleright \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft

\vartriangleright

25

Table 67: Arrows

\Downarrow \downarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto \leftarrow \Leftarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow

- = - = -

\longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \Longrightarrow \longrightarrow \mapsto \nearrow

\nwarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrow \searrow \swarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \updownarrow \Updownarrow

A Not predefined in L TEX 2 . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

See the note beneath Table 112 for information about how to put a diagonal arrow B ¨0 ·B across a mathematical expression (as in "¨¨ ") .

Table 68: Harpoons \leftharpoondown \leftharpoonup \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoons

Table 69: textcomp Text-mode Arrows \textdownarrow \textleftarrow \textrightarrow \textuparrow

Table 70: AMS Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \downdownarrows \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \Lleftarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \Rsh \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadrightarrow \upuparrows

Table 71: AMS Negated Arrows \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrow

Table 72: AMS Harpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \leftrightharpoons \rightleftharpoons 26 \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright

Table 73: stmaryrd Arrows \leftarrowtriangle \leftrightarroweq \leftrightarrowtriangle \lightning \Longmapsfrom \longmapsfrom \Longmapsto \Mapsfrom \mapsfrom \Mapsto \nnearrow \nnwarrow \rightarrowtriangle \shortdownarrow \shortleftarrow \shortrightarrow \shortuparrow \ssearrow \sswarrow

= - =

Table 74: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows \boxdotLeft \boxdotleft \boxdotright \boxdotRight \boxLeft \boxleft \boxright \boxRight \circleddotleft \circleddotright \circleleft \circleright \dashleftrightarrow \DiamonddotLeft \Diamonddotleft \Diamonddotright \DiamonddotRight \DiamondLeft \Diamondleft \Diamondright \DiamondRight \leftsquigarrow \Nearrow \Nwarrow \Rrightarrow \Searrow \Swarrow

ö ÷ ó õ ô ð ò ñ ê Ó ÿ × ë

Table 75: mathabx Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowbotleft \curvearrowbotleftright \curvearrowbotright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowleftright \curvearrowright \dlsh \downdownarrows \downtouparrow \downuparrows \drsh

Õ Ü ø

Ô ú ø ü î ï ì í è

Ð Ø

Ð

\leftarrow \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \leftsquigarrow \lefttorightarrow \looparrowdownleft \looparrowdownright \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow

Ö þ Ò

× Ö

Õ Ñ ù ý é

Ô æ Ñ

\nwarrow \restriction \rightarrow \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \righttoleftarrow \Rsh \searrow \swarrow \updownarrows \uptodownarrow \upuparrows

ö Ú

Table 76: mathabx Negated Arrows \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow

Û ÷

\nrightarrow \nRightarrow

27

Þ ß Û å ç ë Ü â

Table 77: mathabx Harpoons \barleftharpoon \barrightharpoon \downdownharpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \downupharpoons \leftbarharpoon \leftharpoondown

à Ø à è Ý ã á á

\leftharpoonup \leftleftharpoons \leftrightharpoon \leftrightharpoons \rightbarharpoon \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoon

é Ù ê ä æ Ú

\rightleftharpoons \rightrightharpoons \updownharpoons \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \upupharpoons

Table 78: chemarrow Arrows A \chemarrow

©

\blitza

Table 79: ulsy Contradiction Symbols \blitzb

\blitzc

\blitzd

\blitze

Table 80: Extension Characters - \relbar = \Relbar

Table 81: stmaryrd Extension Characters \Arrownot \arrownot \Mapsfromchar \mapsfromchar \Mapstochar

Table 82: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters \Mappedfromchar \mappedfromchar \Mmappedfromchar \mmappedfromchar \Mmapstochar \mmapstochar

Table 83: mathabx Extension Characters

ß

û

\mapsfromchar \Mapsfromchar

ú

Þ

\mapstochar \Mapstochar

28

Table 84: Log-like Symbols \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc \deg \det \dim \exp \gcd \hom \inf \ker \lg \lim \liminf \limsup \ln \log \max \min \Pr \sec \sin \sinh \sup \tan \tanh

Calling the above "symbols" may be a bit misleading.1 Each log-like symbol merely produces the eponymous textual equivalent, but with proper surrounding spacing. See Section 7.3 for more information about log-like symbols. As \bmod and \pmod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for A L TEX [Dow00] for samples.

Table 85: AMS Log-like Symbols inj lim proj lim \injlim \projlim lim - lim \varinjlim \varliminf lim lim - \varlimsup \varprojlim

Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. See Section 7.3 for some additional comments regarding log-like symbols. As \mod and \pod are arguably not symbols A we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for samples.

Table 86: Greek Letters \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \varepsilon \zeta \eta \Gamma \Delta \Theta µ \theta \vartheta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \Lambda \Xi \Pi o o \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma \tau \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega

\Sigma \Upsilon \Phi

\Psi \Omega

The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. The symbol "M", for instance, is used for both an uppercase "m" and an uppercase "µ". See Section 7.4 for examples of how to produce bold Greek letters.

Table 87: AMS Greek Letters \digamma

1 Michael

\varkappa

J. Downes prefers the more general term, "atomic math objects".

29

Table 88: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters \alphaup \betaup \gammaup \deltaup \epsilonup \varepsilonup \zetaup \etaup µ \thetaup \varthetaup \iotaup \kappaup \lambdaup \muup \nuup \xiup \piup \varpiup \rhoup \varrhoup \sigmaup \varsigmaup \tauup \upsilonup \phiup \varphiup \chiup \psiup \omegaup

Table 89: upgreek Upright Greek Letters \upalpha \upbeta \upgamma \updelta \upepsilon \upvarepsilon \upzeta \upeta \Upgamma \Updelta \Uptheta µ \uptheta \upvartheta \upiota \upkappa \uplambda \upmu \upnu \upxi \Uplambda \Upxi \Uppi \uppi \upvarpi \uprho \upvarrho \upsigma \upvarsigma \uptau \upupsilon \Upsigma \Upupsilon \Upphi \upphi \upvarphi \upchi \uppsi \upomega

\Uppsi \Upomega

upgreek utilizes upright Greek characters from either the PostScript Symbol font (depicted above) or Euler Roman. As a result, the glyphs may appear slightly different from the above. Contrast, for example, "" (Symbol) with "" (Euler).

Table 90: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters \varg \varv \varw \vary

Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g, v, w, and y with , , , and in every mathematical expression in your document.

Table 91: AMS Hebrew Letters \beth \gimel \daleth

\aleph appears in Table 125 on page 38.

Table 92: Letter-like Symbols \bot \ell \exists \forall \hbar \Im i j \imath \in \jmath 30 \ni \partial \Re \top \wp

Table 93: AMS Letter-like Symbols k \Bbbk \circledR \circledS \complement \Finv \Game \hbar \hslash \nexists

Table 94: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols ¢ \mathcent £ \mathsterling \notin \notni

Table 95: mathabx Letter-like Symbols

V A D F G

\barin \complement \exists \Finv \Game

P E M R S

\in \nexists \notbot \notin \notowner

L Q W B C

\nottop \owns \ownsbar \partial \partialslash

T U

\varnotin \varnotowner

Table 96: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols e \e j \im

Table 97: AMS Delimiters \ulcorner \llcorner \urcorner \lrcorner

Table 98: stmaryrd Delimiters \Lbag \llceil \llparenthesis \Rbag \rrceil \rrparenthesis \lbag \llfloor \rbag \rrfloor

Table 99: mathabx Delimiters

v x z

\lcorners \ulcorner \llcorner

w y {

\rcorners \urcorner \lrcorner

Table 100: nath Delimiters \niv 31 \vin

? ? y D l j .

\downarrow \langle \lceil \lfloor ( /

w w E m k /

Table 101: Variable-sized Delimiters \Downarrow \rangle \rceil \rfloor ) \backslash { [ |

h

( /

) \

x ? ? x ? y n

[ | \uparrow \updownarrow \{

]

i ~ w w ~ w o

] \| \Uparrow \Updownarrow \}

}

When used with \left and \right, these symbols expand to the height of the enclosed math expression. Note that \vert is a synonym for |, and \Vert is a synonym for \|.

-TEX provides a \middle analogue to \left and \right that can be used to make an internal "|" (often used to indicate "evaluated at") expand to the height of the surrounding \left and \right symbols. A similar effect can be achieved in A conventional L TEX using the braket package.

8 ; ? ?

8 > > > > ; ? ? ? ? ?

Table 102: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters \lmoustache

\arrowvert

9 > > > > : w w w w w w w 9 :

\rmoustache

\Arrowvert

8 > > > > : > > > > > > > > > > > > > > 8 :

\lgroup

9 ;

9 > > > > ;

\rgroup

\bracevert

These symbols must be used with \left and \right. The mathabx package, however, redefines \lgroup and \rgroup so that those symbols can work without \left and \right.

Table 103: Variable-sized stmaryrd Delimiters \llbracket \rrbracket

Table 104: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters

v

1

\lbbbrack

w

9

\rbbbrack

7

~

7 7 7 7

\lfilet \thickvert

?

~

? ? ? ?

\rfilet \vvvert

32

Table 105: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double)

D D

\lAngle [[

E E

\rAngle ]]

h h

\lBrack

i i

\rBrack

l l

\lCeil

m m

\rCeil

j j

\lFloor ||

k k

\rFloor ||

\lVert

\rVert

nath redefines all of the above to include implicit \left and \right commands. Hence, separate \lVert and \rVert commands are needed to disambiguate whether "|" is a left or right delimiter. All of the symbols in Table 105 can also be expressed using the \double macro. See the nath documentation for examples and additional information.

Table 106: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple)

DD D

\triple< [[[ |||

EE E

\triple> ]]] |||

hh h

\triple[

ii i

\triple]

\ltriple|

\rtriple|

Similar to \lVert and \rVert in Table 105, \ltriple and \rtriple must be used instead of \triple to disambiguate whether "|" is a left or right delimiter. Note that \triple--and the corresponding \double--is actually a macro that takes a delimiter as an argument.

Table 107: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters \textlangle \textlbrackdbl \textlquill \textrangle \textrbrackdbl \textrquill

33

Table 108: Math-mode Accents a ´ a ¯ a \acute{a} \bar{a} \breve{a} a a ¨ a \check{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a} a ` a ^ ° a \grave{a} \hat{a} \mathring{a} a ~ a \tilde{a} \vec{a}

Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath, which produce dotless versions of "i " and "j ". (See Table 125 on page 38.) These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, "\hat{\imath}" produces a correct " ^ ", while "\hat{i}" would yield the rather odd-looking " ^ ". i i

Table 109: AMS Math-mode Accents ... .... a \dddot{a} a \ddddot{a} These accents are also provided by the mathabx package.

Table 110: yhmath Math-mode Accents ° a \ring{a}

A This symbol is largely obsolete, as standard L TEX 2 has supported \mathring A since June, 1998 [L T98].

Table 111: trfsigns Math-mode Accents

a

\dft{a}

a

\DFT{a}

The above are a sort of "reverse accent" in that the argument text serves as a subscript to the transform line.

34

abc - abc abc z}|{ abc abc

Ý

Table 112: Extensible Accents \widetilde{abc} \overleftarrow{abc} \overline{abc} \overbrace{abc} \sqrt{abc} abc - abc abc |{z} abc

Ó

\widehat{abc} \overrightarrow{abc} \underline{abc} \underbrace{abc}

As demonstrated in a 1997 TUGboat article about typesetting long-division problems [Gib97], an extensible long-division sign (" )abc ") can be faked by putting a "\big)" in a tabular environment with an \hline or \cline in the preceding row. The article also presents a piece of code that automatically solves and typesets--by putting an \overline atop "\big)" and the desired text--long-division problems. See also the polynom package, which automatically solves and typesets polynomialdivision problems in a similar manner.

Made more extensible by the yhmath package. If you're looking for an extensible diagonal line or arrow to be used for canceling or 5 $ 3 $X 2 reducing mathematical subexpressions (e.g., "$+ -x" or "$+ $ ") then consider x $$ using the cancel package. With an optional argument, \sqrt typesets nth roots. For example, 3 n "\sqrt[3]{abc}" produces " abc " and "\sqrt[n]{abc}" produces " abc ".

Table 113: overrightarrow Extensible Accents = abc \Overrightarrow{abc}

ö ° ö abc

abc abc abc -

Table 114: yhmath Extensible Accents \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} abc

é

\widetriangle{abc}

Table 115: AMS Extensible Accents \overleftrightarrow{abc} \underleftarrow{abc} abc abc - \underleftrightarrow{abc} \underrightarrow{abc}

The following are a sort of "reverse accent" in that the argument text serves as a superscript to the arrow. In addition, the optional first argument (not shown) A serves as a subscript to the arrow. See the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for further examples. - -

abc

\xleftarrow{abc}

- - 35

abc

\xrightarrow{abc}

Table 116: chemarr Extensible Accents -- --

abc

\xrightleftharpoons{abc}

\xrightleftharpoons is a sort of "reverse accent" in that the argument text serves as a superscript to the arrows. In addition, the optional first argument (not shown) serves as a subscript to the arrows.

Table 117: chemarrow Extensible Accents abc D GGGGGGG def abc E GGGGGGG GGGGGGGC def abc GGGGGGGA def abc GGGGGGGB F GGGGGGG def

\autoleftarrow{abc}{def}

\autorightarrow{abc}{def}

\autoleftrightharpoons{abc}{def}

\autorightleftharpoons{abc}{def}

These symbols are all "reverse accents" in that the two arguments serve, respectively, as a superscript and a subscript to the arrows. In addition to the symbols shown above, chemarrow also provides \larrowfill, \rarrowfill, \leftrightharpoonsfill, and \rightleftharpoonsfill macros. Each of these takes a length argument and produces an arrow of the specified length.

hk ik j k k abc hk k j k abc loabcon omo

abc lo o n o

Table 118: mathabx Extensible Accents \overbrace{abc} \overgroup{abc} \underbrace{abc} \undergroup{abc} \widearrow{abc}

abc | abc abc

° abc

\widebar{abc} \widecheck{abc} \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc}

ö

abc

The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size. They can expand arbitrarily wide, however.

36

Table 119: esvect Extensible Accents #" abc \vv{abc} with package option a #,, abc \vv{abc} with package option b #« abc \vv{abc} with package option c #» abc \vv{abc} with package option d #­ abc \vv{abc} with package option e #-- abc \vv{abc} with package option f # abc \vv{abc} with package option g # abc \vv{abc} with package option h esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector variables with subscripts. See the esvect documentation for more information.

Table 120: undertilde Extensible Accents abc

Ý

\utilde{abc}

Because \utilde is based on \widetilde it is also made more extensible by the yhmath package.

Table 121: Dots · ···

\cdotp \cdots

: ..

\colon . \ddots

. ...

\ldotp \ldots

. . .

\vdots

While ":" is valid in math mode, \colon uses different surrounding spacing. See A Section 7.3 and the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for more information on math-mode spacing. The mathdots package redefines \ddots and \vdots to make them scale properly with font size. (They normally scale horizontally but not vertically.) \fixedddots A and \fixedvdots provide the original, fixed-height functionality of L TEX 2 's \ddots and \vdots macros.

Table 122: AMS Dots ··· ... \dotsb \dotsc ··· ··· \dotsi \dotsm ... \dotso

The AMS dot symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb between pairs of binary operators/relations, \dotsc between pairs of commas, \dotsi between pairs of integrals, \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs, and \dotso between other symbol pairs.

37

Table 123: mathdots Dots . .. \iddots

Table 124: yhmath Dots .. . \adots

A Table 125: Miscellaneous L TEX 2 Symbols

\

\aleph \angle \backslash \Box, \clubsuit

\Diamond \diamondsuit \emptyset \flat \heartsuit

¬

\infty \mho \nabla \natural \neg

\prime \sharp \spadesuit \surd \triangle

A Not predefined in L TEX 2 . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

To use \Box--or any other symbol--as an end-of-proof (Q.E.D.) marker, consider using the ntheorem package, which properly juxtaposes a symbol with the end of the proof text.

A Many people prefer the look of AMS's \varnothing (Table 126) to that of L TEX's \emptyset.

Table 126: Miscellaneous AMS Symbols \angle \backprime \bigstar \blacklozenge \blacksquare \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown \diagdown \diagup \eth \lozenge \measuredangle \mho \sphericalangle \square \triangledown \varnothing \vartriangle

ð

Table 127: Miscellaneous wasysym Symbols \Box \Diamond

\mho \varangle

\wasytherefore

wasysym also defines an \agemO symbol, which is the same glyph as \mho but is intended for use in text mode.

Table 128: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Symbols \Diamondblack \Diamonddot \lambdabar \lambdaslash \varclubsuit \vardiamondsuit 38 \varheartsuit \varspadesuit

Table 129: Miscellaneous mathabx Symbols

I

å ä

0

\degree \diagdown \diagup \diameter

4 #

$

8

\fourth \hash \infty \leftthreetimes

%

9

> &

\measuredangle \pitchfork \propto \rightthreetimes

#

3

?

2

\second \sphericalangle \third \varhash

Table 130: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols ° ÷ / ¬ -

\textdegree \textdiv \textfractionsolidus \textlnot \textminus

½ ¼ ¹ ±

\textonehalf \textonequarter \textonesuperior \textpm \textsurd

¾ ³ × ²

\textthreequarters \textthreesuperior \texttimes \texttwosuperior

If you prefer a larger degree symbol you might consider defining one as "\ensuremath{^\circ}" (" "). nicefrac (part of the units package) can be used to construct vulgar fractions like "1/2", "1/4", "3/4", and even "c/o".

Table 131: mathcomp Math Symbols µ \tccentigrade \tcmu \tcohm \tcpertenthousand \tcperthousand

Table 132: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode ° \celsius \degree µ \micro \ohm \perthousand

0 1

Table 133: mathabx Mayan Digits \maya{0} \maya{1}

2 3

\maya{2} \maya{3}

4 5

\maya{4} \maya{5}

Table 134: marvosym Math Symbols 0 1 \MVZero \MVOne W = 2 3 \MVTwo \MVThree ÷ p 4 5 \MVFour \MVFive 6 7 P \MVSix \MVSeven 8 9 \MVEight \MVNine

\Anglesign \Corresponds

\Squaredot \Vectorarrow

\Vectorarrowhigh

39

Table 135: Math Alphabets ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef 123 ABC ABC or ABC or ABCdef123 ABC º»¼ \mathrm{ABCdef123} \mathit{ABCdef123} \mathnormal{ABCdef123} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathpzc{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABC} \varmathbb{ABC} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbbm{ABCdef12} \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} \mathds{ABC1} \mathds{ABC1} \mathfrak{ABCdef123} \textfrak{ABCdef123} \textswab{ABCdef123} \textgoth{ABCdef123} Required package none none none none mathrsfs calrsfs euscript with the mathcal option euscript with the mathscr option none; manually defined amsfonts,§ amssymb, txfonts, or pxfonts txfonts or pxfonts bbold or mathbbol mbboard bbm bbm bbm dsfont dsfont with the sans option eufrak yfonts yfonts yfonts

ABCdef123

ABCdef123

ABC1 ABC1 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCf123

ABCdef12

ABCdef12

ABCdef12

Put "\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}" in your document's preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery. The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters: parentheses, square brackets, angle brackets, and--if the bbgreekl option is passed to matbbol--Greek letters. For instance, "<[( )]>" is produced by "\mathbb{\Langle\Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen \Rbrack\Rangle}". mbboard extends the blackboard bold symbol set significantly further. It supports not only the Greek alphabet--including "Greek-like" symbols such as \bbnabla ("")--but also all punctuation marks, various currency symbols such as \bbdollar ("$") and \bbeuro ("û"), and the Hebrew alphabet (e.g., "\bbfinalnun\bbyod\bbqof\bbpe" "ÏÉ×Ô").

As their \text. . . names imply, the fonts provided by the yfonts package are actually text fonts. They are included in Table 135 because they are frequently used in a mathematical context. An older (i.e., prior to 1991) version of the AMS's fonts rendered C, N, R, S, and Z as C, N, R, S, and Z. As some people prefer the older glyphs--much to the AMS's surprise--and because those glyphs fail to build under modern versions of METAFONT, Berthold Horn uploaded PostScript fonts for the older blackboardbold glyphs to CTAN, to the fonts/msym10 directory. As of this writing, however, A there are no L TEX 2 packages for utilizing the now-obsolete glyphs.

§

40

4

Science and technology symbols

This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering (and, because we were extremely liberal in our classification, astrology, too).

Table 136: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols ¬ \AC \VHF ¬¬¬¬ \photon ¬ \HF \gluon

! &

\FallingEdge \LongPulseHigh

' $

Table 137: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols \LongPulseLow \PulseHigh

%

\PulseLow \RaisingEdge

" #

\ShortPulseHigh \ShortPulseLow

In addition, within \textifsym{. . .}, the following codes are valid:

l L

l L

m M

m M

h H

h H

d D

d D

< =

< <<

> ?

> >>

This enables one to write "\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}" to get "mm<DDD>mm" or "\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}" to get "L|H|L|H|L". See also the timing package, which provides a wide variety of pulse-diagram symbols within an environment designed specifically for typesetting pulse diagrams. Finally, \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits, as would appear on an LCD: "\textifsym{-123.456}" produces "-123.456". "\textifsym{b}" outputs a blank with the same width as an "8".

Table 138: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol

A

\AR

Table 139: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols \textcelsius \textmho µ \textmu \textohm

Table 140: wasysym Astronomical Symbols \ascnode \astrosun \descnode \earth \fullmoon \jupiter \leftmoon \mars \mercury \neptune \newmoon \pluto \rightmoon \saturn \uranus \venus \vernal

41

Table 141: marvosym Astronomical Symbols Â Ã Ê \Mercury \Venus \Earth Ä Å Æ \Mars \Jupiter \Saturn Ç È É \Uranus \Neptune \Pluto À Á \Sun \Moon

Table 142: mathabx Astronomical Symbols

A B M @

\Mercury \Venus \fullmoon \Sun

C D K J

\Earth \Mars \leftmoon \varEarth

E F N

\Jupiter \Saturn \newmoon

G H L

\Uranus \Neptune \rightmoon

I

\Pluto

mathabx also defines \girl as an alias for \Venus, \boy as an alias for \Mars, and \Moon as an alias for \leftmoon.

Table 143: wasysym Astrological Symbols \aries \taurus \gemini \cancer \leo \virgo \conjunction \libra \scorpio \sagittarius \opposition \capricornus \aquarius \pisces

Table 144: marvosym Astrological Symbols à á â \Aries \Taurus \Gemini ã ä å \Cancer \Leo \Virgo æ ç è \Libra \Scorpio \Sagittarius é ê ë \Capricorn \Aquarius \Pisces

Note that \Aries . . . \Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} . . . \Zodiac{12}.

Table 145: mathabx Astrological Symbols

P

\Aries

Q

\Taurus

R

\Gemini

Table 146: wasysym APL Symbols \APLbox \APLcomment \APLdown \APLdownarrowbox \APLinput ÷ - \APLinv \APLleftarrowbox \APLlog \APLminus \APLrightarrowbox \APLstar \APLup \APLuparrowbox \notbackslash \notslash

- \ - /

Table 147: wasysym APL Modifiers \APLcirc{} \APLnot{} 42 | \APLvert{}

Table 148: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols Í Ï \ComputerMouse \Keyboard Ñ Ò \ParallelPort \Printer Î Ð \SerialInterface \SerialPort

Table 149: ascii Control Characters (IBM) \SOH \STX \ETX \EOT \ENQ \ACK · \BEL \BS \HT \LF \VT \FF \CR \SO \SI \DLE \DCa \DCb ¶ § \DCc \DCd \NAK \SYN \ETB \CAN \EM \SUB \ESC \FS \GS \RS ¦ \US \splitvert \DEL

SOH, STX, ETX, . . ., US are the names of ASCII characters 1­31. DEL is the name of ASCII character 127. \splitvert doesn't correspond to a control character but is merely the "|" character shown IBM style. These characters must be entered with the ascii font in effect, for example, "{\ascii\STX}". See the ascii package documentation for more information.

Table 150: marvosym Communication Symbols k z \Email \Emailct t u \fax \FAX v B \Faxmachine \Letter E H \Lightning \Mobilefone A T \Pickup \Telefon

Table 151: marvosym Engineering Symbols " # > · % ­ \Beam \Bearing \Circpipe \Circsteel \Fixedbearing \Flatsteel

l ' & L $ TM

\Force \Hexasteel \Lefttorque \Lineload \Loosebearing \Lsteel

` ~ " ' Y

\Octosteel \Rectpipe \Rectsteel \Righttorque \RoundedLsteel \RoundedTsteel

-- " oe s

\RoundedTTsteel \Squarepipe \Squaresteel \Tsteel \TTsteel

\RoundedLsteel and \RoundedTsteel seem to be swapped, at least in the 2000/05/01 version of marvosym.

Table 152: wasysym Biological Symbols \female \male

Table 153: marvosym Biological Symbols ~ ,, \Female \FEMALE \FemaleFemale ... } \FemaleMale \Hermaphrodite \HERMAPHRODITE 43 , | \MALE \Male \MaleMale { \Neutral

Table 154: marvosym Safety-related Symbols h n \Biohazard \BSEfree C J \CEsign \Estatically ` a \Explosionsafe \Laserbeam j ! \Radioactivity \Stopsign

44

5

Dingbats

Dingbats are symbols such as stars, arrows, and geometric shapes. They are commonly used as bullets in itemized lists or, more generally, as a means to draw attention to the text that follows. A The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. Among other capabilities, pifont provides a L TEX interface to the Zapf Dingbats font (one of the standard 35 PostScript fonts). However, rather than name each of the dingbats individually, pifont merely provides a single \ding command, which outputs the character that lies at a given position in the font. The consequence is that the pifont symbols can't be listed by name in this document's index, so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol.

y {

Table 155: bbding Arrows \ArrowBoldDownRight \ArrowBoldRightCircled

z w

\ArrowBoldRightShort \ArrowBoldRightStrobe

x

\ArrowBoldUpRight

Table 156: pifont Arrows \ding{212} \ding{213} \ding{214} \ding{215} \ding{216} \ding{217} \ding{218} \ding{219} \ding{220} \ding{221} \ding{222} \ding{223} \ding{224} \ding{225} \ding{226} \ding{227} \ding{228} \ding{229} \ding{230} \ding{231} \ding{232} \ding{233} \ding{234} \ding{235} \ding{236} \ding{237} \ding{238} \ding{239} \ding{241} \ding{242} \ding{243} \ding{244} \ding{245} \ding{246} \ding{247} \ding{248} \ding{249} \ding{250} \ding{251} \ding{252} \ding{253} \ding{254}

Table 157: marvosym Scissors s r \Cutleft \Cutline q R \Cutright \Kutline S Q \Leftscissors \Rightscissors

§ ¦ ¤ £

Table 158: bbding Scissors \ScissorHollowLeft \ScissorHollowRight \ScissorLeft \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom

¥ ¡ ¢

\ScissorLeftBrokenTop \ScissorRight \ScissorRightBrokenBottom \ScissorRightBrokenTop

Table 159: pifont Scissors \ding{33} \ding{34} \ding{35} \ding{36}

Table 160: dingbat Pencils

W

\largepencil

P

45

\smallpencil

Table 161: bbding Pencils and Nibs \NibLeft \NibRight \NibSolidLeft \NibSolidRight

\PencilLeft \PencilLeftDown \PencilLeftUp \PencilRight

\PencilRightDown \PencilRightUp

Table 162: pifont Pencils and Nibs \ding{46} \ding{47} \ding{48} \ding{49} \ding{50}

R D U

\leftpointright \leftthumbsdown \leftthumbsup

L d u

Table 163: dingbat Hands \rightpointleft \rightthumbsdown \rightthumbsup

N

\rightpointright

Table 164: bbding Hands \HandCuffLeft \HandCuffLeftUp \HandCuffRight \HandCuffRightUp \HandLeft \HandLeftUp

\HandPencilLeft \HandRight \HandRightUp

Table 165: pifont Hands \ding{42} \ding{43} \ding{44} \ding{45}

* 4 .

Table 166: bbding Crosses and Plusses \Cross \CrossBoldOutline \CrossClowerTips \CrossMaltese

+ , ' (

\CrossOpenShadow \CrossOutline \Plus \PlusCenterOpen

& )

\PlusOutline \PlusThinCenterOpen

Table 167: pifont Crosses and Plusses \ding{57} \ding{58} \ding{59} \ding{60} \ding{61} \ding{62} \ding{63} \ding{64}

! "

Table 168: bbding Xs and Check Marks \Checkmark \CheckmarkBold

# $

\XSolid \XSolidBold 46

%

\XSolidBrush

Table 169: pifont Xs and Check Marks \ding{51} \ding{52} \ding{53} \ding{54} \ding{55} \ding{56}

Table 170: wasysym Xs and Check Marks \CheckedBox \Square \XBox

Table 171: pifont Circled Numbers \ding{172} \ding{173} \ding{174} \ding{175} \ding{176} \ding{177} \ding{178} \ding{179} \ding{180} \ding{181} \ding{182} \ding{183} \ding{184} \ding{185} \ding{186} \ding{187} \ding{188} \ding{189} \ding{190} \ding{191} \ding{192} \ding{193} \ding{194} \ding{195} \ding{196} \ding{197} \ding{198} \ding{199} \ding{200} \ding{201} \ding{202} \ding{203} \ding{204} \ding{205} \ding{206} \ding{207} \ding{208} \ding{209} \ding{210} \ding{211}

pifont (part of the psnfss package) provides a dingautolist environment which resembles enumerate but uses circled numbers as bullets.2 See the psnfss documentation for more information.

Table 172: wasysym Stars \davidsstar \hexstar \varhexstar

N A B X C D 0 / Z S Y H I F E R

2 In

Table 173: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes \Asterisk \AsteriskBold \AsteriskCenterOpen \AsteriskRoundedEnds \AsteriskThin \AsteriskThinCenterOpen \DavidStar \DavidStarSolid \EightAsterisk \EightFlowerPetal \EightFlowerPetalRemoved \EightStar \EightStarBold \EightStarConvex \EightStarTaper \FiveFlowerOpen

P 8 ; ? 7 9 : < = > @ 1 V W 5 6

\FiveFlowerPetal \FiveStar \FiveStarCenterOpen \FiveStarConvex \FiveStarLines \FiveStarOpen \FiveStarOpenCircled \FiveStarOpenDotted \FiveStarOutline \FiveStarOutlineHeavy \FiveStarShadow \FourAsterisk \FourClowerOpen \FourClowerSolid \FourStar \FourStarOpen

2 3 O U M Q L [ G K ` ^ _ ] \ J

\JackStar \JackStarBold \SixFlowerAlternate \SixFlowerAltPetal \SixFlowerOpenCenter \SixFlowerPetalDotted \SixFlowerPetalRemoved \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal \SixStar \SixteenStarLight \Snowflake \SnowflakeChevron \SnowflakeChevronBold \Sparkle \SparkleBold \TwelweStar

fact, dingautolist can use any set of consecutive Zapf Dingbats symbols.

47

Table 174: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes \ding{65} \ding{66} \ding{67} \ding{68} \ding{69} \ding{70} \ding{71} \ding{72} \ding{73} \ding{74} \ding{75} \ding{76} \ding{77} \ding{78} \ding{79} \ding{80} \ding{81} \ding{82} \ding{83} \ding{84} \ding{85} \ding{86} \ding{87} \ding{88} \ding{89} \ding{90} \ding{91} \ding{92} \ding{93} \ding{94} \ding{95} \ding{96} \ding{97} \ding{98} \ding{99} \ding{100} \ding{101} \ding{102} \ding{103} \ding{104} \ding{105} \ding{106} \ding{107}

Table 175: wasysym Geometric Shapes \hexagon \octagon \pentagon \varhexagon

7 8 & G 2 5 4 6 3 ) S ¥ ¦ § T

Table 176: ifsym Geometric Shapes \BigCircle \BigCross \BigDiamondshape \BigHBar \BigLowerDiamond \BigRightDiamond \BigSquare \BigTriangleDown \BigTriangleLeft \BigTriangleRight \BigTriangleUp \BigVBar \Circle \Cross \DiamondShadowA \DiamondShadowB \DiamondShadowC \Diamondshape \FilledBigCircle \FilledBigDiamondshape \FilledBigSquare \FilledBigTriangleDown \FilledBigTriangleLeft

e ¨ © f u v p s r t q £ ¤ d ' o c

\FilledBigTriangleRight \FilledBigTriangleUp \FilledCircle \FilledDiamondShadowA \FilledDiamondShadowC \FilledDiamondshape \FilledSmallCircle \FilledSmallDiamondshape \FilledSmallSquare \FilledSmallTriangleDown \FilledSmallTriangleLeft \FilledSmallTriangleRight \FilledSmallTriangleUp \FilledSquare \FilledSquareShadowA \FilledSquareShadowC \FilledTriangleDown \FilledTriangleLeft \FilledTriangleRight \FilledTriangleUp \HBar \LowerDiamond \RightDiamond

i p ( y d g f h e 1 * ) H ¡ ¢ Q P R I 0

\SmallCircle \SmallCross \SmallDiamondshape \SmallHBar \SmallLowerDiamond \SmallRightDiamond \SmallSquare \SmallTriangleDown \SmallTriangleLeft \SmallTriangleRight \SmallTriangleUp \SmallVBar \SpinDown \SpinUp \Square \SquareShadowA \SquareShadowB \SquareShadowC \TriangleDown \TriangleLeft \TriangleRight \TriangleUp \VBar

The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine some of the above into useful, new symbols. For example, \BigCircle and \FilledSmallCircle combine to give " ". Likewise, \Square and \Cross combine to give " ". See Section 7.2 for more information about constructing new symbols out of existing symbols.

H

7 u

48

d a p b e c s r

\CircleShadow \CircleSolid \DiamondSolid \Ellipse \EllipseShadow \EllipseSolid \HalfCircleLeft \HalfCircleRight

u v t f k m l h

Table 177: bbding Geometric Shapes \Rectangle \RectangleBold \RectangleThin \Square \SquareCastShadowBottomRight \SquareCastShadowTopLeft \SquareCastShadowTopRight \SquareShadowBottomRight

j i g o n

\SquareShadowTopLeft \SquareShadowTopRight \SquareSolid \TriangleDown \TriangleUp

Table 178: pifont Geometric Shapes \ding{108} \ding{109} \ding{110} \ding{111} \ding{112} \ding{113} \ding{114} \ding{115} \ding{116} \ding{117} \ding{119} \ding{120} \ding{121} \ding{122}

¡

Table 179: universa Geometric Shapes \baucircle

\bausquare

¢

\bautriangle

Table 180: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols \dbend \lhdbend \reversedvideodbend

Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. manfnt also defines nondescending versions, which it calls, correspondingly, \textdbend, \textlhdbend, and \textreversedvideodbend.

Table 181: skull Symbols

A

\skull

Table 182: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols

O

\rip

Table 183: marvosym Information Symbols ® V U K X \Bicycle \Checkedbox \Clocklogo \Coffeecup \Crossedbox o x I i y \Football \Gentsroom \Industry \Info \Ladiesroom 49 Z w b \Pointinghand \Wheelchair \Writinghand

O C D

q

Table 184: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats \anchor \carriagereturn \checkmark

E C

I

\eye \filledsquarewithdots \satellitedish

S B Z

\Sborder \squarewithdots \Zborder

Table 185: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats \Envelope \OrnamentDiamondSolid

! ¨

\Peace \Phone

©

\PhoneHandset \Plane

\SunshineOpenCircled \Tape

Table 186: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats \ding{37} \ding{38} \ding{39} \ding{40} \ding{41} \ding{118} \ding{164} \ding{165} \ding{166} \ding{167} \ding{168} \ding{170} \ding{171} \ding{169}

50

6

Other symbols

The following are all the symbols that didn't fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections. (Do weather symbols belong under "Science and technology"? Should dice be considered "mathematics"?) While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e.g., musical notes), others represent motley assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing.

Table 187: textcomp Genealogical Symbols \textborn \textdied \textdivorced \textleaf \textmarried

Table 188: wasysym General Symbols \ataribox \bell \blacksmiley \Bowtie \brokenvert \checked \clock \diameter \DOWNarrow \frownie \invdiameter \kreuz \LEFTarrow \lightning \phone \pointer \recorder \RIGHTarrow \smiley \sun \UParrow \wasylozenge

Table 189: wasysym Musical Notes \eighthnote \halfnote \twonotes \fullnote \quarternote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 125 on page 38).

Table 190: wasysym Circles \CIRCLE \Circle \LEFTCIRCLE \LEFTcircle \Leftcircle \RIGHTCIRCLE \RIGHTcircle \Rightcircle \leftturn \rightturn

Table 191: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols \manboldkidney \manconcentriccircles \manconcentricdiamond \mancone \mancube \manerrarrow \manfilledquartercircle \manhpennib \manimpossiblecube \mankidney \manlhpenkidney \manpenkidney \manquadrifolium \manquartercircle \manrotatedquadrifolium \manrotatedquartercircle \manstar \mantiltpennib \mantriangledown \mantriangleright \mantriangleup \manvpennib

51

Table 192: marvosym Navigation Symbols · ¸ ¹ \Forward \ForwardToEnd \ForwardToIndex » º ¶ \MoveDown \MoveUp \Rewind ´ µ ½ \RewindToIndex \RewindToStart \ToBottom ¼ \ToTop

Table 193: marvosym Laundry Symbols Ø Ó Õ Ë « ¾ ¿ ¬ Ý \AtForty \AtNinetyFive \AtSixty \Bleech \CleaningA \CleaningF \CleaningFF \CleaningP \CleaningPP \Dontwash Ü ¯ ° ± Ì ¨ ² × Ù \Handwash \IroningI \IroningII \IroningIII \NoBleech \NoChemicalCleaning \NoIroning \NoTumbler \ShortFifty \ShortForty Ô Ö Û Ú S < \ShortNinetyFive \ShortSixty \ShortThirty \SpecialForty \Tumbler \WashCotton \WashSynthetics \WashWool

Table 194: Other marvosym Symbols ^ ý ¥ ª

\Ankh \Bat \Bouquet \Celtcross \CircledA

F f §

\Cross \FHBOlogo \FHBOLOGO \Frowny \FullFHBO

OE ÿ m @ :

\Heart \MartinVogel \Mundus \MVAt \Rightarrow

© þ Y

\Smiley \Womanface \Yinyang

A Standard L TEX 2 defines \Rightarrow to display "", while marvosym redefines it to display ":" (or ":" in math mode). This conflict can be problematic for math symbols defined in terms of \Rightarrow, such as \Longleftrightarrow, which ends up looking like " :".

Table 195: Miscellaneous universa Symbols

¤

\bauforms

£

\bauhead

52

' 2 3 5 4

Table 196: ifsym Weather Symbols \Cloud \FilledCloud \FilledRainCloud \FilledSunCloud \FilledWeakRainCloud \Fog

# & ! (

\Hail \HalfSun \Lightning \NoSun \Rain \RainCloud

$ % 1 0

\Sleet \Snow \SnowCloud \Sun \SunCloud \ThinFog

" ) 6

\WeakRain \WeakRainCloud \FilledSnowCloud

In addition, \Thermo{0}. . .\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between 0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury:

¥¦§¨© ¤X

Similarly, \wind{ sun }{ angle }{ strength } will draw wind symbols with a given amount of sun (0­4), a given angle (in degrees), and a given strength in km/h (0­ 100). For example, \wind{0}{0}{0} produces " ", \wind{2}{0}{0} produces " ", and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces " ".

¢H

H

Table 197: ifsym Alpine Symbols

\SummitSign \StoneMan \Hut \FilledHut \Village

! " # $

\Summit \Mountain \IceMountain \VarMountain \VarIceMountain

% & ' ) (

\SurveySign \Joch \Flag \VarFlag \Tent

1 0

\HalfFilledHut \VarSummit

\Interval \StopWatchEnd

Table 198: ifsym Clocks \StopWatchStart \Taschenuhr

\VarClock \VarTaschenuhr

\Wecker

ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. \showclock{ hours }{ minutes } outputs a clock displaying the corresponding time. For instance, "\showclock{5}{40}" produces " ". hours must be an integer from 0 to 11, and minutes must be an integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55.

D

Table 199: Other ifsym Symbols

¢ X XX

\FilledSectioningDiamond \Fire \Irritant \StrokeOne \StrokeTwo

¤ £ XXX XXXX

\Letter \PaperLandscape \PaperPortrait \StrokeThree \StrokeFour

¡ @ Y

\Radiation \SectioningDiamond \Telephone \StrokeFive

In addition, \Cube{1}. . .\Cube{6} produce dice with the corresponding number of spots: ¥ ¦ § ¨ ©

53

Table 200: skak Chess Informator Symbols

g i b a e I n V t G

RR

\bbetter \bdecisive \betteris \bishoppair \bupperhand \centre \comment \compensation \counterplay \devadvantage \diagonal

d L j P H O x y m S U

\doublepawns \ending \equal \etc \file \kside \markera \markerb \mate \morepawns \moreroom

F o r M s l q T k u

N

\novelty \onlymove \opposbishops \passedpawn \qside \samebishops \see \seppawns \timelimit \unclear \unitedpawns

f h J w A E C v c D

R

\various \wbetter \wdecisive \weakpt \with \withattack \withidea \withinit \without \wupperhand \zugzwang

The above symbols are merely the named informator symbol. skak can typeset many more chess-related symbols, including those for all of the pieces ( / ), but only in the context of moves and boards, not A as individual, named L TEX symbols.

KQRBNP kqrbnp

54

7

Additional Information

Unlike the previous sections of this document, Section 7 does not contain new symbol tables. Rather, it provides A additional help in using the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List. First, it draws attention to symbol names used by multiple packages. Next, it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. Then, it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols in math mode. After that, it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide, showing how to enter all of A the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in L TEX. And finally, it lists some statistics about this document itself.

7.1

Symbol Name Clashes

Unfortunately, a number of symbol names are not unique; they appear in more than one package. Depending A on how the symbols are defined in each package, L TEX will either output an error message or replace an earlier-defined symbol with a later-defined symbol. Table 201 presents a selection of name clashes that appear in this document. Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document--or even merely loading conflicting symbol packages--can be tricky, but, as evidenced by the existence of Table 201, not impossible. The general procedure is to load the first package, rename the conflicting symbols, and then load the second package. ExA amine the L TEX source for this document (symbols.tex)--especially the \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros and their subsequent usage--to see one possible way to handle symbol conflicts. txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols--essentially, all of the symbols defined by latexsym, A textcomp, the various AMS symbol sets, and L TEX 2 itself. Similarly, mathabx redefines a vast number of math symbols in an attempt to improve their look. The txfonts, pxfonts, and mathabx conflicts are not listed in Table 201 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace. Table 202 on page 57 illustrates what "compatible" means in this context. To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document's main font, merely reset the default font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages: \renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss} \renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt}

7.2

Where can I find the symbol for . . . ?

If you can't find some symbol you're looking for in this document, there are a few possible explanations: · The symbol isn't intuitively named. As a few examples, the command to draw dice is "\Cube"; a plus sign with a circle around it ("exclusive or" to computer engineers) is "\oplus"; and lightning bolts in fonts designed by German speakers may have "blitz" in their names. The moral of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index. · The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant). If there's some A symbol package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List, please send me e-mail at the address listed on the title page. · The symbol isn't defined in any package whatsoever.

A Even in the last case, all is not lost. Sometimes, a symbol exists in a font, but there is no L TEX binding for it. For example, the PostScript Symbol font contains a "" symbol, which may be useful for representing a carriage return, but there is no package for accessing that symbol (as far as I know). To A produce an unnamed symbol, you need to switch to the font explicitly with L TEX 2 's low-level font comA mands [L T00] and use TEX's primitive \char command [Knu86a] to request a specific character number in the font.3 In fact, \char is not strictly necesssary; the character can often be entered symbolically. For example, the symbol for a Tate-Shafarevich group (" ") is actually an uppercase sha in the Cyrillic alphabet. (Cyrillic is supported by the OT2 font encoding, for instance). While a sha can be defined numerically as "{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont\char88}" it may be more intuitive to use the OT2 font encoding's "SH" ligature: "{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont SH}".

X

3 pifont defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. "\Pisymbol{psy}{191}" produces "".

For example,

55

Table 201: Symbol Name Clashes

A L TEX 2

Symbol

AMS stmaryrd wasysym mathabx marvosym bbding ifsym dingbat

wsuipa

<

D

B E : À

*

56

Ï Î ñ

5

f o n

\baro \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \checkmark \Circle \Cross \ggg \Letter \lightning \Lightning \lll \Rightarrow \Square \Sun \TriangleDown \TriangleUp

@

0 3 1

Table 202: Example of a Benign Name Clash Symbol R \textrecipe Default (Computer Modern) txfonts (Times Roman)

R

R

Reflecting and rotating existing symbols A common request on comp.text.tex is for a reversed or rotated version of an existing symbol. As a last resort, these effects can be achieved with the graphicx (or graphics) package's \reflectbox and \rotatebox macros. For example, \rotatebox[origin=c]{180}{$\iota$} produces the definite-description operator (" "). The disadvantage of the graphicx/graphics approach is that not every TEX backend handles graphical transformations.4 Far better is to find a suitable font that contains the desired symbol in the correct orientation. For instance, if the phonetic package is available, then \textit{\riota} will yield a backendindependent " ". Similarly, tipa's \textrevepsilon ("3") or wsuipa's \revepsilon ("") may be used to express the mathematical notion of "such that" in a cleaner manner than with \reflectbox or \rotatebox.

Joining and overlapping existing symbols

A Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols. The L TEX 2 source file fontdef.dtx contains a number of such definitions. For example, \models (see Table 42 on page 21) is defined in that file with:

\def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=} where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. \def is the TEX primitive upon A which L TEX's \newcommand is based. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information on all three of those commands. With some simple pattern-matching, one can easily define a backward \models sign ("=|"): \def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|} In general, arrows/harpoons, horizontal lines ("=", "-", "\relbar", and "\Relbar"), and the various mathextension characters can be combined creatively with miscellaneous other characters to produce a variety of A new symbols. Of course, new symbols can be composed from any set of existing characters. For instance, L TEX defines \hbar (" ") as a "¯" character (\mathchar'26) followed by a backspace of 9 math units (\mkern-9mu), followed by the letter "h": \def\hbar{{\mathchar'26\mkern-9muh}} We can just as easily define other barred letters: \def\bbar{{\mathchar'26\mkern-9mu b}} \def\dbar{{\mathchar'26\mkern-12mu d}} (The space after the "mu" is optional but is added for clarity.) \bbar and \dbar define "¯" and "¯ respectively. b d", Note that \dbar requires a greater backward math kern than \bbar; a -9 mu kern would have produced the less-attractive "¯" glyph. d There is a TEX primitive called \mathaccent which centers one mathematical symbol atop another. For · example, one can define \dotcup ("")--the composition of a \cup and a \cdot--as follows: \newcommand{\dotcup}{\ensuremath{\mathaccent\cdot\cup}}

4 As

an example, Xdvi ignores both \reflectbox and \rotatebox.

57

The catch is that \mathaccent requires the accent to be a "math character". That is, it must be a character in a math font as opposed to a symbol defined in terms of other symbols. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information. The slashed package, although originally designed for producing Feynman slashed-character notation, in fact facilitates the production of arbitrary overlapped symbols. The default behavior is to overwrite a given / character with "/". For example, \slashed{D} produces "D". However, the \declareslashed command provides the flexibility to specify the mathematical context of the composite character (operator, relation, punctuation, etc., as will be discussed in Section 7.3), the overlapping symbol, horizontal and vertical adjustments in symbol-relative units, and the character to be overlapped. Consider, for example, the symbol for reduced quadrupole moment ("I"). This can be declared as follows: \newcommand{\rqm}{{% \declareslashed{}{\text{-}}{0.04}{0}{I}\slashed{I}}} \declareslashed{·}{·}{·}{·}{I} affects the meaning of all subsequent \slashed{I} commands in the same scope. The preceding definition of \rqm therefore uses an extra set of curly braces to limit that scope to a single \slashed{I}. In addition, \rqm uses amstext's \text macro (described on the next page) to make \declareslashed use a text-mode hyphen ("-") instead of a math-mode minus sign ("-") and to ensure that the hyphen scales properly in size in subscripts and superscripts. See slashed's documentation (located in slashed.sty itself) for a detailed usage description of the \slashed and \declareslashed commands. Making new symbols work in superscripts and subscripts To make composite symbols work properly within subscripts and superscripts, you may need to use TEX's \mathchoice primitive. \mathchoice evaluates one of four expressions, based on whether the current math style is display, text, script, or scriptscript. (See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for a more complete descripA tion.) For example, the following L TEX code--posted to comp.text.tex by Torsten Bronger--composes a sub/superscriptable "" symbol out of \top and \bot (" " and ""): \def\topbotatom#1{\hbox{\hbox to 0pt{$#1\bot$\hss}$#1\top$}} \newcommand*{\topbot}{\mathrel{\mathchoice{\topbotatom\displaystyle} {\topbotatom\textstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptscriptstyle}}} The following is another example that uses \mathchoice to construct symbols in different math modes. The code defines a principal value integral symbol, which is an integral sign with a line through it. \def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% \!\int} \def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} (The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TEX Users' Group FAQ at http://www.tex.ac.uk/ R faq.) R \dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign ("-"), while \ddashint produces a double-dashed R one ("="). The \Xint macro Rdefined above can also be usedR to generate a wealthR of new integrals: " " (\Xint\circlearrowright), " " (\Xint\circlearrowleft), "" (\Xint\subset), "" (\Xint\infty), and so forth. A L TEX 2 provides a simple wrapper for \mathchoice that sometimes helps produce terser symbol definitions. The macro is called \mathpalette and it takes two arguments. \mathpalette invokes the first argument, passing it one of "\displaystyle", "\textstyle", "\scriptstyle", or "\scriptscriptstyle", followed by the second argument. \mathpalette is useful when a symbol macro must know which math style is currently in use (e.g., to set it explicitly within an \mbox). Donald Arseneau posted the following \mathpalette-based definition of a probabilistic-independence symbol (" to comp.text.tex: ") 58

\newcommand\independent{\protect\mathpalette{\protect\independenT}{\perp}} \def\independenT#1#2{\mathrel{\rlap{$#1#2$}\mkern2mu{#1#2}}} The \independent macro uses \mathpalette to pass the \independenT helper macro both the current math style and the \perp symbol. \independenT typesets \perp in the current math style, moves two math units to the right, and finally typesets a second--overlapping--copy of \perp, again in the current math style. \rlap, which enables text overlap, is described later on this page. Some people like their square-root signs with a trailing "hook" (i.e., " ") as this helps visually distinguish expressions like " 3x " from those like " 3x". Dan Luecking posted a \mathpalette-based definition of a hooked square-root symbol to comp.text.tex: \def\hksqrt{\mathpalette\DHLhksqrt} \def\DHLhksqrt#1#2{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1\sqrt{#2\,}$}\dimen0=\ht0 \advance\dimen0-0.2\ht0 \setbox2=\hbox{\vrule height\ht0 depth -\dimen0}% {\box0\lower0.4pt\box2}} Notice how \DHLhksqrt uses \mathpalette to recover the outer math style (argument #1) from within an \hbox. The rest of the code is simply using TEX primitives to position a hook of height 0.2 times the \sqrt height at the right of the \sqrt. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more understanding of TEX "boxes" and "dimens". Sometimes, however, amstext's \text macro is all that is necessary to make composite symbols appear correctly in subscripts and superscripts, as in the following definitions of \neswarrow (" ") and \nwsearrow (" "):5 \newcommand{\neswarrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nearrow$\llap{$\swarrow$}}}} \newcommand{\nwsearrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nwarrow$\llap{$\searrow$}}}}

A \text resembles L TEX's \mbox command but shrinks its argument appropriately when used within a subscript or superscript. \llap ("left overlap") and its counterpart, \rlap ("right overlap"), appear frequently when creating composite characters. \llap outputs its argument to the left of the current position, overlapping whatever text is already there. Similarly, \rlap overlaps whatever text would normally appear to the right of its argument. For example, "A\llap{B}" and "\rlap{A}B" each produce "A". However, the result of the B former is the width of "A", and the result of the latter is the width of "B"--\llap{. . . } and \rlap{. . . } take up zero space. In a June 2002 post to comp.text.tex, Donald Arseneau presented a general macro for aligning an arbitrary number of symbols on their horizontal centers and vertical baselines:

\makeatletter \def\moverlay{\mathpalette\[email protected]} \def\[email protected]#1#2{\leavevmode\vtop{% \baselineskip\[email protected] \lineskiplimit-\maxdimen \ialign{\hfil$#1##$\hfil\cr#2\crcr}}} \makeatother

A \moverlay takes a list of symbols separated by \cr (TEX's equivalent of L TEX's \\). For example, the \topbot command defined on the previous page could have been expressed as "\moverlay{\top\cr\bot}" and the \neswarrow command defined above could have been expressed as "\moverlay{\nearrow\cr\swarrow}". The basic concept behind \moverlay's implementation is that \moverlay typesets the given symbols in a table that utilizes a zero \baselineskip. This causes every row to be typeset at the same vertical position. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for explanations of the TEX primitives used by \moverlay. A Modifying L TEX-generated symbols A Oftentimes, symbols composed in the L TEX 2 source code can be modified with minimal effort to produce useful variations. For example, fontdef.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 121 on page 37) out of three periods, raised 7 pt., 4 pt., and 1 pt., respectively:

5 Note

that if your goal is to typeset commutative diagrams, then you should probably be using X -pic. Y

59

\def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\[email protected] \vbox{\kern7\[email protected]\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\[email protected]\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise\[email protected]\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}}

A \[email protected] is a L TEX 2 shortcut for "pt" or "1.0pt". The remaining commands are defined in The TEXbook [Knu86a]. To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal, we merely have to reorder the \raise7\[email protected], \raise4\[email protected], and \raise\[email protected]:

\makeatletter \def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\[email protected] \vbox{\kern7\[email protected]\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\[email protected]\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise7\[email protected]\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} \makeatother

A The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce L TEX into accepting "@" as part of a macro name. \revddots is essentially identical to the mathdots package's \iddots command or the yhmath package's \adots command.

Producing complex accents Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols. While various tables in this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol, some applications, such as transliterations from non-Latin alphabets, require multiple accents per character. For instance, the creator of pdfTEX writes his name as "H`n Th´ Th`nh". The wsuipa package defines \diatop and \diaunder macros for putting one or a ^ e a more diacritics or accents above or below a given character. For example, \diaunder[{\diatop[\'|\=]}| \textsubdot{r}] produces "´". See the wsuipa documentation for more information. r ¯

The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode. Its \accentset command enables any character to be used as an accent. For instance, \accentset{\star}{f} produces "f " and e \accentset{e}{X} produces "X". \underaccent does the same thing, but places the accent beneath the character. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}, which produces "V ". accents provides ~ other accent-related features as well; see the documentation for more information. A more complex example of composing accents is the following definition of extensible \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis symbols, taken from a comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau: \makeatletter \def\overbracket#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]} \downbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underbracket#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]\nointerlineskip} \upbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]}}}}\limits} \def\overparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]} \downparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]\nointerlineskip} \upparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\[email protected]}}}}\limits} \def\downparenthfill{$\[email protected]\braceld\leaders\vrule\hfill\bracerd$} \def\upparenthfill{$\[email protected]\bracelu\leaders\vrule\hfill\braceru$} \def\upbracketfill{$\[email protected]\[email protected]{\llap{\vrule\@height3\[email protected]\@width.7\[email protected]}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\[email protected]\hfill \[email protected]{\rlap{\vrule\@height3\[email protected]\@width.7\[email protected]}}$} \def\downbracketfill{$\[email protected] \[email protected]{\llap{\vrule\@height.7\[email protected]\@depth2.3\[email protected]\@width.7\[email protected]}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\[email protected]\hfill \[email protected]{\rlap{\vrule\@height.7\[email protected]\@depth2.3\[email protected]\@width.7\[email protected]}}$} \makeatother 60

Table 203 showcases these accents. The TEXbook [Knu86a] or another book on TEX primitives is indispensible for understanding how the preceding code works. The basic idea is that \downparenthfill, \upparenthfill, \downbracketfill, and \upbracketfill do all of the work; they output a left symbol (e.g., \braceld ["z"] for \downparenthfill), a horizontal rule that stretches as wide as possible, and a right symbol (e.g., \bracerd ["{"] for \downparenthfill). \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis merely create a table whose width is determined by the given text, thereby constraining the width of the horizontal rules. Table 203: Manually Composed Extensible Accents abc abc \overbracket{abc} \underbracket{abc} abc abc | }

z {

\overparenthesis{abc} \underparenthesis{abc}

A similar, but simpler example, stems from another comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau. The A following code defines an equals sign that extends as far to the right as possible (just like L TEX's \hrulefill command): \makeatletter \def\equalsfill{$\[email protected]\mathord=\mkern-7mu \cleaders\hbox{$\!\mathord=\!$}\hfill \mkern-7mu\mathord=$} \makeatother TEX's \cleaders and \hfill primitives are the key to understanding \equalsfill's extensibility. Essentially, \equalsfill repeats a box containing "=" plus some negative space until it fills the maximum available A horizontal space. \equalsfill is intended to be used with L TEX's \stackrel command, which stacks one mathematical expression (slightly reduced in size) atop another. Hence, "\stackrel{a}{\rightarrow}" pro=== duces "" and "X \stackrel{\text{definition}}{\hbox{\equalsfill}} Y" produces "X = = = = Y ". If all that needs to extend are horizontal and vertical lines--as opposed to repeated symbols such as the A "=" in the previous example--L TEX's array or tabular environments may suffice. Consider the following code (also presented in a comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau) for typesetting annuities: \DeclareRobustCommand{\annu}[1]{_{% \def\arraystretch{0}% \setlength\arraycolsep{1pt}% adjust these \setlength\arrayrulewidth{.2pt}% two settings \begin{array}[b]{@{}c|}\hline \\[\arraycolsep]% \scriptstyle #1% \end{array}% }} One can then use, e.g., "$A\annu{x:n}$" to produce "Ax:n ". Creating new symbols from scratch Sometimes is it simply not possible to define a new symbol in terms of existing symbols. Fortunately, most, if not all, TEX distributions are shipped with a tool called METAFONT which is designed specifically for creating fonts to be used with TEX. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the authoritative text on METAFONT. If you plan to design your own symbols with METAFONT, The METAFONTbook is essential reading. Nevertheless, the A following is an extremely brief tutorial on how to create a new L TEX symbol using METAFONT. Its primary A purpose is to cover the L TEX-specific operations not mentioned in The METAFONTbook and to demonstrate that symbol-font creation is not necessarily a difficult task. Suppose we need a symbol to represent a light bulb ("A").6 The first step is to draw this in METAFONT. It is common to separate the font into two files: a size-dependent file, which specifies the design size and

6 I'm

a

definition

not a very good artist; you'll have to pretend that "A" looks like a light bulb.

61

various font-specific parameters that are a function of the design size; and a size-independent file, which draws characters in the given size. Figure 1 shows the METAFONT code for lightbulb10.mf. lightbulb10.mf specifies various parameters that produce a 10 pt. light bulb then loads lightbulb.mf. Ideally, one should produce lightbulb size .mf files for a variety of size s. This is called "optical scaling". It enables, for example, the lines that make up the light bulb to retain the same thickness at different font sizes, which looks much nicer than the alternative--and default--"mechanical scaling". When a lightbulb size .mf file does not exist for a given size size , the computer mechanically produces a wider, taller, thicker symbol:

A

10 pt.

vs.

20 pt.

A

vs.

30 pt.

A

vs.

A

40 pt.

vs.

A

50 pt.

vs.

A A

vs.

60 pt. 70 pt.

font identifier := "LightBulb10"; font size 10pt#; em# := 10pt#; cap# := 7pt#; sb# := 1/4pt#; o# := 1/16pt#; input lightbulb

% Name the font. % Specify the design size. % "M" width is 10 points. % Capital letter height is 7 points above the baseline. % Leave this much space on the side of each character. % Amount that curves overshoot borders. % Load the file that draws the actual glyph.

Figure 1: Sample METAFONT size-specific file (lightbulb10.mf) lightbulb.mf, shown in Figure 2, draws a light bulb using the parameters defined in lightbulb10.mf. Note that the the filenames "lightbulb10.mf" and "lightbulb.mf" do not follow the Berry font-naming scheme [Ber01]; the Berry font-naming scheme is largely irrelevant for symbol fonts, which generally lack bold, italic, small-caps, slanted, and other such variants. The code in Figures 1 and 2 is heavily commented and should demonstrate some of the basic concepts behind METAFONT usage: declaring variables, defining points, drawing lines and curves, and preparing to debug or fine-tune the output. Again, The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the definitive reference on METAFONT programming. METAFONT can produce "proofs" of fonts--large, labeled versions that showcase the logical structure of each character. In fact, proof mode is METAFONT's default mode. To produce a proof of lightbulb10.mf, issue the following commands at the operating-system prompt: prompt > mf lightbulb10.mf prompt > gftodvi lightbulb10.2602gf Produces lightbulb10.2602gf Produces lightbulb10.dvi

You can then view lightbulb10.dvi with any DVI viewer. The result is shown in Figure 3. Observe how the grid defined with makegrid at the bottom of Figure 2 draws vertical lines at positions 0, sb, w/2, and w - sb and horizontal lines at positions 0, -1pt, y2 , and h. Similarly, observe how the penlabels command labels all of the important coordinates: z1 , z2 , . . . , z8 and z67 , which lightbulb.mf defines to lie between z6 and z7 . Most, if not all, TEX distributions include a Plain TEX file called testfont.tex which is useful for testing new fonts in a variety of ways. One useful routine produces a table of all of the characters in the font: prompt > tex testfont This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/plain/base/testfont.tex Name of the font to test = lightbulb10 Now type a test command (\help for help):) *\table *\bye [1] Output written on testfont.dvi (1 page, 1516 bytes). 62

mode setup; define pixels(em, cap, sb); define corrected pixels(o);

% Target a given printer. % Convert to device-specific units. % Same, but add a device-specific fudge factor.

%% Define a light bulb at the character position for "A" %% with width 1/2em#, height cap#, and depth 1pt#. beginchar("A", 1/2em#, cap#, 1pt#); "A light bulb"; pickup pencircle scaled 1/2pt; %% Define the points we need. top z1 = (w/2, h + o); rt z2 = (w + sb + o - x4 , y4 ); bot z3 = (z1 - (0, w - sb - o)); lft z4 = (sb - o, 1/2[y1 , y3 ]); path bulb; bulb = z1 . . z2 . . z3 . . z4 . . cycle;

% Use a pen with a small, circular tip.

% z1 is at the top of a circle. % z2 is at the same height as z4 but the opposite side. % z3 is at the bottom of the circle. % z4 is on the left of the circle. % Define a path for the bulb itself. % The bulb is a closed path.

% z5 lies on the bulb, a little to the right of z3 . z5 = point 2 - 1/3 of bulb; z6 = (x5 , 0); % z6 is at the bottom, directly under z5 . z7 = (x8 , 0); % z7 is at the bottom, directly under z8 . z8 = point 2 + 1/3 of bulb; % z8 lies on the bulb, a little to the left of z3 . bot z67 = ( 1/2[x6 , x7 ], pen bot - o - 1/8pt); % z67 lies halfway between z6 and z7 but a jot lower. %% Draw the bulb and the base. draw bulb; draw z5 - - z6 . . z67 . . z7 - - z8 ; % Draw the bulb proper. % Draw the base of the bulb.

%% Display key positions and points to help us debug. % Label "interesting" x and y coordinates. makegrid(0, sb, w/2, w - sb)(0, -1pt, y2 , h); penlabels(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 67, 7, 8); % Label control points for debugging. endchar; end Figure 2: Sample METAFONT size-independent file (lightbulb.mf)

1

4

2

8

3

5

7

67

6

Figure 3: Proof diagram of lightbulb10.mf

63

Transcript written on testfont.log. The resulting table, stored in testfont.dvi and illustrated in Figure 4, shows every character in the font. To understand how to read the table, note that the character code for "A"--the only character defined by lightbulb10.mf--is 41 in hexadecimal (base 16) and 101 in octal (base 8).

Test of lightbulb10 on March 11, 2003 at 1127

´0 ´ 10x ´ 11x 8

´1 A 9

´2

´3

´4

´5

´6

´7 4x

A

B

C

D

E

F

Figure 4: Font table produced by testfont.tex

A The LightBulb10 font is now usable by TEX. L TEX 2 , however, needs more information before documents A can use the font. First, we create a font-description file that tells L TEX 2 how to map fonts in a given font family and encoding to a particular font in a particular font size. For symbol fonts, this mapping is fairly simple. Symbol fonts almost always use the "U" ("Unknown") font encoding and frequently occur in only one variant: normal weight and non-italicized. The filename for a font-description file important; it must be of the form " encoding family .fd", where encoding is the lowercase version of the encoding name (typically "u" for symbol fonts) and family is the name of the font family. For LightBulb10, let's call this "bulb". Figure 5 lists A A the contents of ubulb.fd. The document "L TEX 2 Font Selection" [L T00] describes \DeclareFontFamily and \DeclareFontShape in detail, but the gist of ubulb.fd is first to declare a U-encoded version of the bulb A font family and then to specify that a L TEX 2 request for a U-encoded version of bulb with a (m)edium font series (as opposed to, e.g., bold) and a (n)ormal font shape (as opposed to, e.g., italic) should translate into a TEX request for lightbulb10.tfm mechanically scaled to the current font size.

\DeclareFontFamily{U}{bulb}{} \DeclareFontShape{U}{bulb}{m}{n}{<-> lightbulb10}{}

A Figure 5: L TEX 2 font-description file (ubulb.fd) A The final step is to write a L TEX 2 style file that defines a name for each symbol in the font. Because we have only one symbol our style file, lightbulb.sty (Figure 6), is rather trivial. Note that instead of typesetting "A" we could have had \lightbulb typeset "\char65", "\char"41", or "\char'101" (respectively, decimal, hexadecimal, and octal character offsets into the font). For a simple, one-character symbol font such as LightBulb10 it would be reasonable to merge ubulb.fd into lightbulb.sty instead of maintaining two separate files. In either case, a document need only include "\usepackage{lightbulb}" to make the \lightbulb symbol available.

\newcommand{\lightbulb}{{\usefont{U}{bulb}{m}{n}A}}

A Figure 6: L TEX 2 style file (lightbulb.sty)

METAFONT normally produces bitmapped fonts. However, it is also possible, with the help of some external tools, to produce PostScript Type 1 fonts. These have the advantages of rendering better in Adobe® Acrobat® (at least in versions prior to 6.0) and of being more memory-efficient when handled by a PostScript interpreter. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=textrace for pointers to tools that can produce Type 1 fonts from METAFONT.

7.3

Math-mode spacing

Terms such as "binary operators", "relations", and "punctuation" in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding A spacing. (See the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject.) To use a symbol 64

for a different purpose, you can use the TEX commands \mathord, \mathop, \mathbin, \mathrel, \mathopen, \mathclose, and \mathpunct. For example, if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an "ordinary" symbol) instead of a delimiter, you can write "$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$" to get the properly spaced "3x + " rather than the awkward-looking "3x+ ". Similarly, to create a dotted-union symbol ("") that spaces like the ordinary set-union symbol (\cup) it must be defined with \mathbin, just as \cup is. Contrast "$A \dot{\cup} B$" ("AB") with "$A \mathbin{\dot{\cup}} B$" ("A B"). See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for the definitive description of math-mode spacing. The purpose of the "log-like symbols" in Tables 84 and 85 is to provide the correct amount of spacing around and within multiletter function names. Table 204 contrasts the output of the log-like symbols with various, na¨ alternatives. In addition to spacing, the log-like symbols also handle subscripts properly. For ive example, "\max_{p \in P}" produces "maxpP " in text, but "max" as part of a displayed formula.

pP

Table 204: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols

A L TEX expression

Output r sin rsin rsin (best)

$r \sin \theta$ $r sin \theta$ $r \mbox{sin} \theta$

The amsmath package makes it straightforward to define new log-like symbols: \DeclareMathOperator{\atan}{atan} \DeclareMathOperator*{\lcm}{lcm} The difference between \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* involves the handling of subscripts. With \DeclareMathOperator*, subscripts are written beneath log-like symbols in display style and to the right in text style. This is useful for limit operators (e.g., \lim) and functions that tend to map over a set (e.g., \min). In contrast, \DeclareMathOperator tells TEX that subscripts should always be displayed to the right of the operator, as is common for functions that take a single parameter (e.g., \log and \cos). Table 205 contrasts symbols declared with \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* in both text style ($. . .$) and display style (\[. . .\]).7 Table 205: Defining new log-like symbols Declaration function \DeclareMathOperator \DeclareMathOperator* $\newlogsym {p \in P}$ newlogsympP newlogsympP \[ \newlogsym {p \in P} \] newlogsympP newlogsym

pP

It is common to use a thin space (\,) between the words of a multiword operators, as in "\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\,max}". \liminf, \limsup, and all of the log-like symbols shown in Table 85 utilize this spacing convention.

7.4

Bold mathematical symbols

A L TEX does not normally use bold symbols when typeseting mathematics. However, bold symbols are occasionally needed, for example when naming vectors. Any of the approaches described at http://www.tex.ac.uk/ cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=boldgreek can be used to produce bold mathematical symbols. Table 206 contrasts the output produced by these various techniques. As the table illustrates, these techniques exhibit variation in their formatting of Latin letters (upright vs. italic), formatting of Greek letters (bold vs. normal), formatting of operators and relations (bold vs. normal), and spacing.

7 Note that \displaystyle can be used to force display style within $. . .$ and \textstyle can be used to force text style within \[. . .\].

65

Table 206: Producing bold mathematical symbols Package none none none amsbsy amsbsy bm fixmath Code $\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\mathbf{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ \boldmath$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\pmb{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\boldsymbol{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\bm{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\mathbold{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ Output +b=÷D +b=÷D +b=÷D +b=÷D +b=÷D +b=÷D +b= ÷D (no bold)

(faked bold)

7.5

ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference

A Table 207 amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient reference for L TEX 2 typesetting of ASCII characters, i.e., the characters available on a typical U.S. computer keyboard. The first two columns list the character's ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. The third column shows what A the character looks like. The fourth column lists the L TEX 2 command to typeset the character as a text A character. And the fourth column lists the L TEX 2 command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

A Table 207: L TEX 2 ASCII Table

Dec 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 . . . 57 58 59 60 61

Hex 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 . . . 39 3A 3B 3C 3D

Char ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; < =

Body text ! \textquotedbl \# \$ \% \& ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; \textless =

\texttt ! " \# \$ \% \& ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; < =

Dec 62 63 64 65 66 67 . . . 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 . . . 122 123 124 125 126

Hex 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 . . . 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 . . . 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E

Char > ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \ ] ^ ` a b c . . . z { | } ~

Body text \textgreater ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \textbackslash ] \^{} \_ ` a b c . . . z \{ \textbar \} \~{}

\texttt > ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \char`\\ ] \^{} \char`\_ ` a b c . . . z \char`\{ | \char`\} \~{}

The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 207: · """ is not available in the OT1 font encoding. · The characters "<", ">", and "|" do work as expected in math mode, although they produce, respectively,

66

"¡", "¿", and "--" in text mode.8 Hence, $<$, $>$, and $|$ serve as a terser alternative to \textless, \textgreater, and \textbar. Note that for typesetting metavariables many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless and \textgreater, i.e., " filename " instead of "<filename>".

A · Although "/" does not require any special treatment, L TEX additionally defines a \slash command which outputs the same glyph but permits a line break afterwards. That is, "increase/decrease" is always typeset as a single entity while "increase\slash{}decrease" may be typeset with "increase/" on one line and "decrease" on the next.

· The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. In other encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly. · \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}. Note that \textasciitilde and \~{} produce raised, diacritic tildes. "Text" (i.e., vertically centered) tildes can be generated with either the math-mode \sim command (shown in Table 42 on page 21), which produces a somewhat wide "", or the textcomp package's \texttildelow (shown in Table 24 on page 15), which produces a vertically centered "~" in most fonts but a baseline-oriented " " in Computer Modern, txfonts, pxfonts, and various other fonts originating from the TEX world. If your goal is to typeset tildes in URLs or Unix filenames, your best bet is to use the url package, which has a number of nice features such as proper line-breaking of such names. · The IBM version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package. See Table 149 on page 43. · To replace "`" and "'" with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) "`" and "'" within a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and \char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.) Similar to Table 207, Table 208 on the next page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this document. While Table 207 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 208 shows the Latin 1 (Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 208: · A "(tc)" after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A "(T1)" means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. · Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 12 on page 11 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron.

A · The commands in the "L TEX 2 " columns work both in body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

· Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called "CP1252" (Code Page 1252). CP1252 adds codes in the range 128­159 (hexadecimal 80­9F), including characters such as dashes, daggers, and A quotation marks. If there's sufficient interest, a future version of the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List may include a CP1252 table. While too large to incorporate into this document, a listing of ISO 8879:1986 SGML/XML character entities A and their L TEX equivalents is available from http://www.bitjungle.com/~isoent/. Some of the characters A presented there make use of isoent, a L TEX 2 package (available from the same URL) that fakes some of the A X picture environment.9 missing ISO glyphs using the L TE

8 Donald Knuth didn't think such symbols were important outside of mathematics, so he omitted them from the OT1 font encoding. 9 isoent is not featured in this document, because it is not available from CTAN and because the faked symbols are not "true" characters; they exist in only one size, regardless of the body text's font size.

67

A Table 208: L TEX 2 Latin 1 Table

Dec 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208

Hex A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0

Char ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ ` A ´ A ^ A ~ A ¨ A ° A Æ C ¸ ` E ´ E ^ E ¨ E ` I ´ I ^ I ¨ I Ð

A L TEX 2

Dec (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

Hex D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

Char ~ N ` O ´ O ^ O ~ O ¨ O × Ø ` U ´ U ^ U ¨ U ´ Y Þ ß a ` a ´ a ^ a ~ a ¨ ° a æ c ¸ ` e ´ e ^ e ¨ e ` i ´ i ^ i ¨ i ð n ~ o ` o ´ o ^ o ~ o ¨ ÷ ø u ` u ´ u ^ u ¨ y ´ þ y ¨

A L TEX 2

!` \textcent \pounds \textcurrency \textyen \textbrokenbar \S \textasciidieresis \textcopyright \textordfeminine \guillemotleft \textlnot \textregistered \textasciimacron \textdegree \textpm \texttwosuperior \textthreesuperior \textasciiacute \textmu \P \textperiodcentered \c{} \textonesuperior \textordmasculine \guillemotright \textonequarter \textonehalf \textthreequarters ?` \`{A} \'{A} \^{A} \~{A} \"{A} \AA \AE \c{C} \`{E} \'{E} \^{E} \"{E} \`{I} \'{I} \^{I} \"{I} \DH

(T1) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc)

(tc)

(tc) (tc) (tc)

(T1)

\~{N} \`{O} \'{O} \^{O} \~{O} \"{O} \texttimes \O \`{U} \'{U} \^{U} \"{U} \'{Y} \TH \ss \`{a} \'{a} \^{a} \~{a} \"{a} \aa \ae \c{c} \`{e} \'{e} \^{e} \"{e} \`{i} \'{i} \^{i} \"{i} \dh \~{n} \`{o} \'{o} \^{o} \~{o} \"{o} \textdiv \o \`{u} \'{u} \^{u} \"{u} \'{y} \th \"{y}

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

(tc)

(T1)

68

7.6

About this document

History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October, 1994. It originally contained all A of the native L TEX symbols (Tables 27, 35, 42, 67, 84, 86, 101, 102, 108, 112, 125, and a few tables that have since been reorganized) and was designed to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport's book [Lam86]. Even the table captions and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Tables 28, 43, 44, 70, 71, 87, 91, 97, and 126) and an initial Math Alphabets table (Table 135) were added thereafter. Later, Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Tables 29, 37, 45, 73, 81, and 98). In January, 2001, Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented A a complete overhaul of the document. The result, now called, "The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List", includes the following new features: · the addition of a handful of new math alphabets, dozens of new font tables, and thousands of new symbols · the categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols, mathematical symbols, science and technology symbols, dingbats, and other symbols, to provide a more user-friendly document structure · an index, table of contents, and a frequently-requested symbol list, to help users quickly locate symbols · symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order

A · appendices to provide additional information relevant to using symbols in L TEX

· tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings Furthermore, the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David's original version. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend, modify, and reformat. Build characteristics Table 209 lists some of this document's build characteristics. Most important is A the list of packages that L TEX couldn't find, but that symbols.tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage of. Complete, prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www.ctan.org/ or one of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. Table 210 shows the package date (specified in the .sty file with \ProvidesPackage) for each package that was used to build this document and that specifies a package date. Packages are not listed in any particular order in either Table 209 or 210. Table 209: Document Characteristics Characteristic Source file: Build date: Symbols documented: Packages included: Value symbols.tex September 29, 2003 2826 textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa wsuipa phonetic ulsy ar txfonts mathabx fclfont skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym esvect yfonts yhmath esint mathdots trsym universa upgreek overrightarrow chemarr chemarrow nath trfsigns accents nicefrac bm mathrsfs zapfchan bbold mbboard dsfont bbm none

Packages omitted:

69

Table 210: Package versions used in the preparation of this document Name textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa wsuipa txfonts skak dingbat skull eurosym yfonts mathdots trsym universa upgreek chemarr accents nicefrac bm Date 2000/08/30 1998/08/17 1996/11/03 1994/03/03 1995/01/06 1999/05/13 2000/01/12 1999/07/01 1999/04/15 2000/08/08 2000/04/18 2001/12/31 1994/07/16 2000/12/15 2003/01/25 2001/04/27 2002/01/23 1998/08/06 2003/01/08 2001/02/28 2000/06/25 98/08/01 2003/02/12 2001/06/22 2000/08/06 1998/08/04 1999/07/05

References

[Ber01] Karl Berry. Fontname: Filenames for TEX fonts, June 2001. Available from http://www.ctan.org/ tex-archive/info/fontname.

A [Dow00] Michael Downes. Short math guide for L TEX, July 19, 2000. Version 1.07. Available from http:// www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html.

[Gib97]

Jeremy Gibbons. Hey--it works! TUGboat, 18(2):75­78, June 1997. Available from http:// www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb18-2/tb55works.pdf.

[Knu86a] Donald E. Knuth. The TEXbook, volume A of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [Knu86b] Donald E. Knuth. The METAFONTbook, volume C of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986.

A [Lam86] Leslie Lamport. L TEX: A document preparation system. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. A [L T98] A A L TEX3 Project Team. A new math accent. L TEX News. Issue 9, June 1998. Available from http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/ltnews09.pdf (also included in many TEX distributions). A A L TEX3 Project Team. L TEX 2 font selection, January 30, 2000. Available from http:// www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide.ps (also included in many TEX distributions).

A [L T00]

70

Index

If you're having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under "T" for "\text. . .". Many text-mode commands begin with that prefix. Also, accents are shown over/under a black box, e.g., " ´ " for "\'". a Some symbol entries appear to be listed repeatedly. This happens when multiple packages define identical (or nearly identical) glyphs with the same symbol name.10 Symbols \" (¨) . . . . . . . . a \# (#) . . . . . . . \$ ($) . . . . . . . . \% (%) . . . . . . . \& (&) . . . . . . . \' (´) . . . . . . . . a ( (() . . . . . . . . . ) ()) . . . . . . . . . * (*) . . . . . . . . . \, . . . . . . . . . . . \. (a) . . . . . . . . / (/) . . . . . . . . . [ ([) . . . . . . . . . ] (]) . . . . . . . . . \^ (^) . . . . . . . . a \^{} (^) . . . . . . \| ( ) . . . . . . . . \= (¯) . . . . . . . . a \={} (¯) . . . . . . | (|) . . . . . . . . . \_ ( ) . . . . . . . . \{ ({) . . . . . . . . \} (}) . . . . . . . . \` (`) . . . . . . . . a \~ (~) . . . . . . . . a \~{} (~) . . . . . . alphabets African . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Greek . . . . . . . . 29, 30, 40 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . 30, 40 math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 phonetic . . . . . . . . . 8­10 \alphaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \amalg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ampersand . . . . . . . . . . see \& AMS . . . . . . . 6, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23­26, 29­31, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 55, 69 amsbsy (package) . . . . . . . . . 66 amsfonts (package) 16, 21, 23, 26, 38, 40 amsmath (package) . . 6, 29, 65 amssymb (package) 6, 16, 21, 23, 26, 38, 40, 69­71 amstext (package) . . . . . 58, 59 \anchor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 and . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge \angle () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \angle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39 \Anglesign (W) . . . . . . . . . . 39 ° Angstr¨m unit o math mode see \mathring text mode . . . . . . see \AA angular minutes . . . . see \prime angular seconds . . . see \second \Ankh (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \annu ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 annuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 APL modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 42 symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLcirc () . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLcomment ( ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLdownarrowbox ( ) . . . . 42 \APLinput ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLinv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLleftarrowbox ( ) . . . . 42 \APLlog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLminus (-) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLnot () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLrightarrowbox ( ) . . . . 42 \APLstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \APLuparrowbox ( ) . . . . . . 42 \APLvert ( | ) . . . \apprge ( ) . . . \apprle ( ) . . . \approx () . . . \approxeq ( ) . \Aquarius (ê) . \aquarius ( ) . \AR ( ) . . . . . . ar (package) . . . \arccos (arccos) arcminutes . . . . arcseconds . . . . . \arcsin (arcsin) \arctan (arctan) \arg (arg) . . . . . \Aries ( ) . . . . \Aries (à) . . . . \aries ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . 21 . . . . . . 21 . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . 41 . . . 41, 69 . . . . . . 29 see \prime see \second . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . 42

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7, 7, ... ... ...

.. 7, 7, 7, 7, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7, 32, 32, .. .. ..

11 66 66 66 66 11 32 32 18 65 11 32 32 32 11 67 32 11 67 32 67 67 67 11 11 67

A

O

y) . 45 \ArrowBoldRightCircled ({) 45 \ArrowBoldRightShort (z) . . 45 \ArrowBoldRightStrobe (w) 45 \ArrowBoldUpRight (x) . . . 45

\ArrowBoldDownRight ( \Arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 arrows . . . . . . . . 26­28, 45, 55 diagonal, for reducing subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . 35 double-headed, diagonal 59 extensible . . . . . . . 35­37 negated . . . . . . . . . 26, 27 \Arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 Arseneau, Donald . . . . . 58­61 ASCII . . . . . 6, 8, 43, 66­67, 69 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 ascii (package) . . . . . . 43, 67, 69 \ascnode ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 41 aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \ast (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ast () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Asterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18

A a (esvect package option) . . . 37 \AA (° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 A) \aa (° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 a) abz¨glich . . see \textdiscount u \AC (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \acarc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \acbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 accents 11­13, 34­37, 42, 60­61 any character as . . . . . . 60 extensible . . 35­37, 60­61 multiple per character . 60 accents (package) . . . . 60, 69, 70 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \ACK () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \acute (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Adobe Acrobat . . . . . . . . . . 64 . \adots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . 38, 60 advancing . see \textadvancing \AE (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \ae (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \agemO ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ain (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \aleph () . . . . . . . . . . 30, 38 \alpha () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

10 This

w w ? ?

\Asterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \asterisk (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \AsteriskBold ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \AsteriskCenterOpen ( ) . . 47 \AsteriskRoundedEnds ( ) . 47 asterisks . . . . . . . . . . 18, 47, 48 \AsteriskThin ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \AsteriskThinCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47

N

¦

A C

B X

D

occurs frequently between amssymb and mathabx, for example.

71

astrological symbols . astronomical symbols \astrosun ( ) . . . . \asymp ( ) . . . . . . . \atan (atan) . . . . . . \ataribox ( ) . . . . . \AtForty (Ø) . . . . \AtNinetyFive (Ó) atomic math objects \AtSixty (Õ) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

... 41, ... ... ... ... ... ... 29, ...

42 42 41 21 65 51 52 52 65 52

\autoleftarrow (D GGGGG ) . . . 36 \autoleftrightharpoons (E GGGGG ) GGGGGC . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . 36

\autorightarrow (GGGGGA ) \autorightleftharpoons GGGGGB (F GGGGG )

\bbetter (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \bbeuro (û) . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \bbfinalnun (Ï) . . . . . . . . . 40 \bbgamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 bbgreekl (mathbbol package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 bbm (package) . . . . . . . . 40, 69 \bbnabla () . . . . . . . . . . . 40 bbold (package) . . . . . . . 40, 69 \bbpe (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \bbqof (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \bbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \bbyod (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \bdecisive (i) \Beam (") . . . . . \Bearing (#) . . \because () . . \BEL (·) . . . . . . \bell ( ) . . . . . Berry, Karl . . . . \beta () . . . . . \betaup () . . . . \beth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 43 43 21 43 51 70 29 30 30 54 22 21 49 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 18 16

\bbbeta ( ) . . . . \Bbbk (k) . . . . . bbding (package) 56, 69, 70 \bbdollar ($) . .

. . . . . . . . . 40 . . . . . . . . . 31 . 45­47, 49, 50, . . . . . . . . . 40

. . . . . . . . . . . 36

52 49 49 \bbalpha () . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \bbar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 b

¡ \bauforms (¤) . . . . . . . . . \bauhead (£) . . . . . . . . . . \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bautriangle (¢) . . . . . . . .

B \B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 b (esvect package option) . . . 37 \b (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 ¯ \babygamma (3) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \backepsilon ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \backprime ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \backsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \backsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \backslash (\) . . . . . . . 32, 38 banana brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \bar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \barb (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \bard () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \bari (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \barin (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \barj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \barl (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \barlambda (¡) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \barleftharpoon ( ) . . . . . 28 \baro ( vs. `) . . . . . . . . . . 56 \baro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \baro (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \barp (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 barred letters . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \barrightharpoon ( ) . . . . 28 \barsci (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \barscu () . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \baru () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \barwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \barwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Bat (ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \baucircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 49

Þ

ß

\betteris (b) . . . . . . . \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Bicycle (®) . . . . . . . . \bigast ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bigbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bigboxasterisk ( ) . . \bigboxbackslash ( ) . \bigboxbot ( ) . . . . . . \bigboxcirc ( ) . . . . . \bigboxcoasterisk ( ) \bigboxdiv ( ) . . . . . . \bigboxdot ( ) . . . . . . \bigboxleft ( ) . . . . . \bigboxminus ( ) . . . . \bigboxplus ( ) . . . . . \bigboxright ( ) . . . . \bigboxslash ( ) . . . . \bigboxtimes ( ) . . . . \bigboxtop ( ) . . . . . . \bigboxtriangleup ( ) \bigboxvoid ( ) . . . . . \bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . .

2

¦

T

Û Õ × Ó Ô Ø Ñ Ð Ù Ý Ò Ú ß Ü

Ö Þ

52

% § \BigCross ( ) S

\BigCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \bigcoast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigcomplementop ( ) . . . . . 19 .... \bigcup ( ) . . . . . . \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . \bigcurlywedge ( ) \bigcurlywedge ( )

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

48 18 19 19 19 19

\BigDiamondshape ( ) . . . . 48 \BigHBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \biginterleave ( ) . . . . . . 19 \BigLowerDiamond ( ) . . . . 48 \bignplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigoasterisk ( ) . . . . . . . 19 \bigobackslash ( ) . . . . . . 19 \bigobot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigocirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigocoasterisk ( ) . . . . . 19 \bigodiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigodot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigoleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigoplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigoright ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigoslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigotimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigotop ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigotriangleup ( ) . . . . . 19 \bigovoid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . 19 \bigplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \BigRightDiamond ( ) . . . . 48 \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . 20 \bigsqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigsqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . 20 \BigSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \bigsquplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19 \bigstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \bigtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \BigTriangleDown ( ) . . . . 48 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . . . 19 \bigtriangledown ( vs. ) 56 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . . . 16 \BigTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . 48 \BigTriangleRight ( ) . . . 48 \BigTriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . 48 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 19 \bigtriangleup ( vs. ) . 56 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 16 \biguplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigvarstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 18 \BigVBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \binampersand ( ) . . . . . . . 17 binary operators . . . . . . 16­18 binary relations . . . . . . . 21­25 negated . . . . . . . . . 21­23 \bindnasrepma ( ) . . . . . . . 17 \Biohazard (h) . . . . . . . . . 44 biological symbols . . . . . . . . 43 bishop . . . . . . see chess symbols \bishoppair (a) . . . . . . . . 54 blackboard bold see alphabets, math \blackdiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 18

&

Ë Å Ç Ã J È Á L É Í N Ê Ï Ì /

F

Æ Î

_

#

!

" $

U

W

V

72

\blacklozenge ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \blacksmiley ( ) . . . . . . . . 51 \blacksquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 38 \blacktriangle ( ) . . . . . . 38 \blacktriangledown () . . . 18 \blacktriangledown ( ) . . . 38 \blacktriangleleft () . . . 18 \blacktriangleleft ( ) . . . 25 \blacktriangleright () . . 18 \blacktriangleright ( ) . . 25 \blacktriangleup () . . . . . 18 blank . . . . . . . see \textblank \Bleech (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \blitza ( ) . . . . . . . . . 16, 28 \blitzb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \blitzc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \blitzd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \blitze ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 bm (package) . . . . . . . 66, 69, 70 \bm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \bmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 body-text symbols . . . . . . 7­15 bold symbols . . . . . . . . . 65­66 \boldmath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \boldsymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 born . . . . . . . . . see \textborn \bot () . . . . . . . . . . 16, 30, 58 \botdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Bouquet (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Bowtie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \bowtie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \boxast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \boxasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . 18 \boxbackslash (n) . . . . . . . 18 \boxbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \boxbot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \boxbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \boxcirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \boxcoasterisk (g) . . . . . . 18 \boxdiv () . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxdot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 16, 17 \boxdotLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 \boxdotleft ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 \boxdotRight ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \boxdotright ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \boxempty ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \boxLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \boxleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \boxminus () . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 16 \boxplus () . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \boxRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \boxright (i) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxright ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \boxslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17

©

\boxtimes () . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 16 \boxtop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boxtriangleup (o) . . . . . . 18 \boxvoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \boy (h ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \braceld (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 . \bracerd ({) > . . . . . . . . . . . 61 > \bracevert (>) . . . . . . . . . 32 > brackets . . . . . . . see delimiters braket (package) . . . . . . . . . 32 \breve () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \brokenvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 Bronger, Torsten . . . . . . . . . 58 \BS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \BSEfree (n) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \bullet (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 bullseye . . . see \textbullseye \Bumpedeq (%) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bumpedeq (#) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \bupperhand (e) . . . . . . . . . 54 C c (esvect package option) . . . 37 \c (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 68 a calrsfs (package) . . . . . . . . . 40 \CAN () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 cancel (package) . . . . . . . . . 35 \Cancer (ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \cancer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Cap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \cap (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \cap () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Capricorn (é) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \capricornus ( ) . . . . . . . . 42 card suits . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 50 cardinality . . . . . . . see \aleph care of (c/o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 caret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \^ Carlisle, David . . . . . . . . 1, 69 carriage return . 43, 50, 55, see also \hookleftarrow \carriagereturn ( ) . . . . . 50 castle . . . . . . see chess symbols catamorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \cdot (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 57 \cdotp (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \cdots (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Cedi . see \textcolonmonetary cedilla . . . . . . . . . . see accents \celsius () . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \Celtcross () . . . . . . . . . . 52 \cent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \centerdot () . . . . . . . . . . 18 \centerdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 16 \centre (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 cents . . . . . . . . . see \textcent \CEsign (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

C

\changenotsign . . . . . . . . . 23 \char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 55 \check () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 check marks . . . . 46, 47, 49, 50 \checked ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \CheckedBox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \Checkedbox (V) . . . . . . . . . 49 \Checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 15 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 50 \CheckmarkBold ( ) . . . . . . 46 chemarr (package) . . . 36, 69, 70 chemarrow (package) . 28, 36, 69 \chemarrow (A ) . . . . . . . . . 28 chess symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \chi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \chiup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \circ () . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 39 \circeq (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \circeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \CIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Circle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Circle ( vs. ) . . . . . . . 56 \Circle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \circlearrowleft (ö) . . . . 27 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . . 26 \circlearrowright (÷) . . . . 27 \circlearrowright ( ) . . . . 26 circled numbers . . . . . . . . . . 47 \CircledA (ª) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \circledast ( ) . . . . . . . . . 16 \circledbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 17 \circledbslash ( ) . . . . . . 17 \circledcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . 16 \circleddash ( ) . . . . . . . . 16 \circleddot . . . . . . see \odot \circleddotleft ( ) . . . . 27 \circleddotright ( ) . . . . 27 \circledgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . 22 \circledless ( ) . . . . . . . . 22 \circledminus . . . see \ominus \circledotleft . . . . . . . . see \circleddotleft \circledotright . . . . . . . see \circleddotright \circledplus . . . . . see \oplus \circledR ( ) . . . . . . . 15, 31 \circledS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \circledslash . . . see \oslash \circledtimes . . . see \otimes \circledvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . 17 \circledwedge ( ) . . . . . . . 17 \circleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 \circleright ( ) . . . . . . . 27 circles . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 49, 51 \CircleShadow ( ) . . . . . . . 49 \CircleSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . 49 \Circpipe (>) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \circplus (¨) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Circsteel (·) . . . . . . . . . 43 circumflex . . . . . . . see accents

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. . . . . . . . 23

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74

\CleaningA («) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \CleaningF (¾) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \CleaningFF (¿) . . . . . . . . . 52 \CleaningP (¬) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \CleaningPP () . . . . . . . . . 52 \clickb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \clickc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \clickt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \clock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 clock symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \Clocklogo (U) . . . . . . . . . . 49 \closedniomega ( ) . . . . . . 10 \closedrevepsilon ( ) . . . . 10 \Cloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 clovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 48 clubs (suit) . . . . . . . . . . 38, 50 \clubsuit () . . . . . . . . . . 38 \coAsterisk (§) . . . . . . . . . 18 \coasterisk (§) . . . . . . . . . 18 \Coffeecup (K) . . . . . . . . . 49 \colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \colon ( : ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 22 \Coloneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \coloneq (!) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \coloneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Coloneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \coloneqq ( ) . . . . . . . 16, 22 \Colonsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \colonsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \comment (RR) . . . . . . . . . . 54 communication symbols . . . . 43 comp.text.tex (newsgroup) . 6, 16, 57­61 \compensation (n) . . . . . . . 54 \complement (e) . . . . . . . . . 31 \complement ( ) . . . . . . . . . 31 complex numbers ( ) . . . . see alphabets, math Comprehensive TEX Archive Network . . . . . . 1, 6, 40, 67, 69 computer hardware symbols . 43 \ComputerMouse (Í) . . . . . . . 43 \cong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \conjunction ( ) . . . . . . . . 42 contradiction symbols . . 16, 28 control characters . . . . . . . . 43 \convolution () . . . . . . . . 18 \coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \copyright (©) . . . . . . . . . . 7 \corner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Corresponds (=) . . . . . . . . 39 \corresponds ()) . . . . . . . . 22 \cos (cos) . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 65 \cosh (cosh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \cot (cot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \coth (coth) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \counterplay (V) . . . . . . . . 54 Courier (PostScript font) . . . 14 CP1252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

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\CR () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Cross ( vs. * vs. ) . . . . . 56 \Cross () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Cross (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \crossb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \CrossBoldOutline (-) . . . . 46 \CrossClowerTips (4) . . . . 46 \crossd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \Crossedbox (X) . . . . . . . . . 49 crosses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 52 \crossh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \CrossMaltese (.) . . . . . . . 46 \crossnilambda ( ) . . . . . . 10 \CrossOpenShadow (+) . . . . . 46 \CrossOutline (,) . . . . . . . 46 crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 52 \csc (csc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 CTAN see Comprehensive TEX Archive Network \Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 55 cube root . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \Cup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \cup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \cup () . . . . . . . . . . 16, 57, 65 \curlyc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \curlyeqprec (¶) . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyeqprec ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \curlyeqsucc (·) . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \curlyesh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \curlyvee (y) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \curlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 16 \curlyveedownarrow ( ) . . . 17 \curlyveeuparrow ( ) . . . . . 17 \curlywedge (x) . . . . . . . . . 18 \curlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 16 \curlywedgedownarrow ( ) . 17 \curlywedgeuparrow ( ) . . . 17 \curlyyogh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \curlyz ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \currency (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 currency symbols . . . . 13, 14, 40 \curvearrowbotleft (ó) . . 27 \curvearrowbotleftright (õ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \curvearrowbotright (ô) . . 27 \curvearrowleft (ð) . . . . . 27 \curvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . 26 \curvearrowleftright (ò) . 27 \curvearrowright (ñ) . . . . 27 \curvearrowright ( ) . . . . 26 \Cutleft (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \Cutline (r) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 cutoff subtraction . see \dotdiv \Cutright (q) . . . . . . . . . . 45

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\dagger () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \daleth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 dangerous bend symbols . . . 49 \dasharrow . . . . . . . . . . . . see \dashrightarrow \dashint (- ) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \dashleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . 26 \dashleftrightarrow ( ) . . 27 \dashrightarrow ( ) . . . . . 26 \DashV (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Dashv (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \dashv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \dashVv (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \davidsstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \DavidStar (0) . . . . . . . . . 47 \DavidStarSolid (/) . . . . . 47 \dbar (¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 d) \dbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \DCa ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \DCb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \DCc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \DCd (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \ddag () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \ddagger () . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \ddashint (= ) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 .... \ddddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ... \dddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ddot (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . \ddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . 37, 59, 60 \DeclareFontFamily . . . . . . 64 \DeclareFontShape . . . . . . . 64 \DeclareMathOperator . . . . 65 \DeclareMathOperator* . . . 65 \declareslashed . . . . . . . . 58 definite-description operator ( ) . . . . . . . . . 57 definition symbols . . . . . 16, 61 \deg (deg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \degree (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \degree (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 degrees . . . . . see \textdegree \DEL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Deleatur . . . . . see \Denarius delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . 31­33 text-mode . . . . . . . . . . 33 variable-sized . . . . . 32, 33 \Delta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \delta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \deltaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Denarius (¢) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \dental (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 derivitive, partial . see \partial \descnode ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 41 \det (det) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \devadvantage (t) . . . . . . . 54

R

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\DH (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \dh (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \dh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 diacritics . . . . . . . . see accents diæresis . . . . . . . . see accents \diagdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \diagdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \diagonal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \diagup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \diagup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \diameter (I) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \diameter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Diamondblack ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \Diamonddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38 \DiamonddotLeft ( ) . . . . 27 \Diamonddotleft ( ) . . . . 27 \DiamonddotRight ( ) . . . . 27 \Diamonddotright ( ) . . . . 27 \DiamondLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \Diamondleft ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \DiamondRight ( ) . . . . . . 27 \Diamondright ( ) . . . . . . 27 diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 49 diamonds (suit) . . . . . . . 38, 50 \DiamondShadowA ( ) . . . . . 48 \DiamondShadowB ( ) . . . . . 48 \DiamondShadowC ( ) . . . . . 48 \Diamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \DiamondSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 49 \diamondsuit () . . . . . . . . 38 \diatop . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 60 \diaunder . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 60 dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 55 dictionary symbols . see phonetic symbols died . . . . . . . . . see \textdied differential, inexact . see \dbar \digamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 circled . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Mayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 old-style . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 segmented . . . . . . . . . . 41 \dim (dim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \ding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 45­50 dingautolist . . . . . . . . . . . 47 dingbat (package) 45, 46, 50, 56, 69, 70 dingbat symbols . . . . . . 45­50 discount . . . see \textdiscount \displaystyle . . . . . 58, 60, 65 ditto marks . see \textquotedbl \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \divdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \divideontimes ( ) . . . . . . 18 \divideontimes ( ) . . . . . . 16 \divides () . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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division . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 35 division times . . . . . . . . . . see \divideontimes divorced . . . see \textdivorced \DJ (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \dj () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \dlbari (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \DLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \dlsh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 does not divide . . . . see \nmid does not exist . . . see \nexists dollar . . . . . . see \textdollar dollar sign . . . . . . . . . . . see \$ \Dontwash (Ý) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \dot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 dot symbols . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 · \dotcup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \dotdiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Doteq . . . . . . . see \doteqdot \doteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \doteqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 dotless i (i) math mode . . . . . . 34, 38 text mode . . . . . . . . . . 11 dotless j (j) math mode . . . . . . 34, 38 text mode . . . . . . . . . . 11 \dotplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \dotplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \dots (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 dots (ellipses) . 7, 37, 38, 59­60 \dotsb (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \dotsc (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \dotseq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \dotsi (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \dotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20 \dotsm (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \dotso (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 dotted union () . . . . . . . . . 65 \dottimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \double . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \doublebarwedge ( ) . . . . . 18 \doublebarwedge ( ) . . . . . . 16 \doublecap . . . . . . . . see \Cap \doublecap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \doublecup . . . . . . . . see \Cup \doublecup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \doublepawns ( ) . . . . . . . . 54 \DOWNarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Downarrow () . . . . . . . 26, 32 \downarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \downarrow () . . . . . . . 26, 32 \downbracketfill . . . . . . . . 61 \downdownarrows ( ) . . . . . 27 \downdownarrows ( ) . . . . . 26 \downdownharpoons ( ) . . . . 28 Downes, Michael J. . . . . 29, 70 \downharpoonleft (å) . . . . . 28 \downharpoonleft ( ) . . . . . 26 \downharpoonright (ç) . . . . 28 \downharpoonright ( ) . . . . 26 \downp (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

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E e (esvect package option) . . . 37 \e (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 -TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Earth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Earth (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \earth () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Ecommerce () . . . . . . . . . 14 \EightAsterisk ( ) . . . . . . 47 \EightFlowerPetal ( ) . . . 47 \EightFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \eighthnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \EightStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \EightStarBold ( ) . . . . . . 47 \EightStarConvex ( ) . . . . 47 \EightStarTaper ( ) . . . . . 47 \ejective (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 electrical symbols . . . . . . . . 41 electromotive force (E) . . . . see alphabets, math \ell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Ellipse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 ellipses (dots) . 7, 37, 38, 59­60 ellipses (ovals) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \EllipseShadow ( ) . . . . . . 49 \EllipseSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 49 \EM () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Email (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Emailct (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \emgma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \emptyset () . . . . . . . . . . . 38 end of proof . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ending ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \eng (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 engineering symbols . . . . 41, 43 \engma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ENQ () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 entails . . . . . . . . . . see \models enter . . . . . . see carriage return \Envelope ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \enya ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \EOT () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \epsi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \epsilon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \epsilonup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \eqbumped ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \eqcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \eqcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Eqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \eqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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\eqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Eqqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \eqqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \eqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \eqslantgtr (·) . . . . . . . . . 25 \eqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \eqslantless (¶) . . . . . . . . 25 \eqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \equal (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \equalsfill . . . . . . . . . 16, 61 equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . see \rightleftharpoons \equiv () . . . . . . . . . . 16, 21 \er () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ESC () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 escapable characters . . . . . . . 7 \esh (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \esh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 esint (package) . . . . . . . . 20, 69 \Estatically (J) . . . . . . . . 44 estimated . see \textestimated esvect (package) . . . . . . . 37, 69 \eta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \etaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ETB ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \etc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \eth (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \eth () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \eth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ETX () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 eufrak (package) . . . . . . . . . 40 Euler Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \EUR (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \EURcr (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \EURdig (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \EURhv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \euro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 euro signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 blackboard bold . . . . . . 40 eurosym (package) . . . 14, 69, 70 \EURtm (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 euscript (package) . . . 40, 69, 70 evaluated at (|) . . . . . . . . . . 32 exclusive or . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \exists (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \exists () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \exp (exp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Explosionsafe (`) . . . . . . 44 extensible accents 35­37, 60­61 extensible arrows . . . . . . 35­37 extensible tildes . . . . . . . 35, 37 extension characters . . . . . . 28 \eye ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \EyesDollar (¦) . . . . . . . . . 14

E

F f (esvect package option) \fallingdotseq () . . . \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . \FallingEdge ( ) . . . . . \fatbslash ( ) . . . . . . . \fatsemi ( ) . . . . . . . . .

\fatslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \FAX (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \fax (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Faxmachine (v) . . . . . . . . 43 fc (package) . . . . . . . . . . 8, 11 fclfont (package) . . . . . . . . . 69 feet . . . . . . . . . see \prime and \textquotesingle \FEMALE () . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Female (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \female () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \FemaleFemale (,,) . . . . . . . 43 \FemaleMale (...) . . . . . . . . . 43 Feynman slashed character notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \FF () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \FHBOLOGO (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \FHBOlogo (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \file (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \FilledBigCircle ( ) . . . . 48 \FilledBigDiamondshape ( ) 48 \FilledBigSquare ( ) . . . . 48 \FilledBigTriangleDown ( ) 48 \FilledBigTriangleLeft ( ) 48 \FilledBigTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \FilledBigTriangleUp ( ) . 48 \FilledCircle ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \FilledCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledDiamondShadowA ( ) 48 \FilledDiamondShadowC ( ) 48 \FilledDiamondshape ( ) . . 48 \FilledHut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledRainCloud ( ) . . . . 53 \FilledSectioningDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledSmallCircle ( ) . . 48 \FilledSmallDiamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \FilledSmallSquare ( ) . . 48 \FilledSmallTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \FilledSmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \FilledSmallTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \FilledSmallTriangleUp ( ) 48 \FilledSnowCloud ( ) . . . . 53 \FilledSquare ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \FilledSquareShadowA ( ) . 48 \FilledSquareShadowC ( ) . 48

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\FilledTriangleUp ( ) . . . 48 \FilledWeakRainCloud ( ) . 53 \fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Finv (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Finv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Fire ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 fish hook . . . . . . see \strictif \FiveFlowerOpen ( ) . . . . . 47 \FiveFlowerPetal ( ) . . . . 47 \FiveStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \FiveStarCenterOpen ( ) . . 47 \FiveStarConvex ( ) . . . . . 47 \FiveStarLines ( ) . . . . . . 47 \FiveStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \FiveStarOpenCircled ( ) . 47 \FiveStarOpenDotted ( ) . . 47 \FiveStarOutline ( ) . . . . 47 \FiveStarOutlineHeavy ( ) 47 \FiveStarShadow ( ) . . . . . 47 \Fixedbearing (%) . . . . . . . 43 . \fixedddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 37 . \fixedvdots (. . . . . . . . . . . 37 .) fixmath (package) . . . . . . . . 66 \fj (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \Flag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \flap (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \flapr (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \flat ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 51 \Flatsteel (­) . . . . . . . . . . 43 florin . . . . . . see \textflorin flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 48 \Fog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 font encodings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 document . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 limiting scope of . . . . . . . 6 LY1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 OT1 . . . . . 6, 8, 11, 66, 67 OT2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 T1 . . . . . . . . . 6, 8, 11, 67 T4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 11 fontdef.dtx (file) . . . . . 57, 59 fontenc (package) . . 6, 8, 11, 67 \fontencoding . . . . . . . . . . . 6 fonts, PostScript Courier . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Helvetica . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Symbol . . . . . . . . . 30, 55 Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Zapf Chancery . . . . . . . 40 Zapf Dingbats . . . . 45, 47 \Football (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \forall () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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\Force (l) . . . . . . . . . \Forward (·) . . . . . . . . \ForwardToEnd (¸) . . . \ForwardToIndex (¹) \FourAsterisk ( ) . . . \FourClowerOpen ( ) . \FourClowerSolid ( )

1

\Fourier (

) . . . . . . . . . 23 Fourier transform (F) . . . . see alphabets, math \FourStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \FourStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \fourth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 fraktur . . . see alphabets, math \frown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \frownie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Frowny (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \FS () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \FullFHBO () . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fullmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \fullmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 41 \fullnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51

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G \G () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a g (esvect package option) . . . 37 \Game ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Game ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Gamma () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \gamma () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \gammaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gcd (gcd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \geq \Gemini ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Gemini (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \gemini ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 genealogical symbols . . . . . . 51 \geneuro (A ) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 C \geneuronarrow (B ) . . . . . . 14 C \geneurowide (C ) . . . . . . . . 14 C gensymb (package) . . . . . . . . 39 \Gentsroom (x) . . . . . . . . . . 49 geometric shapes . . . . . . 48, 49 \geq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \geq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25 \geqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \geqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \geqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \gets . . . . . . . see \leftarrow \gg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \gg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ggcurly ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ggg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ggg ( vs. ) . . . . . . . . . 56 \ggg () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \gggtr . . . . . . . . . . . see \ggg Gibbons, Jeremy . . . . . . . . . 70 \gimel () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \girl ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

\glotstop () . . . . . \glottal (?) . . . . . . \gluon ( ) .... \gnapprox ( ) . . . . \gnapprox ( ) . . . . \gneq ( ) . . . . . . . . \gneq ( ) . . . . . . . . \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . \gnsim ( ) . . . . . . . \gnsim ( ) . . . . . . . graphics (package) . . graphicx (package) . . \grave (`) . . . . . . . greater-than signs . . inequalities Greek . . . . . . . . . . . blackboard bold bold . . . . . . . . upright . . . . . . \GS () . . . . . . . . . . \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . \gtrdot ( ) . . . . . . \gtrdot ( ) . . . . . . \gtreqless ( ) . . . . \gtreqless ( ) . . . . \gtreqqless ( ) . . .

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H \H () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a h (esvect package option) . . . 37 h´ek . . . . . . . . . . see accents ac \Hail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \HalfCircleLeft ( ) . . . . . . 49 \HalfCircleRight ( ) . . . . . 49 \HalfFilledHut ( ) . . . . . . 53 \halflength (p) . . . . . . . . . 13 \halfnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \HalfSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Hamiltonian (H) see alphabets, math \HandCuffLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \HandCuffLeftUp ( ) . . . . . 46 \HandCuffRight ( ) . . . . . . 46 \HandCuffRightUp ( ) . . . . 46 \HandLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 46 \HandLeftUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 \HandPencilLeft ( ) . . . . . 46

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\HandRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \HandRightUp ( ) . . . . . . . 46 hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Handwash (Ü) . . . . . . . . . . 52 harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 28 \hash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 hash mark . . . . . . . . . . . see \# \hat (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \hausaB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hausab (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hausaD (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hausad (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hausaK (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hausak (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \HBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \hbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 30, 31, 57 \Heart (OE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 hearts (suit) . . . . . . . . . 38, 50 \heartsuit () . . . . . . . . . . 38 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 40 Helvetica (PostScript font) . . 14 \HERMAPHRODITE () . . . . . . 43 \Hermaphrodite (}) . . . . . . 43 \hexagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Hexasteel (') . . . . . . . . . . 43 \hexstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \HF ( ¬ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Hilbert space (H) see alphabets, math \hill (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 { \hksqrt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Holt, Alexander . . . . . . . . 1, 69 \hom (hom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \hookb (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hookd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hookd (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hookg ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hookh (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hookheng (7) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \hookleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . 26 \hookrevepsilon (&) . . . . . . 10 \hookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . 26 Horn, Berthold . . . . . . . . . . 40 \hslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \HT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Hungarian umlaut . see accents \Hut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \hv (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

#

77

I \i (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \ibar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 i IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 67 \IceMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . 53 . \iddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . 38, 60 \idotsint ( ) . . . . . 19, 20 \iff . see \Longleftrightarrow ifsym (package) . 41, 48, 53, 56, 69, 70 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . 19, 20 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 20

§

\iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19, 20 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 20 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Im ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \im (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \imath (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 34 \impliedby see \Longleftarrow \implies see \Longrightarrow and \vdash \in (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \in () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 inches . . . . . . . see \second and \textquotedbl independence probabilistic . . . . . . . . . 58 statistical . . . . . . . . . . . 58 stochastic . . . . . see \bot \independent ( . . . . . . . . 59 ) \Industry (I) . . . . . . . . . . 49 inequalities . . . . . . . . 7, 24, 25 inexact differential . . see \dbar \inf (inf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Info (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 information symbols . . . . . . 49 informator symbols . . . . . . . 54 \infty (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \infty () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \injlim (inj lim) . . . . . . . . . 29 \inplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \int (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 integers (Z) see alphabets, math integrals . . . . . . . . . . 18­20, 58 \intercal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \interleave ( ) . . . . . . . . . 17 intersection . . . . . . . . see \cap \Interval ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 53 \inva ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \invamp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \invdiameter ( ) . . . . . . . . 51 \inve ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \InversTransformHoriz ( ) 23

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. . . . .

. . . . . . ..

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

52 52 52 53 57 67 67

J \j (j) . . . . . . . . \JackStar ( ) . \JackStarBold ( Jewish star . . . . \jmath (j) . . . . . \Joch ( ) . . . . . \Join ( ) . . . . . \joinrel . . . . . \Jupiter (E ) . . \Jupiter (Å) . . . \jupiter ( ) . .

2

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K \k ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \kappa () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \kappaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ker (ker) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Keyboard (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . 43 king . . . . . . . see chess symbols knight . . . . . . see chess symbols Knuth, Donald E. . . . 6, 67, 70 symbols by . . . . . . . 49, 51 \kreuz ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \kside ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Kutline (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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\InversTransformVert \invf (D) . . . . . . . . . . \invglotstop (d) . . . \invh (8) . . . . . . . . . \invlegr (s) . . . . . . . \invm (S) . . . . . . . . . \invneg ( ) . . . . . . . \invr (q) . . . . . . . . . \invscr (u) . . . . . . . \invscripta (£) . . . . \invv (¤) . . . . . . . . . \invw () . . . . . . . . . \invy () . . . . . . . . . \iota () . . . . . . . . . . \iotaup () . . . . . . . . \ipagamma (2) . . . . . .

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23 10 10 10 10 10 21 10 10 10 10 10 10 29 30 10

L \L (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \l (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \labdentalnas (R) . . . . . . . 10 \labvel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Ladiesroom (y) . . . . . . . . . 49 Lagrangian (L) . see alphabets, math \Lambda () . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \lambda () . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \lambdabar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lambdaslash ( ) . . . . . . . . 38 \lambdaup () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Lamport, Leslie . . . . . . . 69, 70 \land . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge \landdownint ( ) . . . . . . . . 20 \landupint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Langle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \lAngle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \langle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

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W)

. . . . . . . 45

\larrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Laserbeam (a) . . . . . . . . 44 A L TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 6, 29, 32, 35, 37, 38, 45, 54, 55, 57­61, 64, 65, 67, 69, 70 A L TEX 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 6, 7, 14­16, 21, 23, 26, 34, 37, 38, 40, 52, 55­60, 64, 66­68, 70 latexsym (package) 16, 21, 23, 26, 38, 55, 69, 70 \latfric (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 67, 69 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 laundry symbols . . . . . . . . . 52 \Lbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lbbbrack (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Lbrack ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \lBrack ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 LCD digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \lCeil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \lceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \lcm (lcm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \lcorners (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ldotp (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ldots (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leq \leadsto ( ) . . . . . . . . 21, 26 leaf . . . . . . . . . . see \textleaf \left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 33 \LEFTarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Leftarrow () . . . . . . 16, 26 \leftarrow (Ð) . . . . . . . . . 27 \leftarrow () . . . . . . . . . 26 \leftarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . 26 \leftarrowtriangle ( ) . . 27 \leftbarharpoon (Ü) . . . . . 28 \LEFTCIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \LEFTcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \Leftcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \leftharpoondown (â) . . . . 28 \leftharpoondown ( ) . . . . 26 \leftharpoonup (à) . . . . . . 28 \leftharpoonup ( ) . . . . . . 26 \leftleftarrows (Ð) . . . . . 27 \leftleftarrows () . . . . . 26 \leftleftharpoons (Ø) . . . 28 \leftmoon (K ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 41 \leftp (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \leftpointright ( ) . . . . 46 \Leftrightarrow () . . . . . 26 \leftrightarrow (Ø) . . . . . 27 \leftrightarrow () . . . . . 26 \leftrightarroweq ( ) . . . . 27 \leftrightarrows (Ô) . . . . 27 \leftrightarrows ( ) . . . . 26 \leftrightarrowtriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \leftrightharpoon (à) . . . 28 \leftrightharpoons (è) . . 28 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . 26

[

R

78

\leftrightharpoonsfill . . . 36 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) 27 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) 26 \Leftscissors (S) . . . . . . . 45 \leftslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \leftsquigarrow ( ) . . . . 27 \leftsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 27 \leftt (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \leftthreetimes ( ) . . . . . 39 \leftthreetimes ( ) . . . . . 16 \leftthumbsdown ( ) . . . . 46 \leftthumbsup ( ) . . . . . . 46 \lefttorightarrow ( ) . . . 27 \Lefttorque (&) . . . . . . . . 43 \leftturn ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \legm (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \legr (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \length (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Leo (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \leo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \leq (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \leq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25 \leqq (®) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \leqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \leqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 less-than signs . . see inequalities \lessapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \lessapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \lessdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lessdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lesseqgtr (¼) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lesseqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lesseqqgtr (¾) . . . . . . . . . 25

ø $ UDü

ú

lightbulb10.2602gf (file) . . 62 lightbulb10.dvi (file) . . . . 62 lightbulb10.mf (file) . . 62­64 lightbulb10.tfm (file) . . . . 64 \Lightning (E vs. ) . . . . . 56 \Lightning (E) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 \lightning ( vs. ) . . . . . . 56 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \lim (lim) . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 65 \liminf (lim inf) . . . . . . 29, 65 limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \limsup (lim sup) . . . . . 29, 65 linear implication see \multimap \Lineload (L) . . . . . . . . . . 43 linguistic symbols . . . . . . 8­10 \lJoin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ll (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \llap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \llbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \llceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \llcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \llcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \llcurly ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Lleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \llfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lll (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lll ( vs. Î) . . . . . . . . . 56 \lll () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \llless . . . . . . . . . . see \lll \llparenthesis ( ) . . . . . . . 31

z Î

\lesseqqgtr ( ) . \lessgtr (º) . . . \lessgtr () . . . \lesssim (À) . . . \lesssim ( ) . . . \Letter ( ) . . . . \Letter (B vs. ) \Letter (B) . . . . letter-like symbols letters . . . . . . . . . barred . . . . . non-ASCII . . slashed . . . . variant Latin \LF ( ) . . . . . . . . \lfilet (7) . . . . .

. . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . 30, 31 see alphabets . . . . . . . . 57 ......... 8 . . . . . . . . 58 . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 32

. . . . . .

\lmoustache ( )

8 ;

. . . . . . . . 32

\longmapsfrom (-) . . . . . . 27 \Longmapsto (=) . . . . . . . 27 \longmapsto (-) . . . . . . . 26 \LongPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . 41 \LongPulseLow ( ) . . . . . 41 \Longrightarrow (=) . . . . 26 \longrightarrow (-) . . . . 26 \looparrowdownleft ( ) . . 27 \looparrowdownright ( ) . . 27 \looparrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 27 \looparrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 26 \looparrowright ( ) . . . . . 27 \looparrowright ( ) . . . . . 26 \Loosebearing ($) . . . . . . . 43 \lor . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \LowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 48 lowering . . . see \textlowering \lozenge () . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Lparen (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \lrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lrJoin . . . . . . . . . see \Join \lrtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Lsh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Lsh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Lsteel (TM) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \ltimes (

) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ltimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \ltriple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Luecking, Dan . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \lVert (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \lvertneqq (´) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lvertneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lz (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

8 9

îï ì í

o

è

{

\lFloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \lfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \lg (lg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \lgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \LHD ( ) . . . . . . . . \lhd ( ) . . . . . . . . \lhdbend ( ) . . . \Libra (æ) . . . . . . \libra ( ) . . . . . \lightbulb (A) . . . lightbulb.mf (file) lightbulb.sty (file) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 16, ... ... ... ... 62, ... 17 17 49 42 42 64 63 64

8 :

\ln (ln) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \lnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lneqq (²) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lnot . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \lnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \lnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 local ring (O) . . see alphabets, math \log (log) . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 65 log-like symbols . . . . . . . 29, 65 logical operators and . . . . . . . . . see \wedge not . . . see \neg and \sim or . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \logof ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 lollipop . . . . . . . see \multimap long division . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Longleftarrow (=) . . . . . 26 \longleftarrow (-) . . . . . 26 \Longleftrightarrow . . . . . 52 \Longleftrightarrow () 26 \longleftrightarrow () 26 \Longmapsfrom (=) . . . . . . 27

M \M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 macron . . . . . . . . . see accents majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \makeatletter . . . . . . . . . . 60 \makeatother . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \MALE (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Male (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \male () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \MaleMale () . . . . . . . . . . 43 \maltese ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \manboldkidney ( ) . . . . . . . 51 \manconcentriccircles ( ) 51 \manconcentricdiamond ( ) 51 \mancone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \mancube ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \manerrarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 51 \manfilledquartercircle ( ) 51 manfnt (package) . 49, 51, 69, 70 \manhpennib ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \manimpossiblecube ( ) . . . 51 \mankidney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \manlhpenkidney ( ) . . . . . . 51 \manpenkidney ( ) . . . . . . . 51 \manquadrifolium ( ) . . . . 51 \manquartercircle ( ) . . . . 51

79

\manrotatedquadrifolium ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \manrotatedquartercircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \manstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \mantiltpennib ( ) . . . . . . 51 \mantriangledown ( ) . . . . . 51 \mantriangleright ( ) . . . . 51 \mantriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 51 \manvpennib ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 28 \mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 28 \Mapsfrom () . . . . . . . . . . 27 \mapsfrom () . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Mapsfromchar (û) . . . . . . . . 28 \Mapsfromchar () . . . . . . . . 28 \mapsfromchar (ß) . . . . . . . . 28 \mapsfromchar () . . . . . . . . 28 \Mapsto () . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \mapsto () . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Mapstochar (ú) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Mapstochar () . . . . . . . . . . 28 \mapstochar (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \markera ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \markerb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 married . . . . . see \textmarried \Mars (D ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Mars (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mars () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \MartinVogel (ÿ) . . . . . . . . 52 marvosym (package) . . . . 14, 39, 42­45, 49, 52, 56 matbbol (package) . . . . . . . . 40 \mate ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 math alphabets . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathabx (package) . . . . . 18, 19, 21­25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 34, 36, 39, 42, 49, 55, 56, 69, 71 \mathaccent . . . . . . . . . 57, 58 \mathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathbbmss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathbbol (package) . . . . . . . 40 \mathbf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \mathbin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathbold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 mathcal (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathcent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \mathchoice . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \mathclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 mathcomp (package) . . . . . . 39 mathdots (package) . 37, 38, 60, 69, 70 \mathds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathematical symbols . . 16­40 \mathfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathnormal . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

x y

m

\mathopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathpalette . . . . . . . . 58, 59 \mathpunct . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathpzc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathrel . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 65 \mathring (°) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \mathrm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathrsfs (package) . . . . . 40, 69 mathscr (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathsterling (£) . . . . . . . . 31 \max (max) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 mbboard (package) . . . . . 40, 69 \mbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 59 \measuredangle (>) . . . . . . 39 \measuredangle ( ) . . . . . . 38 mechanical scaling . . . . . 62, 64 \medbullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \medcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Mercury (A ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Mercury (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mercury ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \merge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 METAFONT . . . . . . . . 40, 61­64 METAFONTbook symbols . . . 51 \mho ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 micro . . . . . . . . . . see \textmu \micro (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Microsoft Windows . . . . . . . 67 \mid (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \midtilde ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \min (min) . . . . . . . . . . 29, 65 minus . . . . . . . see \textminus \minuso ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 minutes, angular . . . see \prime miscellaneous symbols . . 38, 39, 50­54 "Missing $ inserted" . . . . 16 \Mmappedfromchar ( ) . . . . . . 28 \mmappedfromchar ( ) . . . . . . 28 \Mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 28 \mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 28 \Mobilefone (H) . . . . . . . . . 43 \mod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \models (|=) . . . . . . . . . 21, 57 moduli space . . . see alphabets, math monetary symbols . . . 13, 14, 40 \moo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Moon (K ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Moon (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \morepawns ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \moreroom ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Mountain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 53 mouse . . . . see \ComputerMouse \MoveDown (») . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \moverlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \MoveUp (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

\mp () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \mu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \multimap ( ) . . . . . . . 21, \multimapboth ( ) . . . . . . \multimapbothvert ( ) . . . . \multimapdot ( ) . . . . . . . . \multimapdotboth ( ) . . . . \multimapdotbothA ( ) . . . \multimapdotbothAvert ( ) . \multimapdotbothB ( ) . . . \multimapdotbothBvert ( ) . \multimapdotbothvert ( ) . . \multimapdotinv ( ) . . . . . \multimapinv ( ) . . . . . . . . multiple accents per character \Mundus (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . musical notes . . . . . . 15, 38, \muup (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVAt (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVEight (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVFive (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVFour (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVNine (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVOne (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVSeven (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVSix (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVThree (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVTwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVZero (0) . . . . . . . . . . . .

16 29 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 60 52 51 30 52 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39

S U

N \nabla () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \NAK (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \napprox () . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \napproxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nasymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 nath (package) . . . . . . 31, 33, 69 \natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38, 51 natural numbers ( ) . . . . . see alphabets, math navigation symbols . . . . . . . 52 \nbacksim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nbacksimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 22 \nBumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nbumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ncong () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ncong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ncurlyeqprec (¸) . . . . . . . 23 \ncurlyeqsucc (¹) . . . . . . . 23 \nDashV (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nDashv (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ndashV (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ndashv (') . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ndashVv (/) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neq \Nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nearrow (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26, 59 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 negation . . . see \neg and \sim \Neptune (H ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Neptune (È) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \neptune ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

N

80

\neq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \neq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \neqslantgtr (¹) . . . . . . . . 25 \neqslantless (¸) . . . . . . . 25 \nequiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \neswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 59 \Neutral ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \newmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \newmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \newtie (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \nexists (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nexists ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \NG () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \ng () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \ngeq (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25 \ngeqq (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ngeqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ngg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngtr (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngtr () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ngtrapprox (É) . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngtrless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngtrsim (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ngtrsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ni ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nialpha (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \nibar . . . . . . . . see \ownsbar \nibeta (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \NibLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \NibRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 46 nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \NibSolidLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \NibSolidRight ( ) . . . . . . 46 nicefrac (package) . . . 39, 69, 70 \nichi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \niepsilon ($) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \nigamma (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \niiota (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \nilambda (P) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \niomega (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \niphi (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \niplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nisigma (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \nitheta () . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \niupsilon () . . . . . . . . . . 10 \niv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nj (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \nLeftarrow (ö) . . . . . . . . 27 \nLeftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \nleftarrow (Ú) . . . . . . . . 27 \nleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \nLeftrightarrow (ø) . . . . 27 \nLeftrightarrow ( ) . . . . 26 \nleftrightarrow (Ü) . . . . 27 \nleftrightarrow ( ) . 16, 26 \nleq (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nleq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25 \nleqq (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

N

\nleqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nleqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nless (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nless () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nlessapprox (È) . . . . . . . . 25 \nlessapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 25 \nlessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nlesssim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nlesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nnearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nnwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \NoBleech (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \NoChemicalCleaning (¨) . . 52 \NoIroning (²) . . . . . . . . . 52 \NoSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 not equal (= vs. =) . . . . . . . 23 \notasymp () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \notbackslash (-) . . . . . . . 42 \ \notbot (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \notdivides () . . . . . . . . . 23 \notequiv () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \notin (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \notin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \notni ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \notowner (S) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \notowns . . see \notowner and \notni \notperp (M) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \notslash (-) . . . . . . . . . . 42 / \nottop (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \NoTumbler () . . . . . . . . . . 52 \novelty (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \nparallel () . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nprec () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nprecapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \nprecapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 22 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . 23 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \npreceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \npreceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \npreceqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nprecsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nprecsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nRightarrow (÷) . . . . . . . . 27 \nRightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \nrightarrow (Û) . . . . . . . . 27 \nrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \nshortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nshortparallel ( ) . . . . . . 21 \nsim () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nsimeq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nsqSubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24

¢

È ¦

ª

Â

\nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsubseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \nsqSupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \nsqsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \nSubset () . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nSubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsubset () . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsubseteq () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nsubseteqq () . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsubseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nsuccapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \nsuccapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 22 \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . 23 \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \nsucceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nsucceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nsucceqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nsuccsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nsuccsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nSupset () . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nSupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsupset () . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsupseteq () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . . 24 \nsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 23 ntheorem (package) . . . . . . . 38 \nthickapprox ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \ntriangleleft () . . . . . . 25 \ntriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . 25 \ntrianglelefteq () . . . . 25 \ntrianglelefteq ( ) . . . . 25 \ntrianglelefteqslant ( ) 25 \ntriangleright () . . . . . 25 \ntriangleright ( ) . . . . . 25 \ntrianglerighteq () . . . . 25 \ntrianglerighteq ( ) . . . . 25 \ntrianglerighteqslant ( ) 25 \ntwoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . 22 \ntwoheadrightarrow ( ) . . 22 \nu () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 null set . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39 number . . . . . see \textnumero number sets see alphabets, math numbers . . . . . . . . . . see digits \nuup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nvargeq («) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nvarleq (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \nvarparallel ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \nvarparallelinv ( ) . . . . . 22 \nVDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nVDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nVdash (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \nVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nvDash (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

£

É §

«

Ã

*

81

\nvDash ( ) . . \nvdash (&) . . \nvdash ( ) . . \nVvash (.) . . \Nwarrow ( ) . \nwarrow (Ô) . \nwarrow ( ) . \nwsearrow ( )

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. 26, ...

21 23 21 23 27 27 59 59

O \O (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \o (ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 o (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \oasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \obackslash (n) . . . . . . . . . 18 \obar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \oblong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \obot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \obslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \ocirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \ocoasterisk (g) . . . . . . . . 18 \octagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Octosteel (`) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \od (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ° \odiv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \odot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \odot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \odplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \OE (OE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \oe (oe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \officialeuro (e) . . . . . . . 14 ogonek . . . . . . . . . see accents \ogreaterthan ( ) . . . . . . . 17 { \ohill (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ohm . . . . . . . . . . see \textohm \ohm () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \oiiintclockwise ( ) . . . . 20 \oiiintctrclockwise ( ) . 20 · \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19, 20 \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \oiintclockwise ( ) . . . . . 20 \oiintctrclockwise ( ) . . 20 ¶ \oint (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \oint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . 20 \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 20 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 20 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 20 old-style digits . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \oldstylenums . . . . . . . . . . 14 \oleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \olessthan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Omega () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \omega () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \omegaup () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ominus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \onlymove ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54

¨

\oo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \open ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \openJoin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \openo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \openo (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \openo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \opentimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 operators binary . . . . . . . . . . 16­18 logical see logical operators set . . . . . see set operators \oplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \oplus () . . . . . . . . . . 16, 55 \opposbishops ( ) . . . . . . . 54 \opposition ( ) . . . . . . . . 42 optical scaling . . . . . . . . . . . 62 options . . . see package options or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \oright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \OrnamentDiamondSolid ( ) 50 orthogonal to . . . . . . see \bot \oslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \oslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \otimes (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \otimes () . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \otop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \otriangleup (o) . . . . . . . . 18 ovals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \ovee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

@

z =

o

q

\overbrace (

) . . . . . . . 36 z}|{ \overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \overbracket . . . . . . . . 60, 61 \overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . 61

hkkikkj

\overgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . 36 - \overleftarrow () . . . . . . 35 \overleftrightarrow ( ) . 35 \overline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \overline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \overparenthesis . . . . . 60, 61 z{ \overparenthesis ( ) . . . . 61 = ) . . . . . 35 \Overrightarrow ( overrightarrow (package) . 35, 69 \overrightarrow (- ) . . . . . 35 \overring ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ovoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \owedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \owns . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ni \owns (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ownsbar (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

hkkk j

x

F

P \P (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \[email protected] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . package options a (esvect) . . . . . . . bbgreekl (mathbbol) b (esvect) . . . . . . . c (esvect) . . . . . . . d (esvect) . . . . . . . e (esvect) . . . . . . .

. . 7, 68 . . . . 60 .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 40 37 37 37 37

f (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 g (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 h (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 mathcal (euscript) . . . . . 40 mathscr (euscript) . . . . . 40 sans (dsfont) . . . . . . . . . 40 varg (txfonts/pxfonts) . . 30 packages accents . . . . . . . . 60, 69, 70 amsbsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 amsfonts 16, 21, 23, 26, 38, 40 amsmath . . . . . . 6, 29, 65 amssymb . 6, 16, 21, 23, 26, 38, 40, 69­71 amstext . . . . . . . . . 58, 59 ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 69 ascii . . . . . . . . . . 43, 67, 69 bbding 45­47, 49, 50, 56, 69, 70 bbm . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 69 bbold . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 69 bm . . . . . . . . . . 66, 69, 70 braket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 calrsfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 chemarrow . . . . . 28, 36, 69 chemarr . . . . . . . 36, 69, 70 dingbat 45, 46, 50, 56, 69, 70 dsfont . . . . . . . . . . 40, 69 esint . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 69 esvect . . . . . . . . . . 37, 69 eufrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 eurosym . . . . . . . 14, 69, 70 euscript . . . . . . . 40, 69, 70 fclfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 11 fixmath . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 fontenc . . . . . 6, 8, 11, 67 gensymb . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 graphicx . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 ifsym 41, 48, 53, 56, 69, 70 isoent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 latexsym . 16, 21, 23, 26, 38, 55, 69, 70 manfnt . . . . . 49, 51, 69, 70 marvosym 14, 39, 42­45, 49, 52, 56 matbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathabx . . . . . . . . . 18, 19, 21­25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 34, 36, 39, 42, 49, 55, 56, 69, 71 mathbbol . . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathcomp . . . . . . . . . . 39 mathdots 37, 38, 60, 69, 70 mathrsfs . . . . . . . . . 40, 69 mbboard . . . . . . . . . 40, 69 nath . . . . . . . . . . 31, 33, 69 nicefrac . . . . . . . 39, 69, 70 ntheorem . . . . . . . . . . . 38 overrightarrow . . . . . 35, 69 phonetic . . . . 10, 13, 57, 69

82

pifont . 8, 45­50, 55, 69, 70 polynom . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 psnfss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 pxfonts . . 16, 17, 20­28, 30, 31, 38, 40, 55, 67 skak . . . . . . . . . . 54, 69, 70 skull . . . . . . . . . . 49, 69, 70 slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 stmaryrd . 17, 19, 21, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 56, 69, 70 textcomp 6, 7, 11, 13­15, 26, 33, 39, 41, 51, 55, 67, 69, 70 timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 tipa . . 8, 10­12, 57, 69, 70 trfsigns . . . . . 23, 31, 34, 69 trsym . . . . . . . . . 23, 69, 70 txfonts 16, 17, 20­28, 30, 31, 38, 40, 55, 57, 67, 69, 70 ulsy . . . . . . . . . . 18, 28, 69 underscore . . . . . . . . . . . 7 undertilde . . . . . . 37, 69, 70 units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 universa . . . . 49, 52, 69, 70 upgreek . . . . . . . 30, 69, 70 upquote . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 wasysym . . 8, 14­17, 19, 21, 23­26, 38, 41­43, 47, 48, 51, 56, 69, 70 wsuipa 10, 12, 13, 56, 57, 60, 69, 70 yfonts . . . . . . . . 40, 69, 70 yhmath 34, 35, 37, 38, 60, 69 zapfchan . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Pakin, Scott . . . . . . . . . . 1, 69 \PaperLandscape ( ) . . . . . 53 \PaperPortrait ( ) . . . . . . 53 par . . . . . . . . . . . . see \invamp paragraph mark . . . . . . . see \P parallel . see also \varparallel \parallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ParallelPort (Ñ) . . . . . . . 43 \partial (B ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \partial () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \partialslash (C ) . . . . . . . 31 parts per thousand . . . . . . see \textperthousand \passedpawn ( ) . . . . . . . . 54 pawn . . . . . . see chess symbols \Peace (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \PencilLeft ($) . . . . . . . . 46 \PencilLeftDown (() . . . . . 46 \PencilLeftUp (&) . . . . . . . 46 \PencilRight (#) . . . . . . . 46 \PencilRightDown (') . . . . 46 \PencilRightUp (%) . . . . . . 46 pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 46 \pentagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 48 percent sign . . . . . . . . . see \% \permil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \Perp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

¤ £

r

\perp () . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 59 \perthousand () . . . . . . . 39 \Pfund (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 pharmaceutical prescription see \textrecipe \Phi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \phi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \phiup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Phone (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \PhoneHandset (©) . . . . . . . 50 phonetic (package) 10, 13, 57, 69 phonetic symbols . . . . . . . 8­10 \photon (¬¬¬¬) . . . . . . . . . 41 physical symbols . . . . . . . . . 41 \Pi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \pi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Pickup (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 pifont (package) 8, 45­50, 55, 69, 70 pilcrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \P pipe . . . . . . . . . see \textpipe \Pisces (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \pisces ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Pisymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \pitchfork (8) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \pitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \piup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \planck (¯ h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \Plane () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 42 playing cards . . . . see card suits \Plus (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 plus-or-minus sign . . . . see \pm \PlusCenterOpen (@) . . . . . 46 \pluscirc (©) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \PlusOutline (8) . . . . . . . . 46 plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \PlusThinCenterOpen (A) . . 46 \Pluto (s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Pluto (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \pluto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \pmb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \pmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \pointer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Pointinghand (Z) . . . . . . . 49 \polishhook (~) . . . . . . . . . 13 polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 polynom (package) . . . . . . . . 35 polynomial division . . . . . . . 35 PostScript fonts . 14, 30, 40, 45, 47, 55, 64 \pounds (£) . . . . . . . . . . 7, 68 power set (P) . . see alphabets, math \Pr (Pr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \prec () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \precapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . 22 \precapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21

\preccurlyeq (¤) . . . . . . . . 22 \preccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \precdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \preceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \preceqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \precnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . 23 \precnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \precneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \precneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \precnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \precnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \precsim (À) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \precsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 prescription . . see \textrecipe \prime ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Printer (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 probabilistic independence . . 58 \prod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \projlim (proj lim) . . . . . . . 29 pronunciation symbols . . . . see phonetic symbols proof, end of . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \propto (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \propto () . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ProvidesPackage . . . . . . . . 69 \Psi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \psi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \psiup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 psnfss (package) . . . . . . . . . . 47 pulse diagram symbols . . . . . 41 \PulseHigh ( ) . . . . . . . . . 41 \PulseLow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 41 punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \pwedge (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 pxfonts (package) . 16, 17, 20­28, 30, 31, 38, 40, 55, 67

Q

6 7

Q Q.E.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \qside ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \quarternote () . . . . . . . . . 51 quaternions ( ) see alphabets, math queen . . . . . . see chess symbols \quotedblbase (,,) . . . . . . . . . 8 \quotesinglbase (,) . . . . . . . 8

M

H

R \r (° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a) \Radiation ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 radicals . . see \sqrt and \surd \Radioactivity (j) . . . . . . 44 \Rain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \RainCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 raising . . . . . see \textraising \RaisingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 41 \Rangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \rAngle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \rangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \rarrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 rational numbers ( ) . . . . . see alphabets, math

>

2

Q

83

rationalized Planck constant see \hbar \Rbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \rbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \rbbbrack (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Rbrack (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \rBrack (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 © \rc (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rCeil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \rceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \rcorners (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Re ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 real numbers ( ) see alphabets, math recipe . . . . . . see \textrecipe \recorder ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Rectangle (u) . . . . . . . . . . 49 \RectangleBold (v) . . . . . . . 49 rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \RectangleThin (t) . . . . . . . 49 \Rectpipe (~) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Rectsteel (") . . . . . . . . . . 43 reduced quadrupole moment see \rqm \reflectbox . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 registered trademark . . . . . see \textregistered relational symbols . . . . . . . . 21 binary . . . . . . . . . . 21­25 negated binary . . . . 21­23 triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \Relbar (=) . . . . . . . . . 28, 57 \relbar (-) . . . . . . . . . 28, 57 \restoresymbol . . . . . . . . . 55 \restriction . . . . . . . . . . see \upharpoonright \restriction (æ) . . . . . . . . 27 retracting see \textretracting return . . . . . see carriage return \revD (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . \revddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \reve (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \reveject (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \revepsilon (%) . . . . . . 10, 57 reverse solidus . . . . . . . . . . see \textbackslash reversed symbols . . . . . . . . . 57 \reversedvideodbend ( ) . 49 \revglotstop () . . . . . . . . 10 \Rewind (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \RewindToIndex (´) . . . . . 52 \RewindToStart (µ) . . . . . . 52 \rfilet (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

R

\RIGHTarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Rightarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . \Rightarrow ( vs. : vs. ñ) \Rightarrow () . . . . . 16, \Rightarrow (:) . . . . . . . . . \rightarrow (Ñ) . . . . . . . . \rightarrow () . . . . . . . . \rightarrowtail ( ) . . . . . \rightarrowtriangle ( ) . . \rightbarharpoon (Ý) . . . . \RIGHTCIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . \RIGHTcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . \Rightcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . \RightDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . \rightharpoondown (ã) . . . \rightharpoondown ( ) . . . \rightharpoonup (á) . . . . . \rightharpoonup ( ) . . . . . \rightleftarrows (Õ) . . . . \rightleftarrows ( ) . . . . \rightleftharpoon (á) . . . \rightleftharpoons (é) . . \rightleftharpoons ( ) . . \rightleftharpoons ( ) . . \rightleftharpoonsfill . . . \rightmoon (L ) . . . . . . . . . . \rightmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \rightp (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightpointleft ( ) ....

?

9 \rgroup (;)

\RHD ( ) . \rhd ( ) . \rho () . \rhoup () \right . .

\rFloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \rfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 16, ... ... 32, 17 17 29 30 33

\rightpointright ( ) . . . 46 \rightrightarrows (Ñ) . . . 27 \rightrightarrows () . . . 26 \rightrightharpoons (Ù) . . 28 \Rightscissors (Q) . . . . . . 45 \rightslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . 17 \rightsquigarrow (ù) . . . 27 \rightsquigarrow ( ) . . . . 26 \rightt (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rightthreetimes (%) . . . . 39 \rightthreetimes ( ) . . . . 16 \rightthumbsdown ( ) . . . 46 \rightthumbsup ( ) . . . . . 46 \righttoleftarrow (ý) . . . 27 \Righttorque (') . . . . . . . . 43 \rightturn ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \ring (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ring equal to . . . . . see \circeq ring in equal to . . . see \eqcirc \riota ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \rip (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \risingdotseq () . . . . . . . 22 \risingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . . 21 \rJoin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \rlap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 59

L N

51 52 56 26 52 27 26 26 27 28 51 51 51 48 28 26 28 26 27 26 28 28 26 26 36 42 41 13 46

\rotr (r) . . . . . . . . \rotvara (e) . . . . . . \rotw (w) . . . . . . . . \roty (y) . . . . . . . . \RoundedLsteel (Y) \RoundedTsteel () . \RoundedTTsteel () \Rparen ()) . . . . . . . \rqm (I) . . . . . . . . . \rrbracket ( ) . . . . \rrceil ( ) . . . . . . . \rrfloor ( ) . . . . . . \Rrightarrow ( ) . . \rrparenthesis ( ) . \RS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \Rsh (é) . . . . . . . . . \Rsh ( ) . . . . . . . . . \rtimes () . . . . . . \rtimes ( ) . . . . . . \rtriple . . . . . . . . \rVert (||) . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 10 10 10 43 43 43 40 58 32 31 31 27 31 43 27 26 18 16 33 33

S \S (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, safety-related symbols . . . . . \Sagittarius (è) . . . . . . . . \sagittarius ( ) . . . . . . . . \samebishops ( ) . . . . . . . . sans (dsfont package option) .

s

ud

\rmoustache ( )

9 :

. . . . . . . . 32

.... .... .... ... ....

rook . . . . . . . see chess symbols roots . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \rotatebox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 rotated symbols . . . . . . . . . . 57 \rotm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \rotOmega () . . . . . . . . . . . 10

\satellitedish ( ) . . . . . . 50 \Saturn (F ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Saturn (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \saturn ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \savesymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \Sborder ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 scaling mechanical . . . . . . . 62, 64 optical . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \scd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \scg (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \schwa (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \schwa (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \sci (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 scientific symbols . . . . . . 41­44 \ScissorHollowLeft (§) . . 45 \ScissorHollowRight (¦) . 45 \ScissorLeft (¤) . . . . . . . 45 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom (£) . . . . . . . . . 45 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop (¥) 45 \ScissorRight (¡) . . . . . . . 45 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \ScissorRightBrokenTop (¢) 45 scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \scn (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \Scorpio (ç) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \scorpio ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \scr (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 script letters see alphabets, math \scripta (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

I

68 44 42 42 54 40

S

84

\scriptg (() . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \scriptscriptstyle . . . . . . 58 \scriptstyle . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \scriptv () . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \scu () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \scy () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 seagull . . . . . see \textseagull \Searrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \searrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \searrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26, 59 \sec (sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \second ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 seconds, angular . . see \second \secstress (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 section mark . . . . . . . . . see \S \SectioningDiamond ( ) . . 53 \see ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 segmented digits . . . . . . . . . 41 \selectfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 semantic valuation . . . . . . . see \llbracket/\rrbracket and \lbbbrack/\rbbbrack semidirect products . . 16, 18, 39 \seppawns ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \SerialInterface (Î) . . . . 43 \SerialPort (Ð) . . . . . . . . . 43 set operators intersection . . . . see \cap union . . . . . . . . . see \cup \setminus (\) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 sha . see Tate-Shafarevich group \sharp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 51 \Shilling (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \shortdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . 27 \ShortFifty (×) . . . . . . . . 52 \ShortForty (Ù) . . . . . . . . 52 \shortleftarrow ( ) . . . . . 27 \shortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ShortNinetyFive (Ô) . . . . 52 \shortparallel ( ) . . . . . . . 21 \ShortPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . 41 \ShortPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . 41 \shortrightarrow ( ) . . . . 27 \ShortSixty (Ö) . . . . . . . . 52 \ShortThirty (Û) . . . . . . . 52 \shortuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \showclock . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \SI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Sigma () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sigma () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sigmaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \sim () . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 67 \simeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \sin (sin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sinh (sinh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \SixFlowerAlternate ( ) . . 47 \SixFlowerAltPetal ( ) . . 47 \SixFlowerOpenCenter ( ) . 47 \SixFlowerPetalDotted ( ) 47 \SixFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) 47

×

2

l

¡

q

4 5

O U M Q L

\SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \SixStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \SixteenStarLight ( ) . . . 47 skak (package) . . . . . . 54, 69, 70 skull (package) . . . . . . 49, 69, 70 \skull ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \slash (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \slashb (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \slashc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \slashd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 slashed (package) . . . . . . . . . 58 \slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 slashed letters . . . . . . . . . . . 58 slashed.sty (file) . . . . . . . . 58 \slashu () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \Sleet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \SmallCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallCross ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallDiamondshape ( ) . . 48 \smallfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \SmallHBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallLowerDiamond ( ) . . 48 \smallpencil ( ) . . . . . . 45 \SmallRightDiamond ( ) . . 48 \smallsetminus ( ) . . . . . . 16 \smallsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \SmallSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallTriangleDown ( ) . . 48 \smalltriangledown () . . . 18 \SmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . 48 \smalltriangleleft () . . . 18 \SmallTriangleRight ( ) . . 48 \smalltriangleright () . . 18 \SmallTriangleUp ( ) . . . . 48 \smalltriangleup () . . . . . 18 \SmallVBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \smile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Smiley (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \smiley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 smiley faces . . . . . . . . 43, 51, 52 \Snow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \SnowCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 \Snowflake ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \SnowflakeChevron ( ) . . . 47 \SnowflakeChevronBold ( ) 47 snowflakes . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 48 \SO () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \SOH ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 space thin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 space, visible . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 spades (suit) . . . . . . . . . 38, 50 \spadesuit () . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Sparkle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \SparkleBold ( ) . . . . . . . . 47 sparkles . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 48 "special" characters . . . . . . . . 7

[

G

K

A

i

p

(

P

d

y

g f h

e

1

`

^

_

]

\

\SpecialForty (Ú) . . . . . . 52 \sphericalangle (c) . . . . . 39 \sphericalangle ( ) . . . . . 38 \SpinDown () . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \SpinUp () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \splitvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \splitvert (¦) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \sqbullet () . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \sqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \sqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \sqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \sqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \sqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \sqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \sqdoublecap () . . . . . . . . 18 \sqdoublecup () . . . . . . . . 18 \sqiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sqint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sqint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sqrt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35, 59 \sqSubset () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsubset () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . 23, 24 \sqsubseteq () . . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqsubseteqq () . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsubsetneq () . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsubsetneqq () . . . . . . . 24 \sqSupset () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsupset () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . 23, 24 \sqsupseteq () . . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsupsetneq () . . . . . . . . 24 \sqsupsetneqq () . . . . . . . 24 \Square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Square ( vs. vs. ) . . . 56 \Square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \Square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \square (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 square root . . . . . . . see \sqrt hooked . . . . . see \hksqrt \SquareCastShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \SquareCastShadowTopLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 49 \SquareCastShadowTopRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Squaredot (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \Squarepipe (--) . . . . . . . . . 43 squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 49 \SquareShadowA ( ) . . . . . . 48 \SquareShadowB ( ) . . . . . . 48 \SquareShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 49 \SquareShadowC ( ) . . . . . . 48

A

B

[

\

H

f H

f

k

m

l

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h

¢

85

\SquareShadowTopLeft ( ) . \SquareShadowTopRight ( ) \SquareSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . \Squaresteel (") . . . . . . . .

g

j i

\squarewithdots ( ) . . . . . 50 \squplus (]) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \SS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \ss (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \ssearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \sslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \sswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \stackrel . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 61 \star ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 60 Star of David . . . . . . . . . . . 47 stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 47, 48 statistical independence . . . . 58 sterling . . . . . . . . . see \pounds stmaryrd (package) 17, 19, 21, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 56, 69, 70 stochastic independence see \bot \StoneMan () . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \Stopsign (!) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \StopWatchEnd ( ) . . . . . . . 53 \StopWatchStart ( ) . . \stress (h) . . . . . . . . . . \strictfi ( ) . . . . . . . \strictif ( ) . . . . . . . \strictiff ( ) . . . . . . \StrokeFive (;) . . . . . \StrokeFour (::::) . . . . . . \StrokeOne (:) . . . . . . . . \StrokeThree (:::) . . . . . \StrokeTwo (::) . . . . . . . \STX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \SUB () . . . . . . . . . . . . subscripts new symbols used in \Subset () . . . . . . . . . \Subset ( ) . . . . . . . . . \subset () . . . . . . . . . \subset () . . . . . . . . . \subseteq () . . . . . . . \subseteq () . . . . . . . \subseteqq () . . . . . . . \subseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . \subsetneq () . . . . . . . \subsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . \subsetneqq () . . . . . . \subsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . \subsetplus ( ) . . . . . . \subsetpluseq ( ) . . . . subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . \succ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \succapprox (Ç) . . . . . . \succapprox ( ) . . . . . . \succcurlyeq (¥) . . . . . \succcurlyeq ( ) . . . . . \succdot (Í) . . . . . . . . \succeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \succeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . .

B

49 49 49 43

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. . . . . . . . . . . .

53 13 22 22 22 53 53 53 53 53 43 43 58 24 23 24 23 24 23 24 23 24 23 24 23 24 24 24 21 22 21 22 21 22 21 22

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

\succnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . . . 23 \succnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \succneq () . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \succneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \succnsim (Å) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \succnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \succsim (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \succsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 such that (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \sum ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Summit () . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \SummitSign () . . . . . . . . . 53 \Sun (@ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Sun (À vs. vs. @ ) . . . . . 56 \Sun (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Sun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \sun () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \SunCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 53 \SunshineOpenCircled ( ) . 50 \sup (sup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 superscripts new symbols used in . . . 58 supersets . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24 \Supset () . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Supset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \supset () . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \supset () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \supseteq () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \supseteq () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \supseteqq () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \supseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \supsetneq () . . . . . . . . . . 24 \supsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \supsetneqq () . . . . . . . . . 24 \supsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 23 \supsetplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \supsetpluseq ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \surd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \SurveySign () . . . . . . . . . 53 \Swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \swarrow (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 26, 59 swung dash . . . . . . . . see \sim \syl (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \syllabic (j) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Symbol (PostScript font) 30, 55 symbols alpine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 APL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 astrological . . . . . . . . . 42 astronomical . . . . . 41, 42 biological . . . . . . . . . . . 43 body-text . . . . . . . . . 7­15 bold . . . . . . . . . . . 65­66 chess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 communication . . . . . . . 43 computer hardware . . . . 43 contradiction . . . . . 16, 28 currency . . . . . . 13, 14, 40 dangerous bend . . . . . . 49

P

T

definition . . . . . . . . 16, 61 dictionary . . see symbols, phonetic dingbat . . . . . . . . . 45­50 dot . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 electrical . . . . . . . . . . . 41 engineering . . . . . . 41, 43 genealogical . . . . . . . . . 51 general . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 information . . . . . . . . . 49 informator . . . . . . . . . . 54 Knuth's . . . . . . . . . 49, 51 laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 letter-like . . . . . . . . 30, 31 linguistic . . . . . . . . . 8­10 log-like . . . . . . . . . 29, 65 mathematical . . . . . 16­40 METAFONTbook . . . . . 51 miscellaneous 38, 39, 50­54 monetary . . . . . . 13, 14, 40 navigation . . . . . . . . . . 52 phonetic . . . . . . . . . 8­10 physical . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 pulse diagram . . . . . . . 41 relational . . . . . . . . . . . 21 reversed . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 rotated . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 safety-related . . . . . . . . 44 scientific . . . . . . . . 41­44 subset and superset 23, 24 technological . . . . . 41­44 TEXbook . . . . . . . . 49, 51 upside-down . . . . . . . . . 57 variable-sized . . . . . 18­20 weather . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 zodiacal . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 symbols.tex (file) . . . . . 55, 69 \SYN ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 T \T . . . . . . . . . . \t (a) . . . . . . . tacks . . . . . . . . \taild () . . . \tailinvr (H) . \taill (0) . . . . \tailn (9) . . . \tailr (F) . . . . \tails (L) . . . . \tailt (P) . . . . \tailz (_) . . . \talloblong ( ) tally markers . . \tan (tan) . . . . \tanh (tanh) . . \Tape ( ) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

\Taschenuhr ( ) . . . . . Tate-Shafarevich group ( \tau ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \Taurus (Q ) . . . . . . . . . \Taurus (á) . . . . . . . . . \taurus ( ) . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.... 8 . . . 11 21, 30 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 17 . . . 53 . . . 29 . . . 29 . . . 50 . . . 53 55 . . . 29 . . . 42 . . . 42 . . . 42

X) .

86

\tauup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \tccentigrade () . . . . . . . 39 \tcmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \tcohm () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \tcpertenthousand () . . 39 \tcperthousand () . . . . . . 39 \td (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 .. technological symbols . . 41­44 \Telefon (T) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Telephone ( ) . . . . . . . . 53 \Tent ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \tesh (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 testfont.dvi (file) . . . . . . . 64 testfont.tex (file) . . . . 62, 64 TEX 55, 57­59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67, 70 TEXbook, The . . . . . . 57­61, 65 symbols from . . . . . 49, 51 \text . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 58, 59 \textacutedbl () . . . . . . . 13 \textacutemacron (¡) . . . . . 11 a © \textacutewedge (¡) . . . . . . 11 a § \textadvancing (a) . . . . . . . 11 0 \textasciiacute (´) . . . 13, 68 \textasciibreve () . . . . . . 13 \textasciicaron () . . . . . . 13 \textasciicircum (^) . . . 7, 67 \textasciidieresis (¨) 13, 68 \textasciigrave (`) . . . . . . 13 \textasciimacron . . . . . . . . 67 \textasciimacron (¯) . 13, 68 \textasciitilde (~) . . . . 7, 67 \textasteriskcentered () . 7, 15 \textbabygamma (È) . . . . . . . . 9 \textbackslash (\) . . 7, 66, 67 \textbaht () . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textbar (|) . . . . . . . 7, 66, 67 \textbarb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbarc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbard ( d ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbardbl () . . . . . . . . . 15 \textbardotlessj (é) . . . . . . 9 \textbarg ( g ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbarglotstop (Ü) . . . . . . 9 \textbari (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbarl (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbaro (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbarrevglotstop (Ý) . . . 9 \textbaru (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbeltl (ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbeta (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbigcircle () . . . . . . 15 \textblank () . . . . . . . . . . 15 \textborn ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \textbottomtiebar (a) . . . . 11 ` \textbraceleft ({) . . . . . . . . 7 \textbraceright (}) . . . . . . . 7 \textbrevemacron (¨) . . . . . 11 a © \textbrokenbar (¦) . . . . 15, 68 \textbullet (·) . . . . . . . 7, 15 \textbullseye (ò) . . . . . . . . 9

(

\textcelsius () . . . . . . . . 41 \textceltpal (2) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcent (¢) . . . . . . . . 13, 68 \textcentoldstyle (¢) . . . . 13 \textchi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcircled () . . . . . . . 11 \textcircledP () . . . . . . 14 \textcircumacute () . . . . . 11 a \textcircumdot (¢ . . . . . . . 11 a) \textcloseepsilon (Å) . . . . . 9 \textcloseomega (Ñ) . . . . . . . 9 \textcloserevepsilon (Æ) . . . 9 \textcolonmonetary () . . . 13 \textcommatailz (Þ) . . . . . . . 9 textcomp (package) . . . . . . . 6, 7, 11, 13­15, 26, 33, 39, 41, 51, 55, 67, 69, 70 \textcopyleft ( ) . . . . . . 14 \textcopyright (©) . 7, 14, 68 \textcorner () . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcrb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcrd (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcrg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcrh (è) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcrinvglotstop ( Û ) . . . . 9 \textcrlambda (¬) . . . . . . . . 9 \textcrtwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textctc (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textctd (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textctdctzlig (¢ý) . . . . . . . 9 \textctesh (²) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textctj (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textctn (®) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textctt (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcttctclig (´g) . . . . . . . 9 \textctyogh (¸) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textctz (ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textcurrency (¤) . . . . 13, 68 \textdagger () . . . . . . . 7, 15 \textdaggerdbl () . . . . . 7, 15 \textdbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . 49 \textdblhyphen ( ) . . . . . . . 15 \textdblhyphenchar ( ) . . . . 15 \textdctzlig (dý) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textdegree (°) . . . . . . 39, 68 \textdied ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \textdiscount ( ) . . . . . . . 15 \textdiv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \textdivorced ( ) . . . . . . . 51 \textdollar ($) . . . . . . . 7, 13 \textdollaroldstyle ($) . . 13 \textdong () . . . . . . . . . . . 13 a \textdotacute () . . . . . . . 11 \textdotbreve (¨) . . . . . . . 11 a \textdoublebaresh ( ) . . . . . 9 \textdoublebarpipe (}) . . . . 9 \textdoublebarslash (a) . . . 9 G \textdoublegrave () . . . . . 11 a \textdoublepipe ({) . . . . . . . 9 \textdoublevbaraccent () . 11 a \textdoublevertline () . . . 9 \textdownarrow () . . . . . . . 26

\textdownstep () . . . . . . \textdyoghlig (Ã) . . . . . \textdzlig (dz) . . . . . . . . \texteightoldstyle (8) . \textellipsis (. . . ) . . . . \textemdash (--) . . . . . . \textendash (­) . . . . . . . \textepsilon (i) . . . . . . \textesh () . . . . . . . . . . \textestimated () . . . . \texteuro () . . . . . . . . \textexclamdown (¡) . . . . \textfishhookr () . . . . . \textfiveoldstyle (5) . . \textflorin () . . . . . . . . \textfouroldstyle (4) . . \textfractionsolidus (/) \textfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . \textg (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . \textgamma (q) . . . . . . . . \textglobfall () . . . . . \textglobrise () . . . . . \textglotstop () . . . . . \textgoth . . . . . . . . . . . . \textgravecircum () . . . a \textgravedbl ( ) . . . . . \textgravedot () . . . . . a \textgravemacron ( ) . . . a © \textgravemid () . . . . . a \textgreater (>) . . . 7, \textguarani ( ) . . . . . . \texthalflength (Y) . . . . \texthardsign (») . . . . . \texthooktop (5) . . . . . . . \texthtb (á) . . . . . . . . . . \texthtbardotlessj (ê) . . \texthtc (Á) . . . . . . . . . . \texthtd (â) . . . . . . . . . . \texthtg (ä) . . . . . . . . . . \texthth (r) . . . . . . . . . . \texththeng (Ê) . . . . . . . \texthtk (Î) . . . . . . . . . . \texthtp (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . \texthtq (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . \texthtrtaild (£) . . . . . \texthtscg (É) . . . . . . . . \texthtt (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . \texthvlig (ÿ) . . . . . . . . \textifsym . . . . . . . . . . . \textinterrobang () . . . \textinterrobangdown ( ) \textinvglotstop (Û) . . . \textinvscr (u) . . . . . . . \textinvsubbridge (a) . . \textiota (Ì) . . . . . . . . . \textlambda («) . . . . . . . \textlangle () . . . . . . \textlbrackdbl () . . . . . \textleaf ( ) . . . . . . . . \textleftarrow () . . . . \textlengthmark (X) . . . . \textless (<) . . . . . 7,

... 9 ... 9 ... 9 . . 14 ... 7 ... 7 ... 7 ... 9 ... 9 . . 15 . . 13 ... 7 ... 9 . . 14 . . 13 . . 14 . . 39 . . 40 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 . . 10 ... 9 . . 40 . . 11 . . 13 . . 11 . . 11 . . 11 66, 67 . . 13 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 ... 9 . . 41 . . 15 . . 15 ... 9 ... 9 . . 11 ... 9 ... 9 33, 67 . . 33 . . 51 . . 26 ... 9 66, 67

87

\textlhdbend ( ) . . . . . . . 49 \textlhookt (³) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textlhtlongi (¦) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textlhtlongy (¶) . . . . . . . . 9 \textlira () . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textlnot (¬) . . . . . . . . 39, 68 \textlonglegr (Ô) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textlowering (a) . . . . . . . 11 ) \textlptr (½) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textlquill () . . . . . . . . . 33 \textltailm (w) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textltailn (ñ) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textltilde (ë) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textlyoghlig (Ð) . . . . . . . . 9 \textmarried ( ) . . . . . . . . 51 \textmho () . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \textmidacute () . . . . . . . 11 a \textminus (-) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \textmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . 41, 68 \textmusicalnote () . . . . . 15 \textnaira () . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textnineoldstyle (9) . . . . 14 \textnumero () . . . . . . . . . 15 \textObardotlessj (Í) . . . . . 9 \textohm () . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \textOlyoghlig () . . . . . . . . 9 \textomega (°) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textonehalf (½) . . . . . 39, 68 \textoneoldstyle . . . . . . . . 14 \textoneoldstyle (1) . . . . . 14 \textonequarter (¼) . . . 39, 68 \textonesuperior (¹) . . 39, 68 \textopenbullet () . . . . . . 15 \textopencorner () . . . . . . . 9 \textopeno (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textordfeminine (ª) 7, 15, 68 \textordmasculine (º) 7, 15, 68 \textovercross ($) . . . . . . . 11 a " \textoverw (a) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textpalhook (7) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textparagraph (¶) . . . . 7, 15 \textperiodcentered (·) . 7, 15, 68 \textpertenthousand () . 15 \textperthousand () . . . . 15 \textpeso ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textphi (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textpilcrow (¶) . . . . . . . . 15 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textpm (±) . . . . . . . . . 39, 68 \textpolhook (a) . . . . . . . . 12 \textprimstress (4) . . . . . . . 9 \textquestiondown (¿) . . . . . 7 \textquotedbl (") . . . . . 8, 66 \textquotedblleft (") . . . . . 7 \textquotedblright (") . . . . 7 \textquoteleft (`) . . . . . . . . 7 \textquoteright (') . . . . . . . 7 \textquotesingle (') . . . . . 15 \textquotestraightbase (,) 15 \textquotestraightdblbase (,,) . . . . . . . . . 15

\textraiseglotstop (¼) . \textraisevibyi (§) . . . . \textraising (a) . . . . . . ( \textramshorns (U) . . . . . \textrangle () . . . . . . \textrbrackdbl () . . . . . \textrecipe ( ) . . . . . . \textreferencemark () \textregistered (®) 7, \textretracting (a) . . . . 1 \textrevapostrophe () . . \textreve (W) . . . . . . . . . \textrevepsilon (Q) . . . .

... 9 ... 9 . . 12 ... 9 33, 67 . . 33 15, 57 15, 16 14, 68 . . 12 ... 9 ... 9 9, 57

\textreversedvideodbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . 49 \textrevglotstop () . . . . . . 9 \textrevyogh (¹) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrhookrevepsilon (Ç) . . 9 \textrhookschwa (Ä) . . . . . . . 9 \textrhoticity (~) . . . . . . . . 9 \textrightarrow () . . . . . 26 \textringmacron (¦) . . . . . . 12 a © \textroundcap () . . . . . . . 12 a \textrptr (¾) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrquill () . . . . . . . . . 33 \textrtaild (ã) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrtaill (í) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrtailn (ï) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrtailr (ó) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrtails (ù) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrtailt (ú) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrtailz (ü) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrthook (6) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsca (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscb (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsce (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscg (å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsch (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textschwa (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsci (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscj (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscl (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscn (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscoelig (×) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscomega (±) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscr (ö) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscripta (e) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscriptg (g) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscriptv () . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscu (Ú) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textscy () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textseagull (a) . . . . . . . . 12 # \textsecstress () . . . . . . . . 9 \textsection (§) . . . . . . 7, 15 \textservicemark () . . . . . 14 \textsevenoldstyle (7) . . . 14 \textsixoldstyle (6) . . . . . 14 \textsoftsign (º) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsterling (£) . . . . . 7, 13 \textstretchc (Â) . . . . . . . . 9 \textstyle . . . . . . . . . . 58, 65 \textsubacute (a) . . . . . . . 12

\textsubarch (a) . . . . . . . . 12 \textsubbar (a) . . . . . . . . . 12 © \textsubbridge (a) . . . . . . . 12 \textsubcircum (a) . . . . . . . 12 . \textsubdot (a) ¢ . . . . . . . . 12 \textsubgrave (a) . . . . . . . 12 \textsublhalfring (a) . . . . 12 ! \textsubplus (a) . . . . . . . . 12 ' \textsubrhalfring (a) . . . . 12 \textsubring (a) . . . . . . . . 12 ¦ \textsubsquare (a) . . . . . . . 12 \textsubtilde (a) . . . . . . . 12 \textsubumlaut £ ) . . . . . . . 12 (a . \textsubw (a) . . ¤ . . . . . . . . 12 " \textsubwedge (a) . . . . . . . 12 § \textsuperimposetilde (a) . 12 8 \textsuperscript . . . . . . . . 13 \textsurd () . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \textswab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \textsyllabic (a) . . . . . . . 12 \texttctclig (tg4 . . . . . . . . . 9 ) \textteshlig (Ù) . . . . . . . . . 9 \texttheta () . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textthorn (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textthreeoldstyle (3) . . . 14 \textthreequarters (¾) 39, 68 \textthreequartersemdash (--) . . . . . . . . . 15 \textthreesuperior (³) 39, 68 \texttildedot (£ a) . . . . . . . 12 \texttildelow ( ) . . . . 15, 67 \texttimes (×) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \texttoneletterstem (¿) . . . . 9 \texttoptiebar (b . . . . . . . 12 a) \texttrademark (TM) . . . . 7, 14 \texttslig (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturna (S) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturncelig (¯) . . . . . . . 9 \textturnh (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturnk (©) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturnlonglegr (Õ) . . . . . 9 \textturnm () . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturnmrleg (î) . . . . . . . 9 \textturnr (ô) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturnrrtail (õ) . . . . . . . 9 \textturnscripta (T) . . . . . . 9 \textturnt (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturnv (P) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturnw (û) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textturny (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \texttwelveudash ( ) . . . . . 15 \texttwooldstyle . . . . . . . . 14 \texttwooldstyle (2) . . . . . 14 \texttwosuperior (²) . . 39, 68 \textunderscore ( ) . . . . . . . 7 \textuparrow () . . . . . . . . 26 \textupsilon () . . . . . . . . . 9 \textupstep () . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textvbaraccent () . . . . . . 12 a \textvertline () . . . . . . . . . 9 \textvibyi (§) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textvibyy (·) . . . . . . . . . . . 9

88

\textvisiblespace ( ) . . . . . 7 \textwon () . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textwynn (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textyen (¥) . . . . . . . . 13, 68 \textyogh (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textzerooldstyle (0) . . . . 14 \TH (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \th (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Th`nh, H`n Th´ . . . . . . . . . 60 a a ^ e \therefore (T) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \therefore () . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Thermo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \Theta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \theta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \thetaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \thickapprox () . . . . . . . . 21 \thicksim () . . . . . . . . . . 21 \thickvert (~) . . . . . . . . . . 32 thin space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \ThinFog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \third (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \Thorn (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \thorn (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \thorn (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \thorn (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 tilde 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 34, 35, 37, 60, 67 extensible . . . . . . . 35, 37 vertically centered . . . . 67 \tilde (~) . . . . . . . . . . 34, 60 \tildel (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 time of day . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \timelimit ( ) . . . . . . . . . 54 \times (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Times (PostScript font) . . . . 14 timing (package) . . . . . . . . . 41 tipa (package) . 8, 10­12, 57, 69, 70 \to . . . . . . . . see \rightarrow \ToBottom (½) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \top ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 58 \topbot () . . . . . . . . . 58, 59 \topdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ToTop (¼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 trademark . see \texttrademark \TransformHoriz ( ) . . . . 23 transforms . . . . 23, 34, see also alphabets, math \TransformVert ( ) . . . . . . 23 transversality . see \pitchfork trfsigns (package) . 23, 31, 34, 69 \triangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 triangle relations . . . . . . . . . 25 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \TriangleDown ( vs. ) . . 56 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . 49 \triangledown ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \TriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \triangleleft () . . . . . . . 25 \triangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . 16

\trianglelefteq () . . . . . 25 \trianglelefteq ( ) . . . . . 25 \trianglelefteqslant ( ) . 25 \triangleq ( ) . . . . . . . 16, 25 \TriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . 48 \triangleright () . . . . . . 25 \triangleright ( ) . . . . . . . 16 \trianglerighteq () . . . . 25 \trianglerighteq ( ) . . . . 25 \trianglerighteqslant ( ) 25 triangles . . . . . . . . . . 38, 48, 49 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 \TriangleUp ( vs. ) . . . . 56 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 49 \triple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 trsym (package) . . . . . 23, 69, 70 \Tsteel (oe) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \TTsteel (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 TUGboat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Tumbler () . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \TwelweStar ( ) . . . . . . . . 47 \twoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . 26 \twoheadrightarrow ( ) . . 26 \twonotes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 txfonts (package) . . . . . . 16, 17, 20­28, 30, 31, 38, 40, 55, 57, 67, 69, 70 Type 1 (PostScript font) . . . 64

4

1

n 1 n

J

T

¢

U \U (¼) . . . . . . . . . . . a \u () . . . . . . . . . . . a \ubar (u) . . . . . . . . ubulb.fd (file) . . . . \udesc (u) . . . . . . . \udot (¤) . . . . . . . . . \ulcorner (x) . . . . . \ulcorner ( ) . . . . . ulsy (package) . . . . . umlaut . . . . . . . . . \unclear ( ) . . . . . \underaccent . . . . . \underarch (a) . . . . \underbrace (lo mo n) o o

k

. . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . 31 . 18, 28, 69 see accents . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . 36

\underbrace (|{z}) . . . . . . . 35 \underbracket . . . . . . . 60, 61 \underbracket ( ) . . . . . . . 61 \underdots (r) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \undergroup (lo o n) . . . . . . . 36 o \underleftarrow ( ) . . . . . - \underleftrightarrow ( ) \underline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \underparenthesis . . . . 60, \underparenthesis (|}) . . . 35 35 35 61 61

o 3 o

2

3

\underrightarrow ( ) . . . . 35 - \underring (y) . . . . . . . . . . 13 underscore . . . . . . . . . . see \_ underscore (package) . . . . . . . 7 undertilde (package) . . 37, 69, 70

\undertilde (|) . . . . . . . . . 13 \underwedge (}) . . . . . . . . . 13 union . . . . . . . . . . . . see \cup \unitedpawns ( ) . . . . . . . . 54 units (package) . . . . . . . . . . 39 unity (1) . . see alphabets, math universa (package) 49, 52, 69, 70 \unlhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 16, 17 \unrhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 16, 17 \upalpha () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \UParrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Uparrow () . . . . . . . . . 26, 32 \uparrow () . . . . . . . . . 26, 32 \upbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \upbeta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upbracketfill . . . . . . . . . 61 \upchi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Updelta () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \updelta () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Updownarrow ( ) . . . . . 26, 32 \updownarrow ( ) . . . . . 26, 32 \updownarrows (Ö) . . . . . . . 27 \updownharpoons (ê) . . . . . . 28 \upepsilon () . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upeta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Upgamma () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upgamma () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 upgreek (package) . . . 30, 69, 70 \upharpoonleft (ä) . . . . . . . 28 \upharpoonleft ( ) . . . . . . . 26 \upharpoonright (æ) . . . . . . 28 \upharpoonright ( ) . . . . . . 26 \upiota () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upkappa () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Uplambda () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \uplambda () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \uplett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \uplus (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \uplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \upmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upnu () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Upomega () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upomega () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upp (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \upparenthfill . . . . . . . . . 61 \Upphi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upphi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Uppi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \uppi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Uppsi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \uppsi () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 upquote (package) . . . . . . . . 67 \uprho () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 upright Greek letters . . . . . . 30 upside-down symbols . . . . . . 57 \Upsigma () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upsigma () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Upsilon () . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \upsilon () . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \upsilonup () . . . . . . . . . . 30 \upt (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \uptau () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

u

89

\Uptheta () . . . . \uptheta () . . . . . \uptodownarrow (þ) \upuparrows (Ò) . . \upuparrows ( ) . . \upupharpoons (Ú) \Upupsilon () . . . \upupsilon () . . . \upvarepsilon () . \upvarphi () . . . . \upvarpi () . . . . \upvarrho () . . . . \upvarsigma () . . \upvartheta () . . \Upxi () . . . . . . . \upxi () . . . . . . . \upzeta () . . . . . . \Uranus (G ) . . . . . \Uranus (Ç) . . . . . . \uranus ( ) . . . . . . \urcorner (y) . . . . \urcorner ( ) . . . . url (package) . . . . . \US ( ) . . . . . . . . . \usepackage . . . . . \ut (a) . . . . . . . . . ~ \utilde ( ) . . . . . .

e

... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

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30 30 27 27 26 28 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 42 42 41 31 31 67 43 . 6 13 37

V \v () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a \vara () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \varangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \varbigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . 17 \VarClock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 53 \varclubsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . 38 \varcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . 17 \varcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . 17 \vardiamondsuit ( ) . . . . . . 38 \varEarth (J ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \varepsilon () . . . . . . . . . 29 \varepsilonup () . . . . . . . . 30 \VarFlag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 varg (txfonts/pxfonts package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \varg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \varg (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \vargeq (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \varhash (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \varheartsuit ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \varhexagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \varhexstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \vari (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 variable-sized symbols . . 18­20 \VarIceMountain ( ) . . . . . 53 \varinjlim (lim) . . . . . . . . . 29 - \varint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \various (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \varkappa () . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \varleq (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \varliminf (lim) . . . . . . . . . 29 \varlimsup (lim) . . . . . . . . . 29 \varmathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

\VarMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . 53 \varnothing () . . . . . . . . . 38 \varnotin (T) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \varnotowner (U) . . . . . . . . 31 \varoast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varobar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varobslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 17 \varocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 17 \varodot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varogreaterthan ( ) . . . . 17 \varoiiintclockwise ( ) . 20 \varoiiintctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . 20 \varoiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20 \varoiintclockwise ( ) . . 20 \varoiintctrclockwise ( ) 20 \varoint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . 20 \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . 20 \varointctrclockwise ( ) . 20 \varointctrclockwise ( ) . . 20 \varolessthan ( ) . . . . . . . 17 \varomega (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \varominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varopeno (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \varoplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varoslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varotimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varovee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varowedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \varparallel () . . . . . . . . 22 \varparallelinv ( ) . . . . . . 22 \varphi () . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \varphiup () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \varpi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \varpiup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \varprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \varprojlim (lim) . . . . . . . . 29 - \varpropto () . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varrho ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \varrhoup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \varsigma () . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \varsigmaup () . . . . . . . . . 30 \varspadesuit ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \varsqsubsetneq () . . . . . 24 \varsqsubsetneqq () . . . . 24 \varsqsupsetneq () . . . . . 24 \varsqsupsetneqq () . . . . 24 \varstar () . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \varsubsetneq () . . . . . . . 24 \varsubsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . 23 \varsubsetneqq () . . . . . . 24 \varsubsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . 23 \VarSummit ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 \varsupsetneq () . . . . . . . 24 \varsupsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . 23 \varsupsetneqq () . . . . . . 24 \varsupsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . 23

!

\varthetaup () . . . . . \vartimes ( ) . . . . . . . \vartriangle ( ) . . . . \vartriangleleft () \vartriangleleft ( ) \vartriangleright () \vartriangleright ( ) \varv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \varw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \vary ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \VBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \VDash (() . . . . . . . . . \Vdash (,) . . . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \vDash (() . . . . . . . . . \vDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \vdots (. . . . . . . . . . . .) \vec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \Vectorarrow (p) . . . . . \Vectorarrowhigh (P) . . \vee (_) . . . . . . . . . . . \vee () . . . . . . . . . . . \veebar (Y) . . . . . . . . \veebar ( ) . . . . . . . . \veedoublebar ([) . . . \Venus (B ) . . . . . . . . . \Venus (Ã) . . . . . . . . . \venus () . . . . . . . . . \vernal ( ) . . . . . . . . \Vert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \vert (|) . . . . . . . . . . . \VHF ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .

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30 17 38 25 25 25 25 30 30 30 48 22 22 21 22 21 21 37 34 39 39 18 16 18 16 18 42 42 41 41 32 32 41 53 31 42 42 10 10 43 37 22 22 21 32

\Village ( \vin ( ) . . . \Virgo (å) . \virgo ( ) \vod (v) . . . ° \voicedh (h) \VT () . . . . \vv ( #») . . . \VvDash ( ) \Vvdash (,) \Vvdash ( ) \vvvert (~)

) . . . . . . . . ............

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

\VarTaschenuhr ( ) . . . . . . 53 \vartheta () . . . . . . . . . . . 29

W \WashCotton () . . . . . . . . \WashSynthetics (S) . . . . \WashWool (<) . . . . . . . . . . \wasylozenge () . . . . . . . . \wasypropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . wasysym (package) 8, 14­17, 21, 23­26, 38, 41­43, 47, 51, 56, 69, 70 \wasytherefore () . . . . . . \wbetter (f) . . . . . . . . . . . \wdecisive (h) . . . . . . . . . \weakpt (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . \WeakRain ( ) . . . . . . . . . .

52 52 52 51 21 19, 48, 38 54 54 54 53

90

\WeakRainCloud ( ) . . . . . . 53 weather symbols . . . . . . . . . 53 \Wecker ( ) . . . . . . \wedge (^) . . . . . . . . \wedge () . . . . . . . . Weierstrass function \Wheelchair (w) . . . . \widearrow (t) . . . . . \widebar (s) . . . . . . . \widecheck (q) . . . . . \widehat (b) . . . . . . . \wideparen (u) . . . . . \wideparen (ó) . . . . . ó \widering (°) . . . . . . ° \widering (ó) . . . \widetilde (e) . . \widetriangle (æ) \wind . . . . . . . . . Windows . . . . . . . \with ( ) . . . . . . \withattack ( ) . \withidea ( ) . . \withinit ( ) . . . \without ( ) . . . \Womanface (þ) . ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

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. . . . 53 . . . . 18 . . . . 16 see \wp . . . . 49 . . . . 36 . . . . 36 . . . . 36 . . . . 35 . . . . 36 . . . . 35

won . . . . . . . . . . see \textwon \wp () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \wr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 wreath product . . . . . . see \wr \Writinghand (b) . . . . . . . . 49 wsuipa (package) 10, 12, 13, 56, 57, 60, 69, 70 \wupperhand ( ) . . . . . . . . . 54

c

. . . . . 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 35, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35 37 35 53 67 54 54 54 54 54 52

X \XBox ( ) . . Xdvi . . . . . . \Xi () . . . . \xi () . . . . \xiup () . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

47 57 29 29 30

Y \Ydown ( ) . . . . yen . . . . . . . . . . yfonts (package) . yhmath (package) 60, 69 \Yinyang (Y) . . \Yleft ( ) . . . . \yogh (`) . . . . . \yogh (x) . . . . . \Yright ( ) . . . \Yup ( ) . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 17 . see \textyen . . . . 40, 69, 70 34, 35, 37, 38, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 17 10 10 17 17

-) \xleftarrow ( . . . . . . . . 35 XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 ) . . . . . . . 35 \xrightarrow (- \xrightleftharpoons (- -) . 36 Xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 47, 49

w

E C v

A

46 X -pic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Y

$ ........ \XSolidBrush (%) . . . . . . . .

\XSolidBold ( )

\XSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 46

#

Z Zapf Chancery (PostScript font) . . . . . . . . . 40 Zapf Dingbats (PostScript font) . . . . . . . 45, 47 zapfchan (package) . . . . . . . . 69 \Zborder ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \zeta () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \zetaup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Zodiac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 zodiacal symbols . . . . . . . . . 42

Z

. \Ztransf ( s ... c . . . . . . . . . 23 ) . \ztransf ( c ... s . . . . . . . . . 23 ) \zugzwang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54

D

91

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The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List

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