Read Idaho PM and Screen Handouts.key text version

Scientifically Based Progress Monitoring and Screening in RTI: Critical Tools in the Tool Box

Disclosure

Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Serves as a Consultant for AIMSweb, which provides CBM assessment materials and organizes and report the information from 3 tiers, including RTI Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Serves as a Consultant for Vmath, a remedial mathematics intervention, from Voyager Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Serves as a Consultant for Glencoe Publishing for their Jamestown Reading Navigator (JRN) product

Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Professor and Director, School Psychology Program National Louis University, Skokie, IL [email protected]

Big Ideas Much of This Presentation is Based on a Chapter Written for the RTI Answer Book

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One of the Features of Multi-Tier, Coordinated Early Intervening Services (aka RTI) is Data-Based Decision Making, Particularly Screening (Universal) and Progress Monitoring Schools Currently Are Unsystematic or Trying to Build Their Data System(s) Around Tests or Practices Used in General Education Classrooms; These Practices are Not Scientifically Based for Screening and Progress Monitoring Lots of Schools Collect CBM Data For Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring, But Not Many Use the Data Efficiently or in Best Practices We Know How to Increase Efficacy and Efficiency of Progress Monitoring and Screening

Downloadable Materials

Some Particular Recommendations...

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1999). Monitoring student progress toward the development of reading competence: A review of three forms of classroom-based assessment. School Psychology Review, 28(4), 659-671. Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2004). What is scientifically based research on progress monitoring? Washington, DC: National Center on Progress Monitoring, American Institute for Research, Office of Special Education Programs. Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2008). Best practices in progress monitoring reading and mathematics at the elementary level. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 2147-2164). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Shinn, M. R. (2008). Best practices in Curriculum-Based Measurement and its use in a ProblemSolving model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 243-262). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Shinn, M. R. (2010). Building a scientifically based data system for progress monitoring and universal screening across three tiers including RTI using Curriculum-Based Measurement. In M. R. Shinn & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems in a three-tier model, including RTI. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

markshinn.org

1. Click on the Downloads for Professionals Icon 2. Click on the Presentations and Handouts Folder 3. Click on Idaho RTI Conference 2010

(Nearly) Everyone Agrees...

The Big Ideas for Preventing Reading Failure in Grades K-3:

In Theory, Any Achievement Test Can Be Used for Progress

Presuming It Identifies the Sensitive to

1. Increase the quality, consistency, and reach of instruction in every K-3 classroom 2. Universal Screening and Timely and Valid Assessments of Reading Growth for Progress Monitoring 3. Provide more intensive interventions to "catch up" the struggling readers

Modified from J. Torgeson, www.fcrr.org

Improvement in Student Achievement In a Reasonable Period of Time to Be Used Formatively

In Theory, Any Achievement Test Can Be Used for Universal

Presuming It Identifies the "Right Kids"-Those Who Need More Intensive Intervention Presuming It Identifies the "Right Number" of Kids-Aligned with the Availability of Resources

A Couple of Excellent Reads

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I Say This Because...

Range from 32nd Percentile (Grade 4) to 37th Percentile (Grade 7)

First Step

Don't Reinvent the Wheel: Use Proven Tools!

Range from 30th Percentile (Grade 3) to 47th Percentile (Grade 8)

"PROVEN" By Review of the National RTI Center

National RTI Center Progress Monitoring Results

www.rti4success.org

National RTI Center PM Results

Most Tools (6 of 9) are Members of the CBM "Family

AIMSweb Reading CBM (R-CBM) DIBELS Monitoring Basic Skills Progress (MBSP)Math Mclass Scholastic STAR STEEP Yearly Progress Pro (YPP) CBM CBM CBM CBM ? NO NO CBM CBM

National RTI Center Minimum Criteria

(1) Can you provide direct evidence* on the effects of using your tool?

*Direct evidence refers to data from a study that has been conducted based on the tool submitted for evaluation. Studies that use data from the use of another tool, even if it is similar, are considered indirect evidence and will not be considered as adequate evidence for the purposes of this review.

National RTI Center Screening Review Results

(2) Do you have the following classification data for your tool? a.!Specificity b.!Sensitivity c.!Positive predictive power d.!Negative predictive power e.!Kappa (3) Is your outcome variable a reading measure? (4)! Are there at least three months between the screening and your outcome

CBM Tools

Early Literacy Letter Names Letter Sounds Nonsense Words Early Numeracy Oral Counting Number Identification Missing Number Quantity Discrimination

A Common and Coordinated Data System Can Be Created with CBM and Basic Skills

Benchmark Using CBM 3x Per Year for Universal Screening AND Progress Monitoring-AND Program Evaluation

Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement Reading-Maze Spelling Written Expression Math Computation Math Application

Tier 1

Tier 2

Strategic Monitoring of At Risk Students 1x per Month, or 2x per Month or Weekly Frequent Monitoring 1x or 2x per Week

Tier 3

How Long Do We Screen and Progress Monitor with CBM?

Benchmark K Through At Least Grade 6 and As Long As You Need To...Screen As Long As You Need To

Next Step

We Get "Better" by Knowing What We Are Assessing

Tier 1

Tier 2

K Through As Long As You Need To...With At Risk Students K Through Grade 12

Tier 3

Consequences...

Fluency General Reading Ability

The Intervention Effects of "Reading Faster"?

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Goal is to Read Fast

Goal is to Read WELL

Interventions Emphasize Interventions Emphasize Speed Quality Interventions are "Slices" or Bandaids Interventions are Integrated or Bandages

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R-CBM is an IRI on Steroids...

Problem Solution

· Life Experience

· Content Knowledge · Activation of Prior Knowledge · Knowledge about Texts

Language

· Oral Language Skills · Knowledge of Language Structures · Vocabulary · Cultural Influences

Different Ways of Doing an IRI

100 Word Passages Were Challenging for Low Performers, Too Short for Good Readers Accuracy Scores Don't Correlate Nor Are Sensitive to Meaningful Improvement

Standardize the Directions

Knowledge

Reading Comprehension

Fluency*

We Refer to It as General Reading Skills

Fix the Length of the Test Time, Not the Length of the Test Materials Find a Better Score That IS Correlated and Sensitive (WRC)

· Motivation & Engagement · Active Reading Strategies · Monitoring Strategies · Fix-Up Strategies

Metacognition

· Prosody · Automaticity/Rate · Accuracy · Decoding · Phonemic Awareness

*modified slightly from presentations by Joe Torgesen, Ph.D. Co-Director, Florida Center for Reading Research; www.fcrr.org

Next Steps

We Get "Better" by Focussing On Progress Monitoring

The Gold Standard for IEP Goals and Frequent Progress Monitoring

In 1 year, Johnny will read 60 WRC with less than 3 errors in Grade 2 Reading Passages.

Know How to Do a Survey Level Assessment to Write Individualized Goals

Potential Goal (and PM) Material Current Level of Performance

Universal Screening to Identify Need:

A Significant Performance Discrepancy

Expected Level of Performance

More Severe Educational Need

Triage: Aligning Need with Tiered

No Failing in Tier 1 Before You Get Tier 2 No Failing in Tier 2 Before You Get Tier 3

< 25th Tier 2 Candidates

<10th Individual Problem Solving and/or Tier 3 Candidates

Avg Classroom Academic Performance Level

Avg Classroom Academic Performance Level

Discrepancy 1: Educational Need (Current Performance Level) Discrepancy 2: Educational Benefit (Adequate Target Progress) Student

Discrepancy 1: Severe Educational Need (Current Performance Level or Performance Discrepancy)

Target Student

Dual-Discrepancy: RTI Model of Learning Disability (Fuchs 2003)

Educational Need:

A Significant Performance Discrepancy

Educational Need:

A Significant Performance Discrepancy Secondary

Elementary Example

Example

More Severe Educational Need

35

When Push Comes to Shove...Underpinnings of Legal and Regulatory Requirements

Academic Performance Level

(B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY- In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures in paragraphs (2) and (3). Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the child's parents. (3) Use technically sound instruments that may assess the relative contribution of cognitive and behavioral factors, in addition to physical or developmental factors. (c) Other evaluation procedures. Each public agency must ensure that-(1) Assessments and other evaluation materials used to assess a child under this part--... (iii) Are used for the purposes for which the assessments or measures are valid and reliable;

Target Student

Discrepancy 2: Educational Benefit (Adequate Progress or Rate of Improvement)

Dual-Discrepancy: RTI Model of Learning Disability (Fuchs 2003)

Progress Toward IEP Goals to Ensure Powerful Programs and IEP Revision

The SAME Progress Monitoring Practices Can Be Used to Assess Student's RTI as Part of SLD Entitlement

Use Maze 3-Minute Silent Reading Test to Save Some Time

Can Be Group Administered Serves as an Efficient Screener Low Cost Progress Monitoring with Older Students

67

Know How to Define a Severe Basic Skill Problem at High School

End of Grade 6 Proficiency

(50th Percentile)

If a Student Reading Grade 6 < 160 WRC, Consider Tier 3 End of Grade 7 Proficiency

(50th Percentile)

If a Student Reading Grade 7 < 158 WRC, Consider Tier 3 Significantly Below Grade 8 Standard

(10th Percentile)

If a Student Reading Grade 8 < 84 WRC, Consider Tier 3

Annual Review: Benchmark and IEP Progress

What Would Be The Consequences of Allocating Services Based on This Triangle?

Most Common Interpretation 1. 23% of Students Need Tier 2

2. 28% of Students Need Tier 3

Reducing the Educational Need (Gap)

Meeting Exceeding IEP Goal

Better Interpretation 1. Many Students Need a More Effective Program(s) 2. The Core (Tier 1) Programs Needs to Be Strengthened Significantly-That is..The CORE Needs to Have the Features of Tier 2 in Higher Achieving Communities

Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie School District, IL

Common Early Literacy Assessment Schedule

Kindergarten Fall Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Winter ISF Spring LNF Fall LNF First Grade Winter PSF Spring PSF Fall NWF Second Grade Winter ORF Spring ORF

LNF

PSF

PSF

NWF Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) WUF Retell Fluency (RTF)

NWF

ORF

WUF

WUF

Most Common Interpretation 1. 2. 3. "Only 18% of Students Need Tier 2 77% of Students Need Tier 3 Is That What This School Needs (or Can Provide?)

Images and Analyses Courtesy of Ben Ditkowsky, Ph.D. [email protected]

PSF

NWF

NWF Word Use Fluency (WUF)

ORF

WUF

RTF

RTF

WUF

RTF

RTF

More Efficient Early Literacy Assessment Schedule

Kindergarten Fall Letter Naming Fluency Winter Spring

Highly Decodable Passages or Word Lists or NWF

Big Ideas

Spring

First Grade Fall Winter Spring Fall

Second Grade Winter

One of the Features of Multi-Tier, Coordinated Early Intervening Services (aka RTI) is Data-Based Decision Making, Particularly Screening (Universal) and Progress Monitoring Schools Currently Are Unsystematic or Trying to Build Their Data System(s) Around Tests or Practices Used in General Education Classrooms; These Practices are Not Scientifically Based for Screening and Progress Monitoring Lots of Schools Collect CBM Data But Not Many Use the Data Efficiently or in Best Practices We Know How to Increase Efficacy and Efficiency of Progress Monitoring and Screening

Letter Sounds

Oral Reading

Oral Reading

Oral Reading

Oral Reading

Oral Reading

Oral Reading

Letter Sounds

Highly Decodable Passages or Word Lists or NWF

PSF

Letter Sounds

Highly Decodable Passages or Word Lists or NWF

Highly Decodable Passages or Word Lists or NWF

PSF

Letter Sounds

Letter Sounds

Letter Sounds

Information

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