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Rock On! Featuring the Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Trio!

"Sed" "Iggy" "Meta `M'"

Deborah Cubillos

Meadows Elementary School

The instructional materials were developed as part of the BEST Science Project, funded by Northrop Grumman Space Technology.

Rock On! Featuring the Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Trio!

The materials developed for this unit are to introduce second grade students to the wonderful world of geology through rocks. Students will learn the properties of rocks and how to place them in categories using these properties, as prescribed by the California State Science Standards. They will learn how igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are formed, as well as understanding that minerals are the most common material from the Earth. Stories will be read to engage these second graders. Activities will give the students a "hands-on" approach to their cognitive learning. The use of visuals will help students to relate and appreciate this wonderful natural resource, the rock. So, Rock On!

TARGETED GRADE LEVEL

The instructional materials are for the second grade students.

CALIFORNIA SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS Earth Sciences

3. Earth is made of materials that have distinct properties and provide resources for human activities. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know how to compare the physical properties of different kinds of rocks and know that rock is composed of different combinations of minerals. b. Students know rock, water, plants, and soil provide many resources, including food, fuel, and building materials, that humans use.

Investigation and Experimentation

4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will: a. Students know how to compare the physical properties of different kinds of rocks and know that rock is composed of different combinations of minerals. b. Use magnifiers or microscopes to observe and draw descriptions of small objects or small features of objects.

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STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Students will be able to identify color, texture and size of rocks. 2. Students will record observations and draw conclusions from their observations. 3. Students will be able to describe minerals, and sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. 4. Students will describe the purpose of rocks and where they can be found.

TIME NEEDED

This unit takes four hours to complete. Four one-hour lessons is an appropriate time frame for this unit.

SCIENCE CONTENT

ROCKS Minerals by themselves are not the whole story, since they usually combine to form masses of rock. Minerals are substances that were never an animal or a plant and that were formed in the earth by nature. Iron, granite, and salt are minerals, as are as quartz or feldspar. They have a definite chemical composition and usually a definite crystal structure. Rocks are combinations of various minerals that have been formed by heat or pressure in the earth. These larger combinations determine how our planet's crust looks and behaves. Using her or his knowledge of how rocks are formed can give a geologist a good idea of what that part of the earth was line in earlier times. There are three groups of rocks--igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Each of these grouping includes different varieties of rocks that were created in very different ways.

IGNEOUS ROCK Igneous means relating to fire. Rocks of this group come into being when molten rock, known as magma, cools into a solid state and becomes hard. When magma moves to a cooler area, either under the ground or by breaking onto the surface of the earth as lava, it begins to harden. This change is from a molten state to a solid state. Magma that hardens under the surface of the earth is called intrusive rock. Examples of this kind of igneous rock are granite and gabbro.

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Magma that travels all the way to the earth's surface through volcano or volcanic vents is called lava. As the lava cools it becomes what is called extrusive rock. One example of extrusive rock is rhyolite. It is the extrusive equivalent of granite. Obsidian is another example of extrusive rock.

SEDIMENTARY ROCK Nature has a way of making sediments each and every day. Dust blowing through the air and landing on your doorstep is sediment. A rock that you throw and a piece chips off as it lands is sediment. Most sedimentary rock is formed under water. Rocks also get bumped as they roll along at the bottom of a river. The rough edges get chipped off and settle to the bottom. Dirt from the riverbank or runoff from fields also carries soil particles into streams and rivers. Some of this sediment travels great distances before it eventually settles to the bottom of the river or is carried out to the ocean. How can all these particles turn into rock? The process may take millions of years as more sediment piling on top slowly buries sediment. As the pile gets heavier, the particles near the bottom are squeezed closer and closer together and warmed by the heat of the earth. Under ground water brings new minerals that act like glue to hold the tiny particles together into sedimentary rock. Another kind of sedimentary rock is formed when skeletons of tiny sea animals called plankton fall to the bottom of the ocean. Shells and other sea life also add to this collection on the ocean floor. All these things piling up on the ocean floor along with the heaviness of the water creates a squeezing pressure that changes the sediment into hard rock. Minerals that are dissolved in the water help to cement the sediment together. Sedimentary rocks are often formed in layers as more and more sediment falls on top of older layers.

METAMORPHIC ROCK Metamorphism means to change in structure, appearance, and composition. A rock that changes in its solid state within the earth's crust is called metamorphic rock. The rock changes because of change in temperature, pressure, and/or chemical interactions. In nature, great pressure on rocks causes the temperature to rise. Together, the heat and pressure changes produce metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks begin as an igneous or sedimentary rock. Metamorphic rock does not melt, like igneous rock. These are actually baked by the earth's internal heat causing the structure to change altogether. Rocks may begin to change even at very shallow depths. Much of the world's metamorphic rock was formed billions of years ago when the earth was much hotter and there was much more tectonic activity, or land movement, causing great pressure on rocks.

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PRE-REQUISITE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE

None needed.

GLOSSARY

Properties: Igneous rock: Sedimentary rock: Metamorphic rock: Mineral: how a thing looks, feels, smells, tastes or sounds rock formed as melted materials cool rock formed form layers of sediments that harden rock that has changed because of extreme pressure and heat solid material made of a single substance found in nature

ACTIVITIES

In preparation for this science module, the teacher will prepare a class set of "Rock On!" workbooks. The template is included at the end of this module.

Activity #1 ­The activity begins when the teacher reads, Everybody Needs A Rock by Byrd Baylor. During this activity, students will view rocks in a new and more global way. Students look for qualities in rock as they choose one for a pet. They will learn that rocks are not just something you walk on, they are useful as building materials and they are everywhere in the world. They will make their first entry in their "Rock On!" workbook by naming and writing a short story about their new pet rock.

Activity #2 ­ Students will learn properties of rock and how to categorize them by those properties as prescribed by the California State Science Standards. This will be accomplished by exciting interactive group activities using rocks as hands-on. They will make a second entry in their "Rock On!" workbook while using magnifying glasses for detail information.

Activity #3 ­ Students will be introduced igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks through the book, Let's Go Rock Collecting, by Roma Gans. Students will draw and describe the properties of these rocks while looking through a magnifying glass. In this lesson, they will start their own rock collection.

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Activity #4 ­ Students will discover that minerals are solid substances found in nature and that they are the most common material found on the Earth. The book, Minerals, by Adele Richardson will be read to the students and great graphic pictures will show students where we can find minerals in everyday life. They will see realia that demonstrate how minerals are used from building materials to precious stones for jewelry. Students will learn that their birth month is represented by a mineral. The will make observations in their "Rock On!" booklet.

ASSESSMENT

Assessments can be done informally as students work on their projects.

RESOURCES AND REFERENCES

BOOKS These are "must have's" in your classroom library for earth science. Baylor, Byrd; Everybody Needs A Rock, 1974, Aladdin Paperbacks Cole, Ron; Remarkable Rocks, 1996, Newbridge Educational Publishing Dussling, Jennifer; Looking At Rocks, 2001, Grosset & Dunlap Gans, Roma; Let's Go Rock Collecting, 1984, HarperCollins Richardson, Adele; Minerals, 2002, Capstone Press Richardson, Adele; Rocks, 2002, Capstone Press Tocci, Salvatore; Experiments With Rocks and Minerals, 2002, Children's Press

WEBSITES California Mineral Education Foundation ­ www.calmineraled.org National Science Teachers Association ­ www.nsta.org

RESOURCES FOR ROOM SET UP The classroom should have an area set up with rock and mineral posters, mineral, metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rock collections, grade level books about rocks and

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minerals and magnifying glasses. Building materials, for example, such as bricks, copper pipes, and granite and marble tiles should be included to help students understand that rocks and minerals are common and useful for many different things. All of these resources can be found at home improvement centers (Lowes, Home Depot), Lakeshore Learning Company (www.lakeshorelearning.com) and Acorn Naturalists (www.acornnaturalists.com). Students should be given the opportunity to explore this area during their free time or during science center.

ACTIVITY #1 ­ My Pet Rock

Description Of The Activity Students will find a rock a their own, give it some eyes and name it after listening to the story Everybody Needs A Rock, by Byrd Baylor. This activity will motivate the students to appreciate rocks and how they re used in the world.

Materials Needed For The Activity Book entitled Everybody Needs A Rock by Byrd Baylor. Prior to activity, students will find a rock, of any kind, no bigger than their fist and no smaller than the "O" when they make the "O.K." sign with their hand. Prior to the activity, the teacher will prepare the "Rock On!" activity booklet for the student. Google eyes, various sizes, 2 per student

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Tacky glue 12/24 pack of colored pencils

Procedures For The Activity 1. Pose a variety of questions to the class to begin the discussion of rocks. Questions can include the following:

Where do we find rocks? What are rocks are used for? (i.e.: roadways, walkways, and bricks). Can we find rocks inside/outside of our houses? (i.e.: tabletops, counter tops, floor tiles, bathroom tiles, block walls, and patio floors). Are all rocks the same size? What are the smallest rocks you have seen? What are the largest rocks you have seen? Are all rock the same color? Do they all feel the same? Do they weight the same?

2. Read the story Everybody Needs A Rock, by Byrd Baylor.

Let students hold the rock that they brought while listening to the story. When the story is finished, ask the students to share about why they picked their rock over thousands of rocks they could have chosen. Have the students give a name to their rock and glue on the googly eyes (tell the students their pet must have two eyes...no Cyclopes!)

3. Tell the students can leave their pet on their desk for the remainder of the unit as long as they do not play with them during other lessons. 4. Introduce the "Rock On" activity booklet and have the students fill in the first page with a drawing of their new pet, the name of their pet and write a short story about their pet.

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Extension Activity: When you are walking in from recess, have students look around and find, count, or name things made from rock (i.e. cement on the ground, blocks on buildings, rocks in planters for decoration, and the asphalt on the street).

STUDENT WORKSHEET #1 ­ My Pet Rock Complete pages 2 & 3 of the "Rock On!" workbook (template and instruction are at the end of this unit) ACTIVITY #2 ­ Properties of Rocks

Description Of The Activity Students will understand the meaning of "Properties" by grouping rocks by color, texture, and size. Students will explain rock properties by: 1. Color 2. Size 3. Texture/Touch

Materials Needed For The Activity Four sets of 3" X 5" index cards labeled: o color o texture/Touch o size o smooth o full of holes o rough o dark color o more than one color o light color o large o medium o small Assortment of rocks ­ 3 sets of 15 rocks (see picture at right) Magnifying glass 1 per student Rock On! workbook

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Procedures For The Activity 1. Write on the board, as a heading, the word "properties."

Review with students the discussion from the previous lesson about where we find rocks in nature, in our home, or outside our home. Ask students, "If we could describe rocks by their properties, what might properties mean?" Give them a hint: it is using your five senses.

2. List under the word "properties," see/looks, feel, smells, tastes and sounds.

Then jokingly ask, "Should we taste rocks? No! They might break our teeth! Can we hear rock when we place them by our ears? Not really! Do you think you can smell rocks? Some rocks may smell different from others but, the smell might be our own opinion of good or stinky." We can use these properties to classify rocks.

3. Write on the board, as a heading, "color" and say, "For example, the property of color, we can classify the rocks by light color, dark color and more than one color/mixed."

Then list the words light color, dark color and mixed colors. Next, write as a heading, "Texture/ Touch." Ask the students, "how can these be classified?" and then write rough, smooth, or full of wholes under the heading.

4. Lastly, write "Size" as a heading and have the class give the answers small, medium or large as you write these words under the heading.

Tell the students that they are going to be Geologists (explain that Geologists are people who study rocks) they are now going to classify rocks just as Geologists do. Remember to call the students Geologists during the lesson.

5. Divide the class into 4 groups.

Give each group a set of labeled index cards, the assortment of rocks and magnifying glasses. This lesson works well by letting the groups sit on the floor in different areas of the room.

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Have Geologists look at each rock with a magnifying glass and remind them no to touch the glass with the rock--it may scratch the glass. Tell the Geologists to place the category heading "Color" at the top, and then place the cards for that category (light, dark, and mixed) to the left. Have the Geologists place the assorted rocks to the right of the corresponding label. Have the students discuss why they placed the rocks where they did. Then put the rocks in a pile to be sorted for the next category. Do this same procedure with the headings "Texture/Touch" and "Size."

6. In their groups, with rocks in a pile, have the Geologist play "Guess my rock."

Each Geologist will take turns looking at only one rock; they will then describe its properties to the group and pick someone from the group to guess which rock they are looking at. Each Geologist will get a turn guessing and describing.

7. Clean up. 8. Have students draw and color a picture of a favorite rock they saw today, they may use the magnifying glass for better detail and write in the descriptive properties of that rock in their "Rock On!" workbook.

Assessment For The Activity The teacher will perform an informative assessment by walking around the room during the group activity to confirm students have accurately followed the procedures for this activity.

STUDENT WORKSHEET #2 ­ Properties of Rocks Complete pages 4&5 in the "Rock On!" workbook ACTIVITY #3 ­ Types of Rock Samples

Description Of The Activity Students will be introduced to minerals, metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. The teacher will read the book, Let's Go Rock Collecting, by Roma Gans to introduce how each rock is formed, and how it is used as building materials. Students will also collect rocks for their rock 11

collection, draw the rocks, and describe the properties of minerals, metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks in their "Rock On!" workbook.

Materials Needed For The Activity Book entitled Let's Go Rock Collecting by Roma Gans Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary Sample/Collection Kits 12/24 pack of colored pencils 1 Magnifying glass per student "Rock On!" workbook 1 zip lock bag per student with student's name written in permanent ink, for rock collection 1 rock of each type (metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks) for each student. These can be purchased at a home improvement store in bulk (such as red volcanic rock, marble, river rocks, granite, and slate/shale). These can used for each student to start their own rock collection. Each student should have the same rocks. If students are going on a trip to the mountains, desert or ocean, have them collect rocks (even sand) for each student to add to the collection. The rocks brought in should be no larger than the circle part of a child's hand in the "O.K. sign," you do not want boulders in your classroom!

Procedures For The Activity 1. Review properties from last lesson by having students explain what properties are and how we can categorize rocks using these properties. 2. Read the book Let's Go Rock Collecting, by Roma Gans. 3. After reading the book, go back to page 12, reread about the formation of igneous rocks.

Then, have a sample of an igneous rock (obsidian and volcanic red rock or pumice) to show the students. Discuss the properties of color, texture, and size.

4. Then turn to page 19 and reread about sedimentary rocks.

Show students a sample (limestone) and discuss the properties of color, texture, and size.

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5. Lastly, turn to page 26, reread, show a sample of a metamorphic rock (slate and marble) and discuss its properties.

Remind the students that they are still Geologists.

6. Have students turn to the page in their "Rock On!" booklet with word Igneous Rock.

Have the Geologists look at an igneous rock through the magnifying glass and then draw, with detail, what they see. Next, fill in the properties to describe the igneous rock. Do the same procedure for the sedimentary and metamorphic rock.

7. As they are working on the above activity let each Geologists fill their labeled zip-lock bag with the each of the rocks that you have brought for their rock collection.

Ask them if they remember which type of rock they are. This can be used a formative assessment to see if they were paying attention during the story.

STUDENT WORKSHEET #3 ­ Properties of Rocks Complete pages 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 & 11 in the "Rock On!" workbook ACTIVITY #4 ­ What Are Minerals?

Description Of The Activity Students will discover that minerals are solid substances found in nature. They are the most common material found on the Earth. The book, Minerals by Adele Richardson will be read to the students. The illustrations in this book show students where we can find minerals in everyday life. Students will observe realia that demonstrate how minerals are used from building materials to precious stones for jewelry. Students will find that a mineral represents their birth month. Students will record their observations and write in their "Rock On!" workbook.

Materials Needed For The Activity Book entitled Minerals by Adele Richardson Birth Month Mineral Chart indicating the minerals that correspond to each calendar month. 1 Minerals ­ Sample/collection kit

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1 tube of toothpaste 1 small container of talcum powder Classroom clock 1 Large graph poster with the birth month minerals written at the bottom and place on the board to be filled in. 12/24 pack of colored pencils "Rock On!" workbook The following items are examples of what the teacher can set on display for the lesson: Computer parts Copper pipe Pennies Nickels Gold Jewelry Vitamins (The above are to be sitting near you as you read the book)

Procedures For The Activity 1. Review from the previous lesson the terms metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous.

Have the students look at the items setting out. Ask students what they think all of these items have in common. Then tell them they are all made form minerals.

2. Read the book, Minerals, by Adele Richardson.

As you are reading, point to the items that are setting near you and how they relate to minerals.

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Have a discussion after each section of the book about the items.

3. Ask students if they know their birth month and if they know which mineral is represented by that month.

Show them the picture of their mineral and birth month (see below). Have them share with a partner the color and name of their mineral. Fill in the graph with student's birth minerals. Ask which month has the most common mineral? Which month has the least? Using the data from your class, ask how many more are in one month than others?

4. Have students complete their "Rock On!" workbook. Assessment For The Activity None needed.

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STUDENT WORKSHEET #4 ­ What are Minerals? Complete page 12 of the "Rock On!" workbook Instructions for printing and assembling the "Rock On!" workbook

1. Print out each page of the workbook. 2. Photocopy the pages as they printed out onto your photocopier tray. 3. Use the back-to-back (OR use the 2-1 feature on your copier). 4. The result should be the first sheet will be pages 12 and 1 and on the reverse side of this sheet will be pages 2 and 11. The second sheet out of your copier will be 4 and 9 and on the reverse side will be pages 10 and 3. The third sheet will have pages 6 and 7 on one side and 8 and 5 on the other. 5. Arrange the three sheets on paper in page order and staple the spine (use can use a spine stapler). 6. Now you have created the "Rock On!" workbook!

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The "Rock On!" workbook begins on the next page

My Birthstone Mineral

Rock On!

"Iggy" "Sed" "Meta `M'"

A picture of my birthstone mineral

Color: _______________________ Name of Birthstone: _________________

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By: _______________________

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Activity #1 My Pet Rock

Properties of Metamorphic Rock Observed

Color

Light Dark Mixed

Size

Small Medium Large

Texture / Touch

Smooth Rough Full of Holes

Draw a picture of your Pet Rock

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Metamorphic Rock:

Is rock that has changed because of extreme pressure and heat.

My Pet Rock and I will... ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Draw a picture of a metamorphic rock

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My Favorite Rock

Properties of Sedimentary Rock Observed

Color

Light Dark Mixed

Size

Small Medium Large

Texture / Touch

Smooth Rough Full of Holes

Draw a picture of your favorite rock

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Sedimentary Rock:

Is rock formed form layers of sediments that harden.

Properties of My Favorite Rock

Color

Light Dark Mixed

Size

Small Medium Large

Texture / Touch

Smooth Rough Full of Holes

Draw a picture of a sedimentary rock

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Igneous Rock:

Is rock formed as melted materials cool.

Properties of Igneous Rock Observed

Color

Light Dark Mixed

Size

Small Medium Large

Texture / Touch

Smooth Rough Full of Holes

Draw a picture of an igneous rock

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