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A U.S. Department of Education Grant Program Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools

Made In America: Courage, Imagination, Determination 2008-2009 In Words and Deeds Symposia Series

Race, Industry, and the Great Migration

Table of Contents

Background Information The Great Migration ........................................................................................................ 3 The Great Migration: Racial Violence in the Midwest and Northern Part of the United States ........................ 6 The Second Migration ...................................................................................................... 8 Harlem Renaissance ......................................................................................................... 15 Timeline of the Harlem Renaissance................................................................................ 18

Literacy Links Great Migration Reading Passage ................................................................................... 21 Harlem Renaissance Reading Comprehension ................................................................ 22 Every Day Edit Duke Ellington ....................................................................................... 24 Making Words-Migration ................................................................................................ 25 Making Words-Packing ................................................................................................... 28 Poetry and Song One Way Ticket ............................................................................................................... 31 Langston Hughes was a dreamer too! ............................................................................. 32 Don't Get Around Much Anymore .................................................................................. 38 Instruction Jacob Lawrence and the Great Migration ........................................................................ 39 Tar Beach ........................................................................................................................ 43 Teaching American History Resource Library Materials ............................................... 45

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Resource CD Background The Great Migration The Great Migration: Racial Violence in the Midwest and Northern Part of the United States The Second Migration Harlem Renaissance Timeline of the Harlem Renaissance The Great Migration Blacks in White America Graphics (various pictures you may find useful) Instruction Jacob Lawrence and the Great Migration Tar Beach Literacy Links Great Migration Reading Passage Harlem Renaissance Reading Comprehension Every Day Edit Duke Ellington Making Words-Migration Making Words-Packing Online Resources (various related websites) Poetry and Song One Way Ticket by Langston Hughes Langston Hughes was a dreamer too! Don't Get Around Much Anymore by Duke Ellington & Bob Russel Video Rise of the Harlem Renaissance

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The Great Migration

The Great Migration was the movement of approximately seven million African Americans out of the Southern United States to the North, Midwest and West from 1910 to 1970. Precise estimates of the number of migrants depend on the time frame. African Americans migrated to escape racism, seek employment opportunities in industrial cities, and to get better education for their children, all of which were widely perceived as leading to a better life. Some historians differentiate between the Great Migration (1910-1940), numbering about 1.6 million migrants, and the Second Great Migration, from 1940-1970. In the Second Migration 5 million or more people relocated but migrants moved to more new places. Many moved from Texas and Louisiana to California where there were jobs in the defense industry. From 1965-1970, 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, contributed to a large net migration of blacks to the other three Census designated regions of the United States. Since then scholars have noted a reverse migration underway that gathered strength through the last 35 years of the 20th century. It has been named the New Great Migration and identified in visible demographic changes since 1965. Most of the data is from 1965-2000. The data encompasses the movement of African Americans back to the South following de-industrialization in Northeastern and Midwestern cities, the growth of high-quality jobs in the "New South", and improving racial relations in the South. Many people moved back because of family and kinship ties. From 19952000, Georgia, Texas and Maryland were the states that attracted the most black college graduates. While California was for decades a net gaining state for black migrants, in the late 1990s it lost more African Americans than it gained. Causes When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863, less than eight percent of the African American population lived in the Northeast or Midwest. In 1900, approximately ninety percent of African-Americans resided in former slave-holding states. Most African Americans migrated to New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Detroit, Michigan , Chicago, Milwaukee, Wisconsin , St. Louis, Missouri , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania , Cincinnati, Ohio , and Cleveland, Ohio, as well as to many smaller industrial cities such as Gary, Indiana ,Buffalo, New York, Dayton, Ohio,Toledo, Ohio ,Youngstown, Ohio , Newark and Flint to name a few. People tended to take the cheapest rail ticket possible. This resulted in, for example, people from Mississippi moving to Chicago and people from Texas moving to Los Angeles. Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population rose by about twenty percent in Northern states, mostly in the biggest cities. Cities such as Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Cleveland had some of the biggest increases in the early part of the century. Because changes were concentrated in cities, urban tensions rose as African Americans and new or recent European immigrants, chiefly from rural societies, competed for jobs and housing with the white working class. African Americans moved as individuals or small family groups. There was no government assistance, but sometimes northern industries recruited people. The primary factor for immigration was the racial climate in the South and terrorism from the KKK. In the North, there were better schools and adult men could vote (joined by women after 1920). Burgeoning industries meant there were job opportunities. 1. African-Americans left to escape the discrimination and racial segregation of late 19th century constitutions and Jim Crow laws 2. The boll weevil infestation of Southern cotton fields in the late 1910s forced many sharecroppers and laborers to search for alternative employment opportunities.

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3. The enormous expansion of war industries created job openings for blacks--not in the factories but in service jobs vacated by new factory workers. 4. World War I and the Immigration Act of 1924 effectively put a halt to the flow of European immigrants to the emerging industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest, causing shortages of workers in the factories 5. The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 displaced hundreds of thousands of African-American farmers and farm workers

Effects Demographic changes The Great Migration of African-Americans created the first large, urban black communities in the North. It is conservatively estimated that 400,000 left the South during the two-year period of 19161918 to take advantage of a labor shortage created in the wake of the First World War. The 20th century cultures of many of the United States' modern cities were forged in this period. For instance, in 1910, the African American population of Detroit was 6,000, by the start of the Great Depression in 1929; this figure had risen to 120,000. Other cities, such as Chicago, St. Louis, Cleveland, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, also experienced surges in their African-American populations. Up until WWI, they had also been receiving hundreds of thousands of new immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. Major industrial cities were places of numerous languages, an influx of peoples from mostly rural cultures, and staggeringly rapid change in the early decades of the 20th century. The rapid scale of change could be seen also in Chicago. In 1900 the city had a total population of 1,698,575. By 1920 Chicago had increased by more than 1 million residents. Its population of 2,701,705 included more than 1,000,000 Catholics; 800,000 foreign-born immigrants; 125,000 Jews; and 110,000 African Americans. It had fifteen breweries and 20,000 speakeasies to keep things

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lively during Prohibition. As did some other cities, Chicago received the most African American migrants in the second wave of the Great Migration; from 1940-1960, the African American population in the city grew from 278,000 to 813,000. The South Side of Chicago was considered the black capital of America. In the South, the departure of hundreds of thousands of African Americans caused the black percentage of the population in most Southern states to decrease. In Mississippi and South Carolina, for example, blacks decreased from about 60% of the population in 1930 to about 35% by 1970. Discrimination and working conditions While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, enabling a measure of class mobility, the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination. Because so many people migrated in a short period of time, the African-American migrants were often resented by the European American working class, fearing their ability to negotiate rates of pay or secure employment, was threatened by the influx of new labor competition. Sometimes those who were most fearful or resentful were the last immigrants of the 19th and new immigrants of the 20th c. In many cities, working classes tried to defend what they saw as "their" territories. Nonetheless, African Americans made substantial gains in industrial employment, particularly in the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, and meatpacking industries. Between 1910 and 1920 the number of blacks employed in industry nearly doubled from 500,000 to 901,000. The migrants discovered racial discrimination in the North, even if it was sometimes more subtle than the South. Populations increased so rapidly among African-American migrants and new European immigrants both that there were housing shortages, and the newer groups competed even for the oldest, most rundown housing. Ethnic groups created territories they defended against change. Discrimination often kept African Americans to crowded neighborhoods, as in Chicago. More established populations of cities tended to move to newer housing as it was developing in the outskirts. Mortgage discrimination and redlining in inner city areas limited the newer AfricanAmerican migrants' ability to determine their own housing, or even to get a fair price. In the long term, the National Housing Act of 1934 contributed to limiting the availability of loans to urban areas, particularly those areas inhabited by African Americans. Integration and non-integration As African Americans migrated, they became increasingly integrated into society. As they lived and worked more closely with European Americans, the divide existing between them became increasingly stark. This period marked the transition for many African Americans from lifestyles as rural farmers to urban industrial workers. During the migration, migrants would often encounter residential discrimination in which white home owners and realtors would prevent migrants from purchasing homes or renting apartments in white neighborhoods. In addition, when blacks moved into white neighborhoods, whites would often react violently toward their new neighbors, including mass riots in front of their new neighbors' homes, bombings, and even murder. These tendencies contributed to maintaining the "racial divide" in the North, perhaps even accentuating it. Since African-American migrants sustained many Southern cultural and linguistic traits, such cultural differences created a sense of "otherness" in terms of their reception by others who were living in the cities before them. Stereotypes ascribed to "black" people during this period often were derived from the migrants' rural cultural traditions, which were maintained in stark contrast to the urban environments in which the people resided. Source: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Great_Migration_(African_American)

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The Great Migration: Racial Violence in the Midwest and Northern Part of United States

The oppressive weight of southern racism became a major push factor, as thousands - and later, millions - of African-Americans left the only homes they knew for new opportunities elsewhere. The growing tide of race riots and lynchings were key forces providing enormous impetus to these migrations. In the 1890s alone, lynching claimed the lives of 104 black men, women, and children annually. As historian Leon Litwack notes, between 1882 and 1959 an estimated 4,742 blacks met their deaths at the hands of lynch mobs. As many, if not more blacks were victims of legal lynchings (speedy trials and executions), private white violence, and "nigger hunts,' murdered by a variety of means in isolated rural sections and dumped into rivers and creeks.'' Lacking the ability to serve on juries, hold political office, or even vote, African Americans throughout the South were virtually powerless in the face of violent anti-black repression of this sort. Roughly 40,000 black southerners were part of the Exoduster movement. Between 1879 and 1898, the Exodusters established independent, all-black communities in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska. More importantly, the largest internal migration in U.S. history witnessed close to two million African Americans leaving the South between 1910 and 1940. This massive wave of migrants concentrated primarily in the Midwest and North, although many made it as far as California during the Great Migration. While the push of the Black Nadir explains much of this movement, the various socioeconomic pulls of better job opportunities, better housing, and higher living standards played important roles in the decision of African Americans to leave the South. Similar to the utopian views of the Midwest and North shared by many enslaved African Americans before 1850, these regions were envisioned as the ''Promised Land'' for millions of black migrants during the early portion of the twentieth century. These dreams would soon be dashed as African American settlers realized there was no escape from the Black Nadir or the American paradox. One set of responses to the influx of such large numbers of African Americans into the Midwest and North was an increasing number of race riots. Two riots in Illinois-Springfield (1908) and East St. Louis (1917) proved that the Midwest would not necessarily be more hospitable for African Americans. Accusations of raping white women and intense labor competition led to the deaths of dozens of African Americans and hundreds being forced or displaced from their homes. Despite the intensity of these incidents, nothing matches the Red Summer of 1919 in which two dozen race riots occurred throughout the country. Pioneering historical and sociological assessments of this violent summer have explained it as the outcome of labor competition, anti-black propaganda in the media (especially the 1915 release of Birth of a Nation), and the influx of white supremacist doctrines into mid-western and northern states. Whatever the specific causes of the numerous race riots in 1919, they proved once again that the American paradox was alive and well in the twentieth century. The irony of sending more than 300,000 young black men to fight to make the world ''safe for democracy'' during World War I was made more glaring by the number of anti-black race riots and overt attempts to deny these same men full citizenship. Mirroring the anti-Jewish pogroms in Eastern Europe, the savage destruction of two black communities in the 1920s became additional proof that the United States had not found an effective way to negotiate the widening gulf between African Americans and whites. In 1921, the Greenwood section of Tulsa, Oklahoma, suffered through an all-out war, complete with death squads and incendiaries dropped from airplanes by whites. What was once a prosperous black community lay in ashes after days of uncontrolled rioting. In addition, more than 200 black residents were killed in what can be described as a massacre. In 1923, the all-black community of Rosewood, Florida, suffered a similar fate. After a white woman in a neighboring community claimed that she had been raped-apparently to hide an extramarital affair she was having-hundreds of whites descended on Rosewood. After a week of rioting, the entire town was destroyed and as many as 300 African Americans were killed. Again, a prosperous black community was razed at the

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hands of a white mob. What both of these cases prove is that economic competition and white supremacy were not the only provocation for race riots in the United States. Jealousy and the fear of African Americans acquiring wealth and property were also significant factors. During a renewed effort to make the world safe for democracy, the country witnessed another wave of race riots in 1943. Major disturbances occurred in Detroit, Harlem, and Mobile. Again, labor competition was among the principal causes in these examples. Although there would be a number of white-on-black murders, civil rights assassinations, and at least two more lynchings-Emmett Till (1956) and Mack Charles Parker (1959)-the tide of racial violence shifted dramatically in the aftermath of World War II. With a handful of exceptions, the vast majority of race riots in the postwar era were urban revolts that involved black mobs attacking white business owners and police officers. White flight, which resulted in the creation of impoverished black urban ghettos, created a volatile powder keg. It was the frequent examples of police brutality and ''justifiable homicide'' that often served as the spark. The result of these combined factors was massive and destructive riots in Los Angeles, California; Newark, New Jersey; and Detroit, Michigan, among others. These examples continue to epitomize race riots even in the twenty-first century. Source: http://www.socyberty.com/History/The-Great-Migration-Racial-Violence-in-the-Midwest-and-Northern-Partof-United-States.222093

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The Second Great Migration

Overview The dramatic exodus of African Americans from countryside to city and from South to North during World War I and the decade that followed changed forever black America's economic, political, social, and cultural lives. The Great Migration was, up to that point, the largest voluntary internal movement of black people ever seen. Somewhat ironically, the Great Migration's sequel during and following World War II has not been given its own title by scholars. It is, in fact, often considered to be merely a continuation of the earlier movement, following a momentary pause during the Depression. In many ways, however, this second huge exodus from the South deserves a separate identity; it was larger, more sustained, different in character and direction, and precipitated an even more radical and lasting transformation in American life than its better-known predecessor. By the end of World War II, the character of the black population had shifted: the majority was urban. In 1970, at the end of the second Great Migration, African Americans were a more urbanized population than whites: more than 80 percent lived in cities, as compared to 70 percent for the general population of the United States; and 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West. The Migration Numbers Between 1910 and 1940, roughly 1.5 million African Americans left the South for Northern cities; however, during the decade that followed the stock market crash of 1929, this emigration slowed to a trickle. But with America's entry into World War II looming on the horizon, the exodus of blacks from their Southern homeland resumed. Between 1940 and 1950, another 1.5 million African Americans left the South. The migration continued at roughly the same pace over the next twenty years. By 1970, about five million African Americans had made the journey, and the geographic map of black America had fundamentally changed. Roughly one of every seven black Southerners pulled up stakes and headed north or west. Both their places of origin and destination shifted from earlier patterns. They drove, or boarded trains straight north or west. They went from Alabama to Detroit. They left the Carolinas and Georgia for New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. The migrants from Mississippi and Arkansas headed up Highway 61 or took the Illinois Central railroad to Chicago as their predecessors had done during the Great Migration. What was new was that many moved west to California. The Western states, especially California, witnessed an explosive growth of their African-American populations. In 1930, some 50,200 African Americans lived in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Oakland; twenty years later, the three cities' combined black population had soared to 254,120. Altogether, 339,000 African Americans moved to the Western half of the country during the 1940s, in contrast to a mere 49,000 in the previous decade. Most of the migrants to California came from Southwestern and Central states like Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. Almost three times as many African Americans left this region between 1940 and 1950 as had done so during the previous thirty years. The South Atlantic states, however, remained the most frequent point of origin for migrants, accounting for some 30 to 40 percent of those leaving the South in each decade. This is particularly striking given that Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, and Florida usually had net gains in their black population during this period. Thus, the combined totals for the region mask the fact that the two Carolinas and Georgia experienced a virtual hemorrhage of their black citizenry. Well over half a million African Americans left those three states in each of the three postwar decades. Over the thirty-year course of the migration, arrivals to the West remained constant; those to the Northeast steadily increased, while those to the North Central region decreased considerably. The centuries-long era during which black Americans had lived mostly in the rural South and worked primarily in agriculture was over. By 1950, most African Americans no longer worked in agriculture or as domestic labor - the occupations that had always characterized their existence in America - and the population was more evenly distributed throughout the nation.

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Out of the Rural South As with most migrations, there were several factors that drew African Americans out of the South and into cities throughout the nation. Poverty, the lack of educational facilities for the children, rigid segregation and discrimination, and limited opportunities were all among the reasons that led some to look North. But the most important was the massive collapse of Southern agricultural employment. The principal factors contributing to this economic disaster were great declines in the prices of sugar, tobacco, and especially cotton, coupled with the negative effects of federal policies designed to rescue Southern planters (at the expense of the workers) and the restructuring of commodity production that followed. With the onset of the worldwide depression, cotton prices fell from 18 cents a pound in 1928 to less than 6 cents a pound in 1931. Despite crashing prices, demand was suppressed further by continued high production that bloated surpluses; in the face of the price collapse, farmers harvested a record crop in 1933. Cutting production seemed to be the only solution. The Roosevelt administration achieved this by paying farmers to reduce the land planted and by buying up surpluses already on the market. Although the U.S. Supreme Court declared the initial program, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, unconstitutional, a revised system was put into place during the late 1930s and achieved the same ends. Farm owners now received direct subsidies for taking land out of production, as well as so-called parity payments that reimbursed the difference between the actual cost of production and the market price of their product. The owner's tenants and sharecroppers were to share in the benefits of crop reduction. In practice, however, most tenants and croppers were excluded from most, if not all, of these subsidies. In addition, the New Deal's reduction in acres planted meant that fewer workers were needed to make a crop. This initial reduction was made even worse by mechanization. For the longest time, Southern planters - in control of a captive, cheap, and intimidated labor pool - had little reason to mechanize; but now, with subsidies providing the capital and parity payments guaranteeing a profit, they began to use tractors. Although labor needs ballooned at harvest time, they could be met by turning former tenants and croppers into temporary wageworkers. Between 1930 and 1950, the number of Southern tenant farmers was cut roughly in half, while the number of tractors tripled from 1940 to 1950. A Mississippian, Maud Jones, recalled those days: "It seemed like all the jobs that came through then, the white had them all and there wasn't anything for the black people to do but still go back to the field. They didn't go to school to cook for a tractor driver, so they just didn't stay here to do it." Adding to the problems, many planters began to use the mechanized cotton picker. The need for laborers at harvest time was thus drastically reduced. One displaced cropper, Mae Bertha Carter, remembered, "I didn't stay on the farm too long after that. When those mechanical cotton pickers came in was about the time we were told to leave the farm." A social organization of production - the sharecropping and tenant system - that was almost a century old was eliminated. By 1940, moreover, the United States was no longer producing the majority of the world's cotton, and by the 1950s, the South was no longer the dominant source of cotton even within the United States. For many Southerners, it was time to go. Legendary blues singer Koko Taylor grew up chopping cotton in the Mississippi Delta. She was one of the many thousands who didn't stay: When I was 18 years old, I left Memphis, my husband and I. And we got the Greyhound bus up Highway 61 and headed north to Chicago. He didn't have no money and I didn't have no money. We had one box of Ritz crackers that we split between us. With no money, nowhere to live, no nothing; we was just taking a chance. And I figured, "If he got enough nerve to take a chance with nothin', I have too." So that's what we did. Fleeing Racism Besides a dire economic situation, Southerners, as they had done during the Great Migration, were also fleeing Jim Crow. Rev. James McCoy, pastor of New Mount Pilgrim Missionary Baptist Church in Chicago, who, like the members of his large congregation, was originally from Mississippi, recalled:

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We suffered. We didn't have. We worked land that we thought we owned and after a while found out that we didn't own it. We could go to town and we had to wait until everybody else passed by and then we could walk on the street. It was a suffering life. If we walked up to a counter we had to wait until everybody else was gone...then we could buy what we wanted and paid more than anybody else. And it was always a problem in our way of life. We suffered to get this far. Although lynching had greatly diminished by 1935 - there were eighteen lynchings that year - violence was still prevalent in the South. People were threatened, beaten, fired from their jobs, and publicly humiliated. A letter published in the Chicago Defender stressed: Dear Sir, I indeed wish to come to the North - anywhere in Illinois will do so long as I'm away from the hangman's noose and the torch man's fire. Conditions here are horrible with us. I want to get my family out of this accursed Southland. Down here a Negro man's not as good as a white man's dog. With little hope of redress in the justice system, African Americans were at the mercy of abusive employers, landlords, and almost anyone bent on depriving them of their rights. Notwithstanding the Fifteenth Amendment (1870), which guaranteed them the right to vote, the vast majority were effectively disenfranchised by restrictive rules that applied only to them. Rigid segregation in public spaces - signaled by the constant presence of "Whites Only" and "Colored" signs on water fountains, restroom doors, hospital wards, transportation, and housing - was a constant humiliation and a reminder that blacks were second-class citizens. Compared to the South, the North, although segregated in practice if not by law, appeared appealing. World War II veteran John Wiley was working in Memphis at the U.S. Army Depot. On the segregated bus ride home from work one day, a white man demanded his seat. Wiley refused. The other black riders loudly voiced their support: The bus driver told him [the white man] "You ought to come up here to the front 'cause you gonna get in a whole lot of trouble". I said, "He sure gonna get in a lot of trouble!" I was so angry at them. I had a switchblade knife in my pocket. I went home and told my wife.... We left the next day and came here to Chicago and I've been here ever since. Into the North and West Southerners were not only pushed out of the South, they were also pulled to the North and West by the particular economic climate created by World War II. Indeed, although black tenant farmers and sharecroppers had migrated to Southern cities and towns in the late 1930s, there was no significant movement out of the region during that time. The net African-American migration from the South during the 1930s was only 347,500, scarcely more than a fifth of what it would be in the following decade. The 1940s movement was driven in part by the tremendous expansion of industrial production during and after the war. Industrial mobilization began even before America's entry into the war in 1941 following the attack on Pearl Harbor. Once the United States became engaged in a two-front war against Japan and Germany, production shifted into high gear. In addition to the usual needs for munitions, clothing, food, and training facilities, the naval war with Japan spurred increased shipbuilding and the production of naval materiel, much of it channeled to and through Pacific coast ports. West Coast aircraft plants increased their work force almost fifteen fold; in 1940 they employed 36,850 workers, but by 1945, on V-J Day, nearly 475,000 were working on the assembly lines. Although Pacific Coast shipyards accounted for more than half of all vessels built during the war, the South, long a major training ground for military forces and the site of numerous bases, also began to produce armaments and warships. Production at Southern textile factories, oil refineries, steel mills, and seaports was also boosted by the war. But even this substantial improvement in the region's economy could not stem the tide of black emigrants. Although African Americans were hardly welcomed with open arms in Northern and Western industrial centers, the South was even more deeply racist and hostile. For example, when Bell Aircraft opened a huge factory on the outskirts of Atlanta, it employed 35,000 workers, only 2,500 of whom were black. Of those 2,500, just 800 had skilled positions; the majority were relegated to jobs as janitors, cafeteria workers, and

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other industrial equivalents of domestic labor. In the Western shipyards, by contrast, men and women in greater numbers could find skilled work. Friends and family members who had already made the trip north or west and had found better jobs than the South had to offer enticed those who had not yet moved to follow them. Letters were sent back home with descriptions of the riches that could be found above the Mason-Dixon Line: Hello Dr., my dear old friend. These moments I thought I would write you a few facts of the present conditions in the North. People are coming here every day and finding employment. Nothing here but money - and it's not hard to get. I have children in school every day with the white children. However are times there now? But it was not only the prospect of employment, the desire to escape the drudgery of agricultural labor, or the need to escape racism that pulled the migrants northward. There was also the siren song of the bright lights and the big city. Vernon Jarrett, veteran columnist for the Chicago Tribune, and himself a migrant, recalled: Radio had a tremendous impact in terms of making people dream of going North one day. You heard music coming from the Grand Terrace Café... Earl "Fatha" Hines, Duke Ellington...Cab Calloway. the young Count Basie. Chicago - this was a place where black people could talk back to white people - and could vote. We read the Chicago Defender and we would have great dreams and great fantasies about this place, this Mecca of human rights and civility. And of course, much of this was exaggeration, but it was the kind of exaggeration people needed to maintain hope in this country and their own lives. Segregated residential patterns spawned flourishing institutions in black neighborhoods, including a thriving nightlife. On the musical front, rhythm and blues - born in the late 1940s of the fusion of blues, jazz, boogiewoogie, and gospel - was popularized by southern migrants such as Muddy Waters, who moved from Mississippi to Chicago in 1943; Bo Diddley, who left Mississippi in 1935 and also settled in Chicago; and Ray Charles, who migrated from Georgia to Seattle. R&B, an urban music, flourished on the South Side of Chicago, along Los Angeles' Central Avenue, and in Harlem, the neighborhoods that were home to the old and new migrants. A Diversity of Migrants The sheer magnitude of the second migration and its duration suggest that people from a wide range of social classes, age groups, and economic levels were drawn into it at different times and places. There are strong indications, however, that, as is usually the case, the second Great Migration was selective - drawing on that part of the black population best able to take and benefit from the risks associated with leaving home for an unfamiliar city. It appears that the initial wartime migrants were more likely to be urban and/or wage laborers, rather than the simple "peasants turned cityward" that they were often characterized as. The displacement of tenants and sharecroppers during the 1930s had already moved thousands of black families into urban wage labor, and often sent them to the cities. The Southern urban black population had grown tremendously over the preceding decades. During the 1920s alone, major metropolitan areas like Atlanta, Birmingham, Houston, and Memphis had experienced growth rates ranging from 41 to 86 percent. Even in Mississippi, still the most rural Southern state, the black urban population had increased from 5 to 7 percent between 1890 and 1940. The black populations in Louisiana and Oklahoma, two major sources for the Western migration, were substantially urban by 1940 (52 percent and 47 percent, respectively). The migrants were largely people who had already made the transition to urban life, or at least to wage labor, and who were generally better educated than their non-migrating neighbors. In addition, given the increase in the Northern urban population due to the Great Migration, potential migrants probably had access to many more informal networks of communication about jobs than earlier migrants had. Many people already had kinfolk in the Northern and Western cities who could provide both information about jobs and support. World War II had a significant impact on gender relations and the status of women, black and white. For black women, its impact was especially marked because of their significant - though still limited - recruitment into the defense industries and their rejection of private domestic labor.

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During World War I, black women migrants were not heavily recruited for industrial labor; indeed, many moved from Southern household help to the same jobs up North. By contrast, the federal censuses of 1940 and 1950 show a nationwide reduction, from 24 percent to 15.1 percent, in the number of blacks employed in domestic labor. For Southern women, the change was even more dramatic. In many cities, the proportion of the black female labor force confined to private domestic work exceeded 70 percent before World War II. These numbers had plunged by the postwar period - in Atlanta, from 70 percent in domestic labor in 1940 to 50 percent ten years later. Although this often simply meant that women did the same kind of labor in nondomestic settings (in a commercial laundry, for example), the change was generally accompanied by better wages and benefits, and sometimes by unionization. In the first years of the migration, men were twice as likely to travel to the more distant destinations than women, who tended to stay closer to the South. But this was a temporary phenomenon, because over the entire period of the second migration, migrants were more likely to be married than non-migrants. Just as during the Great Migration, people used various strategies, including wives following husbands, wives and husbands migrating together but leaving their children in the care of grandparents until they got settled, and single women joining relatives in distant cities. A New Life The impact of the second Great Migration was much less dramatic than that of its predecessor, perhaps because its demographic effect was less spectacular. Despite the new westward push of the second migration, the cities that had been the principal destinations of the earlier exodus - New York, Chicago, and Detroit were also the principal goals of migrants in the 1940s. But the percentage increase in the black populations of these cities was smaller the second time around. Moreover, African- American communities and their social infrastructures were already well established in these Northeastern and Midwestern communities. Nevertheless, as during the Great Migration, the influx of newcomers resulted in a shortage of housing. Single-family houses were turned into tenements that lodged several large families. Overcrowding and the lack of enforcement of housing and sanitation codes resulted in unsanitary conditions. In Detroit, half the dwellings rented to black tenants were unsafe, whereas only 20 percent of those occupied by whites were in poor condition. New migrants were restricted, by segregation, to certain neighborhoods in which no new housing was planned. Landlords had a captive population and took advantage of it by raising the rents. The United States Housing Administration took some measures to provide housing for the new residents, but the process was slow. In Detroit, more than 9,000 families applied for city housing in 1941, but fewer than 2,000 were offered apartments in the projects. In addition, the federal government was deeply implicated in policies that restricted the ability of African Americans to obtain mortgages outside of black neighborhoods. The government also turned a blind eye on segregation in much of the temporary housing constructed during the war to shelter defense-related production workers. And, finally, government policies and financing played a major role in stimulating the expansion of the suburbs and "white flight" in the postwar era. This flight was described by Ruth Wells: Realtors would move in a black person with a lot of children. And so the white people in the neighborhood would see all these little black kids running around and they didn't like that....People are frightened... and they didn't give them very much for their houses, but they went up on the price - sometimes double - when they get ready to sell it to the blacks. Western communities, on the other hand, were usually experiencing a large influx of African Americans for the first time, and they arrived as part of a vast shift of the general population. Eight million Americans moved west of the Mississippi after 1940, half of them to the Pacific coast. There were 171,000 African Americans in the West in 1940, but 620,000 by 1945. Between the spring of 1942 and 1945 alone, 340,000 African Americans settled in California. Conflicts and Mobilization In 1941, A. Philip Randolph's March on Washington Movement forced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue an executive order mandating an end to racial discrimination in defense industries and setting up an

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agency, the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), to enforce it. Although the enforcement mechanism was weak, the agency's hearing and complaint process did provide a forum for black political mobilization that would bear dividends in future years. Many features of these conflicts were different in the West because of the magnitude of the war effort and the new federal role in the economy. For example, the East Bay shipbuilder Kaiser experimented with new production techniques and labor management policies. Some of these - such as prefabrication, which reduced the skill levels needed by those entering the workforce - benefited both African Americans and women. Even when employers like Seattle's aircraft manufacturer Boeing Company and Atlanta's Bell Aircraft remained committed to discriminatory hiring, the federal government's interest in sustaining wartime production often made it an ally of African Americans pushing for change. But the segregation and discrimination the migrants found in their new homes created an explosive situation. The resentment over discrimination in jobs and housing, police brutality, and humiliations of all sorts culminated in major riots in 1943. The Detroit "hate" riots erupted in June 1943 at Belle Island, a popular segregated beach. On June 20, 1943, fights broke out between groups of white and African-American youths. News of the altercation spread, and by that night a full-scale riot had erupted. The Detroit police force was unable to quell the disturbance; Detroit Mayor Edward Jefferies requested assistance, but federal authorities were reluctant to intervene. The violence escalated, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered military police and infantry regiments to disperse rioters late on the second night of the riots. Order was restored, but in a day and a half of rioting, 25 African Americans and 9 whites were killed, almost 700 people were injured, and 1,893 people were arrested. High unemployment and price gouging, as well as rampant racial tensions, led to another riot, in New York on August 1. Police arrested an African-American woman for causing a disturbance at the Braddock Hotel in Harlem. Robert Bandy, a black soldier, demanded that the police release the woman; when they refused, he allegedly assaulted an officer. Bandy was then shot and wounded while attempting to flee. A rumor circulated that the police had killed an African-American soldier, and a crowd of over 3,000 gathered. The crowd turned violent that night and continued rioting into the next morning. Six African Americans were killed, 185 were injured, and at least 500 were arrested. Urban rebellions continued throughout the second Great Migration. In the summer of 1964, a series of "racial disturbances" occurred in several American cities, beginning in Harlem. Decades before the boycotts and sit-ins of the 1950s, African Americans were using their power as consumers to achieve social change. "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" campaigns sprang up in Northern urban centers - particularly in African-American communities such as Harlem and Chicago's South Side - to protest discriminatory hiring practices. Often, white-owned commercial establishments that all but monopolized business in black enclaves would refuse to hire neighborhood residents. African-American protesters would picket these establishments not only to increase job opportunities, but also to increase awareness about the community's collective economic power. African Americans were an important segment of the powerful Democratic coalition that emerged during the 1930s. The Democratic party's strongholds, which were moving from their traditional base in the South to cities of the North, also comprised Catholics, immigrants, and labor and farm interests, all of whom hoped to benefit from Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policies. From Country to Inner City The demographic changes that came with the migration transformed both the character and representation of the race problem in America and, as a consequence, the image of African Americans. Since the arrival of the first Africans, the black presence in America has been framed as a problem - a labor problem, a social problem, a political problem. For the first three centuries, when most African Americans lived in the South and earned their livelihood from agriculture, the so-called Negro Problem was distinctly Southern and linked to the backwardness of the Southern economy and society. Blacks were backward because the South was backward, or the South was kept back because of deficiencies in the African-American character and culture. Either way, it was a regional problem.

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With the urbanization of the African-American population and its spread all over the country, the "problem" became a national one, and its terms of reference began to change. In popular speech as well as in literature and art, in sociological and historical work, black urban life became the dominant setting and motif. In a very brief time, the now-familiar image of a black inner-city core surrounded by a white suburban ring emerged as the dominant pattern of American life. Thus did the "ghetto" become dominant in scholarly and creative literature by the 1960s. The term "inner city" became a virtual synonym for black people. Although this rural-to-urban shift was evident even during the Great Migration, there were decisive changes in its character and nuances during the post-World War II era. Unlike the earlier urban expansion, this one was generally portrayed negatively, by blacks as well as whites. The novelty, excitement, and creativity of black urban life that figured so prominently in the literature and art of the Harlem Renaissance, for example, gave way to themes of deterioration. The visual and literary images were now accented in emotional tones of lament, loss, and despair. The magnitude of the change is made clear by the fact that the very nature and terms of discussion of what had once been referred to as "the Negro Problem" were radically altered. Black life and racial conflicts were now characterized by phrases like "the rise of the ghetto," "the problem of the inner cities," "urban disorders," and "the underclass." In contrast to this view, however, black urban communities across the country became centers of political and cultural activity. The New Deal coalition formed in the late 1930s, the civil rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and the various liberation struggles of the late twentieth century all were grounded in the social and political ferment of these new urban societies. The Legacies The vast remapping of black living space and work in the United States was the dominant and lasting consequence of the second Great Migration. These changes contained the seeds of extraordinary political transformations as well. Cities, South as well as North and West, provided a more favorable breeding ground for political mobilization - both inside and outside the established political system - than rural regions. The second Great Migration was a watershed. For the first time, the African-American community, which, up to that time, had been mostly Southern and rural, became a national population, represented in large numbers in the North and West, and a largely urban one. Eventually, white flight to the suburbs combined with black migration to urban areas to produce AfricanAmerican political majorities or large pluralities in several key cities. This laid the basis for the election of numerous African-American mayors, state legislators, and congresspersons. There is ample evidence of increased political consciousness among Southern migrants, even before voting barriers fell later in the century. Migrants were already politically aware, if not active, before leaving the South, and, as in the Great Migration, many registered to vote as soon as they reached their destinations. Despite several postwar recessions, the military mobilizations of the Korean War and the Cold War helped the Western and some Midwestern states to remain economically attractive to African Americans for two decades after V-J Day. The substantial urban concentrations of black Americans were no doubt instrumental in changing marketing strategies for commercial goods and cultural products. For better or worse, the representation of African Americans in the nation's everyday life - in the media and culture - would be radically different at the end of the twentieth century than it had been at its beginning. The changes in African Americans' self-perception that resulted from this new reality ultimately formed the basis for the various political, social, and cultural movements that reshaped black citizenship in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

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Harlem Renaissance, an African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. Variously known as the New Negro movement, the New Negro Renaissance, and the Negro Renaissance, the movement emerged toward the end of World War I in 1918, blossomed in the mid- to late 1920s, and then faded in the mid-1930s. The Harlem Renaissance marked the first time that mainstream publishers and critics took African American literature seriously and that African American literature and arts attracted significant attention from the nation at large. Although it was primarily a literary movement, it was closely related to developments in African American music, theater, art, and politics. The Harlem Renaissance emerged amid social and intellectual upheaval in the African American community in the early 20th century. Several factors laid the groundwork for the movement. A black middle class had developed by the turn of the century, fostered by increased education and employment opportunities following the American Civil War (1861-1865). During a phenomenon known as the Great Migration, hundreds of thousands of black Americans moved from an economically depressed rural South to industrial cities of the North to take advantage of the employment opportunities created by World War I. As more and more educated and socially conscious blacks settled in New York's neighborhood of Harlem, it developed into the political and cultural center of black America. Equally important, during the 1910s a new political agenda advocating racial equality arose in the African American community, particularly in its growing middle class. Championing the agenda were black historian and sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which was founded in 1909 to advance the rights of blacks. This agenda was also reflected in the efforts of Jamaican-born Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey, whose "Back to Africa" movement inspired racial pride among blacks in the United States. African American literature and arts had begun a steady development just before the turn of the century. In the performing arts, black musical theater featured such accomplished artists as songwriter Bob Cole and composer J. Rosamond Johnson, brother of writer James Weldon Johnson. Jazz and blues music moved with black populations from the South and Midwest into the bars and cabarets of Harlem. In literature, the poetry of Paul Laurence Dunbar and the fiction of Charles W. Chesnutt in the late 1890s were among the earliest works of African Americans to receive national recognition. By the end of World War I the fiction of James Weldon Johnson and the poetry of Claude McKay anticipated the literature that would follow in the 1920s by describing the reality of black life in America and the struggle for racial identity. In the early 1920s three works signaled the new creative energy in African American literature. McKay's volume of poetry, Harlem Shadows (1922), became one of the first works by a black writer to be published by a mainstream, national publisher (Harcourt, Brace and Company). Cane (1923), by Jean Toomer, was an experimental novel that combined poetry and prose in documenting the life of American blacks in the rural South and urban North. Finally, There Is Confusion (1924), the first novel by writer and editor Jessie Fauset, depicted middle-class life among black Americans from a woman's perspective. With these early works as the foundation, three events between 1924 and 1926 launched the Harlem Renaissance. First, on March 21, 1924, Charles S. Johnson of the National Urban League hosted a dinner to recognize the new literary talent in the black community and to introduce the young writers to New York's white literary establishment. (The National Urban League was founded in 1910 to help black Americans address the economic and social problems they encountered as they resettled in the urban North.) As a result of this dinner, The Survey Graphic, a magazine of social analysis and criticism that was interested in cultural pluralism, produced a Harlem issue in March 1925. Devoted to defining the aesthetic of black literature and art, the Harlem issue featured work by black writers and was edited by black philosopher and literary scholar Alain Leroy Locke. The second event was the publication of Nigger Heaven (1926) by white novelist Carl Van Vechten. The book was a spectacularly popular exposé of Harlem life. Although the book offended some members of the black community, its coverage of both the elite and the baser side of Harlem helped create a "Negro vogue" that drew thousands of sophisticated New Yorkers, black and white, to Harlem's exotic and exciting nightlife and stimulated a national market for African American literature and music. Finally, in the

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autumn of 1926 a group of young black writers produced Fire!!, their own literary magazine. With Fire!! a new generation of young writers and artists, including Langston Hughes, Wallace Thurman, and Zora Neale Hurston, took ownership of the literary Renaissance. No common literary style or political ideology defined the Harlem Renaissance. What united participants was their sense of taking part in a common endeavor and their commitment to giving artistic expression to the African American experience. Some common themes existed, such as an interest in the roots of the 20thcentury African American experience in Africa and the American South, and a strong sense of racial pride and desire for social and political equality. But the most characteristic aspect of the Harlem Renaissance was the diversity of its expression. From the mid-1920s through the mid-1930s, some 16 black writers published more than 50 volumes of poetry and fiction, while dozens of other African American artists made their mark in painting, music, and theater. The diverse literary expression of the Harlem Renaissance ranged from Langston Hughes's weaving of the rhythms of African American music into his poems of ghetto life, as in The Weary Blues (1926), to Claude McKay's use of the sonnet form as the vehicle for his impassioned poems attacking racial violence, as in "If We Must Die" (1919). McKay also presented glimpses of the glamour and the grit of Harlem life in Harlem Shadows. Countee Cullen used both African and European images to explore the African roots of black American life. In the poem "Heritage" (1925), for example, Cullen discusses being both a Christian and an African, yet not belonging fully to either tradition. Quicksand (1928), by novelist Nella Larsen, offered a powerful psychological study of an African American woman's loss of identity, while Zora Neale Hurston's novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) used folk life of the black rural south to create a brilliant study of race and gender in which a woman finds her true identity. Diversity and experimentation also flourished in the performing arts and were reflected in the blues singing of Bessie Smith and in jazz music. Jazz ranged from the marriage of blues and ragtime by pianist Jelly Roll Morton to the instrumentation of bandleader Louis Armstrong and the orchestration of composer Duke Ellington. Artist Aaron Douglas adopted a deliberately "primitive" style and incorporated African images in his paintings and illustrations. The Harlem Renaissance appealed to a mixed audience. The literature appealed to the African American middle class and to the white book-buying public. Such magazines as The Crisis, a monthly journal of the NAACP, and Opportunity, an official publication of the Urban League, employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staff; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes. As important as these literary outlets were, however, the Renaissance relied heavily on white publishing houses and white-owned magazines. In fact, a major accomplishment of the Renaissance was to push open the door to mainstream white periodicals and publishing houses, although the relationship between the Renaissance writers and white publishers and audiences created some controversy. While most African American critics strongly supported the relationship, Du Bois and others were sharply critical and accused Renaissance writers of reinforcing negative African American stereotypes. Langston Hughes spoke for most of the writers and artists when he wrote in his essay "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (1926) that black artists intended to express themselves freely, no matter what the black public or white public thought. African American musicians and other performers also played to mixed audiences. Harlem's cabarets attracted both Harlem residents and white New Yorkers seeking out Harlem nightlife. Harlem's famous Cotton Club carried this to an extreme, by providing black entertainment for exclusively white audiences. Ultimately, the more successful black musicians and entertainers, who appealed to a mainstream audience, moved their performances downtown. A number of factors contributed to the decline of the Harlem Renaissance in the mid-1930s. The Great Depression of the 1930s increased the economic pressure on all sectors of life. Organizations such as the NAACP and Urban League, which had actively promoted the Renaissance in the 1920s, shifted their interests to economic and social issues in the 1930s. Many influential black writers and literary promoters, including

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Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Charles S. Johnson, and Du Bois, left New York City in the early 1930s. Finally, a riot in Harlem in 1935--set off in part by the growing economic hardship of the Depression and mounting tension between the black community and the white shop-owners in Harlem who profited from that community--shattered the notion of Harlem as the "Mecca" of the New Negro. In spite of these problems the Renaissance did not disappear overnight. Almost one-third of the books published during the Renaissance appeared after 1929. In the last analysis, the Harlem Renaissance ended when most of those associated with it left Harlem or stopped writing, while new young artists who appeared in the 1930s and 1940s never associated with the movement. The Harlem Renaissance changed forever the dynamics of African American arts and literature in the United States. The writers that followed in the 1930s and 1940s found that publishers and the public were more open to African American literature than they had been at the beginning of the century. Furthermore, the existence of the body of African American literature from the Renaissance inspired writers such as Ralph Ellison and Richard Wright to pursue literary careers in the late 1930s and the 1940s. The outpouring of African American literature of the 1980s and 1990s by such writers as Alice Walker and Toni Morrison also had its roots in the writing of the Harlem Renaissance. The influence of the Harlem Renaissance was not confined to the United States. Writers McKay, Hughes, and Cullen, actor and musician Paul Robeson, dancer Josephine Baker, and others traveled to Europe and attained a popularity abroad that rivaled or surpassed what they achieved in the United States. South African writer Peter Abrahams cited his youthful discovery of the Harlem Renaissance anthology, The New Negro (1925), as the event that turned him toward a career as a writer. For thousands of blacks around the world, the Harlem Renaissance was proof that the white race did not hold a monopoly on literature and culture. Source: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566483/harlem_renaissance.html

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Timeline of the Harlem Renaissance

1919 · · · · · · 1920 · · · · · · 1921 · · · · · 1922 · · · 1923 · · · · · · · · Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life is founded by the National Urban League, with Charles S. Johnson as its editor. National Ethiopian Art Players staged The Chip Woman's Fortune by Willis Richardson, first serious play by a black writer on Broadway, May. Claude McKay spoke at the Fourth Congress of the Third International in Moscow, June. The Cotton Club opened, Fall. Marcus Garvey arrested for mail fraud and sentenced to five years in prison. Third Pan African Congress. Publication of Jean Toomer's Cane Publication of Marcus Garvey, Philosophy and Opinion of Marcus Garvey. 2 vols. First Anti-Lynching legislation approved by House of Representatives. Publications of The Book of American Negro Poetry edited by James Weldon Johnson; Claude McKay, Harlem Shadows. Shuffle Along by Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake, the first musical revue written and performed by African Americans (cast members include Josephine Baker and Florence Mills), opened, May 22, at Broadway's David Belasco Theater. Marcus Garvey founded African Orthodox Church, September. Second Pan African Congress. Colored Players Guild of New York founded. Benjamin Brawley published Social History of the American Negro. Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Convention held at Madison Square Garden, August. Charles Gilpin starred in Eugene O'Neill, The Emperor Jones, November. James Weldon Johnson, first black officer (secretary) of NAACP appointed. Claude McKay published Spring in New Hampshire. Du Bois's Darkwater is published. O'Neill's The Emperor Jones, starring Charles Gilpin, opens at the Provincetown Playhouse. 369th Regiment marched up Fifth Avenue to Harlem, February 17. First Pan African Congress organized by W.E.B. Du Bois, Paris, February. Race riots in Washington, D.C., Chicago, Charleston, Knoxville, Omaha, and elsewhere, June to September. Race Relations Commission founded, September. Marcus Garvey founded the Black Star Shipping Line. Benjamin Brawley published The Negro in Literature and Art in the United States.

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1924 · · Civic Club Dinner, sponsored by Opportunity, bringing black writers and white publishers together, March 21. This event is considered the formal launching of the New Negro movement. Jesse Fauset not only edited (from 1919 to 1926) the literary section of The Crisis, she also hosted evening gatherings for the black intellectuals of Harlem: artists, thinkers, writers. Dorothy Randolph Peterson, a teacher and arts patron, used her father's Brooklyn home for literary salons. Paul Robeson starred in O'Neill's All God's Chillun Got Wings, May 15. Countee Cullen won first prize in the Witter Bynner Poetry Competition. Publication of Du Bois, The Gift of Black Folk Publication of Jessie Fauset, There is Confusion Publication of Marcus Garvey, Aims and Objects for a Solution of the Negro Problem Outlined Publication of Walter White, The Fire in the Flint.

· · · · · · 1925 · ·

· · · · · · · · 1926 · · · · · · ·

Survey Graphic issue, "Harlem: Mecca of the New Negro," edited by Alain Locke and Charles Johnson, devoted entirely to black arts and letters, March. In the spring Jean Toomer lectured on Gurdjieff's methods in Harlem. Toomer's appearance and his new attitude toward life and art, were treated with curiosity if not awe. The lectures attracted stars of the Harlem Renaissance including writers Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Wallace Thurman, Nella Larsen, Harold Jackman (a teacher and activist), Rudolph Fisher, Dorothy West (writer), Dorothy Peterson (teacher and arts patron who remained close to Toomer for 10 years), and Aaron Douglass (the painter). Langston Hughes writes in his Gurdjieff in Harlem (a chapter in The Big Sea), "He had an evolved soul and that soul made him feel that nothing mattered, not even writing." American Negro Labor Congress held in Chicago, October. Opportunity holds its first literary awards dinner; winners include Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Zora Neale Hurston. The first Crisis awards ceremony is held at the Renaissance Casino; Countee Cullen wins first prize. Publication of Countee Cullen, Color Publication of Du Bose Heyward, Porgy Publication of James Weldon Johnson and J. Rosamond Johnson, eds. The Book of American Negro Spirituals Publication of Alain Locke, The New Negro Publication of Sherwood Anderson, Dark Laughter (a novel showing Black life).

Countee Cullen becomes Assistant Editor of Opportunity; begins to write a regular column "The Dark Tower." Savoy Ballroom opened in Harlem, March. Publication of Wallace Thurman, Fire!! Publication of Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues Publication of Carl Van Vechten, Tropic Death Publication of W. C. Handy, Blues: An Anthology Publication of Walter White, Flight.

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1927 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 1928 · · · · · · · 1929 · · · · · · · Negro Experimental Theatre founded, February; Negro art Theatre founded, June; National Colored Players founded, September. Wallace Thurman's play Harlem, written with William Jourdan Rapp, opens at the Apollo Theater on Broadway and becomes hugely successful. Black Thursday, October 29, Stock Exchange crash. Publication of Countee Cullen, The Black Christ and Other Poems Publication of Claude McKay, Banjo Publication of Nella Larsen, Passing Wallace Thurman, The Blacker the Berry Countee Cullen marries Nina Yolande, daughter of W.E.B. Du Bois, April 9; described as the social event of the decade. Publication of Wallace Thurman, Harlem: A Forum of Negro Life Publication of Du Bois, The Dark Princess Publication of Rudolph Fisher, The Walls of Jericho Publication of Nella Larsen, Quicksand Publication of Jessie Fauset, Plum Bun Publication of Claude McKay, Home to Harlem. In Abraham's Bosom by Paul Green, with an all-black cast, won the Pulitzer Prize, May. Ethel Waters first appeared on Broadway, July. Marcus Garvey deported. Louis Armstrong in Chicago and Duke Ellington in New York began their careers. Harlem Globetrotters established. Charlotte Mason decides to become a patron of the New Negro. A'Lelia Walker opens a tearoom salon called "The Dark Tower." Publication of Miguel Covarrubias, Negro Drawings Publication of Countee Cullen, Ballad of the Brown Girl Publication of Countee Cullen Copper Sun Publication of Countee Cullen Caroling Dusk Publication of Arthur Fauset, For Freedom: A Biographical Story of the American Negro Publication of Langston Hughes, Fine Clothes to the Jew Publication of James Weldon Johnson, God's Trombones: Seven Negro Sermons in Verse Publication of James Weldon Johnson The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (reprint of the 1912 edition) Publication of Alain Locke and Montgomery T. Gregory, eds. Plays of Negro Life.

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Name:

Date:

Around the time of WWI, many African-Americans from the South left home and traveled to cities in the North in search of a better life. In the South there was little opportunity for education, and children had to work in the fields. Life in the North was hard, but the migrants' lives had changed for the better. The migrants had to rely on each other. The children were able to go to school, and their parents gained the freedom to vote.

1. Around the time of WWI, why did many African-Americans leave the South?

2. What did many children have to do in the South?

3. Why was life better in the North for many African-Americans?

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Duke Ellington

The paragraph below tells about a special date in April history. Can you find and mark ten errors in the paragraph? You might look for errors of capitalization, punctuation, spelling, or grammar.

April 29 is the anniversary of the birth day of a Jazz musician who begun playing the piano at age 7. By age 15, Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was composing original songs. As a bandleader, Ellington and his fellow musicians play together for more than 50 year. Ellington develops a unique sound. Many of his work, such as "In a Sentimental Mood" "Mood Indigo" and "Sophisticated Lady, is still played today.

© 2004 by Education World®. Education World grants users permission to reproduce this work sheet for educational purposes only.

Duke Ellington

The paragraph below tells about a special date in April history. Can you find and mark ten errors in the paragraph? You might look for errors of capitalization, punctuation, spelling, or grammar.

April 29 is the anniversary of the birth day of a Jazz musician who begun playing the piano at age 7. By age 15, Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was composing original songs. As a bandleader, Ellington and his fellow musicians play together for more than 50 year. Ellington develops a unique sound. Many of his work, such as "In a Sentimental Mood" "Mood Indigo" and "Sophisticated Lady, is still played today.

© 2004 by Education World®. Education World grants users permission to reproduce this work sheet for educational purposes only.

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·

LETTERS:

WORDS TO MAKE:

Give children clues about how many letters to use and how many letters to change. "Now we're going to make some three-letter words. Hold up three fingers! Add one letter to in and you have win. Change just the first letter and you can change the four-letter word wink into rink." For words like kin/ink which can be made from the same letters, tell the children "Don't take any letters out. Just change the letters around and you can change kin into ink." Also, alert the children when they should take all the letters out and start from scratch to make a new word.

A AM AGO I AN AIM AT AIR GO ANT IN ARM IT ART NO GOT TO MAN MAT MIT RAT ROT TAG TIN TOM

GOAT AMONG AIRING MIGRANT MIGRATION GRIM GRAIN GRIN TRAIN GRIT INTO MAIN MINT RING TORN

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Race, Industry, & the Great Migration Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

a a a a a a a a a a a a

i i i i i i i i i i i i

i i i i i i i i i i i i

o o o o o o o o o o o o

g g g g g g g g g g g g

26

m m m m m m m m m m m m

n n n n n n n n n n n n

r r r r r r r r r r r r

t t t t t t t t t t t t

Making Words: migration Student Cards

Made In America: Courage, Imagination, Determination

Race, Industry, & the Great Migration Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

Making Words: migration Teacher Cards

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Race, Industry, & the Great Migration Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

·

LETTERS:

WORDS TO MAKE: Give children clues about how many letters to use and how many letters to change. "Now we're

going to make some three-letter words. Hold up three fingers! Add one letter to in and you have win. Change just the first letter and you can change the four-letter word wink into rink." For words like kin/ink which can be made from the same letters, tell the children "Don't take any letters out. Just change the letters around and you can change kin into ink." Also, alert the children when they should take all the letters out and start from scratch to make a new word.

A I

AN IN

CAN CAP GAP INK KIN NAG NAP NIP PAN PIG PIN

GAIN KING NICK PACK PAIN PANG PICK PINK

PANIC

PACING

PACKING

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Race, Industry, & the Great Migration Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

Making Words: packing Student Cards

a a a a a a a a a a a a a

·

i i i i i i i i i i i i i

c c c c c c c c c c c c c

g g g g g g g g g g g g g

29

k k k k k k k k k k k k k

n n n n n n n n n n n n n

p p p p p p p p p p p p p

Made In America: Courage, Imagination, Determination

Race, Industry, & the Great Migration Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

Making Words: packing Teacher Cards

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One Way Ticket By Langston Hughes I pick up my life, And take it with me, And I put it down in Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, Scranton, Any place that is North and East, And not Dixie. I pick up my life And take it on the train, To Los Angeles, Bakersfield, Seattle, Oakland, Salt Lake Any place that is North and West, And not South. I am fed up With Jim Crow laws, People who are cruel And afraid, Who lynch and run, Who are scared of me And me of them I pick up my life And take it away On a one-way ticketGone up North Gone out West Gone

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A U.S. Department of Education Grant Program Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools

Source: http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/dailylp/dailylp/dailylp051.shtml Grade levels targeted by this lesson: K-2 Lesson Title: Langston Hughes was a dreamer too! Prerequisite Knowledge: Students should be familiar with Langston Hughes. This lesson meets student learning objectives/standards in the following content areas: Social Studies GPS Correlations: ELAKR5: The student acquires and uses grade-level words to communicate effectively. a - Listens to a variety of texts and uses new vocabulary in oral language. b- Discusses the meaning of words and understands that some words have multiple meanings. ELAKW1: The student begins to understand the principles of writing. ELA1R5: The student acquires and uses grade-level words to communicate effectively. a. Listens to a variety of texts and uses new vocabulary in oral language. ELA1W1: The student begins to demonstrate competency in the writing process. ELA2R3: The student acquires and uses grade-level words to communicate effectively. ELA2W1: The student demonstrates competency in the writing process. i. Uses planning ideas to produce a rough draft. Instructional Objectives: Students will: · · · · read and discuss several short poems by Langston Hughes. write their own stanza in the style Hughes used in his poem "The Blues." compare Hughes' poetic expressions of his dreams for black people to Martin Luther King's famous expression of his dreams ("I Have a Dream..."). (Optional better for upper elementary) reflect on a favorite poem by Langston Hughes. Reading/Language Arts Math Science Other: __________

Rationale for topic: Martin Luther King wasn't the only black man with a dream. Langston Hughes expressed his dreams for black people through his poetry. Instructional strategies used: Direct instruction, hands-on activities Materials/ technology used: Poems by Langston Hughes; Dreams, I, Too, Sing America, MerryGo-Round, The Blues, a copy of Martin Luther King's "I have a dream..." speech (optional) Procedures: When we think of Martin Luther King Jr., we often think of him as a man with a vision, a dream. For most of us, King's dream comes vividly to life in the words of his most famous speech: "Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream...

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"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.' I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. ..." Martin Luther King's dream came to life in those eloquent words. Others recorded their personal dreams in other forms. For example, in his series of paintings called "Migration" the artist Jacob Lawrence vividly portrayed the dreams of African Americans who escaped poverty and oppression in the South to follow their dream of freedom and a good job in the North. Other artists put their messages into their music. And poet Langston Hughes often shared his dreams -- his vision for what America could be -- in the poetry he wrote. Explain to students that today you're going to share with them some short poems in which Langston Hughes expressed his dreams for America. The poems introduced below are short and easy to digest, and can be enjoyed on a fairly literal level. To begin the lesson, you might try to track down and share a book about Langston Hughes that is written on your students' level. One good backgrounder, appropriate across the elementary grades, is Langston Hughes: American Poet by Alice Walker (author of The Color Purple). If you are unable to track down a good book, the resource below from the Library of Congress will provide an excellent introduction for elementary and middle school students: America's Story: Langston Hughes Once students are familiar with the story behind Hughes' poetry, introduce one or more of the poems below. Dreams In this poem, Langston Hughes encourages the reader to hold onto his or her dreams. Ask students What kinds of dreams do you think the author of the poem had? Do you think this poem could be talking to other people about their dreams too? Does it "speak" to you about the dreams you have in life? While Hughes is clearly urging black people to keep dreaming -- not to give up their dreams of true freedom and equality -- the poem could be inspiring to all dreamers as it encourages them to never give up on their dreams. I, Too, Sing America In this poem, Hughes shares the dream that many black people had at the turn of the last century and beyond: the dream that one day there would be no separation of the races, that all people would be "at the table" and looked at in the same way. The black man or woman in the poem dreams and sings about an "America" ("My country tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing...") just like white people do; but just singing words about liberty does not necessarily make it so. Talk about Hughes' powerful words. Talk about the first and second full stanzas, which compare the America the poet lives in and the America of his or her dreams. Ask Does the poet have faith that one day America might be a place of true equality? Merry-Go-Round Before sharing this poem, you might want to be sure students understand the reference to "Jim Crow" laws. Those laws, which were enacted in many states, set aside "separate but equal" facilities for black people and white people. Share some sample Jim Crow laws. With that understanding, this Langston poem describes a black child's dream of riding a merry-go-round. It's a dream that every

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child, black or white, has, but this child -- who is used to riding in the back of the bus -- wonders whether he or she will be allowed to go for a ride because "there ain't no back to a merry-go-round." Ask students to respond to the poem: What is the child's dilemma? How does the child feel? Do you think the child will be allowed to ride? Extension Activity Langston Hughes wrote many different kinds of poems. He wrote one poem that reflected the great blues songs of the day. "Blues" music grew out of the Deep South. Its roots are in the "Negro spirituals" and the song that slaves sang in the fields as they worked. As blues artist B.B. King once said, "The blues is an expression of anger against shame and humiliation." Today, blues songs come in many different forms; they take on the flavor of the artist. They often, however, reflect on things gone wrong, things that cause sadness. Hughes' poem The Blues reflects that sadness. After sharing the poem with students and discussing it, you might challenge students to write in Hughes' style a blues stanza of their own, a stanza that reflects on some incident in their lives that gave them "the blues." Evaluation: Assessment Ask students to choose the Hughes poem that spoke most vividly to them. Which poem painted the best image of the dreams that black people had for freedom and equality? Emphasize that no two people read any poem in exactly the same way. So there is no right or wrong answer to the question; their choice depends only on what they felt as they read the poem. In their writing, students should explain clearly why they chose the particular poem as the best one. Another option includes writing a poem about their dream for America individually, in groups or as a class. An alternative activity, more appropriate for older students, might be to challenge students to compare Martin Luther King's expression of the dreams of black people to those expressed by Langston Hughes. Which man's writings more clearly reflect the dreams of black people throughout the first half of the 20th century? Appendices: Dreams, I, Too, Sing America, Merry-Go-Round, The Blues

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Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. Langston Hughes

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Merry-Go-Round Where is the Jim Crow section On this merry-go-round, Mister, cause I want to ride? Down South where I come from White and colored Can't sit side by side. Down South on the train There's a Jim Crow car. On the bus we're put in the back-- But there ain't no back To a merry-go-round! Where's the horse For a kid that's black? Langston Hughes

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The Blues

When the shoe strings break On both your shoes And you're in a hurryThat's the blues. When you go to buy a candy bar And you've lost the dime you hadSlipped through a hole in your pocket somewhereThat's the blues, too, and bad!

Langston Hughes

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"Don't Get Around Much Anymore"

Lyrics by Bob Russel, Music by Duke Ellington

When I'm not playing solitaire I take a book down from the shelf And what with programs on the air I keep pretty much to myself. Missed the Saturday dance Heard they crowded the floor Couldn't bear it without you Don't get around much anymore Thought I'd visit the club Got as far as the door They'd have asked me about you Don't get around much anymore Oh, Darling I guess my mind's more at ease But nevertheless, why stir up memories Been invited on dates Might have gone but what for Awfully different without you Don't get around much anymore

Song found on Resource CD

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A U.S. Department of Education Grant Program Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools

Grade levels targeted by this lesson: K-2 Lesson Title: Jacob Lawrence and the Great Migration Prerequisite Knowledge: Students should know that around the time of WWI, many African Americans left the South for the North. This lesson meets student learning objectives/standards in the following content areas: Social Studies GPS Correlations: SSKH3 The student will correctly use words and phrases related to chronology and time to explain how things change. a. Now, long ago g. Past, present, future SSKG1 The student will describe American culture by explaining diverse community and family celebrations and customs. ELAKR6 The student gains meaning from orally presented text. The student e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end. h. Retells important facts in the student's own words ELA1R6 The student uses a variety of strategies to understand and gain meaning from grade-level text. The student d. Retells stories read independently or with a partner. ELA1W1 The student begins to understand the principles of writing. The student c. Rereads writing to self and others, revises to add details, and edits to make corrections. ELA2R4 The student uses a variety of strategies to gain meaning from grade-level text. The student e. Summarizes text content. ELA2W1 The student begins to demonstrate competency in the writing process. The student a. Writes text of a length appropriate to address a topic and tell the story. Information Processing Skills K-2: #1: Compare similarities and differences #3: Identify issues and/or problems and alternative solutions Instructional Objectives: Students will gain a more in-depth knowledge of the Great Migration. Rationale for topic: Students should understand that people migrated within the US as well as from other countries. Instructional strategies used: direct instruction, hands-on activities Materials/ technology used: The Great Migration story, paper, crayons, scissors Procedures: 1. Read The Great Migration story with students. Check for understanding. 2. Have students create illustrations or puppets to go along with the story. Reading/Language Arts Math Science Other: __________

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3. Students can complete one of the following options based on ability level: a. Retell the story in their own words, using their illustrations or puppets b. Students can show the appropriate illustrations or puppets while someone else reads The Great Migration story. 4. Students can present their story to a partner. Evaluation: Students will be evaluated based on their illustrations or puppets. Extension: After students have completed the project, you may want to show them the following link. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/odonnell/w1010/edit/migration/migration.html. This link will show students the Great Migration through Jacob Lawrenence's paintings. Appendices: The Great Migration story

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The Great Migration

Adapted from Jacob Lawrence Around the time of WWI, many African-Americans from the South left home and traveled to cities in the North in search of a better life. There was a shortage of workers in Northern factories because many had left their jobs to fight in the First World War. The factory owners had to find new workers to replace those who were marching off to war. Northern industries offered Southern blacks jobs as workers and lent them money for their railroad tickets. The Northbound trains were packed with recruits. Nature had ravaged the South. Floods ruined farms. The boll weevil destroyed cotton crops. The war had doubled the cost of food, making life even harder for the poor. Railroad stations were so crowed with migrants that guards were called in to keep order. For African-Americans the South was barren in many ways. There was no justice for them in courts, and their lives were often in danger. Although slavery had long been abolished, white landowners treated the black tenant farmers harshly and unfairly. And so the migration grew. Segregation divided the South. The black newspapers told of better housing and jobs in the North. In the South there was little opportunity for education, and children labored in the fields. These were more reasons for people to move North, leaving some communities deserted. There was much excitement and discussion about the great migration. Families often gathered to discuss whether to go North or to stay South. The promise of better housing in the North could not be ignored. Letters from relatives in the North and articles in the black press portrayed a better life outside the South. And the migrants kept coming. Although life in the North was better, it was not ideal. Although they were promised better housing in the North, some families were forced to live in overcrowded and unhealthy quarters. The migrants soon learned that segregation was not confined to the South. Many Northern workers were angry because they had to compete with the migrants for housing and jobs. There were riots.

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Longtime African-American residents living in the North did not welcome the newcomers from the South and often treated them with disdain. The migrants had to rely on each other. The storefront church was a welcoming place and the center of their lives, in joy and in sorrow. Female workers were among the last to leave. Life in the North brought many challenges, but the migrants' lives had changed for the better. The children were able to go to school, and their parents gained the freedom to vote.

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Race, Industry, & the Great Migration Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

A U.S. Department of Education Grant Program Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools

Grade levels targeted by this lesson: K-2 Lesson Title: Tar Beach Prerequisite Knowledge: Students should have a basic understanding of the Harlem Renaissance. This lesson meets student learning objectives/standards in the following content areas: Social Studies GPS Correlations: SSKG1 The student will describe American culture by explaining diverse community and family celebrations and customs. ELA1R6 The student uses a variety of strategies to understand and gain meaning from grade-level text. The student a. Reads and listens to a variety of texts for information and pleasure. ELA1W1 The student begins to understand the principles of writing. The student b. Describes an experience in writing. ELA2R4 The student uses a variety of strategies to gain meaning from grade-level text. The student a. Reads a variety of texts for information and pleasure. g. Interprets information from illustrations, diagrams, charts, graphs, and graphic organizers. Instructional Objectives: Students will understand that stories can be told from illustrations as well as words. Rationale for topic: It's important that students understand there are many different ways to express themselves. Instructional strategies used: direct instruction, hands-on activities Materials/ technology used: the book Tar Beach, construction paper, scissors, glue, crayons, and markers. Procedures: 1. Explain to students that story quilts are complex artworks, rich with personal details and meaning. They can tell the tales of our own history, or link us to the shared experiences of our community. Faith Ringgold's Tar Beach does both. It combines painting, quilt-making, fictional narrative, and autobiography in a single art form that encourages children to soar high and follow their dreams. 2. Discuss with students that the author of the book Tar Beach, Faith Ringgold was born in 1930, and raised in Harlem by a family with a textile history. Five generations before her birth, her enslaved ancestors made quilts. Her great-great-grandmother taught her how to quilt. Her mother, a fashion designer, encouraged her to create art with fabric. Ringgold began to tell her own stories through her painting and quilts. She also incorporated concerns of the Civil Rights and feminist movements in her quilts. 3. Show students pages from Tar Beach and ask them to describe what they see. Share the artist's inspiration for this work: When Ringgold was a young girl in Harlem, her family would cool off on the roof on hot summer nights. She would lie on a mattress looking up at

Made In America: Courage, Imagination, Determination

Reading/Language Arts

Math

Science

Other: __________

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Race, Industry, & the Great Migration Savannah-Chatham County Public School System

the George Washington Bridge, the starry night sky, and the skyscrapers all around her. Tell students that Tar Beach is actually a quilt that hangs in the Guggenheim Museum in New York. 4. Read aloud the children's book Tar Beach, which Ringgold based on her quilt. Then have students work together to create a story quilt. Ask students to close their eyes and think of a place, real or imagined. Provide students will an assortment of colored and decorative papers, scissors, and glue. Then ask them each to convey the special places they have chosen by collaging geometric and natural shapes on a quilt square, before combining the individual squares into a class quilt. Evaluation: Students will be evaluated based on their contributions to the discussion as well as their quilt square. Appendices: None

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Resources Available through TAH Resource Library

Visit the website for a description of the items www.savannahtah.com Search Words: Migration and Harlem Renaissance The promised land : the great Black migration Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance. Langston Hughes Instructional Unit The big sea: an autobiography / Lemann, Nicholas. Footsteps. Great Americans Biography Symposium Hughes, Langston,

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