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Al Qaeda After 9/11 Teacher's Guide

Grade Level: 9­12 Curriculum Focus: Social Studies Lesson Duration: 5 class periods

Program Description

Al Qaeda in the Middle East (12 min.)--Discusses how al Qaeda members scattered from their base in Afghanistan after 9/11. Al Qaeda in Southeast Asia (10 min.)--Reveals how al Qaeda has established terrorist cells and training camps in Singapore, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Al Qaeda's Global Presence (4 min.)--Investigates how al Qaeda spreads its message through the Internet.

Discussion Questions

Before watching the video · · What do you know about al Qaeda? What are the messages and goals of this terrorist network? As you watch, think about the reasons for al Qaeda's existence and why Osama bin Laden has such an appeal in the Muslim world. How were al Qaeda operatives able to escape Afghanistan and disperse throughout the Muslim world? What are some of the political, social, and economic backgrounds of countries where terrorist organizations have recruited members? What might be some other ways in which terrorist organizations get their message out?

After watching the video · · ·

Lesson Plan

Student Objectives

· Analyze political, social, and economic backgrounds of countries where terrorist organizations have recruited members as well as the rhetorical, political, and religious methods of persuasion used by al Qaeda leaders. Examine how al Qaeda became established in Afghanistan and dispersed throughout the Muslim world. Investigate how terrorist organizations recruit members and communicate their message to a large audience in spite of their clandestine nature.

· ·

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Monitor several days' worth of news broadcasts and Internet news services for stories on terrorism or clip articles from daily newspapers and weekly news magazines regarding terrorist activities around the world. Compile a media log book or clip book of news stories on terrorist attacks and antiterrorism measures. Analyze how and where terrorist activities are being carried out, who is claiming responsibility for these attacks, and what antiterrorism strategies have been employed (or proposed) to prevent future acts of terrorism.

· ·

Materials

· · · · Al Qaeda After 9/11 video Computer with Internet access Notebooks for media logs Print, Internet, and television resources for media stories about al Qaeda, terrorist attacks and threats, and antiterrorism measures

Procedures

1. Before showing the video, ask students to share what they know about al Qaeda, such as its message, its aims, and its members. Where did Osama bin Laden have his base of operations before 9/11? (Afghanistan) What was the name of the ruling government party that allowed Osama bin Laden to take refuge in Afghanistan? (The Taliban) 2. After showing the video, focus in-class discussions upon the reasons for al Qaeda's existence and why Osama bin Laden has such an appeal in the Muslim world. Encourage students to hypothesize why al Qaeda has decided to target the United States and its allies. During the class discussion each student will be assigned a number from one to three, and the teacher will direct questions to the different groups of students regarding the spread of terrorism. 3. Discuss with the class some of the issues raised in the program. According to the video, how were al Qaeda operatives able to escape Afghanistan and disperse throughout the Muslim world? (Al Qaeda members were able to slip out of the country along the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan because of their familiarity with the mountainous terrain, and the Afghan troops tasked with pursuing al Qaeda were largely ineffective.) What are some of the political, social, and economic backgrounds of countries where terrorist organizations have recruited members? (Factors include a weak central government, a society that favors radical Islam, and large numbers of unemployed young men.) 4. Talk about the role that the Internet has played in recruiting new terrorists and disseminating al Qaeda's message. What might be some other ways in which terrorist organizations get their message out? (Possible answers include Arabic television stations that regularly broadcast messages from Osama bin Laden or local religious leaders who incite violence.) Ask the students to discuss possible answers to these questions with the classmate sitting next to them, and have them respond together.

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5. During the course of the week, ask the class to create a media log of stories related to terrorism. The stories do not need to be specific to al Qaeda, and may include articles on terrorist attacks in countries that were not mentioned in the video (such as Israel and Iraq), proposed antiterrorism legislation, or the anniversary of significant terrorist attacks (such as 9/11 or the bombings in Bali, Madrid, and London). Have the students monitor at least three days of news stories and articles on terrorist activities and antiterrorism measures. Sources may include news broadcasts, Internet news services, daily newspapers, or recent weekly news magazines. For broadcast news stories, students should indicate the date and time of the news broadcast, the network, program title, a brief summary of the news story, and the segment of the broadcast in which the story appeared. Students should print, copy, or clip articles that appear online or in newspapers and magazines. Have each student compile five to seven entries in his or her media log. The only criterion is that the stories are related to terrorist activities or antiterrorism measures. Students should be able to find the latest news stories at the following Web sites: · · · · · · · · · New York Times www.nytimes.com Los Angeles Times www.latimes.com Chicago Tribune www.chicagotribune.com Washington Post www.washingtonpost.com ABC News http://abcnews.go.com/?lid=ABCCOMMenu&lpos=ABCNews CBS News www.cbsnews.com/sections/home/main100.shtml NBC.com (News and Sports) www.nbc.com/News_&_Sports CNN.com www.cnn.com Fox News www.foxnews.com 6. Later in the week, the students will split into three groups (based on the number they were assigned earlier). Groups 1, 2, and 3 will assemble with their members' media logs in an area of the classroom assigned to their group. The teams will analyze the information they have gathered based on the following topics of discussion:

Published by Discovery Education. © 2006. All rights reserved.

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·

Geography, politics, and terrorism: Students will compare notes on where their stories originated. Have students consider the following questions: o Is the dateline of the story from one of the countries mentioned in the video? o What did the article relate about the political, economic, or social climate of that nation? o If a terrorist incident is involved, where did the attack take place? The terrorists' message: Students will discuss the terrorist organization(s) involved. Have students consider the following questions: o If the story concerns a terrorist incident, what group claimed responsibility for the attack? o What reason(s) or explanation(s) do the terrorists give for their actions? o What connection do the terrorists relate between their actions and the political, economic, or social environment of their region? o If the story concerns communications from a terrorist leader, what was the content of the message, and how was it disseminated? o How might the leader's message or the group's action(s) appeal to people who might consider joining their movement? Combating terrorism: Students will analyze antiterrorism measures. Have students consider the following questions: o How is the government (of whatever country is mentioned in the article) trying to prevent future terrorist attacks? o Has that government successfully thwarted terrorist plots? o What freedoms are citizens of that nation willing to give up in exchange for increased security?

·

·

7. After a predetermined period of time, ask the teams to leave their media logs in the area of the classroom where they started, and have Groups 1, 2, and 3 move clockwise to the next area of the classroom. Ask the teams to analyze the media logs left behind using the same topics of discussion described above. When the teams have finished analyzing their second set of media logs, have Groups 1, 2, and 3 move clockwise one last time to review a third set of media logs. By the end of the exercise, every student will have reviewed every media log. The entire exercise might take one or two class periods, depending on the amount of time allotted. 8. Encourage everyone to take notes on their group's analysis and conclusions. On the last day of the lesson, have students turn in summaries of what they have learned about terrorism based on the media logs and group discussions. An ideal summary would include what the student has learned about each of the three topics that the class discussed in their breakout groups: "Geography, Politics, and Terrorism," "The Terrorists' Message," and "Combating Terrorism."

Assessment

Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during this lesson. · 3 points: Students worked cooperatively and efficiently in groups; created media logs that reflect thorough research of recent terrorist attacks, threats, and antiterrorism measures; and cited at least three relevant points in their post-group discussion summaries.

Published by Discovery Education. © 2006. All rights reserved.

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·

2 points: Students usually worked cooperatively and efficiently in groups; created media logs that reflect research of recent terrorist attacks, threats, and antiterrorism measures; and cited at least two relevant points in their post-group discussion summaries. 1 point: Students worked somewhat cooperatively and efficiently in their groups, created incomplete media logs of recent terrorist attacks, threats, and antiterrorism measures; and cited only one relevant point in their post-group discussion summaries.

·

Vocabulary

agenda Definition: An underlying often ideological plan or program Context: Al Qaeda has been able to spread its anti-Western agenda through the Internet. alias Definition: An assumed or additional name Context: Khalid Shaikh Mohammed used nearly three dozen aliases before his capture in 2003. alliance Definition: An association to further the common interests of the members Context: Al Qaeda has formed an alliance with Jemiah Islamia and other radical Islamic groups to plot terrorist attacks around the world. feudalism Definition: The system of political organization prevailing in Europe from the 9th to the 15th centuries having as its basis the relation of lord to vassal with all land held in fee Context: The type of feudalism that existed in Afghanistan under the Taliban government made it difficult for a centralized government power to crack down on al Qaeda's activities. militant Definition: Engaged in warfare or combat Context: Militant Islamic groups have an easier time recruiting new members in countries where there is high percentage of unemployed young men. operative Definition: A secret agent Context: Several al Qaeda operatives studied in the United States before the 9/11 attacks. terrorism Definition: The systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Context: Like the Cold War, the war on terrorism is likely to be a political issue for decades to come. underground Definition: In or into hiding or secret operation

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Context: Terrorism experts believe that several al Qaeda leaders have gone underground in countries such as Pakistan, Singapore, and Indonesia.

Academic Standards

National Council for the Social Studies The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) has developed national standards to provide guidelines for teaching social studies. To view the standards online, go to http://www.socialstudies.org/standards/strands/. This lesson plan addresses the following thematic standards: · · · · Culture People, Places, and Environments Individuals, Groups, and Institutions Global Connections

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) McREL's Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K­12 Education addresses 14 content areas. To view the standards and benchmarks, visit http://www.mcrel.org/compendium/browse.asp. This program addresses the following national standards: · · Geography--Places and Regions: Understands that culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions. Geography--Human Systems: Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics; Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of the Earth's surface.

DVD Content

This program is available in an interactive DVD format. The following information and activities are specific to the DVD version.

How to Use the DVD

The DVD starting screen has the following options: Play Video--This plays the video from start to finish. There are no programmed stops, except by using a remote control. With a computer, depending on the particular software player, a pause button is included with the other video controls. Video Index--Here the video is divided into sections indicated by video thumbnail icons; brief descriptions are noted for each one. Watching all parts in sequence is similar to watching the video

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from start to finish. To play a particular segment, press Enter on the remote for TV playback; on a computer, click once to highlight a thumbnail and read the accompanying text description and click again to start the video. Curriculum Units--These are specially edited video segments pulled from different sections of the video (see below). These nonlinear segments align with key ideas in the unit of instruction. They include onscreen pre- and post-viewing questions, reproduced below in this Teacher's Guide. Total running times for these segments are noted. To play a particular segment, press Enter on the TV remote or click once on the Curriculum Unit title on a computer. Standards Link--Selecting this option displays a single screen that lists the national academic standards the video addresses. Teacher Resources--This screen gives the technical support number and Web site address.

Video Index

I. Al Qaeda in the Middle East (12 min.) Before 9/11 al Qaeda was based in Afghanistan. Learn why Osama bin Laden was able to escape the U.S. military and how some top al Qaeda operatives have settled in Pakistan. II. Al Qaeda in Southeast Asia (10 min.) Al Qaeda is also making its presence known in formerly moderate Muslim nations. Discover how al Qaeda has established terrorist cells and training camps in Singapore, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. III. Al Qaeda's Global Presence (4 min.) Now less centralized, al Qaeda has a broader global presence, making the organization even more dangerous. Learn about the Internet's role in relaying Osama bin Laden's message to his followers.

Curriculum Units

1. Al Qaeda in Afghanistan (8 min.) Pre-viewing question Q: Where was al Qaeda based before September 11, 2001? A: Answers should include the Middle East, specifically Afghanistan. Post-viewing question Q: How did Osama Bin Laden manage to escape the U.S. military during the battle for Tora Bora? A: It is believed that Osama Bin Laden and other key al Qaeda operatives escaped through the mountains at the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Segment 2: Al Qaeda in Pakistan (4 min.) Pre-viewing question Q: What might have attracted the al Qaeda leaders to Pakistan? A: Answers may include its proximity to Afghanistan and the country's Muslim majority.

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Post-viewing question Q: Who is Khalid Shaikh Mohammed? A: He is considered one of the masterminds of the 9/11 attacks and was captured in Pakistan in 2003. Segment 3: Al Qaeda in Singapore (4 min.) Pre-viewing question Q: What do you know about Singapore? A: Answers will vary. Post-viewing question Q: What building was al Qaeda planning to blow up before the government of Singapore foiled the plot? A: Al Qaeda had plans to blow up the U.S. Embassy in Singapore. Segment 4: Al Qaeda in Indonesia (4 min.) Pre-viewing question Q: What do you know about the religious makeup of Indonesia? A: Answers may include that Indonesia is a large Muslim country with a small minority of Hindus and Christians. Post-viewing question Q: What is a madrasah? A: A madrasah is a school for the advanced study of Islamic law. Segment 5: Al Qaeda in Bangladesh (3 min.) Pre-viewing question Q: What has been the deadliest terrorist attack since 9/11? A: The October 2002 attack on the Bali nightclub, in which 180 people were killed, was the deadliest terrorist attack since 9/11. Post-viewing question Q: Why would Bangladesh be an ideal location for al Qaeda operations? A: Answers may include a large Muslim population, enormous poverty that draws young men to militant Islam, and the fact that most Western governments are looking elsewhere. Segment 6: Al Qaeda in Cyberspace (4 min.) Pre-viewing question Q: What role does the Internet play within terrorist organizations?

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A: The Internet enables Osama bin Laden and other militant clerics to disseminate their antiWestern messages and provide information about terrorist plots to al Qaeda cells throughout the world. Post-viewing question Q: What do you think world leaders should be doing to defeat al Qaeda? A: Answers will vary.

Published by Discovery Education. © 2006. All rights reserved.

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