#### Read APChemEquations_Constants text version

Advanced Placement Chemistry Equations and Constants:

Atomic Structure E = hv c = v =

h_ p = m m

E = energy v = frequency = wavelength p = momentum Speed of light,

= velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass c = 3.0 x 108 m s-1

-18 En = -2.178 x 10 joule 2 n

Equilibrium

+ Ka = [H ] [A ] [HA] [OH-] [HB+] Kb = [B]

Planck's constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s Boltzmann's constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1

Avogadro's number = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 Electron charge, e = -1.602 x 10-19 coulomb 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol-1 Equilibrium Constants Ka (weak acid) Kb (weak base) Kw (water) Kp (gas pressure) Kc (molar concentrations) So = standard entropy Ho = standard enthalpy Go = standard free energy Eo = standard reduction potential T = temperature n = moles m = mass q = heat c = specific heat capacity Cp = molar heat capacity at constant pressure

Kw = [OH-] [H+] = 1.0 x 10-14 @ 25OC = Ka x Kb pH = - log [H ], pOH = - log [OH ] 14 = pH + pOH

pH = pKa + log [A ] [HA] + pOH = pKb + log [HB ] [B] + -

pKa = - log Ka,

n

pKb = -log Kb

Kp = Kc(RT) , where n = moles product gas moles reactant gas Thermochemistry/Kinetics S = So products - So reactants

o

H = Go =

o

Hf

o

products -

Hf

o

reactants

Gfo products -

Gfo reactants

Go = Ho - TSo = -RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n F Eo G = Go + RT ln Q = Go + 2.303 RT log Q

Ea = activation energy q = mcT Cp = H T ln[A]t ln[A]o = -kt _1_ k = rate constant A = frequency factor Faraday's constant, F = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol-1 K= 0.0821 L atm mol-1 K-1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol-1 K-1

[A]t [A]o "E a # 1 & ln k = % ( + ln A R $T '

_1_ = kt

!

Gases, Liquids, and Solutions PV = nRT P = pressure V = volume T = temperature n = number of moles D = density m = mass = velocity urms = root-mean-square speed KE = kinetic energy r = rate of effusion M = molar mass = osmotic pressure i = van't Hoff factor Kf = molal freezing-point depression constant Kb = molal boiling-point elevation constant A = absorbance a = molar absorptivity b = path length c = concentration Q = reaction quotient I = current (amperes) q = charge (coulombs) t = time (seconds) Eo = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant Gas constant, R = 8.3145 J mol-1 K-1 = 0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol-1 K-1

" n 2a % P + 2 '(V ( nb) = nRT $ V & #

PA = Ptotal x XA, where XA =

moles A total moles

!

Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... n=m

M

K = oC + 273

P1V1 P2V2 = T1 T2

D= m

V

!

rms =

3kT = m

3RT M

KE per molecule =

!

KE per mole =

1 m" 2 2

3 RT 2

r1 = r2

M2 ! M1

molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution

!

!

molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent Tf = iKf x molality Tb = iKb x molality = iMRT A = abc Oxidation Reduction; Electrochemistry

Q=

[C ] [D] , a b [ A] [ B]

c

d

where a A + b B c C + d D Boltzmann's constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1 Kf for H2 O = 1.86 K kg mol-1 Kb for H2 O = 0.512 K kg mol-1 0.0592 1 atm = 760 mm Hg " logQ @ 25o C = 760 torr n STP = 0.000oC and 1.000 atm Faraday's constant, F = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons

q I= t

!

E cell = E o cell "

logK =

RT lnQ = E o cell nF

! !

nE o 0.0592

!

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