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Chemical Systems

Fertiliser: substance which is added

to soil to increase the growth of plants. It supplies macro- and micronutrients.

AFRIKAANS Kunsmis: Stof wat by die grond gevoeg

Macronutrients: Nitrogen,

phosporus and potassium are nutrients needed in the largest quantities from the soil for the plant to grow.

AFRIKAANS Makrovoedingstowwe: Stikstof,

Micronutrients: These are elements

which are needed in smaller amounts by the plants such as chromium, magnesium and iron.

AFRIKAANS Mikrovoedingstowwe: Dit

word om plantgroei te bevorder. Dit voorsien makro- en mikrovoedingstowwe.

fosfor en kalium is voedingstowwe uit die grond wat plante in die grootste hoeveelhede nodig het om te groei.

is elemente wat plante in kleiner hoeveelhede nodig het, soos chroom, magnesium en yster.

SESOTHO Monontsha: ntho e eketswang mobung

SESOTHO Dimatlafatsi tse kgolo: Naetrojine,

ho phahamisa sekgahla sa kgolo ya dijalo. E fepela ka dimatlafatsi tse kgolo le tse nyane.

fosforase le potasiamo ke dimatlafatsi tse hlokehang ka bongata bo fetisisang ho tswa mobung hore sejalo se hole.

SESOTHO Dimatlafatsi tse nyane: Tsena ke

dielemente tse hlokwang ka tekanyo e nyane ke dijalo jwalo ka kromiamo, maknesiamo le ayone.

XHOSA Isichumisi: Yinto efakwa emhlabeni

XHOSA Izondlo ezikhulu: I-nitrogen,

eyandisa ukukhula kwezityalo. Inikezela ngezondlo ezikhulu nezincinci (macro and micro).

i-phosporus kunye ne-potassium zizondlo ekufuneka zibe zininzi emhlabeni ukuze isityalo sikhule.

XHOSA Izondlo ezincinci: Ezi zii-elements

ezifunwa kancinci zizityalo, njengechromium, i-magnesium kunye ne-iron.

U ZUL Isivundisi: isithako esengezwa

U ZUL

Izakhi ezinkulu: I-Nitrogen, phosporus

ne-potassium yizakhi ezidingeka ngemithamo emikhulu kunayoyonke enhlabathini ukuze isitshalo sikhule.

U ZUL

Izakhi ezincane: Kunezakhi ezidingeka

ngemithamo emincane ezitshalweni njenge-chromium, magnesium ne-ayoni.

enhlabathini ukuze kwande ukukhula kwezitshalo. Sihlinzeka ngezakhi ezinkulu nezincane.

PLEASE NOTE: WE TAKE OUR BEST CARE WHEN PREPARING THESE GLOSSARIES - THEY ARE HOWEVER ONLY GUIDELINES TO HELP YOU MAKE BETTER SENSE OF DIFFICULT TERMINOLOGY. REMEMBER THAT IN THE EXAM YOU NEED TO KNOW THE PRECISE ENGLISH DEFINITION.

2009

PAGE 1

Chemical Systems

Eutrophicaton: is the suffocation of a

water ecosystem caused by the overgrowth of algae when too many nutrients are introduced to the water by fertilisers.

Organic fertiliser: Fertiliser which is

produced from natural plant or animal products.

AFRIKAANS Organiese kunsmis: Kunsmis wat

has been synthetically produced by industry.

Inorganic fertiliser: Fertiliser which

AFRIKAANS Eutrofikasie: Dit is die versmoring van

'n waterekosisteem wat veroorsaak word deur die opbloeiing van alge wanneer te veel voedingstowwe deur kunsmis in die water beland.

uit natuurlike of plant- of diereprodukte gemaak word.

AFRIKAANS Anorganiese kunsmis: Kunsmis wat

sinteties deur nywerhede vervaardig is.

SESOTHO Yutrofikeishene: ke pipetso ya dimela

tsa metsing e bakwang ke kgolo e feteletseng ya bolele ha dimatlafatsi tse ngata haholo di kenngwa metsing ke menontsha.

SESOTHO Monontsha wa okaniki: Monontsha

o hlahiswang ke semela sa tlhaho kapa dihlahiswa tsa diphoofolo.

SESOTHO Monontsha o seng wa okaniki:

Monontsha o hlahisitsweng ka tsela ya sinthethike ke indasteri.

XHOSA I-Eutrophicaton: Kukufuthaniselwa kweecosystem yamanzi okubangelwa kukukhula kakhulu kwengub' esele xa kufakwe izondlo ezininzi emanzini ngezichumisi.

XHOSA Isichumisi sendalo (Organic fertilizer): Isichumisi esenziwe ngemveliso

yendalo yezityalo neyezilwanyana.

XHOSA Isichumisi esingesiso esendalo (Inorganic fertilizer): Isichumisi

esizenzela sona nesenziwa ngamashishini.

U ZUL

Ukweqiseka: wukufuthaniseka kohlelo

lwemvelo lwamanzi okudalwa wukukhula ngokweqile kwe-algae uma izakhi eziningi ngokweqile zifakwa yizivundisi emanzini.

U ZUL

Isivundisi se-organic: Isivundisi

esikhiqizwa ngemikhiqizo yemvelo yezitshalo nezilwane.

U ZUL

Isivundisi se-inorganic: Isivundisi

esikhiqizwe yimboni ngezaithako okungezona zemvelo.

PLEASE NOTE: WE TAKE OUR BEST CARE WHEN PREPARING THESE GLOSSARIES - THEY ARE HOWEVER ONLY GUIDELINES TO HELP YOU MAKE BETTER SENSE OF DIFFICULT TERMINOLOGY. REMEMBER THAT IN THE EXAM YOU NEED TO KNOW THE PRECISE ENGLISH DEFINITION.

2009

PAGE 2

Chemical Systems

NPK Ratio: The ratio of nitrogen :

phosphorus : potassium in the fertiliser.

Superphosphate: Calcium

phosphate salts which have been treated with sulfuric acid to make a soluble fertiliser.

AFRIKAANS Superfosfaat: Kalsiumfosfaatsoute wat

Fractional distillation of air:

AFRIKAANS NPK-verhouding: Die verhouding van

stikstof : fosfor : kalium in kunsmis.

Process of turning air into a liquid and warming it to separate oxygen (O2) from nitrogen (N2) in air by differences in boiling points. AFRIKAANS

Fraksionele distillasie van lug: Proses om

lug in 'n vloeistof te omskep en dit te verwarm om die suurstof (O2) van die stikstof (N2) in die lug te skei deur verskille in kookpunte.

met swaelsuur behandel is om 'n oplosbare kunsmis te maak.

SESOTHO Reshiyo ya NPK: Reshiyo ya naetrojine:

fosforase: potasiamo monontsheng.

SESOTHO Suphafosfeite: Matswai a khalsiamo

Forakshenale distileishene ya moya:

SESOTHO

fosfeite a sebeditsweng ka asiti ya salfuriki ho etsa monontsha o qhibidihang.

Tshebetso ya ho fetolela moya mokedikeding le ho o futhumatsa ho arohanya oksijene (O2) ho naetrojine (N2) moyeng ka diphapang tse teng digrateng tsa ho bela ha tsona.

XHOSA I-NPK Ratio: I-ratio ye-nitrogen: neye-

XHOSA I-Superphosphate: Iityuwa ze-calcium

phosphate zifakwa i-sulfuric acid ukwenza isichumisi esinyibilikayo.

XHOSA

yokuguqula umoya ube lulwelo ze lufudunyezwe ukuze kwahlulwe i-oxygen (O2) kwi-nitrogen (N2) emoyeni ngeyantlukwano ekhoyo kumaqondo azo okubila.

phosphorus: neye-potassium kwisichumisi. Distil

Ukucocwa komoya ngokwamaqhequ (Fractional distillation of air): Inkqubo

U ZUL Ukulinganisana kwe-NPK:

U ZUL I-Superphosphate: Osawoti be-calcium

phosphate abalungiswe nge-sulfuric acid ukwenza isivundisi esincibilikayo.

U ZUL

Ukuthonsiseka komoya: Inqubo yokuguqula umoya ube wuketshezi nokuwufudumeza ukuze uhlukanise i-oksijini (O2) kwi-nitrogen (N2) emoyeni ngokwehlukahluka emazingeni okubila.

2009

Ukulinganisana (ireshiyo) kwe-nitrogen : phosphorus : potassium kwisivundisi.

PLEASE NOTE: WE TAKE OUR BEST CARE WHEN PREPARING THESE GLOSSARIES - THEY ARE HOWEVER ONLY GUIDELINES TO HELP YOU MAKE BETTER SENSE OF DIFFICULT TERMINOLOGY. REMEMBER THAT IN THE EXAM YOU NEED TO KNOW THE PRECISE ENGLISH DEFINITION.

PAGE 3

Chemical Systems

Haber process: Reaction of

hydrogen (H2) with nitrogen (N2) under pressure to produce ammonia(NH3).

AFRIKAANS Haber-proses: Reaksie van waterstof

(H2) met stikstof (N2) onder druk om ammoniak te vorm (NH3).

Ostwald process: The process

producing nitric acid(HNO3) from ammonia(NH3).

AFRIKAANS Ostwald-proses: Hierdie proses

produseer salpetersuur (HNO3) uit ammoniak (NH3).

Contact process: The process which

makes sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from sulfur or a source of sulfides.

AFRIKAANS Kontakproses: Die proses waardeur

swaelsuur (H2SO4) uit swael of 'n bron van sulfiedes gemaak word.

SESOTHO Tshebetso ya Haber: Rieskehen ya

haedrojine (H2) le naetrojine (N2) tlasa kgatello ho hlahisa ammonia (NH3).

SESOTHO Tshebetso ya Ostwald: Tshebetso ya

ho hlahisa nitrike asiti (HNO3) ho tswa ho ammonia (NH3).

SESOTHO Tshebetso ya kopano: Tshebetso e etsang

salfurike asiti (H2SO4) ho tswa ho salfore kapa mohlodi wa disalfaete.

XHOSA Inkqubo ka-Haber: Uphembeleleko

XHOSA Inkqubo ka-Ostwald: Inkqubo evelisa

i-nitric acid (HNO3) kwi-ammonia (NH3).

lwe-hydrogen (H2) ne-nitrogen (N2) phantsi koxinzeleleko ukuze zivelise i-ammonia (NH3).

XHOSA Inkqubo yokudibanisa (Contact process): Inkqubo eyenza i-sulphuric acid

(H2SO4) nge-sulphur okanye ngomthombo wee-sulfides.

U ZUL Inqubo ka-Haber: Ukuphendula kwe-

hydrogen (H2) uma ihlangene ne-nitrogen (N2) ngaphansi kwengcindezi yokukhiqiza i-ammonia (NH3).

ZULU Inqubo ka-Ostwald: Inqubo ekhiqiza

i-nitric acid (HNO3) nge-ammonia (NH3).

U ZUL Inqubo yokuthintana: Inqubo eyenza

i-sulfuric acid (H2SO4) nge-sulfur noma ngomthombo wama-sulfides.

PLEASE NOTE: WE TAKE OUR BEST CARE WHEN PREPARING THESE GLOSSARIES - THEY ARE HOWEVER ONLY GUIDELINES TO HELP YOU MAKE BETTER SENSE OF DIFFICULT TERMINOLOGY. REMEMBER THAT IN THE EXAM YOU NEED TO KNOW THE PRECISE ENGLISH DEFINITION.

2009

PAGE 4

Chemical Systems

Anode: The electrode where oxidation

takes place.

Cathode: The electrode where

reduction takes place.

Mercury cathode cell: This cell

AFRIKAANS Anode: Die elektrode waar oksidasie

plaasvind.

AFRIKAANS Katode: Die elektrode waar reduksie

plaasvind.

makes chlorine on a graphite anode and makes use of a mercury cathode which makes an amalgam with the sodium formed. AFRIKAANS Kwikkatodesel: Hierdie sel maak

chloor op 'n grafietanode en gebruik 'n kwikkatode wat 'n amalgaam maak met die natrium wat gevorm word.

SESOTHO Anoude: Elektroude moo oksideishene e

etsahalang teng.

SESOTHO Khathoude: Elektroude moo phokotso e

etsahalang teng.

SESOTHO Sele ya khathoude ya mekhuri: Sele

ena e etsa tlelorine anoudeng ya kerafaete mme e sebedisa khathoude ya mekhuri e etsang motswako le sodiamo e hlahiswang.

XHOSA I-Anode: Isigqithiseli-mbane kulwelo

XHOSA I-cathode: Isigqithiseli-mbane kulwelo

apho kwenzeka ukususwa kwe-oxygen kwimbumba.

XHOSA I-cathode cell ye-Mercury: Le seli

apho kufakwa khona i-oxygen kwi-element okanye kwimbumba (oxidation).

U ZUL

I-anodi: I-elekthrodi lapho kwenzeka

khona ukugwala.

U ZUL Ikhathodi: I-elekthrodi lapho kwenzeka

khona ukuncipha.

yenza i-chlorine kwi-anode ye-graphite yaye isebenzisa i-cathode ye-mercury eyenza ingxubevange kunye nale sodium idalekileyo.

U ZUL Iseli yekhathodi ye-mercury: Le seli

yenza i-chlorine ku-anodi ye-graphite futhi isebenzisa ikhathodi ye-mercury eyenza inhlanganisela nge-sodium eyakhekile.

2009

PLEASE NOTE: WE TAKE OUR BEST CARE WHEN PREPARING THESE GLOSSARIES - THEY ARE HOWEVER ONLY GUIDELINES TO HELP YOU MAKE BETTER SENSE OF DIFFICULT TERMINOLOGY. REMEMBER THAT IN THE EXAM YOU NEED TO KNOW THE PRECISE ENGLISH DEFINITION.

PAGE 5

Chemical Systems

Amalgam: An alloy of mercury with

another metal.

Diaphragm cell: A chlor-alkali cell in

which the hydrogen producing cathode and the chlorine producing anode are separated by a porous asbestos sheet.

AFRIKAANS Diafragmasel: 'n Chloor-alkalisel waarin

Membrane cell: A newer type of cell in which

the hydrogen producing cathode and the chlorine producing anode are separated by a special polymer which only allows sodium ions to cross it.

AFRIKAANS Amalgaam: 'n Allooi van kwik met 'n

ander metaal.

AFRIKAANS Membraansel: 'n Nuwer tipe sel waarin

die waterstofproduserende katode en die chloorproduserende anode deur 'n poreuse asbesvel geskei word.

die waterstofproduserende katode en die chloorproduserende ano de geskei word deur 'n spesiale polimeer wat net natriumione deurlaat.

SESOTHO Motswako: Aloye ya mekhuri mmoho le

metale e nngwe.

SESOTHO Sele ya dayaforamo: Sele ya tlelore-

SESOTHO Sele ya memboreine: Mofuta o motjha

wa sele oo ho wona khathoude e hlahisang haedrojine le anoude e hlahisang tlelorine di arolwang ke pholimere e dumellang feela diayone tsa sodiamo ho e parola.

alkali eo ho yona khathoude e hlahisang haedrojine le anoude e hlahisang tlelorine

XHOSA Ingxubevange: Umxube wezinyithi

(alloy) owenziwe nge-mercury kunye nesinye isinyithi.

XHOSA Iseli elicwecwe (diaphragm): I chlor-

alkali cell apho le cathode ivelisa i-hydrogen nale anode ivelisa i-chlorine zohlulwa ngecwecwe le-asbestos elinentunjana.

XHOSA Iseli eyinwebu (membrane): Uhlobo

olutsha lweseli apho le cathode ivelisa i-hydrogen nale anode ivelisa i-chlorine zohlulwa nge-polymer eyodwa evumela iisodium ions kuphela ukuba zinqumle kuyo.

U ZUL I-amalgamu: Ingxube ye-mercury nenye

insimbi.

U ZUL Iseli eyidayafragemu: Iseli ye-chlor-

alkali lapho ikhathodi ekhiqiza i-hydrogen ne-anodi ekhiqiza i-chlorine kuhlukaniswe ngeshidi elivuzayo lika-asbestasi.

ZULU Iseli yesikhumba: Iseli ewuhlobo olusha lapho

ikhathodi ekhiqiza i-hydrogen ne-anodi ekhiqiza i-chlorine kuhlukaniswe nge-polymer eyisipesheli evumela ama-ion kasawoti ukuba ayinqamule.

2009

PLEASE NOTE: WE TAKE OUR BEST CARE WHEN PREPARING THESE GLOSSARIES - THEY ARE HOWEVER ONLY GUIDELINES TO HELP YOU MAKE BETTER SENSE OF DIFFICULT TERMINOLOGY. REMEMBER THAT IN THE EXAM YOU NEED TO KNOW THE PRECISE ENGLISH DEFINITION.

PAGE 6

Chemical Systems

Saponification: The treatment of triglyceride fats an oils

to make soaps. The ester bond in the triglyceride is broken in the process.

AFRIKAANS Saponifikasie: Die behandeling van trigliseriedvette en olies

Detergent: A chemical with a non-polar tail attached to

and polar "head". It allows fats and oils to be washed off surfaces. They make water able to wet things better.

AFRIKAANS Opwasmiddel: 'n Chemikalie met 'n nie-polêre stert wat

om seep te maak. Die esterbindings in die trigliseriede word in die proses gebreek.

aan 'n polêre "kop" verbind is. Dit laat toe dat vette en olies van oppervlakke afgewas kan word. Dit laat water dinge beter benat.

SESOTHO Saponifikheishene: Ho sebetswa ha mafura le dioli

tsa teraetleliseraete ho hlahisa disepa. Kopano ya estere teraetleliseraeteng e a pshatlwa tshebetsong ena.

SESOTHO Dethejente: Khemikhale e nang le mohatla o se nang ntlha

e hoketsweng "hloohong" ya ntlha. E dumella mafura le dioli ho hlatsuwa dinthong. Di etsa hore metsi a kgone ho kolobisa dintho hantle ho feta.

XHOSA Ukwenziwa kwesepha (Saponification): Ukufakwa

XHOSA Isigutyuli (Detergent): Ikhemikhali enomsila

kwekhemikhali kumafutha nee-oli ze-triglyceride ukuze zenze iisepha. Iqhina le-ester kwi-triglyceride liyaqhawulwa kule nkqubo.

U ZUL Ukwenza insipho: Ukulungiswa kwamafutha nowoyela

U ZUL Idithejenti: Ikhemikhali enomsila ongenaso isiqonga

ongenamacala emagnethi oncanyathiselwe "kwintloko" enamacala emagnethi. Ivumela amafutha nee-oli ukuba ahlambeke ezintweni. Zenza amanzi ukuba amanzise izinto ngcono.

kwama-triglyceride ngenhloso yokwenza insipho. Ibhondi ye-ester kwi-triglyceride iyaphulwa kule nqubo.

ohlangene ne "khanda" eliyisiqonga. Ivumela amafutha nowoyela ukuba bagezeke kwingaphezulu. Kwenza ukuba amanzi akwazi ukumanzisa izinto kangcono.

2009

PLEASE NOTE: WE TAKE OUR BEST CARE WHEN PREPARING THESE GLOSSARIES - THEY ARE HOWEVER ONLY GUIDELINES TO HELP YOU MAKE BETTER SENSE OF DIFFICULT TERMINOLOGY. REMEMBER THAT IN THE EXAM YOU NEED TO KNOW THE PRECISE ENGLISH DEFINITION.

PAGE 7

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