`Advanced Placement Chemistry Equations and Constants:Atomic Structure E = hv c = v =h_ p = m mE = energy v = frequency  = wavelength p = momentum Speed of light, = velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass c = 3.0 x 108 m s-1-18 En = -2.178 x 10 joule 2 nEquilibrium+ Ka = [H ] [A ] [HA] [OH-] [HB+] Kb = [B]Planck's constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s Boltzmann's constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1Avogadro's number = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 Electron charge, e = -1.602 x 10-19 coulomb 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol-1 Equilibrium Constants Ka (weak acid) Kb (weak base) Kw (water) Kp (gas pressure) Kc (molar concentrations) So = standard entropy Ho = standard enthalpy Go = standard free energy Eo = standard reduction potential T = temperature n = moles m = mass q = heat c = specific heat capacity Cp = molar heat capacity at constant pressureKw = [OH-] [H+] = 1.0 x 10-14 @ 25OC = Ka x Kb pH = - log [H ], pOH = - log [OH ] 14 = pH + pOHpH = pKa + log [A ] [HA] + pOH = pKb + log [HB ] [B] + -pKa = - log Ka,npKb = -log KbKp = Kc(RT) , where n = moles product gas ­ moles reactant gas Thermochemistry/Kinetics S = So products -  So reactantsoH = Go =oHfoproducts -Hforeactants Gfo products - Gfo reactantsGo = Ho - TSo = -RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n F Eo G = Go + RT ln Q = Go + 2.303 RT log QEa = activation energy q = mcT Cp = H T ln[A]t ­ ln[A]o = -kt _1_ k = rate constant A = frequency factor Faraday's constant, F = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol-1 K= 0.0821 L atm mol-1 K-1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol-1 K-1[A]t [A]o &quot;E a # 1 &amp; ln k = % ( + ln A R \$T '_1_ = kt!Gases, Liquids, and Solutions PV = nRT P = pressure V = volume T = temperature n = number of moles D = density m = mass  = velocity urms = root-mean-square speed KE = kinetic energy r = rate of effusion M = molar mass  = osmotic pressure i = van't Hoff factor Kf = molal freezing-point depression constant Kb = molal boiling-point elevation constant A = absorbance a = molar absorptivity b = path length c = concentration Q = reaction quotient I = current (amperes) q = charge (coulombs) t = time (seconds) Eo = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant Gas constant, R = 8.3145 J mol-1 K-1 = 0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol-1 K-1&quot; n 2a % P + 2 '(V ( nb) = nRT \$ V &amp; #PA = Ptotal x XA, where XA =moles A total moles!Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... n=mMK = oC + 273P1V1 P2V2 = T1 T2D= mV!rms =3kT = m3RT MKE per molecule =!KE per mole =1 m&quot; 2 23 RT 2r1 = r2M2 ! M1molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution!!molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent Tf = iKf x molality Tb = iKb x molality  = iMRT A = abc Oxidation ­ Reduction; ElectrochemistryQ=[C ] [D] , a b [ A] [ B]cdwhere a A + b B  c C + d D Boltzmann's constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1 Kf for H2 O = 1.86 K kg mol-1 Kb for H2 O = 0.512 K kg mol-1 0.0592 1 atm = 760 mm Hg &quot; logQ @ 25o C = 760 torr n STP = 0.000oC and 1.000 atm Faraday's constant, F = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electronsq I= t!E cell = E o cell &quot;logK =RT lnQ = E o cell nF! !nE o 0.0592!`

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