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WORKSHEET Chapter 15 ­ The Urinary System 1. The functions of the urinary system include elimination of __________ such as ____________________ wastes, __________, and drugs. 2. Kidneys also regulate ____________________, including water and ____________________ balance, and blood acid-base balance, along with __________ pressure, __________ production, and activation of ____________________. 3. The organs of the urinary System include: ____________________ (right and left) ____________________ (right and left) ____________________ ____________________ 4. The ______________ _______________ sits on top of the kidney. 5. The ________kidney is lower than the _________kidney. 6. A layer of fat, the ____________________ ____________________, cushions, protects, and supports each kidney. 7. The regions of the kidney include the ____________________-outer region ____________________-inside the cortex ____________________-inner collecting tube 8. Kidney structures include the ____________________- triangular regions of tissue in the medulla ____________________- extensions of cortex-like material inward ____________________ - cup shaped structures that funnel urine towards the renal pelvis

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9. Blood flow in the kidneys starts in the ____________________ artery to the entire kidney. Blood flow to each nephron is through the ________________ _____________ ; the ball of capillaries in the nephron is the ____________________, and the ____________________ arteriole drains the nephron. The ____________________ __________ drains blood from the kidney. 10. The structural and functional units of the kidneys are the ____________________. The main parts are the blood-carrying ____________________ and the long, coiled __________ __________.

(#10) 11. The parts of the ________________ ______________ are:

the balloon-like ______________ __________, which captures filtrate from the glomerulus; the ____________________ ____________________ __________, which reabsorbs most materials; the __________ of __________ , which reabsorbs water and salt, making the urine more dilute; and the __________ ____________ __________, which accomplishes most acid-base and electrolyte balancing. 12. The ____________________ ____________________ accept the reabsorbed substances and return them to the general circulation. 13. The 3 urine formation processes are: ____________________, the formation of the fluid by the glomerulus; ____________________, the return of needed substances to the blood; and ____________________, the active removal of wastes from the blood (into the tubules). 14. The three nitrogenous wastes that are concentrated in the urine are: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 15. The ____________________ drain urine from the kidney into the ____________________, where it is stored until it drains from the body through the ____________________, in an action called ____________________, which requires relaxation of both the internal and external ____________________ ____________________.

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16. The ____________ _______________ ______________ is smooth muscle, so it is under __________ control; the _______________ _____________ ______________ is skeletal muscle, so it is under _____________ control. 17. Body fluids are either ____________________ _____________( inside of cells), or ____________________ __________(outside of cells). The main two types of this second fluid are: ____________________ __________, which surrounds your cells, and __________ __________ in the circulation. 18. Changes in ____________________ balance causes water to move from one compartment to another. To maintain water balance, a ____________________ urine is produced if water intake is excessive. Regulation of water and electrolyte reabsorption is primarily by _______________ secreted by the endocrine system, such as ________________ _______________ and __________________. 19. _________________ is responsible for urine's yellow color; it is a breakdown product of __________ destruction. 20. Composition of blood depends mainly on _________, cellular _____________, and __________ ____________.

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