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Middle School th 6 Grade Earth Science

Instructional Plan

Seminole County Public Schools Curriculum Services Department

Written 2009-2010 Initial Implementation 2010-2011

School Board of Seminole County:

Sandy Robinson, Chairman Jeanne Morris, Vice Chairman Dede Schaffner Diane Bauer Sylvia Pond

Superintendent:

Dr. Bill Vogel

Deputy Superintendent of Instructional Excellence and Equity:

Dr. Anna-Marie Cote

Middle School Executive Director:

Dr Ron Pinnell

Director of Curriculum Services:

Hugh Harris

Secondary Science Specialist:

Rachel Hallett

Sandra Harman ­ Greenwood Lakes MS Joan Schwartz ­ Greenwood Lakes MS Cynthia Gooch ­ Indian Trails MS Kathleen Moreno ­ Jackson Heights MS Nancy Jackfert ­ Lawton Chiles MS Suzanne Ward ­ Markham Woods MS Tina Lewis ­ Millennium MS Laurie Munoz ­ Milwee MS Tom Snead ­ Rock Lake MS Sarah Ritchie ­ Sanford MS Kristie Odom ­ South Seminole MS Twyla Sanks ­ Teague MS James Hall ­ Teague MS Lisa Perrault ­ Tuskawilla MS

Writing Committee:

INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL 6th GRADE EARTH/SPACE SCIENCE

This Instructional Plan is designed to guide the teacher as the required information is presented to and mastered by students and contains the following components Scope and Sequence Essential Questions: these questions were selected to address the core concepts of each unit; a student who is able to answer the essential questions with confidence will have mastered the essence of the unit. NGSSS Standards: these are the Next Generation Benchmarks which are to be covered during the unit and the Cognitive Complexity level which they require, see floridastandards.org for more information on Cognitive Complexity

This symbol links an Earth Science benchmark with a supporting Life Science or Physical Science benchmark, these supporting benchmarks will be addressed in 6th grade but covered in more detail in 7th and/or 8th grade. This symbol indicates a benchmark which has a Common Lab associated with it; the Common Labs were agreed upon by the writing committee and should be part of every 6th grade science student's experience

Concepts: a shorthand reference to the content covered in the indicated benchmarks Vocabulary: the pertinent scientific vocabulary from the FLDOE master list which are used in addressing a particular unit. Teachers are expected to add vocabulary as needed and use the vocabulary in context. Textbook Reference: the portion of the primary instructional tool which is being presented during the unit Ancillary Materials: teachers can add any materials other than the text that they feel are relevant to the unit. Key Changes: identifies the major content changes for the unit as compared to the 1996 Standards, allows experienced teachers to quickly identify how their course has changed

.

Unit #1: Nature of Science

1st Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 2-3 weeks

Essential Questions 1. How do scientific investigations differ from other activities? 2. Why do scientists use different methods of investigation for various studies? 3. How does creativity impact scientific discovery?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.6.N.1.1 Define a problem from the 6th grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observation or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions. (H) SC.6.N.1.2 Explain why scientific investigations should be replicable (H) SC.6.N.1.3 Explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation, and explain the relative benefits and limitations of each (H) SC.6.N.1.4 Discuss, compare, and negotiate methods used, results obtained, and explanations among groups of students conducting the same investigation (H) SC.6.N.1.5 Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing experiments but also in creating explanations that fit evidence (M) SC.6.N.2.1 Distinguish science from other activities involving thought (M)

Concepts

Scientific Processes (formerly Scientific Method) Experiments must be replicable Experiment vs Investigation Discuss and Compare results Science involves creativity and evidence Science vs other thought

Academic Vocabulary Density Dependent variable Experiment Hypothesis Independent variable Inference Investigation Mass Observation Scientific method Scientist Theory Variable Volume

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 1 Lab Safety contract Shorter explicit NOS, more infused throughout year; use metrics, don't teach; Scientific Processes rather than The Scientific Method

Unit #2: Geologic Time

1st Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 2-3 weeks

Essential Questions 1. How does fossil evidence support the theory of evolution? 2. How do scientists measure the age of the Earth? 3. How do scientific laws differ from societal laws?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.7.E.6.1 Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores (M) SC.7.E.6.3 Identify current methods for measuring the age of Earth and its parts, including the Law of Superposition and radioactive dating (M) SC.7.E.6.4 Explain and give examples of how physical evidence supports scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes (H) SC.7.L.15.1 Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species (M) SC.7.L.15.2 Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms (H) SC.7.L.15.3 Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt within a changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species (H) SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or interpretations are encountered (M) SC.6.N.3.2 Recognize and explain that a scientific law is a description of a specific relationship under given conditions in the natural world. Thus scientific laws are different from societal laws (M) SC.6.N.3.3 Give several examples of scientific laws (L) SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the 6th grade science benchmarks (M)

Concepts

Layers of the Earth Measuring the Age of the Earth Physical Evidence of Earth's Evolution Fossil Evidence (Physical Evidence) Natural Selection (Physical Evidence) Species Adaptation (Physical Evidence) Science is durable and changeable Law describes a relationship (Law of Superposition) Examples of Laws (Law of Superposition) Role of models

Academic Vocabulary Density Fossil Geosphere Inference Investigation Law Mass Model Observation Radioactive Dating Scientist Sedimentary Superposition

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 13, 14 Relating fossils to evolution of organisms (not human) in response to environment changes

Unit #3: Science Projects

Essential Questions

1st Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 1-2 wks

(Science Fair experiments, SECME projects, Research projects)

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.6.N.1.1 Define a problem from the 6 grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observation or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions. (H) SC.6.N.1.3 Explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation, and explain the relative benefits and limitations of each (H) SC.6.N.1.4 Discuss, compare, and negotiate methods used, results obtained, and explanations among groups of students conducting the same investigation (H) SC.6.N.1.5 Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing experiments but also in creating explanations that fit evidence (M)

th

Concepts

Scientific Processes (formerly Scientific Method)

Academic Vocabulary Dependent variable Experiment Hypothesis Independent variable Inference Investigation Observation Scientific method Scientist Theory Variable

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Experiment vs Investigation Discuss and Compare results

Science involves creativity and evidence

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

n/a

Unit #4: Plate Tectonics

2nd Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 2-3 wks

Essential Questions 1. How is heat transferred throughout a system? 2. How have plate tectonics influenced changes in the Earth's surface? 3. How have scientific knowledge and technology influenced scientific predictions of changes in the Earth's surface?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.7.E.6.1 Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores (M) SC.7.P.11.1 Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state (L) SC.7.E.6.4 Explain and give examples of how physical evidence supports scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes (H) SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building (M) SC.7.E.6.7 Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins (M) SC.6.E.7.1 Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through Earth's system (M) SC.7.P.11.4 Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature (M) SC.6.N.1.5 Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing experiments but also in creating explanations that fit evidence (M) SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or interpretations are encountered (M) SC.6.N.2.3 Recognize that scientists who make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals (L) SC.6.N.3.1 Recognize and explain that a scientific theory is a well-supported and widely accepted explanation of nature and is not simply a claim posed by an individual. Thus, the use of the term theory in science is very different than how it is used in everyday life. (M)

Concepts

Layers of the Earth Heat changes state (Layers) Physical evidence of Earth's Evolution Plate tectonics cause slow and rapid changes Earthquakes and Volcanoes Heat flow within the Earth Earthquakes and Volcanoes Conduction, Convection Predictable Heat flow (Conduction, Convection) Science involves creativity and evidence Science is durable and changeable Scientists are diverse Theories are supported (Plate tectonics)

Academic Vocabulary Conduction Convection Earthquake Equator Inference Lithosphere Plate tectonics

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 10, Chapter 11 (sect 1), Chapter 12 (sect 1) Less focus on earthquake and volcano types and/or locations, more about energy and forces that cause them

Unit #5: Rock Cycle and Landforms

Essential Questions

2nd Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 2-3 wks

1. How does the Rock Cycle relate to weathering and erosion and plate tectonics? 2. How do we determine the density of materials? 3. What are some landforms specific to Florida?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.7.E.6.2 Identify the patterns within the Rock Cycle and relate them to surface events (weathering and erosion) and sub-surface events (plate tectonics and mountain building) (H) SC.8.P.9.2 Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes (M) SC.8.P.8.3 Explore and describe the densities of various materials through measurement of their masses and volumes (M) SC.8.P.8.4 Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured; for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample (M) SC.6.E.6.1 Describe and give examples of ways in which Earth's surface is built up and torn down by physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition (M) SC.8.P.9.2 Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes (M) SC.8.P.8.4 Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured; for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample (M) SC.6.E.6.2 Recognize that there are a variety of landforms on Earth's surface such as coastlines, dunes, rivers, mountains, glaciers, deltas, and lakes and relate these landforms as they apply to Florida (M) SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the 6th grade science benchmarks (M) Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Concepts

Rock cycle

Academic Vocabulary

Delta Density Deposition Physical and Chemical Changes Dune Erosion (Rock cycle) Fossil Density Glacier (Rock cycle) Gravity Igneous Physical Properties Mass (Rock Cycle) Metamorphic Mineral Model Weathering, Erosion, Sedimentary Deposition

Physical and Chemical Changes (Weathering/Erosion) *Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Physical Properties (Weathering)

Landform variety (esp as related to FL) Role of Models

Chapter 4 (sect 1), Chapter 6 (sect 1), Chapter 7 (sect 1,3), Chapter 9 (sect 1-3) Not identifying/classifying rocks and minerals, discussing cycle only

Unit #6: Hydrosphere

2nd Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 1-2 wks

Essential Questions 1. How does the Water Cycle affect weather patterns and climate change? 2. What are the 3 processes of heat transfer and how do they differ? 3. How does the Law of Conservation of Matter/Energy apply to the Water Cycle?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.6.E.7.1 Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through Earth's system (M) SC.7.P.11.4 Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature (M) SC.6.E.7.2 Investigate and apply how the cycling of water between the atmosphere and hydrosphere has an effect on weather patterns and climate (H) SC.7.P.11.1 Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state (L) SC.7.P.11.3 Cite evidence that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another (H) SC.6.N.3.2 Recognize and explain that a scientific law is a description of a specific relationship under given conditions in the natural world. Thus scientific laws are different from societal laws (M) SC.6.N.3.3 Give several examples of scientific laws (L) SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the 6th grade science benchmarks (M)

Concepts

Radiation, Convection Predictable heat flow (Radiation, Convection) Water Cycle Heat changes state (Water Cycle)

Law of Conservation of Energy (Water Cycle)

Academic Vocabulary Condensation Convection Evaporation Greenhouse Hydrosphere Law Model Precipitation Sun Water cycle

Law describes relationship (Law of Conservation of Energy)

Examples of Laws (Law of Conservation of Energy)

Role of Models

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 9 (sect 2), Chapter 15 Focus on energy transfer in the water cycle rather than just identifying steps

Unit #7: Weather and Troposphere

3rd Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 4-5 wks

Essential Questions 1. How do the oceans affect weather patterns both globally and locally? 2. How does the Sun's energy create temperature differences between air, water, and land? 3. How have the major weather events in our state affected Florida's economy and the lives of our citizens?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

Concepts

Academic Vocabulary Atmosphere Barometric Pressure Condensation Convection Equator Evaporation Experiment Humidity Hydrosphere Inference Model Observation Precipitation Radiation Season Sun Tide Water cycle

SC.6.E.7.9 Describe how the composition and structure of the atmosphere protects life Composition and Structure of and insulates the planet. (M) the Atmosphere SC.6.E.7.2 Investigate and apply how the cycling of water between the atmosphere and Water cycle's effect on hydrosphere has an effect on weather patterns and climate. (H) weather and climate SC.6.E.7.3 Describe how global patterns such as the jet stream and ocean currents influence local weather in measurable terms such as temperature, air pressure, wind Global weather patterns direction and speed, and humidity and precipitation. (H) SC.6.E.7.4 Differentiate and show interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, Earth's Interactions cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. (H) SC.6.E.7.5 Explain how energy provided by the sun influences global patterns of Solar energy atmospheric movement and the temperature differences between air, water, and land(H) SC.7.P.10.1 Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is Solar radiation made up of a spectrum of many different colors. (L) SC.6.E.7.6 Differentiate between weather and climate. (M) Weather vs climate SC.6.E.7.7 Investigate how natural disasters have affected human life in Florida. (H) Natural Disasters SC.6.N.1.3 Explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific Experiment vs investigation investigation, and explain the relative benefits and limitations of each. ((H) SC.6.N.1.5 Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing Science involves creativity experiments, but also in creating explanations that fit evidence. (M) and evidence SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the sixth grade science Role of Models benchmarks. (M)

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 15 (sect 2), Chapter 16 (sect 1 and 2), Chapter 17 (sect 1 and 3), Chapter 18 (sect 2) Focus on causes of the weather rather than forecasting or describing types

Unit #8: Human Impact

3rd Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 1-2 wks

Essential Questions 1. What is some evidence of the impact of humans on native Florida ecosystems? 2. What has been the impact of humans on Florida water quality? 3. What effect would continued increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere have on the Carbon Cycle?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.7.E.6.6 Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth, such as deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water quality, changing the flow of water. (M) SC.7.L.17.3 Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites. (H) SC.8.L.18.3 Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment. (H) SC.6.N.1.5 Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing experiments, but also in creating explanations that fit evidence. (M) SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new

evidence or interpretations are encountered (M) SC.6.N.2.3 Recognize that scientists who make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals(L)

Concepts

Human Impact Limiting Factors (Human Impact) Carbon Cycle (Human Impact) Science involves creativity and evidence Science is durable and changeable Scientists are diverse

Academic Vocabulary Atmosphere Greenhouse Inference Investigation Observation Pollution Scientist

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 19 (sect 3), Chapter 20 (sect 1 and 2), Chapter 21 No recycling necessary (covered at other grade levels)

Unit #9: Upper Atmosphere

3rd Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 1-2 wks

Essential Questions 1. How does the Earth's atmosphere allow life to exist on this planet? 2. How does solar radiation relate to the visible light spectrum?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.6.E.7.9 Describe how the composition and structure of the atmosphere protects life and insulates the planet. (M) SC.8.L.18.3 Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment. (H) SC.7.P.10.1 Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors. (L) SC.7.P.10.2 Observe and explain that light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed. (H) SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the sixth grade science benchmarks. (M)

Concepts

Composition and structure of the atmosphere Carbon Cycle (Composition of Atmosphere) Solar Radiation (Structure of atmosphere) Movement of Light (Structure of atmosphere) Role of Models

Academic Vocabulary Atmosphere Density Magnetic force Model Radiation Sun

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 15 (sect 1) Taught separately from troposphere to distinguish where weather and life are

Unit #10: Space Exploration

4th Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 1-2 wks

Essential Questions 1. How do the historical models of the Solar System differ? 2. How can we use technology to collect data on outer space? 3. What effect has the space program had on Florida?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.8.E.5.8 Compare various historical models of the Solar System, including geocentric and heliocentric. (M) SC.8.E.5.10 Assess how technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection, measurement, data collection and storage, computation, and communication of information. (H) SC.8.E.5.12 Summarize the effects of space exploration on the economy and culture of Florida. (M) SC.6.N.1.1 Define a problem from the 6th grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observation or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions. (H) SC.6.N.2.1 Distinguish science from other activities involving thought (M) SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or interpretations are encountered (M) SC.6.N.2.3 Recognize that scientists who make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals (L) SC.6.N.3.1 Recognize and explain that a scientific theory is a well-supported and widely accepted explanation of nature and is not simply a claim posed by an individual. Thus, the use of the term theory in science is very different than how it is used in everyday life. (M) SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the sixth grade science benchmarks. (M)

Concepts

Models of the Solar System Technology is used for data collection Effects of space exploration on FL Design and conduct experiment Science vs other thought Science is durable and changeable Scientists are diverse Theory is well supported (Origin of universe) Role of models

Academic Vocabulary Big Bang theory Geocentric Heliocentric Model Orbit Planet Solar system Space Sun Telescope

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 22 (sect 2 and 3) Focus on space technology and effect of NASA on Florida

Unit #11: Solar System

4th Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 1-2 wks

Essential Questions 1. What causes the phases of the Moon? 2. How do the inner and outer planets differ in terms of distance, size, and composition? 3. Why do the planets revolve around the Sun and why do moons revolve around planets?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.8.E.5.3 Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, incl distance, size, and composition. (H) SC.8.E.5.4 Explore the Law of Universal Gravitation by explaining the role that gravity plays in the formation of planets, stars, and solar systems and in determining their motions. (H) SC.6.P.13.2 Explore the Law of Gravity by recognizing that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are. (L) SC.8.E.5.7 Compare and contrast the properties of objects in the Solar System including the Sun, planets, and moons to those of Earth, such as gravitational force, distance from the Sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions. (M) SC.8.P.8.2 Differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass. (M) SC.8.E.5.9 Explain the impact of objects in space on each other including: the Sun on the Earth including seasons and gravitational attraction and the Moon on the Earth, including phases, tides, and eclipses, and the relative position of each body. (H) SC.6.N.2.1 Distinguish science from other activities involving thought (M) SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or interpretations are encountered (M) SC.6.N.3.1 Recognize and explain that a scientific theory is a well-supported and widely accepted explanation of nature and is not simply a claim posed by an individual. Thus, the use of the term theory in science is very different than how it is used in everyday life. (M) SC.6.N.3.2 Recognize and explain that a scientific law is a description of a specific relationship under given conditions in the natural world. Thus scientific laws are different from societal laws (M) SC.6.N.3.3 Give several examples of scientific laws (L) SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the 6th grade science benchmarks (M)

Concepts

Relationships between objects Gravity's role Law of Universal Gravitation (Gravity's role ­ no equation) Properties of objects in solar system Weight vs mass (Properties of objects) Sun-Earth-Moon system Science vs other thought Science is durable and changeable Theory is well supported (Big Bang theory) Law describes relationship (Universal Gravitation) Examples of Laws (Universal Gravitation) Role of models

Academic Vocabulary

Asteroid Axis Big Bang theory Comet Density Eclipse Equator Gravity Law Lunar eclipse Magnetic force Mass Model Moon Orbit Planet Scientific method Season Solar eclipse Solar system Space Sun Theory Weight

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes**

Chapter 18 (sect 3), Chapter 23, Chapter 24 Focus is on why things are a certain way in solar system rather than describing planets and moon phases

Unit #12: Sun and Stars

4th Nine Weeks

Time Frame: 2-3 wks

Essential Questions 1. How are we able to see the light from the stars? 2. Why are stars different colors? 3. Why are solar flares and sunspots important to study?

NGSSS Benchmarks (with Complexity Level)

SC.8.E.5.1 Recognize that there are enormous distances between objects in space and apply our knowledge of light and space travel to understand this distance. (M) SC.8.E.5.2 Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars. (L) SC.8.E.5.5 Describe and classify specific physical properties of stars: apparent magnitude (brightness), temperature (color), size, and luminosity (absol. bright.). (M) SC.7.P.10.3 Recognize that light waves, sound waves, and other waves move at different speeds in different materials. (L) SC.8.E.5.6 Create models of solar properties including: rotation, structure of the Sun, convection, sunspots, solar flares, and prominences. (L) SC.7.P.10.1 Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors. (L) SC.6.N.2.1 Distinguish science from other activities involving thought (M) SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or interpretations are encountered (M) SC.6.N.3.1 Recognize and explain that a scientific theory is a well-supported and widely accepted explanation of nature and is not simply a claim posed by an individual. Thus, the use of the term theory in science is very different than how it is used in everyday life. (M) SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the 6th grade science benchmarks (M) Textbook references Ancillary Materials **Key Changes** Chapter 25

Concepts

Distances in universe Galaxies and stars Properties of stars Waves in media (Properties of stars) Sun's properties Sun's radiation (Sun's properties) Science vs other thought Science is durable and changeable Theory is well supported (Big Bang Theory) Role of models

Academic Vocabulary Asteroids Big Bang theory Comet Fusion Galaxy Gravity Law Mass Milky Way Galaxy Model Moon Observation Orbit Planet Radiation Solar System Space Sun Theory

*Bold indicates the first use of the word in the 6th grade curriculum

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