Read ca_stan_wkbk.pdf text version

Standards Review Workbook

Holt California Social Studies

World History

Medieval to Early Modern Times

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Teachers using HOLT SOCIAL STUDIES: WORLD HISTORY may photocopy complete pages in sufficient quantities for classroom use only and not for resale. HOLT and the "Owl Design" are trademarks licensed to Holt, Rinehart and Winston, registered in the United States of America and/or other jurisdictions. Printed in the United States of America

If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Holt, Rinehart and Winston retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited.

Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

ISBN 0-03-042158-6 2 3 4 5 6 7 082 08 07 06

Contents

California Standards Review Workbook

California Standard 6.1 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi California Standard 6.2 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii California Standard 6.3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii California Standard 6.4 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix California Standard 6.5 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x California Standard 6.6 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi California Standard 6.7 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii California Standard 7.1 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 California Standard 7.2 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 California Standard 7.3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 California Standard 7.4 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 California Standard 7.5 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 California Standard 7.6 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 California Standard 7.7 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 California Standard 7.8 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 California Standard 7.9 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 California Standard 7.10 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 California Standard 7.11 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Standard 7.1.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Standard 7.1.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Standard 7.1.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Standard 7.2.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Standard 7.2.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Standard 7.2.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Standard 7.2.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Standard 7.2.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Standard 7.2.6 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Standard 7.3.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Standard 7.3.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Standard 7.3.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Standard 7.3.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Standard 7.3.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Standard 7.3.6 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Standard 7.4.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Standard 7.4.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Standard 7.4.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Standard 7.4.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Standard 7.4.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Standard 7.5.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Standard 7.5.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Standard 7.5.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Standard 7.5.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Standard 7.5.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Standard 7.5.6 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Standard 7.6.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

iii

California Standards Review Workbook

Contents

Standard 7.6.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Standard 7.6.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Standard 7.6.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Standard 7.6.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Standard 7.6.6 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Standard 7.6.7 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Standard 7.6.8 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Standard 7.6.9 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Standard 7.7.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Standard 7.7.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Standard 7.7.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Standard 7.7.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Standard 7.7.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Standard 7.8.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Standard 7.8.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Standard 7.8.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Standard 7.8.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Standard 7.8.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Standard 7.9.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Standard 7.9.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Standard 7.9.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Standard 7.9.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Standard 7.9.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Standard 7.9.6 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Standard 7.9.7 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Standard 7.10.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Standard 7.10.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Standard 7.10.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Standard 7.11.1 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Standard 7.11.2 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Standard 7.11.3 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Standard 7.11.4 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Standard 7.11.5 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Standard 7.11.6 Review Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

iv

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 6

Standard 6.1 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 6.1 Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution.

Many scientists think the first modern humans appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago. These early humans lived during a time called the Stone Age. Early humans gradually developed tools, such as sharpened stones for processing food, flint axes, and spears. These people were hunter-gatherers. They hunted animals and gathered wild plants for survival. They learned to use fire. These early people also developed language and created art, including cave paintings and carvings. During the Paleolithic Era, early people began to move around. From Africa, scientists believe humans went first to Asia. Early peoples eventually spread over thousands of years to Europe, Australia, North America, and South America. People learned to sew clothing from animal skins, build shelters, create new and better tools, and make pottery. A major change occurred about 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia, but later in other parts of the world. There, people learned how to grow food crops by planting seeds. They also learned to raise animals, rather than following herds. This huge shift from food gathering to food producing is called the Agricultural, or Neolithic, Revolution.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Which statement does not describe hunter-gatherers? A They lived during the Stone Age. B They developed tools. C They made cave paintings. D They grew crops by planting seeds. Where did the first humans live? A Asia B Africa C Australia D Europe

In the Agricultural Revolution, people first learned to A raise animals. B use fire. C make carvings. D sharpen stones.

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

vi

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 6

Standard 6.2 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 6.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.

In several parts of the world, bands of hunter-gatherers settled down in farming settlements. Over time, their cultures became more complex. Most early civilizations grew up along rivers. Three of the earliest were at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In this fertile region, farmers grew crops and raised livestock. Cities appeared between 4000 and 3000 BC. Sumer was the world's first advanced society, with religion, writing, technology, armies, and a social order. Other civilizations, such as Babylonia, Assyria, and Phoenicia, followed Sumer in Mesopotamia. At about the same time, other people settled along the Nile River in Egypt. Around 3100 BC, the kingdom of Egypt arose. Ruled by a pharaoh, ancient Egyptians developed a society with a strict class order, a religion with many gods, trade, art, a powerful military, and a system of writing called hieroglyphics. Egyptians were also known for their buildings, including massive temples and pyramids. South of Egypt in Africa, a third early civilization grew up around 2000 BC. It was Kush. Sometimes Kush was dominated by neighboring Egypt, but in the 700s BC, Kush conquered Egypt. Kush was known for its advanced iron industry, and it had extensive trade relations with other peoples.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which civilization did not grow up in Mesopotamia? A Babylonia B Assyria C Kush D Sumer

What is one thing all these civilizations have in common? A Each had an advanced iron industry. B Each grew up near a river. C Each had a system of writing called hieroglyphics. D Each lay between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

vii

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 6

Standard 6.3 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 6.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Ancient Hebrews.

The civilization of the Hebrews dates back to Abraham, who settled in Canaan on the Mediterranean Sea between 2000 and 1500 BC. The Hebrews, or Jewish people, endured a period of slavery in Egypt. They were led back to Canaan by Moses around 1200 BC, a journey known as the Exodus. According to the Bible, on this journey God gave Moses a set of laws called the Ten Commandments. The Jews believed that if they obeyed God, followed the Ten Commandments, and valued human life, self-control, and justice, God would look after them. The Jews' religion became known as Judaism. Historians believe it was the first monotheistic religion. Monotheism is the belief in only one god. Over their history, the Jews have suffered periods of persecution and exile. Their capital, Jerusalem, has been destroyed, and many Jews were forced to move away from Israel, their homeland. They were conquered by neighboring peoples, including the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Romans. Numerous revolts ended in failure. Through difficult times, their faith has remained strong. Jewish values, such as justice, obedience to the law, and education, have been especially influential in Western civilization. Christianity grew from Jewish roots. Judaism also has much in common with Islam. Today, Jews live all over the world.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which of the following statements about the ancient Hebrews is true? A Theirs was the first monotheistic religion. B They conquered Egypt. C They founded the Christian religion. D Their civilization was started by Moses.

Monotheism is A the belief in the Jewish god. B the belief in the Ten Commandments. C the belief in only one god. D the belief in Abraham and Moses. Which is not a Jewish value? A justice B obedience to the law C education D tyranny

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

viii

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 6

Standard 6.4 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 6.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Ancient Greece.

One of the greatest of all ancient civilizations developed in a rocky, mountainous region in the Mediterranean Sea. Around 600 BC, small, independent city-states grew up in Greece. The most important city-state, Athens, soon set up trading colonies and grew more powerful. Early in its history, Athens was ruled by aristocrats and then by a king called a tyrant. Around 500 BC, however, a new form of government was invented in Athens--a democracy. In Athens's democracy, citizens assembled to vote on matters that affected their city. All modern democratic countries trace their roots to ancient Athens in Greece. Athens flourished for only a short time. During its golden age, it gave the world some of its greatest literature, philosophy, history, art, architecture, mathematics, and science. Greeks also created a rich mythology to explain the world. In the mid-400s BC, however, Athens lost a destructive war with another city-state, the military state of Sparta. The war weakened all of Greece, and within 100 years, Greece was conquered by Macedonia, a small country north of Greece. However, the leader of Macedonia, Alexander the Great, admired Greek culture tremendously. He spread this culture throughout Asia as he built a huge empire. Through Alexander, Greek culture was preserved.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Democracy was invented in A Macedonia. B Athens. C Sparta. D Rome. How did Alexander preserve Greek culture? A He created a rich mythology. B He became a king called a tyrant. C He conquered Sparta. D He spread it throughout his empire.

In Greek democracy, A all people voted. B men and women voted. C citizens voted. D wealthy people voted.

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

ix

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 6

Standard 6.5 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 6.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of India.

India is separated by mountains, deserts, and seas from the rest of Asia. This isolation helped India develop its own special civilizations. The earliest civilization in India was the Harappan. Like other early civilizations, it grew up along a river, the Indus. By the 1200s BC, the Harappans had been replaced by the Aryans. The Aryans were a people from the north. These people gave their language, Sanskrit, and their religion, Brahmanism, to India. Brahmanism divided society into strict classes called castes. The caste system determined almost everything about a person's life. Brahmanism developed into Hinduism, the religion of today's India. Hindus believe in many gods, who are all different parts of one god. Hindus also believe in reincarnation, or rebirth into another life form, and the importance of doing one's duty. India is also the birthplace of another world religion. In the 500s BC, a man named Siddhartha created Buddhism. Buddhists search for enlightenment, or wisdom, and nirvana, a state of perfect peace. In the 320s BC, a great leader named Asoka united most of India in one kingdom. He ruled by Buddhist principles, trying to improve the lives of his people. Under Asoka and other kings, India developed a rich culture. India excelled in art, architecture, literature, and mathematics.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which is not a Hindu belief? A isolationism B reincarnation C the importance of doing one's duty D belief in many gods, who are all different parts of one god

Who were the Aryans? A the creators of Buddhism B founders of a state of perfect peace C leaders who ruled by Buddhist principles D a people from the north who invaded India For what is Asoka known? A He created Buddhism. B He named the Indus River. C He found enlightenment, or wisdom. D He was a king who ruled by Buddhist principles

California Standards Review Workbook

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

x

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 6

Standard 6.6 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 6.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of China.

East of India, another great culture grew up along major rivers. China is a vast and varied land, and the country's first civilization was located along the Huang He, or Yellow River, in northern China. About 1500 BC, a group of rulers called the Shang had gained control. Among the Shang's achievements was China's first writing system. The next rulers, called the Zhou, solidified control over more of China, but eventually weakened. During a period of social chaos in the 500s BC, a man named Confucius looked for solutions to China's problems. He called for people to behave morally, be loyal, and perform their proper roles. His ideas area still influential today. Another set of ideas, called Daoism, suggested that people should live in harmony with nature. The next dynasty, or group of related rulers, was the Qin. Its great emperor Shi Huangdi was able to unify all of China with his ruthless policies. He also built a Great Wall to protect China from its enemies. Rulers of the Han dynasty took power around 200 BC. They adopted Confucianism to create a strong central government. Art and learning thrived under the Han. They also opened trade routes to other countries, including the Silk Road across Asia to Europe. Also at this time, Buddhism arrived in China from India.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which is not a belief of Confucianism? A People should behave morally B People should perform their proper roles. C People should live in harmony with nature. D People should be loyal.

Which dynasty created a strong central government in China? A Qin B Han C Shang D Zhou Who built a Great Wall? A Confucius B Zhou C Shi Huangdi D Shang

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

xi

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 6

Standard 6.7 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome.

The city of Rome lies on a river near the western coast of Italy, a peninsula that extends out into the Mediterranean Sea. This beneficial location helped Rome become the greatest civilization of the ancient world. Rome was founded in the 700s BC and became a republic in 509. Over centuries, the Roman Republic created a written constitution, a system of laws, and a three-part government with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Rome gradually defeated and conquered more of its neighbors until it ruled a large area. After many years of social and political disorder, however, Augustus seized power in 27 BC. Rome became an empire. Under its emperors, Rome expanded into a vast empire that stretched from Britain to Mesopotamia. The Roman Empire was united by an extensive road network, a common money system, and its magnificent army. People throughout the empire felt proud to be Roman citizens. But even this great empire eventually weakened and fell in the AD 400s. Its many contributions to the world live on. Its laws, science, architecture, literature, and art are still admired. Its language, Latin, is used today. Yet another contribution of Rome is the preservation and expansion of Christianity. The religion was born in the Roman Empire, and within a few centuries became the empire's official religion.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

What form of government did Rome have before it became an empire? A dictatorship B democracy C monarchy D republic

Which was not one of Rome's lasting contributions to the world? A democracy B laws C architecture D Christianity Which helped unite the Roman Empire? A the legislative branch of government B a common money system C its architecture D pride in being a Greek citizen

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

xii

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.1 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.

Between the 700s BC and the AD 100s, Rome grew from a tiny village to a huge empire. Several factors helped Rome create its vast empire. Written laws protected the rights of Roman citizens. An extensive road network for good communications, a common money system, and a magnificent army also strengthened the Roman Empire. Allowing conquered people to become Roman citizens made them loyal to Rome. Yet the empire also faced serious problems as time passed. By the end of the 100s, emperors began to give up land Rome had conquered. The empire had grown too large to govern effectively. Emperors divided it into eastern and western halves. Outsiders known as barbarians attacked the borders of the empire. There were not enough farmers to grow food because so many people were in the army. Emperors were ineffective, and political leaders formed private armies to fight each other for power. Disease often swept through the empire, and economic problems led to growing weakness. Taxes and prices soared. Political corruption increased, Rome's dependence on slaves grew, and schools closed. Barbarians even attacked the city of Rome itself in 410. By the end of the 400s, Rome had fallen. The torch of Roman civilization was passed to the eastern part of the empire, known as the Byzantine Empire. Its capital Constantinople became the center of a new and influential civilization that combined Roman and Greek values.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

How did emperors address the problem of the empire's large size? A They formed private armies. B They divided it into eastern and western halves. C They combined Roman and Greek values. D They created a money system.

Which statement about the Byzantine Empire is true? A It combined Roman and barbarian values. B Its written laws ignored the rights of Roman citizens. C It was the eastern part of the Roman Empire. D It was the western part of the Roman Empire.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

1

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.2 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages.

In the early AD 600s, a new religion was born in the desert country of Arabia. Islam is based on the teachings of Muhammad, whom Muslims believe was the prophet of God, or Allah. Islam, like Judaism and Christianity, is a monotheistic religion. Muslims believe in promoting justice, praying daily, helping the poor, and obeying Allah's commands, found in the Qur'an. Muhammad and his followers gradually took political control of parts of Arabia. After Muhammad's death in 632, Muslims expanded their empire to include most of the Middle East, northern Africa, and even parts of Europe. A Muslim kingdom was established in Spain in the mid-700s. Eventually, Islam reached from East Asia to Morocco, from Africa to India and Afghanistan. Different Muslim empires, such as the Safavid Persian, Mughal Indian, and Ottoman Turkish, flourished throughout the Middle Ages. Arab Muslim merchants traded with people in China, India, Africa, and Europe, helping spread Muslim ideas and the Arabic language. A rich cultural life grew up in great cities like Baghdad and Cordoba, Spain. Muslim rulers usually practiced religious tolerance, which added to the cultural richness of their empires. Muslim scholars helped preserve ancient Greek writings lost in the West. Muslim scientists made important advances in astronomy, geography, mathematics, and medicine. Writers and artists created unique Islamic works of art.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

Muslim scholars and artists did all of the following except A preserve ancient Greek writings. B create unique Islamic works of art. C preserve written Roman laws. D make important advances in astronomy and geography.

What is one way Islam is like Judaism and Christianity? A It is also a monotheistic religion. B It was also founded by Muhammad. C It also arose in the desert country of Arabia. D It also uses the New and Old Testaments.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

2

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.3 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages.

China endured several centuries of social and political unrest from AD 220 to 589. These years are known as the Period of Disunion. It was ended when new dynasty, or group of related rulers, gained power. In 618, the Tang began their 300 years of rule. With China reunited, the Tang period was a golden age for China. It was able to conquer much of Central Asia and Vietnam. Another key event of this period was the spread of Buddhism. During the unrest, many Chinese sought comfort in Buddhism. With the return of order, Buddhism continued to grow. Missionaries took it from China to Japan, Korea, and other lands. The Tang and following Song periods were times of important advances in agriculture, trade, art, literature, and technology. Several important Chinese inventions of the time are woodblock printing, gunpowder, the magnetic compass, and paper money. Another important development was a return to Confucian values. Confucianism led the Song rulers to create a powerful class of government officials. These officials were especially trained and selected to provide good public service. In the 1200s, China was conquered by a people called the Mongols and their leader Genghis Khan. During Mongol rule and later, China undertook huge building projects, expanded trade with Europe and the Middle East, and also sent expeditions to explore the world outside China.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

A key event of the Tang period was A the creation of a powerful class of government officials. B expeditions to explore the world outside China. C the rule of Genghis Khan. D the spread of Buddhism in China and beyond.

All of the following are Chinese inventions except A the magnetic compass. B guns. C gunpowder. D paper money.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

3

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.4 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa.

Great empires also arose in Africa. The center of West Africa's first civilizations was the Niger River. This huge region contains varied landforms and climates, as well as resources like fertile farmland, salt, and gold. Growing from humble beginnings, Africa's first great empire used trade to gain control over much of West Africa. This empire was Ghana. By the AD 800s it controlled trade routes heading north and south. After several centuries, Ghana weakened and was replaced by the empire of Mali. Mali too grew rich on trade. It also became a great center of learning and of the Islamic religion and the Arabic language, which the rulers of Mali adopted in the 1300s. Mali's imperial capital of Timbuktu became famous throughout the Muslim world. A third great empire, the Songhai, arose in the late 1400s. Also Muslim, the Songhai Empire became a cultural and trading center. The key to their prosperity was control of the trade routes that crossed the dangerous Sahara Desert to the north. An important element of all West African trade was human slaves. Life in all the West African civilizations was centered on the village and family relationships. Each family member had his or her own duties and responsibilities. Culture was shared orally through stories told by older members of the family group.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

All of the following were important West African empires except A Sahara. B Songhai. C Ghana. D Mali.

Which statement about family and village life in West Africa is true? A All villages were located on the Niger River. B Life was centered on workplace relationships. C All families engaged in trans-Saharan trade. D Culture was shared orally by older members of the family.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

4

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.5 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan.

Japan's civilization has been shaped by two important geographic factors. It is an island, which allowed it to develop its own culture. On the other hand, however, Japan is very close to mainland nations like China and Korea. Both have influenced Japan's development. Around AD 600, a leader named Prince Shotoku decided Japan should adopt more Chinese ideas. Japanese learned about written language, Confucianism, and the importance of correct behavior within the family. Shotoku also made Buddhism, introduced from Korea, more popular in Japan. In 794 a great era of artistic and literary achievement known as the Heian began. Among the works of this period was one of the world's first novels, The Tale of Genji, by Lady Murasaki Shikibu. Also during the Heian period, new forms of Buddhism developed. Toward the end of the Heian period, Japanese society became unruly. Large landowners called daimyo hired samurai, or trained professional warriors, to protect them. Samurai lived disciplined lives and followed by a strict code of honor called bushido. Even today, many Japanese admire the values of the samurai. At about the same time, the emperor became a weak figurehead. Japan's real ruler was a military commander called the shogun. The shoguns ruled Japan for several centuries. They feared outside ideas could weaken their power. As a result, Japan became isolated from the rest of the world until the 1800s.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which geographic factor had a strong influence on Japan's development? A its frequent earthquakes B its tall mountains C its closeness to mainland nations D the policies of Prince Shotoku

Trained professional warriors were known as A shoguns. B daimyo. C bushido. D samurai. What did Japan gain from Korea? A Buddhism B shoguns C Confucianism D Heian culture

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

5

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.

The Middle Ages is the period following the fall of the western Roman Empire. It lasted from about 500 to about 1500. After Rome fell, Europe had no central authority. During this time, the spread of the Christian Church helped bring some unity and authority to Europe. Christianity was spread by missionaries sent by the pope from Italy to the far corners of Europe. Monks also taught people about Christianity by running schools, preserving writings, and advising local rulers. Threats such as Viking invasions led to the development of a system for protection. It was called feudalism. In return for land, knights promised to be loyal and help nobles fight. Feudalism made possible the manor system. Manors, on which most people lived, included a castle, village, church, and farm fields. Numerous conflicts raged during the Middle Ages. Popes and kings battled for political power. European Christians battled Muslims who controlled the Holy Land and Spain. Throughout the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church shaped society and politics. It ran universities, sponsored artworks, and influenced kings. In England, the beginnings of democracy were found in the Magna Carta, which defined certain legal rights for people. At the end of the Middle Ages, a dreadful plague carried by rats killed as much as one third of the population.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which statement about the Christian Church in the Middle Ages is not correct? A It helped shape society and politics. B It made possible the manor system. C It ran schools and preserved writings. D It brought unity and authority to Europe.

Which statement about feudalism is true? A It started as a system for protection. B The pope controlled it. C It was outlined in the Magna Carta. D It taught people about Christianity.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

6

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.7 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations.

Mesoamerica is the region that includes southern Mexico and the northern countries of Central America. The first great civilization to appear in Mesoamerica was the Maya. Starting about AD 250, the Maya built up a great trading society and many large cities. Trade goods of the Maya included crops like cotton, rubber, and chocolate and minerals such as jade and obsidian, a black rock useful for making tools. The Maya built magnificent temples for worship, made advances in science and mathematics, and developed a complex social system. Around AD 900, however, their civilization declined and disappeared. Historians are not sure why. In the 1400s, another rich and powerful civilization, the Aztec, developed in central Mexico. Their capital city of Tenochtitlán was one of the world's largest cities, with floating gardens and enormous markets. Aztec society placed king and nobles at the top, and Aztec religion tried to explain the natural world. Like the Maya, they were able to use science to make a calendar. A third great civilization dominated the Andes Mountains in South America. The Inca Empire reached its height in the early 1500s. They established trading networks and an official language for the empire. Like the other two societies, the Incas had a rich oral tradition. Both the Aztecs and the Incas met the same fate. They were conquered by Spanish invaders in the 1500s.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which was not an empire in the Americas? A the Inca B the Maya C the Aztec D the Mexicans

What did the three civilizations have in common? A They had disappeared by the 1500s. B They dominated the Andes. C They were not trading societies. D They were in Mesoamerica.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

7

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.8 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance.

In the late 1300s, a new spirit took hold in Italy. An emphasis on human value and achievement began to balance the medieval focus on God. This new focus, called humanism, was based in part on the rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman writings. This reawakened interest in education, science, and art in the late 1300s was known as the Renaissance, or "rebirth." The Renaissance was also encouraged by increased trade with other parts of the world. The reopening of the old Silk Road between Europe and China helped bring new ideas to Italian cities like Venice, Milan, and Genoa. However, the center of the Italian Renaissance was the city of Florence. There, wealthy bankers and others supported great artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. From Florence, Renaissance ideas spread throughout Italy and into northern Europe. This spread of ideas was made easier by advances in technology. One of the key inventions was the printing press of Johann Gutenberg of Germany. His press made the printing of books, including Bibles in vernacular, or the common spoken, languages, much faster and easier. The Renaissance also saw great advances in science, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, cartography (mapmaking), and human anatomy. Great writers of the Renaissance include the Italian poet Dante and the English playwright William Shakespeare.

STANDARDS PRACTICE

DIRECTIONS Read the question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

The meaning of the word Renaissance is A rebirth. B return. C humanism. D advance.

Which statement about the Renaissance is not true? A It was encouraged by increased trade. B It was based on the rediscovery of Greek and Roman writings. C It was brought to Europe from China. D It saw great advances in science, art, and literature.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

8

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation.

By the late Renaissance, some people had become dissatisfied with the Catholic Church. They felt it had grown too rich and become too involved in politics. They believed it was neglecting its spiritual responsibilities. One man who felt this way was the German monk Martin Luther. In 1517, he announced his reform plan for the church, known as the Ninety-Five Theses. Luther claimed that people did not need to give money to the church to be saved. Believing in God and living by the Bible was enough. Other reformers, such as John Calvin, also proposed changes in church practice. Eventually these and others broke with the Catholic Church and helped form new churches. This break is called the Reformation. The new churches that were created are known as Protestant Christian churches. Unlike in the Catholic Church, most Protestant church members governed themselves. While southern Europe remained Catholic, many people in northern Europe became Protestants. The Catholic Church realized that it had to make changes. Its response to the Protestant Reformation is called the Counter-Reformation. Through the late 1500s and 1600s, the Catholic Church worked to strengthen itself and stop the spread of Protestantism. Catholic reforms included new religious orders such as the Jesuits, missionaries, and a series of meetings called the Council of Trent. All three helped revitalize the Catholic Church. A key effect of the religious split in Europe was that parts of the New World became Catholic, while others became mostly Protestant.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

The Reformation resulted in A the end of the Catholic Church. B the Ninety-Five Theses. C the creation of Protestant churches. D the death of Martin Luther.

All were part of the CounterReformation except A missionaries. B the rise of Protestantism. C the Council of Trent. D new religious orders.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

9

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.10 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.10 Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions.

During the 1500s and 1600s, modern science was born. The series of events that led to the birth of modern science is called the Scientific Revolution. Before the Scientific Revolution, most people accepted explanations about nature and the world from ancient authorities or the Catholic Church. Modern science, however, is based on observation of the world to identify facts. Scientists then use their reason to form theories, or explanations of why things occur. The roots of the Scientific Revolution include the writings of ancient Greek thinkers like Aristotle and the work of medieval Islamic and Jewish scientists. The spirit of humanism and other Renaissance ideas also led scientists to apply their own reason to explaining the world. New ideas and inventions during the Scientific Revolution changed the nature of knowledge. In astronomy, men like Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo helped show that the sun was at the center of the solar system. In England, Isaac Newton explained ideas like gravity and motion and developed calculus. Important inventions like the telescope, microscope, and thermometer helped scientists observe nature more closely. Another key development was the scientific method, a step-by-step method for performing research. At the heart of the method are observation and experimentation. This approach to science is based on the ideas of Englishman Francis Bacon and Frenchman René Descartes.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

All of the following were roots of the Scientific Revolution except A the writings of ancient Greek thinkers. B the Catholic Church. C the work of Islamic and Jewish scientists. D humanism and other Renaissance ideas.

The central ideas of the scientific method are A humanism and Judaism. B observation and experimentation. C Bacon and the Catholic Church. D ancient authorities and Islam.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

10

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.11 Review

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.11 Students analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason).

In the 1400s, a new interest in discovery swept across Europe. Improvements in navigation, maps, and shipbuilding helped Europeans explore the world. The Portuguese explored the coast of Africa and sailed onto India. Following Columbus, the Spanish sailed to the New World. The French and English concentrated on North America. As a result of these voyages of discovery, Europeans' ideas of the world changed. An important exchange of culture, religion, languages, plants, and animals took place between the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Europeans took with them new ideas, plants, animals, and technology. They returned from their explorations with new plants and animals. This increased trade led to a new economic system based on capitalism, in which individuals, not governments, run most businesses. Another important change occurred at about the same time. During a period called the Enlightenment, people applied reason to philosophy, society, and politics. Enlightenment thinking was based on Greek and Roman ideas, Christianity, the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment had an especially strong influence on the development of democratic ideas. In both England and its American colonies, the belief that people had certain rights helped create more democratic governments. For example, ideas of Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke and Charles-Louis Montesquieu shaped the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

In capitalism, A there is increased trade. B governments, not individuals, run most businesses. C voyages of discovery are frequent. D individuals, not governments, run most businesses.

All of the following contributed to the Enlightenment except A the Declaration of Independence. B Christianity. C Greek and Roman ideas. D the Scientific Revolution.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

11

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.1.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire. 7.1.1 Study the early strengths and lasting contributions of Rome (e.g., significance of Roman citizenship; rights under Roman law; Roman art, architecture, engineering, and philosophy; preservation and transmission of Christianity) and its ultimate internal weaknesses (e.g., rise of autonomous military powers within the empire, undermining of citizenship by the growth of corruption and slavery, lack of education, and distribution of news).

Rome's strengths helped it remain powerful for centuries. One of its most important strengths was the idea of citizenship. Romans thought it was a great honor to be a citizen. Roman citizens had special duties and responsibilities, and they were protected by a system of written laws. Another strength was Rome's culture. Its art, literature, philosophy, and architecture gave Romans a sense of who they were. Roman science and engineering helped them create structures that improved people's lives. In all of these fields, Romans made lasting contributions to the world. A final contribution of Rome was the development and spread of Christianity throughout the empire and beyond. Rome also faced serious problems that threatened its power and eventually led to its downfall. One cause of Rome's decline was the huge size of its empire. Communication between far-flung parts of the empire was slow and inefficient. Internal factors also played a role in Rome's decline. Corruption, bribery, and the decay of people's values grew more common. The widespread use of slaves, a drastic rise in prices, a drop in tax revenue, and a decline in education were serious problems.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which was not a lasting positive contribution of Rome? A science and engineering B advances in agriculture C system of written laws D spread of Christianity

One reason for Rome's decline was A a rise in tax revenue. B good communication. C the empire was not large enough. D the widespread use of slaves.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

13

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.1.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire. 7.1.2 Discuss the geographic borders of the empire at its height and the factors that threatened its territorial cohesion.

At its height in AD 117, the Roman Empire was one of the largest in world history. It stretched from Britain to Egypt, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf. It included great cities like Alexandria, Jerusalem, Damascus, Byzantium, and Athens, as well as smaller outposts that would one day become London and Paris. However, the empire soon began to shrink, as emperors found it was too large to defend successfully. Because so many men were needed for Rome's armies, not enough were left to grow food. Other challenges, such as disease and economic problems, also weakened the empire. People outside the borders regularly attacked the empire. Germanic tribes in the north, whom Romans called barbarians, and Persians in the east posed threats. In the late 300s, however, the raiding became more serious. A warlike group from Asia called the Huns invaded Europe. The Goths, fleeing from the Huns, moved into the Roman Empire and in 410 sacked Rome itself. Over the next 60 years, other groups, including the Vandals, the Franks, and the Huns, invaded parts of the empire. Roman leaders were too weak to fight off the invaders, and the city of Rome fell to barbarians in 476. This date is considered the end of the Roman Empire in the west.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

3

circle the letter of the best response.

1

Which is not reason for the decline of the Roman Empire? A its large size B strong leadership C disease D economic problems Which city was not in the empire? A Byzantium B Alexandria C Moscow D Athens

14

What event is considered the end of the Roman Empire in the west? A the Huns' invasion B the sack of Rome by the Persians C the fall of Rome to barbarians D the Persian invasion in the East

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.1.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire. 7.1.3 Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on church-state relations.

Some effective emperors tried to prevent the collapse of the Roman Empire. One of them, Constantine, took a radical step. He founded a city in what is now Turkey and moved the empire's capital there in the early AD 300s. The city was called Constantinople. While the western part of the Roman Empire grew weaker, the eastern part thrived. After Rome fell in 476, Constantinople became the capital and trading center of a new empire known as the Byzantine Empire. It reached its greatest strength in the 500s under the rulers Justinian and Theodora. Although it eventually declined, the Byzantine Empire lasted until 1453. The Byzantine Empire was strongly influenced by Greek ideas. It was also shaped by ideas from the east. A key development in the Byzantine Empire was the relationship of the church and the state. By around 1100, Byzantines believed the emperor was the head of both the state and the Orthodox Christian Church. In the west, the pope became leader of the Roman Catholic Church, while various kings and emperors led their states. This significant difference influenced the development of societies in Orthodox eastern and Catholic western Europe.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

The Byzantine Empire grew out of A the eastern Roman Empire. B the western Roman Empire. C the Persian Empire. D the Turkish Empire.

Which statement best summarizes Byzantine ideas about the Church and the state? A The emperor ruled the state. B The pope was the head of the Church, while the emperor ruled the state. C The emperor was the head of both Church and state. D The emperor was head of the Church.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

15

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.2.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 7.2.1 Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life.

Life on the Arabian peninsula, or Arabia, was shaped by geography. Most of Arabia is a hot, dry desert with scorching temperatures and little water or rainfall. Daily temperatures reach 100° F, and water can be found only in oases, or wet, fertile areas in a desert. Few plants and animals can survive in such a harsh climate. Massive sand dunes can stretch for hundreds of miles, and there are no permanent rivers or lakes. Mountains border the southern and western coasts of the peninsula, and some marshland lies near the Persian Gulf. Arabia is bordered by several major bodies of water. The Red Sea lies to the west. The Arabian Sea and Gulf of Aden lie to the south. The Persian Gulf forms part of the western border. These bodies of water provided sea access to traders and travelers. In spite of the geographic challenges of Arabia, people have lived there for thousands of years. Most of the early settlements in Arabia were located along the coasts.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Which statement does not describe the geography of Arabia? A There is little water or rainfall. B It is mostly a hot, dry desert. C Mountains border the coasts. D Rivers and lakes exist in the north. Most of the early settlements in Arabia were located A along the coasts. B along the rivers. C near the lakes. D on the southern border.

Fertile areas in deserts are called A oases. B trade centers. C dunes. D sand lakes.

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

16

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.2.1

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.2.1 Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life.

The Arabian Peninsula is a crossroads. For thousands of years, traders from many different countries have crossed Arabia while traveling between Africa, Asia, and Europe. The major towns of Arabia began as trading centers along important water and land trade routes. To live in Arabia's difficult climate, people developed two different ways of life. People who settled in the trading centers and at oases became merchants and farmers. Their way of life is known as sedentary because they stay in one place. Other Arabians chose a wandering way of life called nomadic. Nomads usually lived in tents and raised herds of goats, sheep, and camels. These animals provided meat, skins, and milk. Nomads traveled with their herds across the desert in regular patterns as the seasons changed. Among the nomads, tents and camels belonged to individuals, but water and grazing land belonged to tribes. Membership in a tribe, or group of related people, was important. It provided protection and support against outsiders and desert dangers.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

B Some lived a sedentary life in

Which sentence describes a sedentary way of life? A People travel with their herds across the desert. B Tents and camels belong to nomads. C People stay in one place. D People raise goats, sheep, and camels and do not farm. Which statement best summarizes the ways of life of early Arabians? A Some lived a nomadic life in towns, while others wandered in a sedentary lifestyle.

towns, while others wandered as nomads. C Most Arabians worked as merchants or farmers near oases. D To live in Arabia's difficult climate, people developed three different ways of life.

6

5

Among nomads, A meat, animal skins, and milk belonged to merchants. B tents and camels belonged to tribes. C water and grazing land belonged to tribes. D water and grazing land belonged to individuals.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

17

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.2.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 7.2.2 Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity.

Around AD 570, a boy was born in Mecca, a city in western Arabia. His name was Muhammad. As an adult, he began to be troubled by the hard lives of poor people and the way they were treated by the wealthy. Muhammad prayed often for answers to his concerns. One day, when he was about 40, something happened. Muhammad told his wife that an angel had spoken to him. A religion called Islam grew out of these communications. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to receive messages throughout his life. The messages were collected in the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam. Some of Muhammad's teachings upset other Arabs. He taught that there was only one God, Allah. Before, most Arabs had believed in many gods. Muhammad also challenged Mecca's rich and powerful to help the poor by giving them money and considering everyone to be equal. At first, Muhammad did not have many followers. However, his teachings gradually took root among some people in Mecca. But the rulers of Mecca feared Muhammad and his followers, and they forced him to flee. In 622, he went to the city of Medina.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

3

circle the letter of the best response.

1

Which of the following is not one of Muhammad's teachings? A There is only one God, Allah. B The rich should help the poor. C All people are equal. D It is right to worship many gods. Followers of Islam are called A Muslims. B Muhammadans. C Qur'ans. D Protestants.

Muhammad's birthplace was A Medina. B Mecca. C Qur'an. D Morocco.

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

18

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.2.2

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.2.2 Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity.

In Medina, Muhammad gained many followers. He became the city's political leader and put into practice many ideas about Islamic government, society, and worship. Muhammad's journey to Medina is called the hegira. It is so important that Muslims made the year of the hegira the first year of the Islamic calendar. The Muslim community in Medina grew stronger, and other Arabs also began to accept Islam. In 630, Muhammad and his followers captured Mecca, and the city of his birth accepted Islam. Most of Arabia soon did the same. Muhammad died in 632. Muhammad's teachings are similar in some ways to those of Judaism and Christianity. All three religions are monotheistic, or express a belief in one god. Jews, Christians, and Muslims also recognize many of the same prophets, including Abraham and Moses. Muslims believe Jesus was a great prophet, but not the son of God. Muhammad respected Jews and Christians as "people of the Book," because their holy books taught many of the same ideas that Muhammad taught.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

C All three religions are

What is the hegira? A Muhammad's capture of Mecca B Muhammad's journey to Medina from Mecca C Muhammad's respect for Jews and Christians D Muhammad's name for the Islamic calendar. In what way are Islam, Judaism, and Christianity similar? A All three religions believe Jesus was the son of God. B All three religions have the same holy book.

monotheistic. D All three religions worship Moses.

6

5

Which statement about Muhammad is correct? A He hated Christianity and Judaism. B After conquering Mecca, he attacked and defeated Medina. C He died before his native city of Mecca accepted Islam. D He was both a religious and a political leader.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

19

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.2.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 7.2.3 Explain the significance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims' daily life.

Muslims believe that the Qur'an contains the exact words of Allah as told to Muhammad. Among the many messages of the Qur'an, one is the most important: There is only one god, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. The Qur'an also describes what will happen at the end of a person's life. People who have obeyed God will receive a life in paradise. Those who have not, however, will suffer. Like the holy books of other religions, the Qur'an describes how people should worship, offers guidelines for moral behavior, and gives rules for social life. For example, Muslims are not allowed to eat pork or drink alcohol. They must wash themselves before praying so they will be pure before Allah. In addition, the Qur'an describes relations among people. It encourages people to free their slaves. The Qur'an states that women have rights to own property, earn money, and be educated. Another important subject in the Qur'an is jihad, which means "to struggle." It refers to the inner struggle people make to obey God. It can also mean the struggle to defend Muslims and convert people to Islam.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

What is the Qur'an's central teaching? A All people will receive a life in paradise. B People who obey God will receive a life in paradise, while those who do not will suffer. C There is only one god, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. D People should not eat pork.

Which is not contained in the Qur'an? A approval of slavery B guidelines for moral behavior C rules for social life D descriptions of worship

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

20

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.2.3

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.2.3 Explain the significance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims' daily life.

Guidelines for Muslim life are also contained in the Sunnah. The Sunnah is based on Muhammad's words and actions, and it describes the duties and way of life of Muslims. The primary duties of Muslims are known as the Five Pillars of Islam. The first pillar is a statement of faith in Allah. The second pillar is daily prayer. Muslims must pray five times a day. The third pillar is a yearly donation to charity. The fourth pillar is fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. The final pillar is a pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunnah also gives guidelines on living, instructing Muslims to treat guests with generosity and to obey leaders. The Qur'an and the Sunnah are the sources of Shariah, or Islamic law. Shariah judges the rightness of actions that individuals or societies take. It sets rewards for good behavior and punishments for crimes. It was the basis for law in Muslim countries in the past. Today, most Muslim countries have a mixture of Islamic law and legal systems like the one that is used in the United States.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

5

Which statement best describes the Five Pillars of Islam? A They make up the Sunnah. B They are the primary duties of Muslims. C They judge the rightness of actions. D They set rewards for good behavior. Which of the following is not one of the Five Pillars of Islam? A daily prayer B a donation to charity C fasting D Shariah

What sets rewards for good behavior and punishments for crimes? A the Sunnah B Shariah C Ramadan D the Five Pillars of Islam What special obligation do Muslims have during the month of Ramadan? A fasting B obeying Shariah C praying five times a day D making a donation to charity The Sunnah is based on A the exact word of Allah. B the Five Pillars. C Muhammad's words and actions. D Islamic law.

6

4

7

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

21

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.2.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 7.2.4 Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties, emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language.

Following the death of Muhammad in 632, Islam spread quickly. One of the ways the new religion spread was by military conquest. During this early period of expansion, Muslims were ruled by a political leader called a caliph. Muslims first conquered all of Arabia, which became a unified Muslim state. Then they defeated the Persian and Byzantine empires and moved their capital to Damascus, in modern-day Syria. Next to fall were lands in northern Africa, Central Asia, and northern India. Muslim rulers then turned their eyes to Europe. In 711, a Muslim army successfully invaded Spain, but was turned back in France. Muslims generally practiced tolerance in the lands they conquered. They made treaties with non-Muslims. Jews, Christians, and others had to obey certain rules and pay a special tax, but they were not prevented from practicing their religions. However, many conquered people did convert to Islam. Many also adopted the Arabic language. As Arab culture blended with those of conquered states, Islam changed from a mostly Arab religion to one of many different cultures.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which of the following was not conquered by Muslims? A Arabia B France C Spain D Persia

Non-Muslims in conquered territories A were forced to convert to Islam. B were prevented from practicing their religions. C had to obey certain rules and pay a special tax. D had to adopt the Arabic language.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

22

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.2.4

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.2.4 Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties, emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language.

As more and more people adopted Islam, several Muslim empires developed. These empires spread their religion to the lands they conquered, although some practiced religious tolerance. Muslim culture also blended with local ones, creating rich new cultures. One of these empires was the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans were Turks. In the 1200s, the powerful Ottoman army seized land from the weakened Byzantine Empire. In 1453, the Ottomans captured the Byzantine capital Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. It remained the capital of the Ottoman sultan, or ruler, until the twentieth century. At its height, the Ottomans controlled much of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Another important Muslim empire was the Safavid, based in Persia. The Safavids, ruled by their shah, were especially active in trade. They also built beautiful mosques, or places of prayer. East of the Safavids, a third Muslim empire ruled. This was the Mughal Empire of India, which began in the 1500s. This empire was known for its blending of Muslim, Hindu, and Persian cultures. One of the world's most famous buildings, the Taj Mahal, was built by a Mughal emperor.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

5

Which of the following is not true about the great Muslim empires? A They outlawed other religions. B They spread their religion to the lands they conquered. C They blended with local peoples. D They created rich cultures. Which empire was known for its blending of Muslim, Hindu, and Persian cultures? A Safavid B Ottoman C Turkish D Mughal

23

6

4

Which statement is true about all of the empires discussed on this page? A These empires spread their religion to the lands they ruled. B These empires were known for their blending of Muslim, Hindu, and Persian cultures. C Each one controlled much of Europe, Asia, and Africa. D Each was ruled by a shah. The Ottoman ruler was called the A caliph. B sultan. C shah. D mahal.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.2.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 7.2.5 Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes among Asia, Africa, and Europe, the products and inventions that traveled along these routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, steel, new crops), and the role of merchants in Arab society.

Another way that Islam spread was through trade. Arabia's crossroads location meant that many merchants passed through. Major trade routes connected Arabia and other Muslim lands in Southwest Asia with Italy, France, and Spain in Europe; China, India, and the East Indies; Central Asia; and the east coast of Africa. Arab traders even crossed the Sahara Desert to trade with African kingdoms. Among the goods traded were African products such as ivory, spices, and slaves, Indian cloth, Chinese pottery, and European iron. Along with these trade goods, Muslim merchants carried the ideas of Islam. This active trade brought changes to Arabia and other Muslim states. From the Chinese, Arabs learned to make paper and gunpowder. New crops such as oranges, cotton, and rice arrived from the East. Many merchants grew rich from their trading activities. Arab and Muslim influence also increased in the foreign lands where they traded. In Africa, for example, Muslim customs grew alongside African ones. The Arabic language also influenced local languages.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Which factor encouraged the growth of Muslim trade? A the increased wealth of merchants B the use of paper and gunpowder C Arabia's crossroads location D the arrival of new crops Which country was not a major trading partner for Arab merchants? A India B China C Italy D England

24

What was one result of Arab trading? A Islam spread to new lands. B Islam spread to Arabia. C Europeans learned to make iron. D Chinese learned to make paper.

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.2.5

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.2.5 Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes among Asia, Africa, and Europe, the products and inventions that traveled along these routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, steel, new crops), and the role of merchants in Arab society.

The growth of Islam, along with increasing trade activities, led to the development of great cities. Like much of the Muslim world, these cities also reflected a blending of cultures. The early centers of Islam, Mecca and Medina, were soon surpassed by others. In 762, Baghdad replaced Damascus as the capital of the Islamic Empire. Baghdad was located near both land and water trade routes, and farming contributed to its economy. Here, the caliph had his court in a gigantic palace. Baghdad quickly became one of the world's richest cities. It was a center of science and the arts, with libraries, a hospital, an observatory, and many artists' workshops. Another great Muslim city was Córdoba in southern Spain. It became the capital of Muslim Spain in 756. Like Baghdad, it had a strong economy based on farming and trade. It produced and exported cloth and jewelry. By the 900s, Córdoba was Europe's largest and most advanced city, with both public water and lighting systems. Córdoba's great university attracted students from all over the Muslim world and Europe. Thanks to Muslim tolerance, Córdoba was also a center of Jewish learning. Many Jews held key government jobs.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

C Córdoba became the capital of

Which city became the Muslim capital in 762? A Córdoba B Baghdad C Damascus D Mecca What was one result of Muslim tolerance? A Córdoba became a center of Jewish learning. B Baghdad was located near both land and water trade routes.

Muslim Spain. D Mecca and Medina were early centers of Islam.

6

5

Which of the following statements describes something Baghdad and Córdoba had in common? A Both were in Spain. B Both were centers of Jewish culture and learning. C Both had strong economies based on farming and trade. D Both had universities that attracted students from all over the Muslim world and Europe.

California Standards Review Workbook

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

25

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.2.6

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 7.2.6 Understand the intellectual exchanges among Muslim scholars of Eurasia and Africa and the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature.

Muslims made great cultural achievements in both science and the arts. Muslim scholars translated Greek and Roman scientific writings. This work preserved important ideas for later generations. Although Muslim scholars and scientists lived in different regions, they all spoke Arabic. Using their common language helped them share what they learned. Scientists made contributions in many different fields. In astronomy, Muslim scientists used an instrument called an astrolabe to determine time, direction, and location on the earth and to chart star movements. Muslim explorers and geographers traveled widely. The best known explorer, Ibn Battutah, traveled to Africa, India, China, and Spain. To help travelers, geographers created improved maps. Muslims also made important contributions in mathematics. They combined the Indian number system, including the use of the zero, with Greek ideas. The result was a new kind of math Muslims called al-jabr, or algebra. Perhaps the most important contributions of Muslim scientists were in medicine. Muslim doctors wrote descriptions of diseases and drugs, made medicines, and built advanced hospitals.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which was not a contribution of Muslim scientists? A developing algebra B translating Greek and Latin texts C creating improved maps D showing that the earth is round

Why was a common language important to Muslim scientists? A They could keep others from stealing their ideas. B They could share what they learned. C They could spread Islam. D They could travel widely.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

26

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.2.6

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.2.6 Understand the intellectual exchanges among Muslim scholars of Eurasia and Africa and the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature.

The blending of traditional Islam and the cultures of conquered peoples produced fresh approaches to philosophy, literature, art, and architecture. In philosophy, some Muslims focused on spiritual issues. An influential movement called Sufism stated that people could have a personal relationship with God. Muslim writers produced poetry and stories. An important poet was the Sufi Omar Khayyám, who wrote about faith, hope, and other emotions. A famous collection of stories, The Thousand and One Nights, includes stories about legendary heroes like Sinbad the Sailor, Ali Baba, and Aladdin. The portrayal in art of animals and people is forbidden in Islam, so Muslim artists concentrated on calligraphy, or decorative writing. They used calligraphy of verses from the Qur'an to decorate mosques, books, carpets, sword blades, and other objects. To many, the most outstanding Muslim artistic achievement is in architecture. Magnificent mosques in Mecca, Baghdad, Córdoba, and other cities honored God and inspired believers. Richly decorated, mosques have huge halls where worshippers gather. Many also have beautiful domes and slender prayer towers, or minarets.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

What is a key belief of Sufism? A People can have a personal relationship with God. B The portrayal of people is forbidden in Islam. C Mosques must have prayer towers, or minarets. D Faith and hope are the most important emotions. What was a result of the blending of traditional Islam and the cultures of conquered peoples?

27

A It led to the banning of Sufism. B It led to worship in minarets. C It forced Muslims to focus on

spiritual issues. D It produced fresh approaches to philosophy, literature, and art.

5

4

Why did Muslim artists concentrate on calligraphy? A The portrayal of animals and people is forbidden in Sufism. B The portrayal of animals and people is forbidden in Islam. C They wanted to decorate mosques. D They enjoyed poetry and stories.

California Standards Review Workbook

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.3.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 7.3.1 Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan.

Following the collapse of its ruling Han dynasty in AD 220, China underwent a period of social unrest, the Period of Disunion. Northern and southern China broke apart. Not until the end of the 500s did strong rulers regain power. Starting in 618 a series of effective rulers called the Tang dynasty helped China reach a golden age. Ruling until 907, Tang rulers expanded China's borders to include Vietnam and parts of Central Asia, and its influence extended beyond its borders. The Tang period was also one of important advances in literature and the arts. Another key development of this time in China was the spread of Buddhism. Buddhism originated in India about 500 BC. It taught that people could escape suffering in this life through a cycle of rebirth. During the social unrest of the Period of Disunion, many Chinese sought comfort in the new religion. By 600, Buddhism was well established in China. Buddhist temples flourished, and Buddhist ideas influenced art, literature, and architecture. During the Tang dynasty, missionaries carried Buddhism to Japan, Korea, and other regions.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which did not occur during the Tang dynasty? A China underwent a period of disunion and social unrest. B China's borders expanded to include Vietnam and parts of Central Asia. C Buddhist temples flourished. D Missionaries carried Buddhism to Japan, Korea, and other regions.

Why did Buddhism spread quickly in China during the Period of Disunion? A Tang rulers forced people to become Buddhists. B Korea and Japan influenced Buddhist art and literature. C Many Chinese sought to escape suffering and find comfort in the new religion. D The Han dynasty made Buddhism the official religion.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

28

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.3.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 7.3.2 Describe the agricultural, technological, and commercial developments during the Tang and Song periods.

The Tang dynasty was a period of economic, commercial, and technological progress in China. So was the following Song dynasty. In agriculture, new irrigation methods helped Chinese farmers grow more and different products. These included better kinds of rice, cotton, and tea. With more food available, China's population began to grow. Cities also grew as businesses expanded to buy and sell agricultural products. Trade with foreign countries also expanded. Chinese silk, porcelain pottery, spices, jade, and other items were highly desirable. Many important new inventions were developed during this time. Woodblock printing allowed Chinese to print books. The world's oldest printed book is Chinese and dates from AD 868. Tang scientists also invented gunpowder, which at first was used only for fireworks. Eventually it came to be used in weapons, with earth-shattering results. The magnetic compass, invented at this time, allowed Tang Chinese sailors to find their direction. In the later Song period, inventors used movable type to print books for the first time. They also came up with the idea for paper money.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

What is a reason cities grew during the Tang and Song periods? A The magnetic compass was invented. B Businesses expanded to buy and sell agricultural products. C Trade with foreign countries decreased. D Farmers needed more land for crops.

Which of the following was not a Chinese invention of the Tang and Song periods? A gunpowder B woodblock printing C the magnetic compass D crop irrigation

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

29

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.3.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 7.3.3 Analyze the influences of Confucianism and changes in Confucian thought during the Song and Mongol periods.

Confucianism is the name given to the ideas of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Even though he lived more than 1,000 years before the Song dynasty, his ideas had important effects on the Song government. Confucius's ideas were not religious. He focused on ethics, or proper behavior, of individuals and governments. He wrote that people should show concern for others and that they should follow appropriate customs and behavior. If everyone played his or her proper role, society would function smoothly. After falling out of favor, Confucianism became influential again during the Song dynasty. Neo-, or new, Confucianism, became the dynasty's official policy. In addition to teaching proper behavior, Neo-Confucianism also had a spiritual element. Neo-Confucian scholars asked what human nature was like, and what principles made up the universe. Confucius's ideas became so important in Song China that government officials were tested on his philosophy.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Confucius A was an important Song official. B gave tests on his philosophy. C wrote about religious ideas. D lived more than 1,000 years before the Song dynasty. Confucius's ideas were about A religion. B proper behavior. C what human nature was like. D what principles made up the universe.

2

How was Neo-Confucianism different from Confucianism? A It was developed after the Song dynasty. B It stated that people should follow appropriate customs. C It also focused on spiritual questions. D It was not religious.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

30

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.3.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 7.3.4 Understand the importance of both overland trade and maritime expeditions between China and other civilizations in the Mongol Ascendancy and Ming Dynasty.

Late in the Song dynasty, foreign attacks on China increased. In 1211 the Mongols, a tribe from north of China, invaded. They were led by a fierce warrior, Genghis Khan, under whom the Mongols soon gained control of all of northern China. In 1260 Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan, became emperor of all China. For the first time China was ruled by foreigners. During the Mongols' rule, both overland trade and seafaring became more important. One Italian traveler, Marco Polo, wrote a book about his visits to China. This book caused a sensation in Europe. The Mongols tried to mount a sea invasion of Japan, but it failed. After the overthrow of the Mongols in 1368, sea voyages took on a more peaceful character. China's new leaders, called the Ming, improved ships and sailing skills. The greatest Chinese explorer of this period was Zheng He. Between 1405 and 1433 he led seven great expeditions. He even reached the Persian Gulf and the east coast of Africa. Zheng He's voyages helped make China better known in other parts of the world.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Who was Genghis Khan? A a great Mongol warrior and conqueror of northern China B a great Mongol warrior and conqueror of all of China C grandson of Kublai Khan D leader of the Ming dynasty Marco Polo wrote a book about A the voyages of Zheng He. B his visits to China. C the battles of Genghis Khan. D the beginnings of the Ming dynasty.

What did Zheng He not do? A lead seven great expeditions B visit the east coast of Africa C help make China better known in other parts of the world D bring Marco Polo to China

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

31

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.3.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 7.3.5 Trace the historic influence of such discoveries as tea, the manufacture of paper, wood-block printing, the compass, and gunpowder.

In the Middle Ages, the Chinese were responsible for several inventions and developments in trade. In agriculture, tea, which China had grown for centuries, became more important as a trade good. Chinese farmers learned to grow cotton efficiently. Workers then developed ways to process the fiber and make clothing and other goods. A new fast-growing type of rice allowed farmers to grow several crops a year. Another important development was the manufacture of paper, used for books, money, and other items. A Chinese invention, paper soared in importance with the development of woodblock printing. This process allowed printers to carve whole book pages into wood and then print them. The Chinese invention of gunpowder made possible much more powerful weapons and changed human history forever. The magnetic compass uses the earth's magnetic field to indicate direction. Using it, navigators and travelers could determine their direction much more accurately than before. Without the compass, it is difficult to imagine the important voyages of discovery of the 1400s.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which of the following was a Chinese discovery? A tea B navigation C writing D the magnetic compass

Which statement best describes woodblock printing? A Blocks containing individual letters are glued to a block, then printed. B Book pages are carved into metal strips and then printed on paper. C Book pages are carved into wood and then printed on paper. D Printers press blocks of wood with letters printed on them against paper.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

32

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.3.6

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 7.3.6 Describe the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class.

The Song period brought technological, commercial, and agricultural change to China. It was also a time of major changes in Chinese government. These changes centered on who would work for the government and how these workers got their jobs. The Song rulers reorganized the large body of unelected government officials, or bureaucracy, who served the empire. People joined this bureaucracy by studying for and passing civil service examinations. Civil service means service as a government official. The written civil service examinations tested people's knowledge of Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism. It took years to prepare for these tests, and only 1 in 20 students passed them. Those who passed the tests became scholar-officials, or educated members of the government. Song scholar-officials enjoyed a high standard of living and much respect in society. The examination system tried to ensure that the smartest, most talented people became scholarofficials. Capable officials created stability in the Song government.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

The civil service examinations tested knowledge of A the bureaucracy. B Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism. C the Song government. D written Chinese. A bureaucracy is A people who supervise a test. B everyone who served the empire. C a body of elected government officials. D a body of unelected government officials.

33

What was a result of the civil service examination system? A Song government was stable. B Confucianism became the official policy. C Everyone who took them passed the tests. D Unqualified people became scholar-officials.

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.4.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. 7.4.1 Study the Niger River and the relationship of vegetation zones of forest, savannah, and desert to trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves; and the growth of the Ghana and Mali empires.

The Niger is the most important river in West Africa. Because the Niger was such a good source of water and food and an easy means of transportation, many people lived near it. There are four different regions in the area of the Niger. The amount of rainfall in each region influences what plants can exist there. To the north is the extremely dry edge of the Sahara. Next comes the Sahel, which receives more rain than the desert, but is still dry. Then comes the savannah, where animals can graze on grasses and shrubs. To the south is the very wet rain forest, with many plants and animals. Climate also affected which products early Africans traded. For example, salt from the desert, gold from the southern forests, and even human slaves were important trade goods. Two important empires grew up in West Africa. Ghana was the first. Ghana gained control of the highly valuable gold and salt trade. By 800 nearly all trade passed through Ghana, and every trader paid a tax to Ghana's rulers. Ghana's empire reached its peak in the mid-1000s, but then it began to decline. Invasions, internal rebellions, and other problems spelled its end. In its place, a new empire, Mali, took control of the Niger region and grew rich from trade. Under its great leader Mansa Musa, Mali became a Muslim empire. However, later, weaker leaders, invaders, and other problems destroyed Mali by 1500.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

In which West African region can animals graze on grasses? A Sahara B Sahel C savannah D rain forest

What did the empires of Ghana and Mali not have in common? A Both controlled the Niger region. B Both grew rich from trade. C Both suffered from invasions. D Both were Muslim empires.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

34

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.4.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. 7.4.2 Analyze the importance of family, labor specialization, and regional commerce in the development of states and cities in West Africa.

At the heart of West African village life was the extended family. It included father, mother, children, and their relatives in one household. West Africans highly valued loyalty to the extended family. Each member of the family had a job. Men hunted and farmed. Women also farmed, collected firewood, carried water, and cared for children. Old people taught the young family traditions. Children began working with adults as soon as they could. As West Africans grew more food, they began to trade it for items from far away. Traders, organized into trade caravans, braved the harsh Sahara on camels. It could take two months to cross the desert. Caravans took salt from the Sahara south to trade for gold. In return, they brought gold north to Europe and the Islamic world. Places where traders often met soon grew into towns. The great West African city Timbuktu, a center of culture and learning, began as a trading camp around 100.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

What was the role of older people in early West African families? A teach young people about family traditions B carry water C hunt and farm D collect firewood

How did trade affect the development of towns? A Towns grew up around salt mines. B Towns grew were gold was mined. C Places where Islamic missionaries camped grew into towns. D Places where traders met grew into towns.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

35

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.4.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. 7.4.3 Describe the role of the trans-Saharan caravan trade in the changing religious and cultural characteristics of West Africa and the influence of Islamic beliefs, ethics, and law.

Trade across the Sahara brought prosperity to Mali. It also brought something else that would be a huge influence on West Africa--the religion of Islam. Mansa Musa, one of Mali's greatest kings, became a Muslim. In 1324 Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Accompanied by 60,000 men, he made the empire of Mali famous in the Muslim world. On his return, Mansa Musa vowed to spread Islam throughout West Africa. When Mali's empire broke apart, another took its place. Like Mansa Musa, Sunni Ali, the first leader of Songhai, was Muslim. A later ruler called Askia the Great made Songhai an important center for trans-Saharan trade. The trade contacts with the Muslim world helped bring Islamic doctors, scientists, and other scholars to Songhai's great cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djenné. In the 1500s, however, Songhai also began to weaken. The Moroccans, an Arab people from the north, were able to invade and destroy Songhai. They had the advantage of a deadly new weapon--an early type of gun. The destruction of Songhai signaled the end of the great West African empires.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

What was a result of Mansa Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca? A Mali became famous in the Muslim world. B Mansa Musa became a Muslim. C Mansa Musa became a Christian. D Mansa Musa became friends with Askia the Great.

Which choice best describes what happened after Mali broke apart? A Moroccans invaded and destroyed the empire. B Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. C The empire of Songhai replaced it. D The religion of Islam was introduced to West Africa.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

36

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.4.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. 7.4.4 Trace the growth of the Arabic language in government, trade, and Islamic scholarship in West Africa.

Beginning with Mali's ruler Mansa Musa in the 1300s, the empires of West Africa became more strongly influenced by Islam. Because of Islam's growing influence, the use of Arabic, the language of the Qur'an, also grew. Mansa Musa wanted his subjects to be able to read the Qur'an. Therefore, he stressed the importance of learning how to read and write in Arabic. Mansa Musa also ordered that schools and mosques be built to teach about Islam. Many teachers and architects came from other Muslim countries. As time passed, Arabic also became the main language for government and trade. Many of the traders who crossed the Sahara spoke Arabic. Having this common language helped encourage trade and increase Mali's wealth. A common language also made it possible for visitors to learn about Mali and record their impressions of the empire. Arab visitors, including Ibn Battutah, the famous explorer, wrote in Arabic about Mali.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Why did Mansa Musa encourage the teaching of Arabic? A He needed people to translate the Qur'an. B He wanted people to be able to read the Qur'an. C He wanted to attract scholars to Mali. D He wanted to build schools and mosques.

Which was not a result of the spread of the Arabic language in West Africa? A Visitors wrote in Arabic about Mali. B It helped encourage trade. C Mali's wealth increased. D The Qur'an was translated into Arabic. Which of the following did not speak Arabic? A many Muslims B Ibn Battutah C people of Ghana D Saharan traders

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

37

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.4.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. 7.4.5 Describe the importance of written and oral traditions in the transmission of African history and culture.

Cities like Timbuktu and Djenné were known for their universities and libraries. Government officials and religious leaders could read and write Arabic, but writing was never very common in the West African empires. Visitors did write accounts of their visits to West Africa. Most common people, however, passed along information through oral histories, or spoken records of the past. The responsibility of remembering the past and the deeds of ancestors fell to griots, or storytellers. The stories of the griots were both entertaining and informative. They told about great kings of the past, important events and battles, and the rise and fall of empires. Many such stories were told in epic poems. For example, the Dausi tells the history of Ghana, while the Sundiata is about the history of Mali. Sundiata is the legendary founder of the great empire. They also shared proverbs, short sayings of wisdom.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

C They were responsible for

Who depended most on oral histories? A government officials B common people C religious leaders D visitors Which statement best summarizes why griots were important in West African societies? A They told about great kings of the past. B They wrote accounts of their visits to West Africa.

remembering the past and the deeds of ancestors. D They taught at the universities and worked in the libraries.

3

2

The Dausi and the Sundiata are A epic poems. B religious books. C Arabic accounts. D descriptions by visitors of life in Mali.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

38

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.5.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan. 7.5.1 Describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the intellectual, linguistic, religious, and philosophical influence of those countries on Japan.

Japan is a large group of islands east of the Asian mainland. Being an island nation has shaped Japan from its beginnings. Because they lived on islands, the Japanese were separated from the other people of Asia. This separation allowed the Japanese to develop their own culture. However, two nearby countries with older cultures did influence the newer culture of Japan. Those countries were China and Korea. Starting in the AD 500s, some Japanese leaders decided that they could learn from other cultures, especially China and Korea. The Japanese sent representatives to these countries to learn new ways of working and thinking. One of the first things the Japanese learned from China was a system of writing. They learned to use Chinese characters to represent the sounds used in the Japanese language. The Chinese also taught the Japanese about Confucianism and how it had made the Chinese government more effective. From their Korean neighbors, the Japanese learned the religion of Buddhism.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

What was a result of Japan being an island nation? A The Japanese were able to develop their own culture. B They were invaded by Korea. C They were invaded by China. D The Japanese were separated from other Africans. What did Japan learn from China? A Korean language B spoken language C sign language D written language

What did Japan learn from Korea? A written language B Confucianism C Buddhism D spoken language

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

39

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.5.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan. 7.5.2 Discuss the reign of Prince Shotoku of Japan and the characteristics of Japanese society and family life during his reign.

One of the people most influential in bringing Chinese ideas to Japan was Prince Shotoku. From 593 to 622, he served as regent for his aunt, the empress. A regent rules a country for someone who is unable to rule alone. The prince admired Chinese culture and sent scholars to learn all they could about Chinese society. The ideas that the scholars brought back from China changed Japanese society. From China, Prince Shotoku learned about Confucianism. Confucius taught that fathers should rule their families and that children should obey their parents. Chinese families followed these guidelines, and soon, so did many Japanese families. An even more important change Prince Shotoku made concerned religion. He was a Buddhist and worked to make Buddhism more widespread in Japan. Although many Japanese still believed in Shintoism, the traditional Japanese religion, Shotoku was able make Buddhism very popular. Finally, the prince wanted to change Japan's government to be more like China's. He especially wanted the Japanese emperor to have as much power as the Chinese emperor. In this attempt, however, Prince Shotoku failed.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

How did Prince Shotoku learn about Chinese society and culture? A He himself spent many years in China. B He sent scholars to China. C He studied with Confucius. D He studied Shintoism.

Which of Prince Shotoku's plans did not succeed? A to make the Japanese emperor more powerful B to make Buddhism more widespread C to increase the number of people who practiced Shintoism D to learn about Confucianism

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

40

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.5.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan. 7.5.3 Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting influence of the warrior code in the twentieth century.

During the 1100s, most of Japan was gripped by civil unrest. Powerful nobles fought each other. Land was destroyed, farming was disrupted, and bandits roamed the countryside. The emperor was too weak to stop the disorder. Wealthy landowners called daimyo realized that they had to protect their own lands by themselves. They hired trained, professional warriors known as samurai. Samurai served their daimyos in return for land or food. Samurai followed a strict code of behavior called Bushido. This code called for bravery, loyalty to the lords, and very strict discipline. Even today, these ideas are highly valued in Japanese society. In the 1150s two powerful families went to war, battling for control of Japan. They fought for 30 years until a family called Minamoto won. The leader of the Minamoto family seized power and became the military ruler, or shogun, of the country. The emperor remained a mere figurehead without power. For the next seven centuries, shoguns ruled Japan.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Daimyo were A trained professional warriors. B military rulers. C figureheads. D wealthy landowners. Which statement is not true about the code of bushido? A It was followed by samurai. B It was created by the emperor. C It is honored in Japanese society today. D It calls for very strict discipline.

Which term means a military ruler? A daimyo B bushido C shogun D samurai

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

41

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.5.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan. 7.5.4 Trace the development of distinctive forms of Japanese Buddhism.

From the 800s to the 1100s, Japan experienced a golden age of art and literature. During this period, known as the Heian period, religion also went through a change. While traditional religion still appealed to many, others turned to Buddhism. Several new forms of this religion developed during the Heian period. One form of Buddhism was very popular with Japan's common people. It was called Pure Land Buddhism. Unlike Shintoism, it did not require any special rituals, or religious ceremonies. Instead, Pure Land Buddhists chanted the Buddha's name over and over. In the 1100s, another form of Buddhism arrived from China. It was called Zen. Zen Buddhists believed that neither faith nor good behavior led to wisdom. Instead, people seeking wisdom needed to practice self-discipline and meditation, or quiet, focused thinking. Zen and its approach to wisdom appealed to many Japanese, especially samurai warriors. As the samurai gained greater influence in Japan, so did Zen Buddhism.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

During the Heian period, A traditional religion disappeared. B new forms of Buddhism developed. C Pure Land Buddhism was outlawed. D Pure Land Buddhists learned many special rituals.

3

Which statement about Zen Buddhism is true? A People seeking wisdom should practice self-discipline. B People seeking wisdom should practice good behavior. C People seeking wisdom should chant the Buddha's name. D People seeking wisdom should learn special rituals. Zen became popular among A Pure Land Buddhists. B common people. C the Chinese. D samurai.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

42

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.5.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan. 7.5.5 Study the ninth and tenth centuries' golden age of literature, art, and drama and its lasting effects on culture today, including Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji.

In 794 the imperial court of Japan moved to the city of Heian, now called Kyoto. Heian quickly grew into a great center of culture and learning. The nobles at the court loved writing poetry and prose. While men usually wrote in Chinese, court women wrote in Japanese. Probably the greatest writer in early Japanese history was Lady Murasaki Shikibu. Around 1000, she wrote The Tale of Genji. This story describes a prince and his search for love at the court. Many historians consider it the world's first novel. The period also saw the creation of distinctive visual art forms in painting, calligraphy, and architecture. Paintings often told stories, illustrated scenes from Japanese books, or pictured nature. The architecture of Heian was modeled on Chinese building styles, especially its temples. Unpainted wood and thatched roofs gave a natural feeling to buildings, and many buildings had elegant gardens and ponds, a feature still seen today. A final art form beloved by the court was drama. Audiences enjoyed musicians, acrobats, and jugglers. These performances later formed the basis for a special Japanese form of drama called Noh.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which Japanese art was modeled on Chinese styles? A architecture B drama C novels D prose

Which statement about the arts at the Heian court is accurate? A Chinese artists taught the Japanese about various art forms. B The first art form created in the Heian period was Noh drama. C The court at Heian was a great cultural center, where literature, art, and drama flourished. D Lady Murasaki Shikibu wrote a series of poems about a princess named Genji.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

43

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.5.6

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan. 7.5.6 Analyze the rise of a military society in the late twelfth century and the role of the samurai in that society.

While nobles were enjoying a golden age of art and culture at the court of Heian, the rest of Japan was descending into chaos. Japan's rulers were so focused on the pleasures of courtly life that they did nothing to improve the life of common people. By the late 1100s, a new force arose to take control. This group was the daimyo, or large landowners. They hired samurai, or professional warriors, to defend them and their property. Most samurai were from noble families and inherited their positions from their fathers. Many samurai also became landowners, and peasants worked the land while samurai fought for their lords. A powerful daimyo became shogun, or military ruler of the country, at the end of the twelfth century. As a result, samurai became even more influential in the government of Japan. They enjoyed many privileges, but they also had many responsibilities. They had to be loyal to their daimyo. Most importantly, however, samurai had to obey every command of their lord, even if it caused severe hardship. A samurai's honor was his most important possession. If he lost his honor in any way, a shamed samurai was expected to commit suicide.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which statement accurately describes the relationship of a samurai to a daimyo? A Daimyo hired samurai to defend them and their property. B Samurai hired daimyo to defend them and their property. C Daimyo paid samurai in slaves. D Daimyo had to obey every command of their samurai lord.

A samurai's most important possession was A his daimyo. B his sword. C his honor. D his land.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

44

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.1 Study the geography of the Europe and the Eurasian land mass, including its location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate and their relationship to ways of life in Medieval Europe.

The continent we call Europe is actually part of Eurasia, a large landmass that includes both Europe and Asia. The Ural Mountains in Russia divide the two continents. Although Europe is relatively small, its geography is very diverse. It contains many different landforms, water features, and climates. As a result, different ways of life have developed there. Europe's topography, the shape and elevation of its land, varies widely. Mountain ranges cover much of southern Europe. North of Europe's highest mountains, the Alps, the land is much flatter. This region, the Northern European Plain, has fertile soils and many important rivers. Mountains also dominate the far north. Another aspect of Europe's topography is its many peninsulas, which give the continent a long, jagged coastline. Not surprisingly, Europe's climates vary greatly from place to place. While the South is mostly warm, dry, and sunny, northwestern Europe is cooler and wetter. In far northern Europe, the climate is very cold. The types of plants, trees, and shrubs that grow in each region are determined by its climate and topography.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

What geographic feature divides Europe from Asia? A the Alps B the Northern European Plain C the Eurasian Peninsula D the Ural Mountains

Which statement about Europe's geography is true? A Europe's climates do not vary greatly from place to place. B Mountain ranges cover much of southern Europe. C In northern Europe, the climate is very warm. D The Northern European Plain has fertile soils but few important rivers.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

45

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.1

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.1 Study the geography of the Europe and the Eurasian land mass, including its location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate and their relationship to ways of life in Medieval Europe.

As in other parts of the world, geography has influenced where and how people in Europe lived. In mostly mountainous southern Europe, people settled on coastal plains or in river valleys. Here the land was flat enough to farm. The people often raised crops like grapes or olives that could withstand the region's dry summers. In steep mountain regions, people raised sheep and goats. Southern Europe also has many peninsulas. As a result, most people do not live far from the sea, and because of this, many southern Europeans became traders and sailors. Life was different for those living in the different geography of northern Europe. Most people lived farther from the sea. Therefore, many settled in towns that grew up along the many rivers. For city dwellers, river transportation made it easy to reach the sea. In the open fields around cities, farmers grew a variety of crops on the fertile soils. The flat land made transportation easier, but it also had a major drawback. No mountains prevented attackers from invading, and northern Europe was frequently invaded.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

5

In southern Europe, A few cities are located on rivers. B people lived far from the sea. C most people did not live far from the sea. D flat lands were often invaded. In northern Europe, A farmers grew a variety of crops on the fertile soils. B most people do not live far from the sea. C people settled on coastal plains. D farmers raised crops that could withstand the dry summers.

6

Which statement best describes the effect of flat lands in northern Europe? A It had many advantages. B It had many drawbacks. C It was both an advantage and a drawback. D It had little effect on people. Why did people in Europe develop different ways of life? A No mountains prevented attackers from invading. B Flat land was a major drawback. C Southern Europe has many peninsulas. D Geography influenced how people lived and worked.

California Standards Review Workbook

4

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

46

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.2 Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire.

After the fall of Rome, Europe was a dangerous place. Without the Roman Empire, Europe had no central authority to keep order. As Roman power faded away, groups from the north and east moved into former Roman lands. The rulers of these groups called themselves kings. By the early 500s, Europe was divided into many small kingdoms. The creation of these kingdoms marks the beginning of the Middle Ages, or medieval period. Most of these kings and their kingdoms were not Christian. Christianity was common only in places, such as Italy and Spain, that had been firmly part of the Roman Empire. Over time, however, Christianity spread north. One way Christianity spread north was through the work of missionaries sent by the pope. Missionaries are people who work to convert people to their religion. Some of the first missionaries went to Britain, as well as to France and Germany. One of the most famous missionaries was Saint Patrick. He traveled to Ireland in the mid-400s and, after many setbacks, eventually converted the Irish people to Christianity.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

Which statement about the early medieval kingdoms is true? A Most people in them spoke Latin. B Most of the kings were Christian. C Most of the kings were not Christian. D Most kings were appointed by the pope.

Which statement about the early missionaries is true? A They went to Britain, as well as to France, Germany, and Ireland. B They were all born in Ireland, France, Germany, and Britain. C The early Christian missionaries worked their way south from Britain toward Rome. D Most were not Christians.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

47

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.2

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.2 Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire.

Missionaries traveled to spread Christian teachings. Another type of men, monks, lived in religious communities apart from society. Monks spent their time in prayer, work, and meditation. Their communities were called monasteries, and life there followed strict rules. Most monasteries followed rules that were created in the 500s by an Italian monk called Saint Benedict. These rules described how a monk should dress, what he should eat, and how his day should be organized. Even though they lived apart from society, monks played a major role in medieval Europe. They performed many services, such as providing health care, running schools, copying books, collecting and saving ancient writings, and even advising local rulers. Monks also helped spread Christian teachings into new areas. Many monasteries were in remote areas where Christians had never traveled before. Local people learned about Christianity from the monks living in monasteries.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

5

What is a difference between monks and missionaries? A Monks traveled, while missionaries stayed in one place. B Missionaries traveled, while monks stayed in one place. C Monks were Christians, while missionaries were not. D Missionaries were Italians, while monks were not. All of the following are services monks performed except A serving in armies. B advising local rulers. C running schools. D providing health care.

Saint Benedict is best known for A creating rules followed by most missionaries. B gaining control of much of the former Roman Empire. C taking Christian teachings to Ireland. D creating rules followed by most monasteries. What was a result of monasteries being located in remote areas? A Saint Benedict became famous. B People in remote parts of Europe practiced meditation. C People who had not heard of Christianity were able to learn about it. D The Irish were converted to Christianity.

California Standards Review Workbook

6

4

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

48

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.3 Understand the development of feudalism, its role in the medieval European economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided the foundation of political order.

Life in Europe during the Middle Ages was a web of relationships based on duties and responsibilities. This system developed in response to attacks from outsiders. Local nobles found they could not depend on kings to help protect them so they had to defend their own lands. To do this they established relationships with mounted soldiers called knights. Nobles gave plots of land called fiefs to knights. In return, the knights promised to support the noble in battle and other matters. The noble was called a lord. The knight was his vassal. Feudalism was the name of this network of duties and responsibilities between lords and vassals. Medieval society had many layers. At the top were kings and queens. Nobles were their vassals. Then came knights, who served their lords, the nobles. At the bottom were the peasants, who owned no land and had few rights. People had responsibilities to those below them and duties to those above them. This network was the foundation for a new kind of social and political order that replaced the Roman Empire.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Why did feudalism develop? A Kings needed vassals throughout their kingdoms. B Local nobles needed to protect themselves from attacks. C Peasants needed their own land. D Knights needed money to buy horses and weapons.

Feudalism was A a system of duties. B a system of responsibilities. C a network of duties and responsibilities. D a network of fiefs and wealthy landowners. A person who served a lord was a A king. B noble. C fief. D vassal.

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

49

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.3

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.3 Understand the development of feudalism, its role in the medieval European economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided the foundation of political order.

Closely related to the feudal system was an economic arrangement based on the manor. A manor was a large farming estate owned by a knight or lord. A manor usually included a house or castle, pastures, fields, forests, and a village. Because the knight was often away fighting, peasants farmed the land. As rent, peasants had to give the knight food or other payment. Serfs were peasants who, while not slaves, could not leave the manor without permission. On the manor, the lord was absolute ruler. He settled disputes, collected taxes, and punished lawbreakers. In the Middle Ages, most people lived on manors or on small farms. About 1000, however, this changed. As more food was grown, the population increased. Villages began to grow into towns. Many people moved from manors into towns. These towns and cities also grew because of increased trade. Busy markets were established. Over time, the growth of towns and the jobs they provided weakened feudalism and the manor system.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

C Peasants had to give the knight

A manor included all of the following except A a large house or castle. B a village. C a town or city. D pastures. Which statement about the manor system is not correct? A Serfs could not leave the manor without permission. B A manor was a large estate owned by a knight.

food. D On the manor, the king was absolute ruler.

6

5

As more food was grown, A the manor system was strengthened. B the population increased, and many people moved into towns. C feudalism became even more widespread. D the lord of the manor was able to collect more taxes.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

50

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.4 Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor Henry IV).

In the early Middle Ages local nobles and their knights had great power. Over time, however, power shifted to two different kinds of leaders-- kings and popes. Kings had political power, while popes had religious power. The relationship between these two kinds of leaders strongly influenced European society and politics during the Middle Ages. The pope was the head of the Christian Church. It was his responsibility to decide what the church would teach. The pope could also excommunicate, or cast out from the church, serious offenders. Christians believed that an excommunicated person could not go to heaven. But the pope had to deal with other church leaders. Christians in eastern Europe came gradually to recognize the Bishop of Constantinople as their leader, which permanently split the church into western Roman Catholic and eastern Orthodox branches. In time, some popes also began to gain political power, especially over Italy. As popes became more powerful, they come into conflict with kings. Europe's three most powerful kings were in England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire grew out of the earlier empire of Charlemagne, king of the Franks.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Europe's most powerful kings were in A Italy. B England and the Holy Roman Empire. C England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire. D Italy and the Holy Roman Empire.

Which statement about the pope is not true? A He could excommunicate serious offenders. B He was also the Bishop of Constantinople. C It was his responsibility to decide what the church would teach. D Some popes gained political power.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

51

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.4

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.4 Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor Henry IV).

Medieval popes and kings clashed over several important issues. One of the most important was the power to choose bishops. Popes felt that they should choose bishops because bishops served as the heads of the church in different European countries. Many kings disagreed. They argued that they should be able to make this choice because it had such an important influence on life in their kingdoms. The argument was really about who should hold political power. This disagreement came to a head in 1073. Pope Gregory VII disapproved of a man Emperor Henry IV chose as a bishop in the Holy Roman Empire. An angry Henry urged other German bishops to remove Gregory as pope. Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry. Desperate to have his excommunication lifted, Henry stood in the snow for three days waiting to see the pope. Finally, the pope forgave the emperor and allowed him back into the church. A compromise was reached several years later. The pope would continue to choose bishops, but bishops would have to obey the emperor. This agreement, however, did not end the struggle between kings and popes.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

5

Why did Henry wait in the snow for three days? A He wanted to kill the pope. B He wanted the pope to approve his choice for bishop. C He wanted to take Gregory's place. D He wanted to have his excommunication cancelled. Henry IV was A the Holy Roman Emperor. B a German bishop. C king of France. D the pope.

52

4

Which statement best summarizes the argument between kings and popes? A Kings felt they should have the power to appoint bishops in their kingdoms, but the pope disagreed. B Kings felt they should have the power to appoint the pope, but the popes disagreed. C Kings wanted the power to excommunicate people, but the popes didn't want to share it. D Kings wanted to choose bishops, but have them obey the pope.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.5 Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament, development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England).

Beginning with William the Conqueror, who became king in 1066, English kings increased their power. By the 1200s, they felt they could do what they wanted, even if the nobles complained. Some nobles began to look for ways to limit the king's power. In 1215 at a place called Runnymede, a group of nobles got their chance. They forced King John to sign a document called Magna Carta, or the Great Charter. Magna Carta listed important rights that the king could not ignore. Among the most important was the right of habeas corpus, a Latin phrase meaning "you have the body." The right of habeas corpus meant that people could not be kept in jail without a reason. They had to be charged with a crime first and then convicted at a jury trial. Before, kings could send anyone to jail for no reason at all. Magna Carta also stated that everyone--from the king down--had to obey the law. The belief that everyone had to follow the law became a basic principle of English government.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

What practice ended with the signing of Magna Carta? A right to a juried trial B stealing bodies of the deceased C putting people in jail without a reason D everyone having to obey the law

Which statement best summarizes the effects of the Magna Carta? A No one could be put in jail without a trial. B The king began to ignore basic rights. C The power of the people was limited and rights of the king expanded. D The power of the king was limited and rights of the people expanded.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

53

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.5

STANDARDS REVIEW The signing of Magna Carta inspired the English. They continued to find more ways to limit the power of kings and to expand the power of nobles. They also struggled to ensure the rights of everyday English people. For example, soon after the signing of Magna Carta, the English created a council of nobles to advise the king. This council developed into Parliament, the lawmaking body that governs England today. By the late Middle Ages, the English king could do little without the support of Parliament. The Hundred Years' War (1328­1453) between England and France also increased Parliament's power and decreased the power of the king because the king was forced to ask Parliament for money to pay for the war. Another way English people secured and protected their rights involved judges. People demanded that judges be free of royal control. They suspected that as long as judges were chosen by the king, judges would always side with the king. Independent judges would hand down justice impartially. Although it took several centuries, an independent judiciary system was finally created. This too was a major step toward democracy in England. STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response

3

5

Which statement describes the connection between the council of nobles and the Parliament? A They were the same thing. B The council of nobles developed into the Parliament. C Both were controlled by the king. D The Parliament developed into the council of nobles. How did the Hundred Years' War advance democracy in England? A It increased Parliament's power. B It led to Magna Carta. C It led to the creation of independent judges. D It strengthened the king's power.

Why did many English people object to judges chosen by the king? A They thought judges chosen by the king would be impartial. B They thought judges chosen by the king could not be impartial. C They were afraid they would side with nobles against the people. D They feared they would increase the power of Parliament.

4

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

54

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.6

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.6 Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world.

The Crusades were a long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia. The wars were fought over control of Palestine, a region in the eastern Mediterranean. Europeans called Palestine the Holy Land because it was where Jesus had lived. The Crusades started when European Christians came back from pilgrimages to Jerusalem with distressing news. They said that Turkish Muslims--who now controlled Jerusalem--had attacked them. Soon, these same Turks were threatening Constantinople, the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine emperor asked the pope in Rome for help. Pope Urban II called for Christian volunteers to go to Palestine, the Holy Land, to liberate it. Thousands of people answered the pope's call. They sewed crosses on their clothing and became known as Crusaders, from the Latin words for "marked with a cross." The First Crusade began in 1096. Some Crusaders attacked Jews in Germany, blaming them for the death of Jesus. After defeating the Turks and recapturing Jerusalem, the Crusaders set up small kingdoms. But within 50 years, Muslims had retaken some areas. In response, Europeans launched more Crusades.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

What was the goal of the Crusades? A free Constantinople from Muslim control B set up small kingdoms C go on pilgrimages to Jerusalem D free the Holy Land from Muslim control

Why did some Crusaders attack Jews in Germany? A They blamed them for the death of Jesus. B They thought the Jews were helping the Turks. C The Jews tried to rob them of their armor and weapons. D They thought the Jews were "marked with a cross."

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

55

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.6

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.6 Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world.

The Third Crusade was led by a famous king, Richard I "the Lion Heart" of England. He battled the great Muslim leader Saladin but was unable to recapture the Holy Land. On the Fourth Crusade, Christian soldiers sacked Constantinople, the city that had earlier been threatened by Muslims. By 1291, all of the Holy Land was once again in Muslim hands. The Crusades were failures for several reasons. Crusaders had difficulty fighting far from home. They weren't prepared to fight in a desert climate. They were outnumbered and fought among themselves. In spite of the military failure, the Crusades changed Europe. Many nobles and knights died in the Holy Land. Kings seized their lands, thus increasing their own power. Kings also took charge of the Crusades from the pope, which weakened his influence. Still another change was in the relationships among religions. Many Jews came to mistrust Christians because of the attacks on Jewish communities. Muslims and Christians also learned more about each other. Trade between Europe and Asia increased. Some Christians, however, saw Muslims as a threat to Christianity, while Muslims feared further invasions from Christians.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

B Dislike grew because Muslims

The Crusades were failures for all of the following reasons except A crusaders weren't prepared to fight in a desert climate. B crusaders had no leaders. C crusaders were outnumbered. D crusaders had difficulty fighting far from home. Which statement best summarizes the change in Muslim-Christian relations because of the Crusades? A They distrusted each other because Muslims sacked Constantinople.

56

seized the lands of nobles who died in the Holy Land. C Each grew more fearful and mistrustful of the other. D Trust and friendship grew between the two groups.

5

4

Which statement about the Crusades is true? A They led to continued warfare. B They led to increased trade. C They brought Jews and Christians together. D They increased the pope's power.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.7

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.7 Map the spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia to China, the Middle East, and Europe and describe its impact on global population.

In the mid-1300s, a terrible event brought important changes to Europe. This event was the Black Death, a deadly illness that spread throughout Europe between 1347 and 1351. The plague originally came from central and eastern Asia. It arrived in Mediterranean ports as ships unknowingly brought rats carrying the disease. Fleas that bit the rats contracted the disease from their blood and then gave it to humans. The plague quickly spread from port cities to most other parts of Europe. The disease killed people so quickly that many were buried without priests or ceremonies. In some villages nearly everyone died or fled. Those that fled sometimes carried the disease to places where it had not yet emerged. The Black Death was actually caused by several different forms of the plague. One, called bubonic plague, could be identified by dark swellings that appeared on victims' bodies. Another form was spread through the air. It killed people in less than a day.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

How did the Black Death arrive in Europe? A It was carried by Mediterranean sailors' pet rats. B Soldiers returning from the Crusades carried it. C It arrived on boats in Mediterranean ports from Asia. D It was contained in infected food shipped from the Middle East.

How was the plague spread throughout Europe? A by black swellings on victims' bodies B Cats infected with the disease gave it to humans. C Fleas bit infected rats and then gave the disease to humans. D The disease killed so quickly that many people were buried without priests or ceremonies.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

57

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.7

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.7 Map the spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia to China, the Middle East, and Europe and describe its impact on global population.

Some historians think that one third of Europe's population died of the plague--almost 25 million people. Many millions more died in other parts of the world. People of the Middle Ages had no idea how the disease was spread. Many believed the disease signaled the end of the world. In fact, filthy conditions gave rats places to live and breed. Then, trade and other movements of people helped spread the plague. The loss of life was so great that it caused sweeping changes in European life. The most important change was that the manor system fell apart completely. There weren't enough people left to work in the fields. Those peasants and serfs who survived the Black Death found that their labor was in high demand, and they could demand money for their work. Many fled the manors for Europe's growing towns and cities.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

Use the map to answer the following question.

Approximate extent of area reached by black death in 1348 Trade route Edinburgh Dublin BRITAIN London

N

W S S

E E

SCANDINAVIA

Stockholm

Novgorod

N o rt h Se a

Hamburg Lübeck Bremen Amsterdam GERMANY

Baltic Sea

0 0 200

200

400 Miles

400 Kilometers

AT L A NT I C OCEAN

Kiev

Paris FRANCE Bordeaux Genoa Vienna

EUROPE

Venice Siena Florence ITALY Rome Naples

Budapest Kaffa

How did filthy conditions help spread the Black Death? A They gave rats places to live and breed. B They became graveyards for plague victims. C People fled the plague to live in filthy cities. D Survivors took their skills to towns and cities. What was one important effect of the plague in the 1300s? A People starved to death. B People learned more about how disease was spread. C Kings lost some of their power. D The manor system fell apart because of a lack of laborers.

B l a ck Se a

Lisbon SPAIN Seville Cádiz

Madrid

Barcelona

5

Constantinople

ASIA

GREECE ANATOLIA

Palermo

Messina Sicily

AFRICA

Mediterranean Sea

Crete

Cyprus

3

In what directions did the plague spread once it reached Europe? A south and east B north and south C north and east D north, west, and east

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

58

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.8

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.8 Understand the importance of the Catholic church as a political, intellectual, and aesthetic institution (e.g., founding of universities, political and spiritual roles of the clergy, creation of monastic and mendicant religious orders, preservation of the Latin language and religious texts, St. Thomas Aquinas's synthesis of classical philosophy with Christian theology, and the concept of "natural law").

The most important influence on life in medieval Europe was the Christian Church. Church officials, called clergy, and their teachings affected almost every aspect of society. The local church was the center of town and village life. Church officials took a major role in politics, and many churches were large landowners. Some clergy got so involved in politics that they spent little time dealing with religious affairs. Some people feared the church had become obsessed with wealth and power. In the early 900s, a group of French monks started a new monastery in the town of Cluny. The monks at Cluny followed a strict schedule of prayer and religious services, and they paid little attention to the outside world. Some monks helped preserve ancient texts by copying them. Other new orders, or groups of monks and nuns, soon appeared as well. Some orders lived in cities rather than monasteries, choosing to remain part of society. These people, called friars, lived simply, had no possessions, and were known as mendicants. The goal of mendicant orders like the Dominicans and Franciscans was to teach people how to live good Christian lives.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

How did the monks at Cluny differ from the mendicants? A They lived apart from the world. B They lived by begging. C They included both monks and nuns. D They had no possessions, while the mendicants lived in a monastery.

59

Another name for church officials is A mendicants. B clergy. C friars. D monks.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.8

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.8 Understand the importance of the Catholic church as a political, intellectual, and aesthetic institution (e.g., founding of universities, political and spiritual roles of the clergy, creation of monastic and mendicant religious orders, preservation of the Latin language and religious texts, St. Thomas Aquinas's synthesis of classical philosophy with Christian theology, and the concept of "natural law").

Some clergy were interested in learning more about the world, rather than withdrawing from it. These people founded the first European universities. Medieval universities taught religion, as well as law, medicine, astronomy, and other subjects. All classes were taught in Latin, which helped keep the language alive. One of the great thinkers of the Middle Ages taught at the University of Paris. He was Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas' great contribution was showing that the Greek idea of reason worked hand in hand with Christian theology to explain the world. He also believed that God had created a law that governed the world. He called it natural law. In addition to politics and education, the church was a powerful influence on art and architecture. Religious feeling inspired people to create beautiful works of art. Among the most impressive are great churches built in a majestic style called Gothic. Gothic churches soared upward to breathtaking heights and featured gorgeous stained glass windows. Religious art also included beautifully illustrated books, paintings of Christian subjects, wood and stone carvings, and even the clothing of the priests. All reflected the spiritual devotion of the people.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

B founding the University of Paris. C showing how reason and

All of the following are true about medieval universities except: A classes were taught in Latin. B clergy founded the first European universities. C Thomas Aquinas taught at a famous university. D only religious courses were taught. Thomas Aquinas is best known for A designing many majestic churches.

60

Christian theology could work together. D establishing the monastery at Cluny.

5

4

The style of architecture in soaring medieval churches is called A Christian. B Gothic. C Latin. D Roman.

California Standards Review Workbook

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.6.9

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 7.6.9 Know the history of the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that culminated in the Reconquista and the rise of the Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms.

While Christianity was firmly established in most parts of Europe, one corner remained in the hands of Muslims called Moors. This was the Iberian Peninsula, where Spain and Portugal are located. Muslim armies had conquered most of Spain in the early 700s. By the late 900s, however, internal unrest had weakened the once-powerful Muslim, or Moorish, control. The small Christian kingdoms of northern Spain saw their chance to reclaim the peninsula. Their effort to retake the region from the Moors is known as the Reconquista, or reconquest. In 1085 the largest Christian kingdom, Castile, won a great victory against the Moors. This victory inspired other Christian kingdoms, including Aragon and Portugal, to fight the Moors. Christian armies won numerous battles. By the 1250s, Moors controlled only the small kingdom called Granada. Meanwhile, both Spain and Portugal grew more powerful. Portugal declared its independence from Castile, and Aragon and Castile decided to unite.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

3

Who were the Moors? A Muslims who fought in Christian armies B Muslims who lived in Christian kingdoms of northern Spain C Muslims who ruled much of Italy D Muslims who ruled much of Spain and Portugal The largest Christian kingdom in Spain was A Aragon. B Castile. C Portugal. D Granada.

61

The last Moorish kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula was called A Aragon. B Castile. C Portugal. D Granada.

2

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.6.9

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.6.9 Know the history of the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that culminated in the Reconquista and the rise of the Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms.

In 1469 Ferdinand, a prince from Aragon, married Isabella, a Castilian princess. Ten years later, they became king and queen of their countries. Together, they ruled all of Spain. In 1492, their army captured Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain, thereby ending the Reconquista. Then, they began to make Spain into a Christian kingdom. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella began by ordering all Spanish Jews to convert to Christianity or leave the country. They later banned the practice of Islam as well. To ensure that Christianity was the only religion practiced in Spain, they instituted the Spanish Inquisition. Many Muslims, Jews, and heretics, or Christians who held ideas that opposed church teachings, were tried and often executed. The Inquisition, which later also spread to Portugal, helped Ferdinand and Isabella make Spain a purely Christian kingdom.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

C send their army to capture

What event signaled the end of the Reconquista? A the capture of Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain, in 1492 B the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella in 1469 C the union of Castile and Aragon D the order that all Spanish Jews must convert to Christianity or leave Spain To make Spain into a Christian kingdom, Ferdinand and Isabella did all of the following except A order all Spanish Jews to convert to Christianity or leave the country. B ban the practice of Islam.

62

Portugal, the last Muslim stronghold. D create the Spanish Inquisition.

6

5

Which statement does not correctly describe the Reconquista? A It was completed by Ferdinand and Isabella. B It ended with the capture of Granada in 1492. C It had to be completed before Ferdinand and Isabella could be married. D It ended Muslim rule in western Europe.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.7.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations. 7.7.1 Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies.

Two continents, North and South America, make up the region we call the Americas. The landforms and climates of these two continents are very diverse. In the southern part of North America lies Mesoamerica. This region includes humid rain forests, volcanoes, fertile mountain valleys, and rivers. South America has towering mountains, a desert, and the vast Amazon River region. These regions were home to several different civilizations. The geography of each influenced the civilization that developed there. As early as AD 200, a people called the Maya were building large cities in Mesoamerica. Their economy was based on farming and trade in goods like precious stones. Maya civilization reached its height between 250 and 900. Between the 1100s and 1400s, another civilization arose in Mexico. They were the Aztecs. The Aztecs were fierce warriors, but they were also a trading people. They built their great capital, Tenochtitlán, in the middle of a large lake. A third great civilization of the Americas was the Inca Empire in the Andes Mountains of South America. By the early 1500s, the Inca Empire contained 12 million people and had a powerful central government.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which statement about Mesoamerica is correct? A It is the southern part of North America. B It was home to the Inca Empire. C It has towering mountains, a desert, and the Amazon River. D It is in South America.

Which empire was located in the Andes Mountains? A Aztec B Mesoamerican C Inca D Maya

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

63

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.7.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations. 7.7.2 Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, warfare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery.

Each civilization in Mesoamerica and South America had its own social structure, although there were similarities. A king ruled each empire. The top social class included priests, professional warriors, and often merchants. The upper classes led lives of privilege. The lower classes worked for the wealthy or farmed small plots of land. Their lives were hard, and they had little chance to better their position in life. Both the Maya and the Aztecs had slaves, but the Incas did not. Maya and Aztec slaves were often prisoners of war or those who owed money. The customs of the three civilizations had some similarities. They believed people had to keep their many gods happy. For the Aztecs and Maya, this required regular human sacrifices. They believed their gods needed such sacrifices to remain happy and helpful. Warfare was common. In fact, the Maya were so warlike that some historians think it contributed to their empire's downfall. The Aztecs were also fierce warriors. They used war to enlarge their empire and to protect their trade network. The Incas were good fighters, and they also used peaceful agreements to expand their empire.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

Which statement about slavery in the Americas is incorrect? A The Maya and the Aztecs had slaves, but the Incas did not. B Maya and Aztec slaves were often prisoners of war. C People who were in debt could become slaves. D It was the main job of slaves to keep the many gods happy.

Which statement about religion in the Americas is correct? A The Maya and Incas worshipped one god. B Each group believed people had to keep their gods happy. C Maya, Aztecs, and Incas regularly sacrificed humans. D No society had priests.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

64

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.7.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations. 7.7.3 Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Incan empires were defeated by the Spanish.

The early Maya lived in the lowlands of Mesoamerica. Their classic age was between AD 250 and 900. They were a trading people, and their empire once had more than 40 large cities. About 900, Maya civilization began to decline. Historians are not sure why. The Aztec Empire arose in central Mexico around 1100. The Aztecs were fierce warriors, and they grew powerful through conquest. By the late 1400s, the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán had 200,000 people. But tales of Aztec wealth contributed to the empire's undoing. Spanish soldiers, or conquistadors, under direction of Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs in 1521. In the Andes Mountains of South America, a third great empire arose. The Incas were a small tribe, but in the mid-1400s, they began to expand their territory. They quickly built a huge empire. A civil war weakened the Inca Empire around 1530. At about the same time, Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro captured and killed the Inca king. The empire was destroyed. In conquering both the Aztecs and the Inca, weapons, horses, and disease gave the Spanish a military advantage.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which empire was located in central Mexico? A the Inca B the Aztec C the Mesoamerican D the Maya

Which civilization arose first? A the Aztec B the Inca C the Andean D the Maya Which empire was destroyed by soldiers led by Hernán Cortés A the Aztec B the Inca C the Mesoamerican D the Maya

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

65

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.7.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations. 7.7.4 Describe the artistic and oral traditions and architecture in the three civilizations.

Each civilization attained impressive achievements in the arts, architecture, and oral literary traditions. Some of the best-known Maya art is their sculptures and jade and gold jewelry. The Maya also built great cities without the use of metal tools or wheeled vehicles. Maya literature and history were recorded using both an oral tradition and their own writing system. The Aztecs were known for their magnificent pyramid-shaped stone temples. They also made mosaics from turquoise, jewelry from gold and feathers, and ceremonial masks. Like the Maya, the Aztecs used a writing system for keeping historical records and a strong oral tradition for telling poetry and stories. Riddles, along with tales about the gods and their ancestors, were especially popular. The Incas were such good builders that many of their stone buildings are still in use today. They also used their building skills to construct roads that spanned their entire kingdom. Inca artwork included gold and silver jewelry and even a life-size field of corn made of gold and silver. Their textiles were also of high quality. The Incas did not have a writing system. Official "memorizers" learned long poems about Inca legends and history.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

How did the Inca differ from the Maya and Aztec? A They did not build with stone. B They did not have literature. C They did not have writing. D They made jewelry.

Which civilization was especially fond of riddles? A the Aztec B the Maya C the Mesoamerican D the Inca

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

66

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.7.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations. 7.7.5 Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics, including the development of the calendar and the Meso-American knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations' agricultural systems.

Two American empires made significant advances in science. The Maya were especially interested in astronomy. They built observatories so their priests could study the movement of the stars. Maya astronomers figured out that the year has about 365 days. They also learned about the cycles of the moon and how to predict eclipses. Interestingly, the Maya had two separate calendars. One, with 260 days, was used to plan religious events and festivals. The 365-day agricultural calendar was tied to farming activities, such as planting and harvesting. The Maya calendar was more accurate than the one used in Europe at the time. The Aztecs also made several advances in science. Like the Maya, they were very interested in astronomy and created a calendar much like the Maya calendar. The Aztec calendar helped the Aztecs choose the best days for ceremonies, battles, and planting and harvesting crops. The Aztecs were also skilled in engineering. They learned from neighboring peoples how to build the floating gardens they used to grow food.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Maya astronomers learned all of the following except A that the year has about 365 days. B the cycles of the moon. C how to predict eclipses. D that the earth was round.

Which of the following statements about Mesoamerican science is not correct? A They used their calendars to help them in agriculture. B Calendars were not very advanced for their time. C They were especially interested in astronomy. D They used their calendars to plan religious ceremonies.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

67

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.8.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance. 7.8.1 Describe the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts fostered a new interest in humanism (i.e., a balance between intellect and religious faith).

During the Middle Ages, people concentrated on their relationship with God. At the end of the Middle Ages, however, new ideas took hold in parts of Europe. These ideas had an emphasis on individuals, human value, and achievement. This new emphasis was called humanism. Humanists felt that people could do great things. They also believed that art and scholarship did not have to be just for the glory of God. They wanted to learn more about the world and to create beautiful things. Most humanists were also deeply religious. They tried to find a balance between the pursuit of intellectual ideas and their religious faith. The period of this awakening of interest in people as individuals and belief in their value is called the Renaissance, or "rebirth." The Renaissance began in Italy in the 1300s. It was led by many different kinds of people, including artists, writers, and scholars. Also key to the Renaissance were wealthy government officials and other individuals who could pay for works of art.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

C They tried to find a balance

What is the meaning of the word Renaissance? A humanism B reawakening C revaluation D rebirth Which of the following statements about humanists is correct? A They believed art and scholarship should be only for the glory of God. B Most humanists were not religious.

between their intellect and their religious faith. D They felt that people were not capable of doing great things.

3

2

The Renaissance occurred A before the Middle Ages. B after the Middle Ages. C right after the fall of Rome. D during the Middle Ages.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

68

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.8.1

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.8.1 Describe the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts fostered a new interest in humanism (i.e., a balance between intellect and religious faith).

An important discovery led to the beginning of the Renaissance. It was not a discovery of a place or of a scientific process. It was the rediscovery of the past--the writings, art, and culture of Greece and Rome. People during the Middle Ages thought that the great classical writings of Greek and Roman authors had been lost when Rome fell. They were proven wrong in the 1300s. When Turks conquered much of the Byzantine Empire, scholars fled to Italy. They brought with them works of Greek literature that had been preserved in Constantinople. These rescued works included writings by such thinkers as Plato and Thucydides. Excited by the information in these Greek works, scholars began to look harder for lost Latin manuscripts. Many were found hidden in monasteries. As scholars read these classical works, they rediscovered the glories of Greece and Rome. Their interest was awakened in classical subjects like grammar, public speaking, poetry, history, and the Greek and Latin languages. One more inspiration was the abundance of Roman ruins in Italy. Artists looked at Roman buildings, statues, and artworks with new eyes. They became the models for Renaissance artists.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

B Writers like Plato and Thucydides

How were lost Greek works rediscovered? A Byzantine scholars fleeing the Turks brought them to Italy. B Turkish scholars translated them and brought them to Italy. C They were found in old museums. D They were found in old Roman ruins. Which of the following was not a result of the rediscovery of Greek writings? A Scholars began to look for lost Latin manuscripts.

69

could be read again. C Roman ruins in Italy were carefully restored. D People rediscovered the glories of Greece and Rome.

6

5

Classical subjects included all of the following except A the Turkish language B public speaking C history D poetry

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.8.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance. 7.8.2 Explain the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of independent trading cities (e.g., Venice), with emphasis on the cities' importance in the spread of Renaissance ideas.

By the 1300s, four Italian cities had become major trading centers. Venice, Genoa, Milan, and Florence bustled with activity and were growing wealthy. Venice and Genoa were seaports on the Mediterranean. Products from Asia, such as spices, were unloaded there and then shipped to all parts of Europe. Venice became even wealthier because it was also a glass manufacturing center. Milan made weapons and silk. Florence was a center for the wool industry. These economic activities made many merchants rich. The new wealth made Italy the focus of European culture. In these and most other large Italian cities, a single rich merchant family controlled the government. This type of government was called a signoria. The head of the rich family, the signore, ruled the city. Some used violence, but all wanted peace and stability so that business could proceed. Leaders of different cities competed for business. They also competed for fame and glory. Each wanted to be known as powerful, wise, and devoted to his city.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

Which Italian city of the 1300s was known for making weapons and silk? A Florence B Milan C Genoa D Venice

Venice was A a weapons manufacturing center. B a seaport and a glass manufacturing center. C a center for the wool industry. D a seaport and a silk manufacturing center. What was a signore? A a type of government B a captain of a trading ship C the ruler of an Italian city D a rich Italian city

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

70

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.8.2

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.8.2 Explain the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of independent trading cities (e.g., Venice), with emphasis on the cities' importance in the spread of Renaissance ideas.

One city above all led the way into the Renaissance. Although Florence began as a center for the wool industry, banking greatly increased the city's wealth. Bankers in Florence loaned money to merchants all over Europe and made profits on interest they charged. Many families in Florence became incredibly wealthy and powerful. They wanted everyone to see what their money could buy. The greatest and richest of the Florence bankers were the Medici family. By 1434 a member of the family, Cosimo de' Medici, was the signore of Florence. One of Cosimo's goals was to make Florence the most beautiful city in the world. He hired painters and sculptors to decorate his palace and architects to build and redesign buildings in Florence. Cosimo also valued education. His banks needed workers who could read, write, and understand math. He funded libraries and collected books. During the time that the Medici family held power, Florence became the center of Italian art, literature, and culture. Rulers of other Italian cities were envious of Florence. They soon tried to outdo the Medici family and each other in their support of culture and learning.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

4

C They were the greatest and richest

What business made Florence especially wealthy? A wool B merchant trade C education D banking Which statement about the Medici family is not correct? A They were among the greatest painters and sculptors in Europe. B Under their rule, Florence became the center of Italian art.

of the Florence bankers. D They inspired other Italian rulers to also support the arts.

6

5

Cosimo de' Medici did all of the following except A hire painters and sculptors to decorate his palace. B give money for libraries and the collection of books. C maintain order in Florence through violent force. D try to make Venice the most beautiful city in the world.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

71

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.8.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance. 7.8.3 Understand the effects of the reopening of the ancient "Silk Road" between Europe and China, including Marco Polo's travels and the location of his routes.

By the late 1300s, Europe was ready for change. The horrors of the Black Death had finally passed. People who had survived were better off. More food and goods were available. Europe's economy was growing again, and people wanted more and better goods for their money. This increased demand led to increased trade. Some trade goods came from India, China, and lands to the east. It was an ancient trade route that made the movement of these goods possible. The Silk Road led from China to the Mediterranean Sea. Caravans had used it from about AD 1 to 200. But when the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty in China fell, no one could protect travelers and traders. The Silk Road fell into disuse. However, in the 1200s, a strong new dynasty, the Mongols, came to power in China. They were able to make the Silk Road safe again. One of the first Westerners to take advantage of the new safety was an adventurous young man from Venice.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Why did the Silk Road fall into disuse? A Demand for silk in the West declined. B Travelers and traders traveled by ship instead. C With the fall of the Roman Empire and Han dynasty, no country was able to protect travelers. D The Black Death ruined Europe's economy.

What event made the Silk Road safe again? A The Mongols came to power in China. B Venice decided to use the Silk Road as it main trade route. C Europe's economy was growing, and people wanted more and better goods. D In the 1200s, a strong new dynasty came to power in India.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

72

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.8.3

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.8.3 Understand the effects of the reopening of the ancient "Silk Road" between Europe and China, including Marco Polo's travels and the location of his routes.

That Italian traveler's name was Marco Polo. He traveled with his family, who were merchants, from Venice to China along the Silk Road in 1271. When Marco Polo and his family arrived in China, they were invited to stay at the court of Kublai Khan. The Mongol emperor took a liking to Marco and made him a government official. While in China, the Polos saw many amazing new things. They saw paper money and coal, which were unknown at that time in Europe. Marco's father and uncle stayed in China while Marco visited India and Southeast Asia. He traveled as a messenger for the emperor. In all, Marco spent 20 years in China and Asia. He finally returned to Venice by sea in 1295. His route took him around Southeast Asia and India and then across the Persian Desert to the Black Sea. Once home, a writer helped Marco write a book about his adventures. It became a sensation throughout Europe. Many people refused to believe that he had been in China. But his book excited the imaginations of people all over Europe. Merchants began to think about increasing trade with China and the East. As trade picked up, wealth increased, especially in Italy. This new prosperity helped set the stage for the Renaissance.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

4

Why did Marco Polo remain in China and the East for so long? A His father and uncle died. B The Mongol emperor made him a government official. C He wanted to write a book about Kublai Khan. D He wanted to increase trade with China.

How did increased trade on the Silk Road lead to the Renaissance? A It helped Marco Polo travel to India. B It increased prosperity in Italy. C People refused to believe Marco Polo's stories about China. D Kublai Khan reawakened an interest in Greek writings. What business was Marco Polo's family in? A painting B printing C government D trade

California Standards Review Workbook

5

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

73

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.8.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance. 7.8.4 Describe the growth and effects of new ways of disseminating information (e.g., the ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into the vernacular, printing).

By the 1400s, the Renaissance spirit was spreading from Italy to other parts of Europe. Artists, writers, and scholars came to Italy to study. Then they returned to their homelands and shared what they had learned. Two important new developments made the spread of new ideas easier and faster. The first of these developments was the introduction of Asian paper manufacturing techniques to Europe. Before the 1300s, books were copied by hand onto animal skins, usually by monks in monasteries. This process was expensive and time-consuming. Chinese methods of making paper spread to the Muslim civilizations of Southwest Asia by the 700s. By the 1300s, these techniques had arrived in Europe. Several factories were set up to manufacture paper. Because paper was easier and cheaper to use than animal skins, books became more available to Europeans.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Before paper manufacturing was begun in Europe, how were books made? A They were made in the Muslim civilizations of Southwest Asia. B They were manufactured using Chinese methods. C They were copied by hand onto animal skins, usually by monks. D Artists, writers, and scholars came to Italy and made them.

All of the following contributed to the spread of Renaissance ideas except A monks copying books by hand onto animal skins. B Chinese methods of making paper arriving in Europe. C books becoming more available to Europeans. D artists, writers, and scholars studying in Italy and returning home with new ideas.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

74

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.8.4

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.8.4 Describe the growth and effects of new ways of disseminating information (e.g., the ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into the vernacular, printing).

The other key development in the spread of Renaissance ideas was developed in the mid-1400s. The inventor was a German man named Johann Gutenberg. Gutenberg developed a printing press that used movable type. Each individual letter was a separate piece. A worker could fit letters into a frame to makes words and sentences. The worker would then spread ink on the letters and press a sheet of paper against the letters. In this way an entire page was printed at one time. Then the worker could rearrange the letters to create a new page. This process was a great improvement over writing by hand. It was also much faster than carving an entire page on a wood block and then printing it. The first book Gutenberg printed was the Bible in Latin. Some people began to call for the Bible to be translated into the vernacular, or the common languages of the people, like German, French, and English. Church leaders were against making it easier for common people who did not know Latin to read the Bible. In spite of their opposition, however, translations of the Bible were made and printed. Because the Bible was now easier to read, more people learned to read. Soon, they were hungry for more education as well.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

C a Bible in Latin. D Marco Polo's adventures in

Which of the following statements does not correctly describe Gutenberg's press? A It was developed in the 1400s. B It was based on a Chinese model. C It was a great improvement over writing by hand. D Workers fit individual letters into a frame to makes words. The first book Gutenberg printed with his printing press was A a prayer book in Latin. B a Bible in German.

75

China.

5

What does vernacular mean? A religious B translation C printed D common language What was the attitude of Church leaders toward a vernacular translation of the Bible? A They were in favor. B They were opposed. C They expressed no opinion. D Church leaders were divided.

California Standards Review Workbook

6

4

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.8.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance. 7.8.5 Detail advances made in literature, the arts, science, mathematics, cartography, engineering, and the understanding of human anatomy and astronomy (e.g., by Dante Alighieri, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo di Buonarroti Simoni, Johann Gutenberg, William Shakespeare).

The Renaissance brought great achievements in literature and the arts. The first great Renaissance writer was the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. Before Dante, most medieval authors had written in Latin. But Dante wrote in Italian. He believed the people's language was just as good as Latin. His greatest work, The Divine Comedy, describes an imaginary journey through the afterlife. Another Italian, Niccolo Machiavelli, gave advice to rulers on how to be effective. Outside of Italy, great writers chose common language as well. Spain's Miguel de Cervantes wrote about the adventures of an aging knight named Don Quixote. In England, the great dramatist William Shakespeare wrote more than 30 plays, including Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet. Renaissance artists created some of the most beautiful and famous paintings and sculptures of all time. One of the most famous Italian painters and sculptors is Michelangelo, and one of his most famous works is the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Another Italian, Leonardo da Vinci, excelled in many fields. His Mona Lisa and The Last Supper are two of the best-known paintings in the world. A Belgian painter named Pieter Brueghel is known for his lively scenes of peasant life.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

All of the following are great Renaissance writers except A William Shakespeare. B Dante Alighieri. C Miguel de Cervantes. D Michelangelo.

The Mona Lisa was created by A Leonardo da Vinci. B Pieter Brueghel. C Michelangelo. D Don Quixote.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

76

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

HSS Grade 7, continued

Standard 7.8.5

STANDARDS REVIEW 7.8.5 Detail advances made in literature, the arts, science, mathematics, cartography, engineering, and the understanding of human anatomy and astronomy (e.g., by Dante Alighieri, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo di Buonarroti Simoni, Johann Gutenberg, William Shakespeare).

Many of the writings that Europeans rediscovered in the 1300s were about science. After reading these works, Renaissance scholars began to make their own scientific advances. Some Renaissance scholars thought that mathematics could help them understand the universe. Mathematicians invented symbols we still use today, including symbols for the square root and positive and negative numbers. Other Renaissance scientists wanted to know more about the sky and what was in it. Galileo and Copernicus increased our understanding of astronomy, the solar system, and how stars move. They also determined that earlier astronomers were wrong when they stated that the sun moves around the earth. Still other Renaissance scientists focused on the size and shape of the earth, along with its land masses and bodies of waters. These cartographers used math to make much more accurate measurements and produce better maps. These new maps would help guide the great explorers who would soon set off on their voyages of discovery. One Renaissance scientist who studied many different fields was the great artist Leonardo da Vinci. He made detailed drawings of plants, animals, and machines. He also dissected corpses to see how bones and muscles worked.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

3

D translations of ancient books

5

Renaissance mathematicians invented all of the following ideas except A the symbol for positive numbers. B the symbol for negative numbers. C the zero. D the square root symbol. What does a cartographer produce? A telescopes B maps C mathematical symbols

77

4

Which of the following does not describe a focus of Renaissance scientists? A to make more accurate measurements and produce better maps B to understand the atom and atomic particles C to use mathematics to help better understand the universe D to understand how bones and muscles work

California Standards Review Workbook

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 7.9.1 List the causes for the internal turmoil in and weakening of the Catholic church (e.g., tax policies, selling of indulgences).

By the early 1500s, Renaissance ideas had led many Europeans to believe their lives could be improved. Some people focused their attention on problems in the Catholic Church. They called on church leaders to end corruption and focus solely on spiritual matters. Over time, their calls led to a reform movement against the Catholic Church called the Reformation. One of the leading reformers was a Dutch priest named Desiderius Erasmus. Erasmus and other reformers thought that the clergy weren't very religious anymore. They claimed priests did not know basic church teachings. They felt that the pope had become too involved in politics and was ignoring his religious duties. Others accused the church of being too rich. One reason for its wealth was that it paid no taxes on its large land holdings. Another practice especially irritated some reformers. This was the sale of indulgences. An indulgence was a document from the pope that freed a person from punishment for his or her sins. Many Christians saw this practice as a way for people to buy their way into heaven.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

All of the following were criticisms of the church except A the pope was too involved in politics. B the sale of indulgences. C the church was too rich. D it paid too much tax on its large land holdings.

Erasmus was A a powerful pope. B a German landowner. C a priest and reformer. D a seller of indulgences. A document from the pope that excused a person from punishment for his or her sins was called A a reformation. B an indulgence. C a desiderius. D a confession

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

78

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 7.9.2 Describe the theological, political, and economic ideas of the major figures during the Reformation (e.g., Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, William Tyndale).

Traditionally, the Reformation began on October 31, 1517. On that day, a German priest named Martin Luther nailed a list of complaints about the Catholic Church to a church door in Wittenberg. This list, called the Ninety-Five Theses, soon spread to other German cities, thanks to the printing press. Luther claimed that people didn't need to do charity work or give money to the church. They would be saved, he said, as long as they believed in God and lived by the Bible. He also said that people didn't need priests to talk to God for them. Luther's ideas were a serious challenge to the Catholic Church, and the pope soon excommunicated Luther. Many German nobles, however, liked his ideas, especially that the church should not interfere with politics. Lutheranism, named after Martin Luther, soon spread throughout northern Germany and Scandinavia. Other reformers followed Luther's lead. Luther translated the New Testament into German. William Tyndale, an Englishman, made the first English translation of the Bible. Another reformer was John Calvin. He became the political and religious leader of Geneva, Switzerland. Calvin believed that businessmen's pursuit of profits would not keep them from being saved. This idea helped lead to the growth of capitalism.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

The reformer who ruled Geneva was A Desiderius Erasmus. B Martin Luther. C John Calvin. D William Tyndale.

Which of the following was not one of Luther's ideas? A People had to give money to the church to be saved. B People would be saved as long as they believed in God and lived by the Bible. C People didn't need priests to talk to God for them. D The church should not interfere with politics.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

79

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 7.9.3 Explain Protestants' new practices of church self-government and the influence of these practices on the development of democratic practices and the ideas of federalism.

The religious changes of the Reformation, along with the political turmoil that followed it, set other changes in motion. One of these changes was in people's ideas about government. Before the Reformation, people had little role in governing the Catholic Church. But many of the new Protestant churches, those that had broken away from the Catholic Church, adopted different forms of government. The congregation, or church assembly, made its own rules and elected leaders to make decisions. These changes in church government soon led to changes in political government. In some places, congregations began to rule their towns, not just their churches. In parts of England, Scotland, and the English colonies in America, congregations held meetings to make decisions about their towns. The type of system in which people rule themselves is called self-government. At about this same time, national rulers began to share some power with local governments. The sharing of power between local and strong national governments is called federalism.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

How did new Protestant churches differ from the Catholic Church? A Local leaders sold indulgences. B Congregations made their own rules and elected leaders. C They believed federalism was sinful. D They thought self-government was dangerous.

Self-government is A the sharing of power between local and national governments. B a system in which bishops make important decisions. C a system in which people rule themselves. D another name for the Protestant Reformation.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

80

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 7.9.4 Identify and locate the European regions that remained Catholic and those that became Protestant and explain how the division affected the distribution of religions in the New World.

At the beginning of the 1500s, nearly all of Europe was Catholic. But this situation changed dramatically over the next 100 years, thanks to the Reformation. Almost all of southern Europe remained Catholic, but most people in northern Europe were Protestant. In some countries, almost everyone was of the same religion. In Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy, Catholicism dominated. In England, Scotland, Norway, and Sweden, Protestants were the great majority. In the Holy Roman Empire, each prince chose the religion of his territory. The result was a patchwork of small kingdoms, some Catholic, some Protestant. Keeping peace between Protestant and Catholic kingdoms was often difficult. The religious division of Europe had another important and farreaching result. When explorers and missionaries traveled from Europe to other parts of the world, they took their religions with them. For example, some parts of the Americas were settled by people from Catholic countries, such as Spain, France, and Portugal. These areas, including part of Canada and most of Mexico, Central America, and South America, became Catholic. Other places, such as the English colonies in North America, became mostly Protestant.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which European country remained almost completely Catholic? A England B Scotland C Sweden D Portugal

Which part of the world was settled by people from a Protestant country in Europe? A South America B the English colonies in North America C Central America D Mexico

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

81

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 7.9.5 Analyze how the Counter-Reformation revitalized the Catholic church and the forces that fostered the movement (e.g., St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits, the Council of Trent).

As Protestant ideas swept through northern Europe, Catholic leaders understood that people were unhappy with their church's policies. They looked for ways to restore people's faith in the Catholic Church. The effort to reform the Catholic Church from within is called the CounterReformation or the Catholic Reformation. By the mid-1500s, Catholic leaders were responding to criticisms by Protestants. Some reformers created new religious orders. One of these was the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits. It was founded in 1534 by a Spanish noble named Ignatius of Loyola. Ignatius was a soldier, and he wanted the Jesuits to be as disciplined as soldiers in their religious duties. The Jesuits' goal was to teach people about Catholic ideas. They hoped a strong Catholic education would help people reject Protestant ideas. Another response to Protestantism was a series of meetings called the Council of Trent. Between 1545 and 1563, Catholic Church leaders met to make reforms. They reaffirmed the importance of the clergy, but they wanted to make priests closer to the people they served. The selling of indulgences was banned, and the ideas of Luther, Calvin, and other Protestant leaders were sharply rejected.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

How did Jesuits hope to fight Protestant ideas? A by giving people a strong Catholic education B by tearing down Protestant churches C by capturing Martin Luther D by fighting against the CounterReformation

Which of the following was not a reform of the Council of Trent? A The selling of indulgences was banned. B It encouraged self-government among Catholic congregations. C The ideas of Protestant leaders were rejected. D They reaffirmed the importance of the clergy.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

82

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9.6

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 7.9.6 Understand the institution and impact of missionaries on Christianity and the diffusion of Christianity from Europe to other parts of the world in the medieval and early modern periods; locate missions on a world map.

Another way Catholics decided to respond to the challenge of Protestantism was with missionaries. Beginning as early as the 1400s and continuing beyond the 1700s, Catholic missionaries took church teachings to different parts of the world. Although missionary work was not new, it increased during the Counter-Reformation. And while some Protestants were missionaries, Catholics outnumbered them. Many Catholic missionaries were Jesuits. Jesuit priests went to Africa and Asia to teach people about the Catholic Church. Some Jesuits also traveled with French, Spanish, and Portuguese explorers to the Americas to convert native peoples. Catholic missionary work was especially strong in Mexico, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, India, and the Philippines. Through missionary work, the effects of the Counter-Reformation were carried far beyond Europe.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Missionary work continued into A the 1400s. B the 1500s. C the 1600s. D beyond the 1700s.

Which statement correctly describes Catholic missionaries of the Counter-Reformation? A Catholic missionaries outnumbered Protestant missionaries. B Only a few were Jesuits. C Catholic missionaries traveled with English explorers to the Americas. D Missionary work was first developed during the CounterReformation. To which place did Catholic missionaries not travel? A Mexico B India C Turkey D the Philippines

California Standards Review Workbook

3

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

83

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.9.7

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 7.9.7 Describe the Golden Age of cooperation between Jews and Muslims in medieval Spain that promoted creativity in art, literature, and science, including how that cooperation was terminated by the religious persecution of individuals and groups (e.g., the Spanish Inquisition and the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain in 1492).

For centuries, the region we know as Spain had been home to Christians, Muslims, and Jews. Followers of these three religions lived and worked together. Because they cooperated and did not fight against each other, people of all religions prospered. They made important advances in art, literature, philosophy, mathematics, and science. Eventually, the Roman Catholic rulers of Spain decided to force the Muslims and Jews out of Spain. For several centuries, religious wars raged. Finally, in 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella defeated the last Muslim kingdom in Spain. They ordered all Muslims and Jews to convert to Christianity or leave Spain. To enforce their decision, the monarchs created the Spanish Inquisition to find and punish Muslims and Jews in Spain. The Inquisition was ruthless. If it was believed that Muslims or Jews had secretly kept their beliefs, they were punished. Eventually, the Inquisition turned its attention to Protestants as well. After a time, any opposition to Catholicism in Spain had been crushed. With the Catholic Church so strong in Spain, the ideas of the Reformation never became popular.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

What was the purpose of the Inquisition? A fight religious wars B punish Christians in Spain C punish Muslims and Jews D support the ideas of the Reformation

What choice did the Inquisition offer? A convert to Judaism or leave Spain B convert to Islam or leave Spain C convert to Protestantism or leave Spain D convert to Catholicism or leave Spain

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

84

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.10.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.10 Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions. 7.10.1 Discuss the roots of the Scientific Revolution (e.g., Greek rationalism; Jewish, Christian, and Muslim science; Renaissance humanism; new knowledge from global exploration).

The series of events that led to modern science is called the Scientific Revolution. It occurred between about 1540 and 1700. Before the Scientific Revolution, most educated people accepted explanations about the world from authorities like ancient Greek writers and Catholic Church officials. After the Scientific Revolution, people depended more on what they could observe and the conclusions they could reach using their own reasoning abilities. The roots of the Scientific Revolution can be found in several traditions. One is the ideas of Greek thinkers like Aristotle. However Greek writings would not have been accessible to European scholars without contributions from the Muslim and Arab world. Jewish philosophers like Maimonides, also were influential. Still another influence on the Scientific Revolution was Renaissance humanists, who spent much time studying the natural world. Explorers gave the world a better understanding of the size and shape of the earth. Finally, alchemy was a forerunner of chemistry. Alchemists studied natural processes trying to turn other metals into gold.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

After the Scientific Revolution, A people accepted explanations from Greek writers. B people relied on alchemists. C people accepted explanations from Church officials. D people depended more on observation and reason.

Which was not a contributor to the Scientific Revolution? A officials of the Spanish Inquisition B the ideas of Greek thinkers like Aristotle C Renaissance humanists D Muslim scholars and Jewish philosophers

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

85

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.10.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.10 Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions. 7.10.2 Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (e.g., the telescope, microscope, the thermometer, barometer).

During the Scientific Revolution, new ideas and inventions changed the way people thought about the world. The key to all these steps forward was that scientists began to observe the world more closely. They no longer accepted the authority of ancient writings. One field in which great advances took place was astronomy. Nicolaus Copernicus stated in 1543 that the planets revolved around the sun. Johannes Kepler showed in 1609 that planets moved in oval orbits. Galileo Galilei was the first to study the sky with a new invention, the telescope. He also was the first scientist to set up experiments to prove his theories. The greatest scientist of the era was Sir Isaac Newton of England. Newton first described gravity, how objects move, the nature of light, and calculus, an advanced form of mathematics. Newton had the idea that the universe was a huge machine that followed the laws he described. His idea became the basis for almost all science until the 1900s. The great scientists of the period were helped by important new inventions. These include the telescope, the microscope, Galileo's thermometer, and the barometer, which measures air pressure.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

The first European scientist to set up experiments was A Kepler. B Galileo. C Newton. D Copernicus.

Which was not one of Sir Isaac Newton's achievements? A invented calculus B described gravity C described the nature of light D showed that planets revolve around the sun

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

86

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.10.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.10 Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions. 7.10.3 Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs.

The scientific method became the standard method for all scientific study. The scientific method is a step-by-step procedure for performing experiments and other scientific research. It is based on the ideas of two men, Francis Bacon of England and Rene Descartes of France. The basics of the scientific method are observation and experimentation. The scientist proposes a hypothesis, or solution to a problem, and then does experiments to test the hypothesis. Some of the most important effects of the Scientific Revolution had nothing to do with science. One effect was that people had seen the power of reason in solving scientific problems. They then began to use reason to examine society's problems. This led to the idea that laws should govern the way people behaved. Out of this idea came the belief that all people were equal--a key starting point for democracy. Another effect was the conflict between science and religion. The Church opposed many of the new discoveries in science because the discoveries called church teachings into question. However, scientists of the period felt that science and religion could exist at the same time.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

The basics of the scientific method are A science and religion. B problem and hypothesis. C observation and experimentation. D experiments and procedures.

Which was an effect of the Scientific Revolution? A Reason was applied to society's problems. B Kings became more powerful. C Religion disappeared. D Democracy vanished.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

87

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.11.1

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.11 Students analyze the political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason). 7.11.1 Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview.

A new interest in discovery and exploration grew in Europe in the late 1400s. The first great explorers were Portuguese. Directed by Prince Henry the Navigator, they explored the coast of Africa and, eventually, India. Other explorers were Spanish. In 1492 Christopher Columbus, in a voyage paid for by the queen of Spain, tried to reach India by sailing west across the Atlantic. Instead Columbus reached a small island in the Bahamas. In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the southern tip of South America into the Pacific. Though Magellan did not, his crew returned to Spain--the first men to circumnavigate the globe. Other Spanish explorers arrived in America in the 1500s. The English and French also explored the New World. John Cabot visited the Atlantic coast of Canada in 1497. A century later, Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe. Frenchman Jacques Cartier sailed up the Saint Lawrence River in 1535. Improved navigation and shipbuilding allowed all these Europeans to sail farther than ever before. Better cartography, or the science of maps, also played a key role. Now, Europeans could see maps of the whole world, including new lands and possible trade routes to control.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which statement about Columbus is false? A He sailed west across the Atlantic. B He was trying to reach India. C He was the first person to circumnavigate the earth. D His trip was paid for for Spain.

Which statement about explorers is true? A They were all looking for a route to India. B They all wanted to circumnavigate the world. C They were all led by Prince Henry. D Better navigation, shipbuilding, and maps were a great help to them.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

88

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.11.2

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.11 Students analyze the political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason). 7.11.2 Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent.

The Age of Exploration brought many important changes to the world. Among these was the exchange of plants, animals, technology, and cultures among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Europeans introduced many important new plants and animals to the Americas. They include bananas, oranges, wheat, and sugarcane, as well as cows, horses, pigs, and sheep. In the same way, New World species like tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco, peanuts, and maize spread to Europe, Africa, and Asia. Culture and technology also spread. For example, Europeans took Christianity to new parts of the world, along with their languages. They took guns and steel to the Americas and to Africa. Europeans also set up new industries and types of trade in the Americas. As a result, many Native Americans were treated poorly. Millions died from European diseases and from overwork in mines and on plantations. To replace the natives as enslaved workers, Europeans began to transport Africans to the Americas. In a short time, slavery became an important part of economic and social life in the New World.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and

2

circle the letter of the best response.

1

Which of the following were spread from Europe to different parts of the world? A tomatoes, potatoes, and tobacco B oranges, cows, and diseases C peanuts, pigs, and sheep D maize, wheat, and peanuts

What did Europeans do when millions of Native American workers died? A They began to transport enslaved Africans to the Americas. B They introduced many important new plants. C They took guns and steel to the Americas and to Africa. D They set up new industries.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

89

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.11.3

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.11 Students analyze the political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason). 7.11.3 Examine the origins of modern capitalism; the influence of mercantilism and cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in seventeenth-century Europe; the changing international trading and marketing patterns, including their locations on a world map; and the influence of explorers and map makers.

Mercantilism is an economic system in which a government controls all economic activity in both its country and its colonies to make itself richer. In Europe, mercantilism created new trade patterns. European countries imported raw materials like wood, cotton, and furs from their colonies and exported manufactured goods. The increased trade also created more markets for manufactured goods. Many of these were made by cottage industries, in which family members worked in their homes to make part of a product. England and the Netherlands developed new trade routes in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. They also developed banking systems that, along with trade, made them rich. The banks loaned money to businesspeople, which contributed to economic growth. With increased wealth, people demanded more products. Businesses competed to meet customers' demand in a system called a market economy. A market economy is a key part of capitalism, in which individuals and private companies run most industries and businesses.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

A system in which a government controls all economic activity is A mercantilism. B marketism. C capitalism. D colonialism.

Capitalism is a system in which A the government demands more products. B colonial economies are weak. C the country's capital city is in control. D private companies run most industries.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

90

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.11.4

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.11 Students analyze the political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason). 7.11.4 Explain how the main ideas of the Enlightenment can be traced back to such movements as the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution and to the Greeks, Romans, and Christianity.

Beginning in the 1600s, scholars and thinkers began to challenge longheld beliefs. They relied on reason, or logical thought, instead of religious teachings to explain how the world worked. They believed human reason could lead to knowledge, freedom, and happiness, which would improve society. The use of reason as a guide to philosophy, society, and politics defined a time known as the Enlightenment. The roots of the Enlightenment can be found in many traditions. Greek philosophers observed an order and regularity in the natural world. Romans developed natural law, the idea that laws governed how the world operated, an idea that Enlightenment thinkers applied to human behavior. In the Christian Middle Ages, Thomas Aquinas had taught that reason and faith together could explain the world. Renaissance humanists focused on human value and achievement and believed that people could improve the world. These ideas inspired Enlightenment beliefs. Enlightenment thinkers also admired the way some Reformation figures questioned church authority. Finally, the Scientific Revolution influenced Enlightenment thinking with its secular attitudes and its emphasis on the scientific method.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Which was not a root of Enlightenment thinking? A Greek and Roman philosophy B the Reformation C the Spanish Inquisition D the Scientific Revolution

Enlightenment thinkers believed A in Roman law. B in using reason as a guide. C all of the Catholic Church's teachings. D that people were not capable of improving the world.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

91

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.11.5

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.11 Students analyze the political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason). 7.11.5 Describe how democratic thought and institutions were influenced by Enlightenment thinkers (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, American founders).

Enlightenment ideas about government proved to be especially influential in Europe and in England's American colonies. Three important European thinkers in particular contributed to our modern idea and practice of democracy. Englishman John Locke argued that government was a contract, or agreement, between the ruler and the people. This contract limited a ruler's power. Locke also declared that people had natural rights to life, liberty, and property. If a government did not protect people's rights, Locke said they had the right to change rulers. The Frenchman Charles-Louis Montesquieu claimed that government should be divided into separate branches that share power. He felt this separation would protect people's freedom. Another French writer, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, supported popular sovereignty. This is the idea that governments should express the will of the people. All of these writers had a powerful influence on the men who created the government of the United States, especially Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Locke's ideas, for example, appear in the Declaration of Independence. The U.S. government has a separation of powers, as Montesquieu recommended.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read each question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

Who first said government was a contract between the ruler and the people? A Benjamin Franklin B Jean-Jacques Rousseau C Charles-Louis Montesquieu D John Locke

According to Montesquieu, governments A had natural rights. B should have a separation of powers. C signed a contract that limited a ruler's power. D should express the will of the people.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

92

California Standards Review Workbook

Name

Class

Date

History­Social Science Grade 7

Standard 7.11.6

STANDARDS REVIEW HSS 7.11 Students analyze the political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason). 7.11.6 Discuss how the principles of the Magna Carta were embodied in such documents as the English Bill of Rights and the American Declaration of Independence.

Enlightenment ideas about government were soon put into practice in two countries. The first was England. The seventeenth century in England was filled with tension and civil war. Monarchs insisted on their divine right to rule, while Parliamentary forces demanded greater power and more democracy. Finally, in 1688, Parliament grew impatient with James II. It offered the English throne to William, a Dutch prince and the husband of James's daughter Mary. William and Mary had to accept the English Bill of Rights. This document, based on Magna Carta, listed rights held by Parliament and the English people. English monarchs would rule according to laws passed by Parliament. An even greater step for democracy and Enlightenment values was taken in America. Some American colonists had grown increasingly unhappy with rule by the British king and Parliament. In 1776, colonial leaders approved the Declaration of Independence from Britain. Like Magna Carta, it stated people's rights to certain liberties. It also expresses Enlightenment values, especially John Locke's ideas about natural rights. It also reflected the ideas of other Enlightenment figures.

STANDARDS PRACTICE DIRECTIONS Read the question and circle the letter of the best response.

1

2

In what way did the English Bill of Rights reflect Magna Carta? A It listed rights for Parliament and the English people. B It upheld the divine right of kings. C It gave the throne to William and Mary. D It supported the Declaration of Independence.

93

Which was not a basis for the Declaration of Independence? A ideas of Locke and Rousseau B the Magna Carta C divine right of kings to rule D Enlightenment values

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

California Standards Review Workbook

Information

ca_stan_wkbk.pdf

105 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

797647


You might also be interested in

BETA
ca_stan_wkbk.pdf
hepr_18_216.47_57.tp