Read CFI GL4 - Teaching Methods text version

AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

D. TASK: TEACHING METHODS REFERENCE: FAA-H-8083-9. (Aviation Instructor's Handbook, Ch. 5) Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the Elements o f teaching methods by describing: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Material organization. The lecture method. The cooperative or group learning method. The guided discussion method. The demonstration-performance method. Computer-based training method.

General Outline Practical application of theoretical information (learning process, human behavior, effective communication) Lecture Method Guided-Discussion Method Demonstration-Performance Method Cooperative/Group learning Computer-Based Training o Organizing Material

Must be a systematic plan of action, logical manner toward desired goal (i.e. syllabus) Organize each lesson with integrated lesson plans Introduction ­ Development - Conclusion o Introduction

"Sets the stage for everything to come" Attention ­ Motivation - Overview Attention · Gain and Focus student's attention on the lesson · Stories, statements, questions, jokes? · Must relate to the subject Motivation · Explain why a topic is important · When and how will this topic be applied? Overview · Clear, concise presentation of the objective/main ideas o Development Main part of the lesson, logically organized Showing relationship between main parts. Subordinate points lead naturally from one to the other Permits effective sorting or categorizing chunks of information Past to present ­ Simple to Complex ­ Known to Unknown ­ Most Frequently Used to Least Frequently Used Past to Present

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

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· Used to teach the history/development of an idea Simple to Complex · Simple facts or ideas to an understanding of involved phenomena Known to Unknown · Something the student already knows as a point of departure into new ideas/concepts Most Frequently Used to Least Frequently Used o Conclusion Retrace important ideas, resummarize New ideas should not be introduced Lecture Method

Preparation and Presentation Advantages and Limitations Practical Application of Lecture Method Introduction of new ideas Summarizing ideas Showing relationships between theory and practice Reemphasizing main points Large or small groups Combined with other methods to give added meaning/direction Illustrated talk ­ speaker relies heavily on visual aids to convey ideas Briefing ­ concise array of facts w/o elaboration Formal lecture ­ inform, persuade student w/ little verbal participation from student Teaching lecture ­ deliver oral presentation w/ some participation from students o Teaching Lecture

Active participation Harder to interpret feedback compared with other teaching methods Look for facial expressions, taking notes, interest/disinterest Preparing a Teaching Lecture · Prepare well in advance of the presentation o Look at PTS o Establish objective/desired outcome o Research the subject using proper REFERENCE materials o Organize the material o Plan productive classroom activities · Support points with examples, comparisons, statistics, testimony, personal experiences · Rehearse after planning Suitable Language · Simple and specific, rather than complex and general, words should be used · "Errors in grammar and vulgarisms detract from an instructor's dignity and reflect upon the intelligence of the students." · Define technical terms · Variations in tone and pace of speaking, vary sentence length Types of Delivery (four types)

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

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· Reading from a typed or written manuscript · Reciting memorized material w/o the aid of a manuscript · *** Speaking extemporaneously from an outline *** · Speaking impromptu without preparation ***Best for teaching lecture for personalization, enthusiasm Use of Notes · Careful use of notes ensure accuracy, jog memory, aid retention · Use them sparingly, but don't try to hide them Formal Versus Informal Lectures · Includes active student participation through use of questions · Must determine student's experience/background · Instructor's Responsibility ­ Plan, Organize, Develop, and Present the major portion of the lesson Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture ADVANTAGES · Convenient for large groups · Present large amounts of info in short period of time if logically organized · Most economical · Suitable for introducing a new subject/background info DISADVANTAGES · Often inhibits student participation · Fosters passiveness and teacher dependence · Unable to teach motor skills by lecture · Little feedback to estimate student's understanding · Retention drops off after first 10-15 minutes · Retention rate = 5% after 24 hours after lecture

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Cooperative or Group Learning Method

Organizes students into small groups to work together, Higher test scores, self-esteem, social skills, comprehension Continually requires active participation from student Instructor serves as a coach/facilitator interacting with students, as necessary, to keep everyone on track o Conditions and Controls

Plan early, determine what the student group will learn and do on their own Heterogeneous Groups · Consider academic abilities, backgrounds, race and gender Clear, Complete Directions and Instructions · What students are to generate as evidence of their mastery of targeted content and skills All Students in the Group Must Buy Into the Targeted Objectives Positive Interdependence · Student success depends on group success Opportunity for Success · Student must not feel penalized by being put into groups

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

Access to Must-Learn Information · Structure tasks so students have access to and comprehend specific information they must learn · Focus aligned with specific objectives/test items Sufficient Time for Learning Positive Social Interaction Behaviors and Attitudes · Eye-to-eye contact · Interactive Abilities - leadership, trust-building, conflict management, constructive criticism, encouragement, compromise, negotiation, clarification. Individual Accountability · Individually responsible for his/her share of work Recognition and Rewards for Group Success Debrief on Group Efforts · Achieved group objectives? · What can we improve on?

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Guided Discussion Method

Students provide ideas, experiences, opinions, and information Classroom, preflight, post flight briefings, AFTER students have gained some knowledge and experience. Intense discussion, higher levels of participation increase effectiveness Encourage questions o Use of Questions in a Guided Discussion "In the guided discussion, learning is achieved through the skillful use of questions" Lead-off question ­ gets the discussion started Follow-up question ­ gets the discussion back on topic, or to have the student explain a topic more thoroughly Overhead question ­ directed to entire group to stimulate thought, could be used as a lead-off question Rhetorical question ­ overhead, used in lectures, answered by instructor Direct question ­ follow-up question, directed toward a specific individual Reverse question ­ re-direct the question asked to another student Relay question ­ redirect question to the entire group Characteristics of an Effective Question · Have a specific purpose · Be clear in meaning · Contain a single idea · Stimulate thought · Require definite answers · Relate to previously covered information Planning a Guided Discussion Select a topic students can discuss using their own knowledge Make assignments that will give the students an adequate background for discussion Establish specific objectives/desired outcomes Conduct research, organize materials

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

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Purpose is to stimulate discussion, not merely to get answers Avoid "yes" or "no" questions, use why? to evaluate learning o Student Preparation for a Guided Discussion Instructor Responsibility: help students prepare themselves for the discussion o Guiding a Discussion ­ Instructor Technique Requires practice and experience Introduction · Attention, motivation, overview · Relaxed, informal atmosphere · Student should feel a personal responsibility to contribute · "The instructor should try to make the students feel that their ideas and active participation are wanted and needed." Discussion (development) · Be patient. Allow students to think about their answers. · Puzzled expression? Rephrase question. · Summarize what the student has accomplished Conclusion · Summarizing the material covered · Demonstration-Performance Method

Based on the principle that we learn by doing. Instructor must identify most important learning outcomes. Five parts Explanation (guided discussion method) Demonstration Student Performance \SIMULTANEOUS Instructor Supervision / Evaluation o Explanation Clear, pertinent to objectives, based on known experience of students Encourage students to ask questions about any step of the procedure Demonstration Phase Any deviation from expected performance must be acknowledged and explained Student Performance and Instructor Supervision Phases Occurs simultaneously Students perform ASAP after a demonstration Should be able to independently complete the task at least once w/ supervision and coaching Evaluation Phase Actual performance relative to the way it was taught.

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Computer-Based Training (CBT) Method o Also called Computer Based Instruction (CBI) o Students can progress at a rate which is comfortable for them o Students are able to access the CBT at their own convenience rather than that of the instructor o Test prep study guides o Computer Assisted Instruction

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

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Allow students to review procedures at their own pace while the instructor is involved in hands-on training with other students. Improper or excessive use of CBT should be avoided Should not be used as a stand alone training, Cross-reference w/ textbooks Repetitive forms of teaching may be accomplished by computer

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

FAA Written Exam Questions 1. In the teaching process, which method of presentation is suitable for presenting new material, for summarizing ideas, and for showing relationships between theory and practice?

Lecture Method 2. What is one advantage of a lecture?

Uses time economically 3. Which teaching method is most economical in terms of the time required to present a given amount of material?

Teaching Lecture 4. Which is a true statement regarding the teaching lecture?

Instructor must develop a keen perception for subtle responses and be able to interpret the meaning of these reactions. 5. The first step in preparing a lecture is to

Establish the objective and desired outcome 6. During a teaching lecture, what would detract from an instructor's dignity and reflect upon the student's intelligence?

Errors in grammar and use of vulgarisms. 7. The distinguishing characteristic of an informal lecture is the

Student's participation 8. An instructor can inspire active student participation during informal lectures through the use of

Questions 9. An instructional strategy which organizes students into small groups so that they can work together to maximize their own and each other's learning is called

Cooperative or group learning 10. The most significant characteristic of group learning is that it Continually requires active participation of the student. 11. The main reason that students are put in cooperative learning groups is so they Can individually achieve greater success than if they were to study alone.

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

12. The main advantage with heterogeneous groups are that students tend to Interact and achieve in ways and at levels that are rarely found with other instructional strategies. 13. In a guided discussion, learning is achieved through the Skillful use of questions 14. A question directed to an entire group to stimulate thought and response from each group member is identified as Overhead 15. In a guided discussion, leadoff questions should usually begin with Why 16. Which question would be best as a leadoff question for a guided discussion on the subject of torque? How does torque affect an airplane? 17. When it appears students have adequately discussed the ideas presented during a guided discussion, one of the most valuable tools an instructor can use is An interim summary of what the students accomplished? 18. Which statement about the guided discussion method of teaching is true? Unless the students have some knowledge to exchange with each other, they cannot reach the desired learning outcomes 19. Which method of presentation is desirable for teaching a skill such as ground school lesson on the flight computer? Demonstration/performance 20. What are the essential steps in the demonstration/performance method of teaching? Explanation, Demonstration, student performance, instructor supervision, and evaluation. 21. What is the last step in the demonstration/performance method? Evaluation 22. In the demonstration/performance method of instruction, which two separate actions are performed concurrently? Student performance and instructor supervision 23. Which statement is true concerning computer-based training (CBT)?

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

One of the major advantages of CBT is that students can progress at a rate that is comfortable for them. 24. Some of the more advanced computer-based training (CBT) applications allow students to progress through a series of interactive segments where the presentation varies as a result of their Responses 25. The major advantages of computer-based training (CBT) over the other forms of instruction is that it is interactive ­ the computer responds in different ways, depending on the student's Input 26. The method of arranging lesson material from the simple to complex, past to present, and known to unknown, is one that Shows the relationships of the main points of the lesson 27. In organizing lesson material, which step sets the stage for everything to come? Introduction 28. The proper sequence for the subparts of an introduction is Attention, motivation, and overview 29. In developing a lesson, the instructor should organize explanations and demonstrations to help the student Achieve the desired learning outcome 30. When teaching from known to the unknown, an instructor is using the student's Previous experiences and knowledge

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

FAA ORAL EXAM QUESTIONS 1. What are the three main steps involved when organizing the material for a particular lesson? a. Introduction b. Development c. Conclusion What basic elements should the introduction step contain? a. Attention ­ gain the student's attention and focus it on the subject involved. b. Motivation ­ should appeal to each student personally and accentuate their desire to learn c. Overview ­ tell the student what is to be covered; give a clear, concise presentation of the objectives and key ideas; provide a road map of the route to be followed. Discuss the development step of a presentation? a. This is the main part of the lesson. The instructor develops the subject matter in a manner that helps the student achieve desired learning objectives. The instructor must logically organize the material to show the relationships of the main points. Discuss the conclusion step of a presentation. a. An effective conclusion retraces the important elements of the lesson and relates them to the objective. This review and wrap-up of ideas reinforces the student's learning and improves the retention of what has been learned. What are the three most common teaching methods? a. Lecture method b. Guided discussion method c. Demonstration/performance method Discuss the lecture method of teaching a. The lecture is used primarily to introduce students to a new subject, but it is also a valuable method for summarizing ideas, showing relationships between theory and practice, and re-emphasizing main points. What is the "guided discussion" method of teaching? a. In contrast to the lecture method, where the instructor provides information, the guided discussion method relies on the students to provide ideas, experiences, opinions, and information. Through the skillful use of "lead-off" type questions, the instructor "draws out" what the student knows, rather than spending the class period telling them. What are the different types of questions that may be used in a guided discussion? a. Overhead ­ directed at entire group; used to stimulate thought and response; good lead-off question

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AREA OF OPERATION: FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTION TASK: TEACHING METHODS CFI Stage 1 ­ GL 4

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Rhetorical ­ used to stimulate thought; usually asked and answered by the instructor c. Direct ­ used to get a response from a specific individual d. Reverse ­ instructor redirects a student's question back in an effort to let the student provide the answer e. Relay ­ instructor redirects student's question to the group for an answer instead of an individual 9. What is the demonstration/performance method of teaching? a. This method of teaching is based on the simple yet sound principle that we learn by doing.

10. What are the five essential phases of the demonstration/performance method of teaching? a. Explanation b. Demonstration c. Student performance d. Instructor supervision e. Evaluation 11. Define the term "programmed instruction." a. This type of instruction has a student actively responding to each instructional step and receiving immediate feedback on their responses. 12. Define the term "integrated flight instruction." a. In integrated flight instruction, students are taught to perform flight maneuvers both by outside references and by references to flight instruments, from the first time each maneuver is introduced.

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CFI GL4 - Teaching Methods

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