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USGS Weeds in the West project: Status of Introduced Plants in Southern Arizona Parks

Factsheet for:

Galium aparine L.

William L. Halvorson, Principal Investigator Patricia Guertin, Research Specialist U.S. Geological Survey / Southwest Biological Science Center Sonoran Desert Field Station University of Arizona 125 Biological Sciences East Tucson, Arizona 85721 Prepared by Patty Guertin December 31, 2003 Funded by: U.S. Geological Survey National Park Service

(Galium aparine is reportedly a native of North America, with some reported introductions of non-native forms; please refer to the 'origin' section under 'ecology' for details) NOTE: Galium aparine is a native plant. It was chosen for this project by the resource managers of the southern Arizona National Park Service management units as one of the plants they sought more information on. Galium aparine was found in several of the southern Arizona National Park Service management units (as noted in the 'known general distribution: National Park Service, southern Arizona group' reference section). Please refer to the 'ecology: origin' section for a more detailed explanation.

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Table of Contents: Galium aparine L..................................................................................................................................... 4 cleavers, catchweed bedstraw, bedstraw, cleaverwort, goosegrass bedstraw, grip-grass, scarthgrass ......................................................................................................................................................4 synonymous names of the species:................................................................................................... 4 species taxonomy ................................................................................................................................. 4 image of plant ...................................................................................................................................6 similar native or non-native species that could confuse identification.................................. 6 biology .................................................................................................................................................... 6 growth and reproductive strategy:...................................................................................................6 seed production: ................................................................................................................................7 seed dispersal:...................................................................................................................................7 seed longevity: ..................................................................................................................................8 ecology.................................................................................................................................................... 8 origin, and history of introduction of non-native forms:.................................................................8 ecological distribution / habitat:.......................................................................................................8 climatic requirements and limitations: ...........................................................................................9 germination:......................................................................................................................................9 soil preferences: ................................................................................................................................9 competitive abilities:.........................................................................................................................9 why it does well as an exotic: .........................................................................................................10 effect on natural processes/description of the threat ............................................................... 10 known general distribution............................................................................................................. 10 United States: .....................................................................................................................................10 Arizona, by county: .............................................................................................................................11 National Park Service, southern Arizona group: ..............................................................................11 Casa Grande Ruins National Monument ......................................................................................11 Chiricahua National Monument....................................................................................................11 Coronado National Memorial.........................................................................................................11 Fort Bowie National Historic Site..................................................................................................12 Montezuma Castle National Monument and Montezuma Well unit ...........................................12 Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument .......................................................................................12 Saguaro National Park...................................................................................................................12 Tonto National Monument.............................................................................................................13 Tumacacori National Historical Park............................................................................................13 Tuzigoot National Monument ........................................................................................................13 Weeds in the West Project..................................................................................................................13 control methods and management strategies ............................................................................. 14 Competition:........................................................................................................................................14 Hand labor: .........................................................................................................................................14 Mowing/ Mechanical:..........................................................................................................................14 Herbicides: ..........................................................................................................................................14 Biological controls:..............................................................................................................................15 Control strategies: ..............................................................................................................................15 contacts or technical specialists .................................................................................................... 16 bibliography........................................................................................................................................ 17 additional sources and websites .................................................................................................... 21 websites with great plant photos: ......................................................................................................21 websites with simple plant descriptions and/or photos: ...................................................................22

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Galium aparine L.

cleavers, catchweed bedstraw, bedstraw, cleaverwort, goosegrass bedstraw, grip-grass, scarth-grass family: Rubiaceae synonymous names of the species:

the first name in each species list is the current and synonymous name used by Kartesz (1994). the name in bold type occurring within each species list indicates the plant name used within these documents, which is also the name provided in the southern Arizona NPS exotics database `soaraz~1.xls' (Holden 1996). Galium aparine L. Galium agreste Wallr. var. echinospermum Wallr. Galium aparine var. echinospermum (Wallr.) Farw. Galium aparine var. intermedium (Merr.) Briq. Galium aparine var. minor Hook Galium aparine var. vaillantii (DC.) Koch Galium spurium L. var. echinospermum (Wallr.) Hayek Galium spurium var. vaillantii (DC.) Gren. & Godr. Galium spurium var. vaillantii (DC.) G. Beck Galium vaillantii DC.

species taxonomy

Galium aparine L., goosegrass, bedstraw: From Hickman (1993), Kearney and Peebles (1960), McDougall (1973), Munz (1974), Shreve and Wiggins (1964), Taylor (1999), USDA, Forest Service, Iverson (2002), USDA,NRCS, The PLANTS database (2001), Uva et al. (1997), Whitson et al. (1992):

(A glossary is provided at the end of this section for the plant terminology used in this section.)

life strategy: an annual, C3, herbaceous plant. Reproduces by seeds. 2n=20,22,42,44,63,64,66, ±86,88. structure: a weak and brittle-stemmed, commonly prostrate to erect, diffusely branched, annual, herbaceous plant; stems up to 80 in. (20 dm) long or longer, and often tangled. roots: a slender taproot to branched slender fibrous roots. stems: stems square, 2-4 ft. (60-120 cm) long, weak and brittle, thus often reclining; highly and diffusely branched, retrosely hispid-scabrous, hairs on angles of stems; hairy at nodes. Herbage rough, adhesive by small, hooked hairs. stipules: large, leaf-like. leaves: leaves in whorls of 6-8 (these whorls apparent because of large leaf-like stipules included); linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, 0.6-3.2 in. (1.5-8 cm) long, 0.04-0.2 in. (1-6 mm) wide, entire, retrosely hispid on midrib and margins, more or less hispidulous on surfaces, cuspidate at apex, tapering at base.

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inflorescence: in axils of leaves in 1-3 flowered cymes or becoming cymose-paniculate in mature plants, peduncle with whorl of leaf-like bracts. Flowers on short pedicels. Fruiting pedicels straight, 0.2-0.8 in. (5-20 mm) long, divaricately spreading, glabrous or sparsely hispid. Flowers can be perfect or staminate (on the same plant); the plant potentially being andromonoecious. calyx/sepals: obsolete. corolla/petals: flowers minute, 4-merous; flowers perfect. Corolla white to cream, rotate, 4-lobed, lobes acute, 0.4-0.8 mm long, 2 mm wide. gynoecium: ovary inferior; 2-lobed, 2-loculed with one ovule in each locule. Styles 2, more or less fused basally. Stigma capitate. androecium: stamens 4, rarely 3; inserted on corolla tube alternate from corolla lobes. fruit: didymous, nutlets spheric, separating at maturity 0.1-0.2 in. (3-4 mm) in traverse diameter, indehiscent; densely covered with fine, stiff, hooked hairs, triangulartuberculate at base, hairs shorter than traverse diameter of carpel. taxonomic glossary (Harris and Harris 1997): andromonoecious: having perfect flowers on a plant along with staminate (male) flowers on the same plant. cuspidate: tipped with a short, sharp, abrupt point (cusp) didymous: developing or occurring in pairs divaricate: widely diverging entire: a leaf margin lacking teeth, notching, or divisions hispid: rough, having firm, stiff hairs hispidulous: minutely hispid indehiscent: not opening at maturity along defined lines or pores lanceolate: much longer than wide; with the widest point below the middle -merous: parts of a set oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with attachment at the narrow end pedicel: the stalk of a solitary flower in an inflorescence, or of a grass spikelet peduncle: the stalk of a solitary flower or of an inflorescence perfect: having both male and female reproductive organs retrose: downward or backward direction scabrous: rough to the touch (due to epidermal cell structure, or short stiff hairs) tubercle: a small tuber-like swelling or projection tuberculate: having tubercles whorl: ring-like arrangement of similar parts arising from a common point or node

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image of plant

photo obtained at USDA/NRCS, the PLANTS database (2001) website: Galium aparine

photo by Patty Guertin

similar native or non-native species that could confuse identification

Many of the Galium species/taxa appear confusingly similar, with variable characteristics. Becoming familiar with the genus, or simply collecting samples/specimens and having them verified is the best course of action. Kearney and Pebbles (1960) lists 17 species in Arizona; 7 of the species possibly occur in southern Arizona NPS management units; although, some are unique in characteristics and occur at different elevations in differing habitats. An example would be in the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park, Bowers and McLaughlin (1987) list 6 species occurring there.

biology

growth and reproductive strategy:

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Galium aparine is a winter to summer annual, herbaceous plant, reproducing from seed (Oregon State University, Weed Science Program 1998, Taylor 1999). Depending on environmental conditions, this species may display a more biennial habit (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Galium aparine is a highly variable species, due to polyploidy, and phenotypic plasticity (Taylor 1999); the species seems to include several cytotypes (tetraploid, hexaploid, octoploid) (Taylor 1999). Galium aparine plant material from California was found to be polyploid; 2n=44,64,86 (Heiser and Whitaker 1948). Galium aparine germinates in cool, moist soil over an extended season; from very early to late spring, and again in late summer to early fall (Uva et al. 1997). In Britain, some seed germinates and emergence occurs in the fall; the plants then develop a large number of short branches having small rounded leaves and short internodes, and remain vegetative through the winter (Malik and Vanden Born 1988, Taylor 1999). Some seed germinates in the spring; any population will have individuals germinating both seasons (Taylor 1999). In Canada, seeds germinate midspring and throughout the summer (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). Seed germination occurs shallowly, but not on the soil surface (Hanf, year unknown); the seed requires soil coverage, which helps insure survival of its seedlings (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). After germination, the primary root grows to 1.5 in. (3 cm) before the aboveground shoot appears above the soil surface; it grows to 2-2.4 in. (5-6 cm) before the first leaves appear (Appleby 1999, Holm et al. 1991, Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Internode extension occurs in the second phase of vegetative growth with larger leaves produced (Taylor 1999), during this phase the roots grow more rapidly than the shoots, producing an extensive root system (Appleby 1999). Flowers are produced in the axils of the whorled leaves, with the subsequent development of fruits (Taylor 1999). In Canada, flowering occurs during early to midsummer (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). The flowers can be perfect or sometimes staminate, potentially making the plant andromonoecious (Taylor 1999). Galium aparine flowers are self-pollinated and self-compatible (Moore 1975 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988); the flowers are also visited by beetles, flies, ants, wasps, bees, and Lepidoptera (Batra 1984 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Toward the end of the plant's growth, it produces terminal inflorescences marking the cessation of added vegetative growth, fruit maturation, and senescence of the plant (Taylor 1999). Seed is matured mostly summer to fall, after which the plant dies (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Occasionally under certain environmental conditions, a plant with mostly brown foliage can 'rejuvenate'; new growth will appear (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). seed production: Generally, each plant yields from 300-400 seeds (Hanf, year unknown). Although, a single Galium aparine plant can produce up to 3500 seeds (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). seed dispersal: Geigy Weed Tables (1975) report the seeds are dispersed by wind, water, animals, and humans. Because of the hooked hairs on the Galium aparine stems and fruits making the plant adhesive, it is typically dispersed by animals and humans by clinging to wool, fur, and clothing (Malik and Vanden Born 1988, Oregon State University, Weed Science Program 1998, Ridley 1930), but due to hollow spaces

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within the fruits, they are also buoyant in water (Malik and Vanden Born 1988, Ridley 1930). Seeds are eaten by animals, and stay viable and increase their germination rate after passing through digestive tracts (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996, Malik and Vanden Born 1988). A primary source of spread is through contaminated crop seed, Galium aparine seeds being common especially in root and vegetable crop seed (Holm et al. 1991); the seed can also be spread by uncleaned harvesting equipment, and contaminated manure and hay (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996, Malik and Vanden Born 1988). seed longevity: Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development (1996) report that the seeds become dormant in dry soils, and the seeds can remain viable in the soil between 1 and 3 years.

ecology

origin, and history of introduction of non-native forms: Galium aparine is native to Eurasia and southern South America (Mabberley 1997). Ehrendorfer (1971 in Taylor 1999) suggests that the autogamous Galium aparine complex most likely originated by allopolyploidy from three racial stocks of southwest Asian origin. It is believed that Galium aparine is also native to the North American continent; rocky coastal bluffs, thickets and deciduous woodland habitats are believed to be native habitats for Galium aparine on the North American continent (Holm et al. 1977 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988, Hulten 1968 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988, Moore 1975 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988, Welch 1974 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Galium aparine has long been used medicinally, as a potherb, as a dye, and as a coffee substitute. Other historic uses include feed for geese and goslings, and matted to sieve cow's hair out of fresh milk (de Bray 1978). In Canada, the introduced forms of Galium aparine were brought in through contaminated seed imported from Eurasia by the early settlers (Moore 1975 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988). ecological distribution / habitat: In its native area: On the European continent: Galium aparine typically occurred in the temperate areas of Europe (Preston and Hill 1997 in Taylor 1999). In Britain, it is a native to maritime shingle beaches, in primary tall-herb fen communities, and primary alderwood in natural hydrarch successions (Taylor 1999). Galium aparine is now widely naturalized in many habitats, and circumpolar temperate (Preston and Hill 1997 in Taylor 1999). Due to plasticity in timing of seed germination, productivity, growth form, freezing tolerance, and light and temperature dependence of its photosynthetic process, Galium aparine has differing responses in different environments; this enables the species to become established in a wide variety of habitats (Taylor 1999). It is typically found in lowland habitats, although can be found less commonly at higher elevations (Taylor 1999). It is a cosmopolitan weed common in hedges, waste places, drained fen peat, on limestone scree, roadsides, river/stream banks, and in agricultural fields (Taylor 1999). 8

On the North American continent: Moore (1975 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988) reports its native habitats are deciduous woods, thickets and rocky coastal bluffs. The weedy, introduced types of Galium aparine are associated with cultivated crops, particularly in cereals, and can be a serious weed. climatic requirements and limitations: Galium aparine thrives in moist areas, in shade, preferring nutrient-rich, highorganic soils (Plants for a Future 2002, Uva et al. 1997), and is a winter-hardy weed (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). It also can grow in full shade of a deep woodland or in sun (Plants for a Future 2002). Galium aparine will tolerate dry soils but does not thrive in hot climates, and can potentially scorch quickly when growing in full sun (Plants for a Future 2002). germination: Generally, reports on germination of Galium aparine seeds indicate a variability in temperature requirements (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Maximum germination occurred between fall and winter (Baskin and Baskin 1988, Brenchley and Warington 1930 in Taylor 1999). In Oregon, seeds can germinate over several seasons; germinating in late fall to early winter and acting as a winter annual, and in some years a second peak of germination will occur in late winter to early spring (Appleby 1999). Germination of Galium aparine seed occurred over a temperature range of 43-79°F (6-26°C) equally in various light and dark conditions (67% and 61%, respectively); germination increased to 95% in a reduced light environment (Kutsch and Kappen 1991 in Taylor 1999). Although, generally, germination of Galium aparine seeds are inhibited in light; 20% intensity of full daylight retarded germination of freshly harvested and 1-year-old seeds (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Freshly harvested seed germinates most readily in darkness (Sjostedt 1959 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988); as reported above, seeds need soil coverage for germination. Optimum depths for Galium aparine seedling emergence occurred between 0.8-2 in. (2-5 cm) (Hirinda 1959 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988, Tsuruuchi 1971 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Seeds in a loose-textured soil can emerge from up to 3 in. (7.6 cm) deep (Appleby 1999). Optimal germination of seeds occurs between 40-60% of soil water-holding capacity; germination declined at 80% (Hirinda 1959 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988). In trials, 40-60% germination rate occurred at pH 4.2-7, with a 10% reduction above pH 7 (Hirinda 1959 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Low levels of oxygen induces the seeds into a secondary dormancy, with death occurring in the absence of oxygen (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). soil preferences: Galium aparine prefers, and thrives, on soils rich in available nitrogen (Ellenberg 1988 in Taylor 1999); soils that are nutrient-rich, deep, loamy and clayey, which contain humus (Hanf, year unknown). Pigott and Taylor (1964 in Taylor 1999) showed that availability of phosphorus in combination with nitrogen is a factor limiting the distribution of Galium aparine. It occurs in damp to fairly wet soils that are mildly acid to basic (Taylor 1999). Grime et al. (1988 in Taylor 1999) reports Galium aparine is more frequent and abundant on soils with a pH between 5.5-8.0. Hanf (year unknown) states that Galium aparine is an indicator of loam soils. competitive abilities: Galium aparine competes with crops for light, water, and nutrients causing yield reductions (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). In cereals it is

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reported to decrease potential yields between 30-60% (Rottele 1980 in Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Its extensive root system enables the plant to utilize available water and nutrients from a large area (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). It grows in thick, loose mats and can compete with or smother a crop (Appleby 1999). The recurved bristles/spines along the stems and on the leaves aid the plant in attaching itself to other plants to penetrate the canopies of neighboring plants (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Yet, Galium aparine seems to have limited individual growth when its population densities are high (Taylor 1999). why it does well as an exotic: As mentioned above, Galium aparine can effectively compete for light, water, and nutrients, and by growing in thick, loose mats, it can compete with or smother nearby plants (Appleby 1999) by climbing over vegetation (Uva et al. 1997). Its extensive root system not only aids in capture of resources, but along with the plant's extended germination period, make Galium aparine difficult to control (Appleby 1999). The plant and its fruits are also well adapted for spread, having small hooks along the stems and on its seed coat that readily attach to animal fur/wool and human clothing (Appleby 1999).

effect on natural processes/description of the threat

Information was found and reported on the plant's ability to compete with crops (previous section), but no information was found on how it might affect native plants or natural processes.

known general distribution

United States: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming (USDA,NRCS, The PLANTS database 2001: Map available at Website: http://plants.usda.gov/plants/ ; then enter the common or scientific name).

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Arizona, by county: in Navajo, Coconino, Mohave, Yavapai counties (Kearney and Peebles 1960, McDougall 1973), south to Greenlee, Graham, and Pima counties (Kearney and Peebles 1960); 2000-8000 ft. (Kearney and Peebles 1960, McDougall 1973).

National Park Service, southern Arizona group: Casa Grande Ruins National Monument source listing species' presence in park: no sources found Chiricahua National Monument source listing species' presence in park: Dennett, C. 1998; unpublished. Plants not in the vascular plant checklist but found in the Herbarium collection. National Park Service, Chiricahua National Monument. 1 page list; with additions through 1/18/1999. National Park Service. 1993. Checklist of vascular plants of Chiricahua National Monument, Cochise County, Arizona. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Chiricahua National Monument, Dos Cabezas Route, Box 6500, Willcox, Arizona 85643. 48 pp. Coronado National Memorial

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source listing species' presence in park: Ruffner, G.A. and R.A. Johnson. 1991. Plant ecology and vegetation mapping at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona. Technical Report No. 41. Cooperative National Park Resource Studies Unit, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721. 75 pp. Fort Bowie National Historic Site source listing species' presence in park: no sources found Montezuma Castle National Monument and Montezuma Well unit source listing species' presence in park: Brian, N.J. and P.G. Rowlands. 1994. An annotated vascular plant species list for Montezuma Castle and Montezuma Well National Monuments, Arizona. Technical Report, Colorado Plateau Research Station, National Biological Survey, P.O. Box 5614, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5614. 77 pp. Jenkins, P., F. Reichenbacher, K. Johnson, and A. Gondor. 1991. Vegetation inventory, classification, and monitoring for Montezuma Well, Montezuma Castle National Monument. Prepared for United States Department of Interior, National Park Service, Southern Arizona Group Office, 202 E. Earll Drive, Suite 115, Phoenix, Arizona 85012. 46 pp. Rowlands, P.G. 1999. Vegetation survey of Montezuma Castle National Monument. Division of Resources Management, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Route 1, Box 100, Ajo, Arizona 85321. 107 pp. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument source listing species' presence in park: Felger, R.S. and S. Rutman. 2000; draft. The flora of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. 18 pp. Saguaro National Park source listing species' presence in park: Bertelsen, C.D. year unknown. Floristic survey of the proposed relocation of the Sweetwater Trail and Trailhead: Final Report. Submitted to Saguaro National Park. 15 pp. Bowers, J.A. 1984. Woodland and forest flora and vegetation of Saguaro National Monument. Submitted to Saguaro National Park. 148 pp. Bowers, J.A. and S.P. McLaughlin. 1987. Flora and vegetation of The Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants 8(2):51-94. Fishbein, M., S. McMahon, G. Ferguson, V. Steinmann, and A. Johnson. 1994. Flora of Chimenea Canyon, Saguaro N. M., East Unit. Saguaro National Park, Internal report. 11 pp.

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Fishbein, M., V. Steinmann, and A. Johnson. 1994. Floristic survey of the proposed Box Canyon Protected Natural Area: Final Report. National Park Service funded. Cooperative Park Studies Unit, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 18 pp. Rondeau, R., and R. Van Devender. 1992. Floristic survey of the proposed Wildhorse Canyon Protected Natural Area: Final Report. National Park Service, Funding #1443 PX8670-92-043. Rondeau, R., T.R. Van Devender, C.D. Bertelsen, P. Jenkins, R.K. Wilson, M.A. Dimmitt. 1996. Annotated flora and vegetation of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants 12(2):3-46. Tonto National Monument source listing species' presence in park: Burgess, R.L. 1963. A preliminary report on the vascular flora of Tonto National Monument, Arizona. Submitted to Tonto National Monument, Roosevelt, Arizona. 16 pp. Burgess, R.L. 1965. A checklist of the vascular flora of Tonto National Monument, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science 3(4):213-223. Jenkins, P., F.W. Reichenbacher, K. Johnson, and A.E. Gondor. Vegetation inventory, classification, and monitoring for Tonto National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report No. 50. United Stated Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Mid-Continent Region, Cooperative Park Studies Unit, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 118 pp. Phillips, B.G. 1997. History of fire and fire impacts at Tonto National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report No. 59. United States Geological Survey, Cooperative Park Studies Unit, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 78 pp. Vowels. 1997. Composite list of Tonto National Monument plants. Tonto National Monument. 10 pp. Tumacacori National Historical Park source listing species' presence in park: no sources found Tuzigoot National Monument source listing species' presence in park: no sources found

Weeds in the West Project While completing distribution mapping between Spring 1999 through Spring 2001 for the USGS Weeds in the West project in the southern Arizona National Park Service management units, Galium aparine (goosegrass, bedstraw) was found in the following parks (Guertin 2001): Tonto National Monument Tumacacori National Historical Park

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control methods and management strategies

Competition: A straw mulch can be used on areas having an infestation of Galium aparine infestation at the time of its anticipated germination (Ueki 1965 in Holm et al. 1991). Hand labor: Handweeding in crops can be effective for Galium aparine control (Appleby 1999). Mowing/ Mechanical: Mowing is reported to not be effective due to the prostrate habit of Galium aparine (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). Shallow tillage will encourage the germination and growth of weed seeds on a site, in which young plants can then be removed (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996, Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food 2000). This should be done early in the season, and redone to kill as many seedlings as possible. Tilling at shallow depths done during summer months before seed set while warm, dry conditions exist can to prevent seed production; plants have been observed to re-root when this is done in moist soil (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). Fall tillage will encourage seeds to germinate, in which seedlings should be then killed by frost (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). Deep plowing can be done to bury the seeds in order to decrease the numbers of potential plants producing seeds (Ueki 1965 in Holm et al. 1991). Interrow cultivation in crops is reported to be effective (Appleby 1999). Herbicides: Noda et al. (1965 in Holm et al. 1991) note that Galium aparine's ability to emerge over a long period of time, helps the plants to escape herbicide treatments. Also, as seedlings, Galium aparine roots grow more rapidly than the upper plant, potentially making it hard to kill with herbicides (Holm et al. 1991). It is suggested to use herbicides early in the growth phases of Galium aparine (having 1-2 whorls of leaves); when the plants have more than 2-3 whorls of leaves, they will not be controlled consistently (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996, Ueki 1965 in Holm et al. 1991). Ueki (1965 in Holm et al. 1991) suggests applying a systemic herbicide to the soil before Galium aparine emergence. Rice (1992) lists 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, dicamba, mecoprop, metribuzin, oxyfluorfen, simazine, tebuthiuron for bedstraw (no species named). Herbicide reports from Canada and Britain: In cereal crops, MCPA provides satisfactory control only at the 1-4 leaf per whorl stage. Also providing season-long control is chlorsulfuron (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). Malik and Vanden Born (1988) report that although 2,4-D and MCPA are commonly used, they do not provide effective control. Appleby (1999) also reports 2,4D, dicamba, and clopyralid to be poor choices. He recommends fluroxypyr (Starane) and carfentrazone (Aim) in wheat, (Goal) in peppermint. Salisbury (1964 in Taylor 1999) reports that DNOC and MCPP controlled Galium aparine effectively. Taylor (1999) also reports that it is susceptible as an early seedling to benazolin, bentazon, dichloroprop salt, dinoseb, MCPA mixtures, and

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mecoprop salt in cereals. Diflufenican is used for Galium aparine (Cramp et al. 1987 in Taylor 1999). Lutman et al. (1988 in Taylor 1999) reports mecoprop and a mixture of ioxynil + bromoxynil applied between December and March will control Galium aparine in crops (cereals). Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development (1996) suggests, for control of Galium aparine in cereal crops, the herbicides hizalofol-P-ethyl (Target), dicamba (Banvel) + MCPA or 2,4-D amine, dicamba + MCPA (Dyvel), Dyvel + dicamba + 2,4-D amine + mecoprop (Dyvel DS), mecoprop (Compitox), thifensulfuron methyl + tribenuron methyl (Refine Extra), (Refine Extra + MCPA + or 2,4-D amine), ethalfluralin (Edge), cyanazine (Bladex Liquid (TTC)), imazethapyr (Pursuit), bentazon (Basagran). Cautions and considerations: Herbicides, as with all management / control methods, take careful planning and attention to detail for a particular site (climate/weather, soils, topography, vegetation or lack thereof, sensitive areas, land use, target plant and infestation characteristics) and the goals to be accomplished on the site. A major consideration when using herbicides is the sensitivity and hazard to other non-target species and organisms in the area (Callihan et al. 1995, Horowitz 1996). Many of the herbicides are 'non-selective' and useful for agricultural operations, but not necessarily intended for natural environments. Even the 'selective' chemicals can harm other plants when not applied properly or when used in places where other native plants are vulnerable to their mode of action (Horowitz 1996). Improper application and /or application rates can harm many other species, along with affecting water quality; the eventual accumulation of these compounds in underground and aboveground water bodies (Callihan et al. 1995, Horowitz 1996). Also, to be considered is the potential resistance a biotype may develop to some of these compounds over time (Horowitz 1996). The information provided here is meant to give a glimpse of what has been learned, and found effective. It might not necessarily be the best approach in the Sonoran Desert; generally the environments reported on are not desert lands as little research has been done in natural environments of the Sonoran Desert to date. Nor do the same application or herbicide use laws apply across state borders in all cases. Contacts / specialists' names or offices are provided in the following section for follow up and gathering of more information pertinent to a specific environment or site. Table 1 offers information on the herbicides in this section. Biological controls: Insects: There are many insects which parasitize Galium aparine and the genus Galium; several have been or are being investigated for biological control (Malik and Vanden Born 1988). To date, no information was found focusing on insects released for biological controls of Galium aparine. Control strategies: As stated above, the extensive root system and extended germination period make the plant difficult to control (Appleby 1999). Management and control strategies should focus on preventing seed production (Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development 1996). Because of its short viability, 3 years of complete removal of plants before seed production occurs in an infested area may clean an area of Galium aparine fairly well (Appleby 1999).

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contacts or technical specialists

Dr. Francis E. Northam (Ed Northam) Noxious Weed Coordinator, Plant Services Division Arizona Department of Agriculture 1688 West Adams Street Phoenix, Arizona 85007 Phone: (602) 542-3309: FAX: (602) 542-1004 e-mail: [email protected] Ed works state-wide primarily with noxious agricultural weeds, yet has also done some work to get non-native invasive plants listed that impact Arizona's natural environments He indicated he would provide, as requested, information regarding: weed biology control/management of weeds Dr. John H. Brock Professor of Applied Biological Science Coordinator of Sustainable Technologies, Agribusiness and Resources (STAR) Research Center Arizona State University East 7001 E. Williams Field Rd. Mesa, Arizona 85212 Phone: (480) 727-1240; FAX (480) 727-1961 e-mail: [email protected] Dr. Brock has done: invasive plant work (including control treatments) in essentially all the major vegetation types in Arizona, except the highest elevation types like mixed conifer. April Fletcher, Arizona Interagency Weed Action Group U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service P. O. Box 1306 500 Gold Ave. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103 e-mail: [email protected] April works region-wide with on-the-ground folks. Arizona Interagency Weed Action Group (IWAG) is an ad-hoc group; working on specific projects identified as species of concern by the group. IWAG consists of invasive weed folks from state and Federal resource management agencies. April is: acquainted with control methods for numerous species she knows many professionals who are doing control work, so, when she can't supply an answer, she can usually provide contacts who can. Jim Horsley, Southwest Vegetation Management Association Arizona Department of Transportation 2104 S. 22nd Avenue Phoenix, Arizona 85009 Phone: (602) 712-6135 email: [email protected] Jim indicated at ADOT they manage and control a number of native and non-native invasive species. Their experience includes

16

Centaurea solstitialis (Yellow) and Centaurea melitensis (Malta) star thistle, Onopordum acanthium (Scotch), Carduus nutans (Musk), and Cirsium vulgare (Bull) thistle, Acroptilon repens (Russian), Centaurea biebersteinii / Centaurea maculosa (spotted), and Centaurea diffusa (diffuse) knapweed, Alhagi maurorum (Camelthorn), Halogeton glomeratus (Halogeton), Salsola sp. (Russian thistle, tumbleweed), Linaria damatica (Dalmation toadflax), Cardaria draba (Hoary cress), Tribulus terrestris (Puncture vine), Cenchrus sp. (sandbur), Convolvulus arvensis (Field bindweed), Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass), Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass), Pennisetum setaceum (Fountain grass), several mustards, Verbascum sp. (mullein), Heterotheca subaxillaris (Camphorweed) and several others. Jim has personal experience statewide and, has access to other experts from several states in the southwest.

bibliography

Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development. 1996. Cleavers (Galium aparine). Website: http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/pests/weeds/64010030.html Appleby, A. 1999. Weed control. VI. Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine). Oregon Statue University Extension Service, Crop and Soil News/Notes, September 1999, Vol. 13, No. 7. Website: http://www.css.orst.edu/newsnotes/9909/weed.html Batra, W.T. 1984. Phytophages and pollinators of Galium (Rubiaceae) in Eurasia and North America. Environmental Entomology 13:1113-1124. Baskin, C.C., and J.M. Baskin. 1988. Germination ecophysiology of herbaceous plant species in a temperate region. American Journal of Botany 75(2):286-305. Bowers, J.A. and S.P. McLaughlin. 1987. Flora and vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants 8(2):51-94. Brenchley, W.E., and K. Warington. 1930. The weed seed population of arable soil. I. Numerical estimation of viable seed and observations on their natural dormancy. Journal of Ecology 18:235-272. Callihan, B., L. Smith, J. McCaffrey, and E. Michalson. 1995. Yellow Starthistle Management for Small Acreages. University of Idaho, Cooperative Extension System, Agricultural Experiment Station; CIS 1025. 8 pp. Cramp, M.C., J. Gilmour, L.R. Hatton, R.H. Hewett, C.J. Nolan, and E.W. Parnell. 1987. Design and synthesis of N-2,4-difluorophenyl-2-3-trifluoromethylphenoxy-3pyridinecarboxamide diflufenican: a novel pre- and early post-emergence herbicide for use in winter cereals. Pesticide Science 18:15-28. de Bray, L. 1978. The wild garden; an illustrated guide to weeds. Mayflower Books, Inc., New York, New York, 10022. 191 pp. Ehrendorfer, F. 1971. Evolution and ecogeographical differentiation in some southwest Asiatic Rubiaceae. In: Davies, P.H., R.C. Harper, and I.C. Hedge, eds. Plant Life

17

of Southwest Asia. Botanical Society of Edinburgh. University Press, Aberdeen, UK. p. 195-215. Ellenberg, H. 1988. Vegetation ecology of central Europe, 4th edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 731 pp. ExToxNet. 2002. USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program, A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University. Website: http://ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/ghindex.html Geigy Weed Tables. 1975. 99. Galium L.; Rubiaceae, madder family. CIBA-GEIGY Limited, Basle, Switzerland. 8 pp. with illustration plates. Grime, J.P., J.G. Hodgson, and R. Hunt. 1988. Comparative plant ecology. A fundamental approach to common British species. Unwin Hyman, London, UK. &&pp. Guertin, P. 2001. Observations made during the duration of weed distribution mapping for the USGS Weeds in the West project occurring in the southern Arizona National Park Service management areas. May 1999-June 2001. USGS/BRD, Sonoran Desert Field Station, The University of Arizona, 125 Biological Sciences East, Tucson, Arizona, 85721. Hanf, M. year unknown. Weeds and their seedlings. BASF United Kingdom Limited, Agrochemical Division, Lady Lane, Hadleigh, Ipswich, Suffolk. 348 pp. Harris, J.G., and M.W. Harris. 1997. Plant identification terminology: an illustrated glossary. Spring Lake Publishing, Spring Lake, Utah. 197 pp. Heiser, Jr., C.B., and T.W. Whitaker. 1948. Chromosome number, polyploidy, and growth habit in California weeds. American Journal of Botany 35(3):179-186. Hickman, J.C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA. 1400 pp. Hirinda, F. 1959. [The biology and control of cleavers (Galium aparine L.).] Z. Acker and PflBau. 109:173-194, (G). In: Weed Abstracts 1960, 9(1):79. Holden, M. 1996; unpublished. Exotic plant species list, compiled for southern Arizona parks from park floras and exotic plants lists. National Park Service; Saguaro National Park; Tucson Mountain District; 'soazex~1.xls' database, in MS Excel. Holm, L.G., D.L. Plucknett, J.V. Pancho, and J.P. Herberger. 1977. The world's worst weeds. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. p. 285-290. Holm, L.G., D.L. Plunknett, J.V. Pancho, and J.P. Herberger. 1991. The world's worst weeds. Distribution and biology. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 609 pp. Horowitz, M. 1996. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon): A History of the Weed and Its Control in Israel. Phytoparasitica 24(4):305-320.

18

Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 836 pp. Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: Volume I - Checklist. The biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 622 pp. Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: Volume II - Thesaurus. The biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 816 pp. Kearney, T.H. and R.H. Peebles. 1960. Arizona flora. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 1085 pp. Kutsch, W.L., and L. Kappen. 1991. Plasticity of the photosynthetic production of Galium aparine L. In: Esser, G., and D. Overdieck, eds. Modern ecology: Basic and applied aspects. .Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. p. 113-131. Lutman, P.J., M.E. Thornton, and A.W. Lovegrove. 1988. Control of Galium aparine (Cleavers) in winter cereals with mecoprop alone or with ioxynil plus bromoxynil. Weed Research 28:331-338. Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 858 pp. Malik, N., and W.H. Vanden Born. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 86. Galium aparine L. and Galium spurium L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 68(2):481499. McDougall, W.B. 1973. Seed plants of northern Arizona. The Museum of Northern Arizona. Flagstaff. 594 pp. Moore, R.J. 1975. The Galium aparine complex in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 53:877-893. Munz, P.A. 1974. A flora of southern California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles. 1086 pp. Noda, K., K. Ibaraki, W. Eguchi, and K. Ozawa. 1965. Studies on ecological characteristics of the annual weed, cleaver, and its chemical control on drained paddy fields for wheat plants in temperate Japan. Bulletin of the Kyushu Agricultural Experiment Station 11:345-374. Oregon State University, Weed Science Program. 1998. Galium aparine (Catchweed bedstraw). Oregon State University, Extension, Research, and the Department of Crop and Soil Science. Website: http://www.css.orst.edu/weeds/Catchweed_bedstraw/biology.htm Oregon State University, Weed Science Program. 1998b. Table 1. Herbicide classification according to primary site of action. Oregon State University, Extension,

19

Research, and the Department of Crop and Soil Science. Website: http://www.css.orst.edu/weeds/Publications/table1.html Parker, R. 1997. Agrichemicals and their properties. In: William R,D., D. Ball, T.L. Miller, R. Parker, J.P. Yenish, R.H. Callihan, C. Eberlein, G.A. Lee, and D.W. Morishita, compilers. Pacific Northwest 1997 Weed Control Handbook. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. p. 12 - 27. Parker, R. 1997. Control of problem weeds. In: William R,D., D. Ball, T.L. Miller, R. Parker, J.P. Yenish, R.H. Callihan, C. Eberlein, G.A. Lee, and D.W. Morishita, compilers. Pacific Northwest 1997 Weed Control Handbook. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. p. 304 -342. Pigott, C.D., and K. Taylor. 1964. The distribution of some woodland herbs in relations to the supply of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil. Journal of Ecology 52(Supplement):175-185. Plants for a Future. 2002. Galium aparine. 131 Spencer Place, Leeds, LS7 4DU, England. Website: http://www.ece.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/D_search.html then search by name Preston, C.D., and M.O. Hill. 1997. The geographical relationships of British and Irish vascular plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 124:1-120. Rice, Jr., R.P. 1992. Nursery and landscape weed control manual. Thompson Publications, Fresno, California. 290 pp. Ridley, H.N. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. L. Reeve and Co., Ltd., Lloyds Bank Buildings, Ashford, Kent. 744 pp. Ross, M.A. and C.A. Lembi. 1985. Applied Weed Science. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 340 pp. Rottele, M.A. 1980. Population dynamics of cleavers (Galium aparine L.). Dissertation, University of Hohenheim. 133 pp. In: Weed Abstracts, 1981, 30(6):2129. Salisbury, E.J. 1964. Weeds and aliens. Collins, London, UK. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food. 2000. Cleavers (Galium aparine). Crop Protection Section, Plant Industry Branch, Saskatchewan Agriculture. Website: wysiwyg://1196/http://www.agr.gov.sk.ca/ then click on `crops', then click on `integrated pest management', then click on `weed identification ­ broadleaf weeds', then click on `Cleavers'. Shreve, F. and I.L. Wiggins. 1964. Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran Desert: Vols. I and II. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1740 pp. Sjostedt, S. 1959. Germination biology of cleavers (Galium aparine L.). Publ. Department Plant Husbandry, Royal School of Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden. No. 10. p. 87105. Taylor, K. 1999. Biological flora of the British Isles, No. 207, Galium aparine L. Journal of Ecology 87(4):713-730.

20

Tsuruuchi, T. 1971. Studies on weeds in wheat and barley fields in Nagasaki Prefecture. 2. Some ecological characteristics and chemical control of ivy-leaved speedwell (Veronica hederifolia L.) Weed Research (Japan) 12:32-36. Ueki, K. 1965. Physiological and ecological studies on cleaver (Galium aparine) control. Ph.D. thesis. Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: Iverson, L. 2002. Galium aparine. Illinois Plant Information Network; compiled by Ketzner, D., and J. Karnes. Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, Illinois 61820. Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/Delaware/ilpin/1335.co United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2001. The PLANTS database, Version 3.1 (http://plants.usda.gov/plants/). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, and J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press. 397 pp. Welsh, S.L. 1974. Anderson's flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Brigham University Press, Provo, Utah. p. 398-399. Whitson, T.D., Editor; L.C. Burrill, S.A. Dewey, D.W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, R.D. Lee, R. Parker. 1992. Weeds of the West. The Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with the Western United States Land Grant Universities Cooperative Extension Services and the University of Wyoming. 630 pp.

additional sources and websites

Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service Website: http://www.reeusda.gov/1700/statepartners/usa.htm This website brings you to an interface to connect with Cooperative Extension programs throughout the United States; select the desired state, enter a link, often there is a search option in which information on a plant can be searched for. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, September 2002 has published 'Linking Wilderness Research and Management. Volume 4 - Understanding and Managing Invasive Plants in Wilderness and Other Natural Areas. An Annotated Reading List. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-79-volume 4 This volume is available on the Web; Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr079_4.pdf (Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr079_4.html provides some information if problems occur in viewing this file) websites with great plant photos: http://www.hawriverprogram.org/NCPlants/Galium_aparine_page.html http://kaweahoaks.com/html/bedstraw.html http://www.uvawise.edu/vanboskirk/Galium_aparine.html

21

http://courses.smsu.edu/pab532f/IDList6_485.htm image to enlarge

scroll down to plant and click on

flowers and leaves: http:www.calflora.net/backbonetrail/annualbedstraw1.html flowers and leaves: http:www.calflora.net/backbonetrail/annualbedstraw2.html fruits and leaves: http:www.calflora.net/backbonetrail/annualbedstraw3.html seeds: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/seedid/ then select species websites with simple plant descriptions and/or photos: http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedguid/cleavers.htm http://www.missouriplants.com/Whiteopp/Galium_aparine_page.html

22

Table 1. Herbicide information for control of cleavers. TRADE NAMES

many: some manufacturers are: Benide, Ortho, Rhone Poulenc, PBI/Gordon, Wilber-Ellis, Agrolinz, Cornbelt, Setre, Lily Miller, Uniroyal, Riverdale, DowElanco, Greenlight

HERBICIDE

2,4-D

CHEMICAL GROUP

phenoxy

USE

MODE OF ACTION

IN SOILS

NOTES

Selective. Many annual and perennial broadleaf species are sensitive. Drift to nontarget sensitive species can be a problem; use a formulation that is less volatile to aid in prevention. (Labeled sites: lawns, golf courses, parks, etc., non-crop land)

Foliar spray or Mimic plant's hormones. Absorbed Salt formulations are subject to soil application by foliage and translocated leaching in sandy soils; ester symplastically, and accumulates in formulations are less water soluble areas of high metabolic activity so are less likely to leach. (new growth). Primary mode of Persistence in warm, moist soils action not known, but it affects average 1 - 4 weeks. processes such as cell division and elongation.

benazolin

no information

no information

no information no information

no information

no information. (Labeled sites: no information) Selective. Used on broadleaf weeds and yellow nutsedge. Rain within 24 hours reduces effectiveness. (Labeled sites: turf, nurseries, landscapes)

bentazon

Basagran, Basagran T/O, Prompt

benzothia-diazole Post-emergent Inhibits photosynthesis. Absorbed by roots and foliage; little translocation after foliar absorption, translocation to root meristems after root absorption.

Rapidly decomposed by soil biota. No photodecomposition or volatilization. Not detectable in soil after 6 weeks.

bromoxynil

Buctril, Brominal

benzonitrile

Foliar spray Appears to inhibit photosynthesis Little activity in soils. and respiration. Absorbed by foliage with little translocation within plant.

Selective. Primarily sensitive to annual broadleaf species. Controls some plants species resistant to 2,4D. Restricted-use herbicide. (Labeled sites: turf)

23

carfentrazone

Aim

phenyl triazolinone no information no information

no information

no information. (Labeled sites: no information)

chlorsulfuron

Glean, Telar

sulfonyl urea

Pre-emergent Primary mode of action is Leaches readily in well drained or foliar spray inhibition of cell division in shoots soils, as it is not adsorbed strongly. and root; this is accomplished by Subject to hydrolysis (in warm, interference with the enzyme moist soils of low pH) and microbial acetolactate synthase. It is degradation in soils, with estimated absorbed by foliage and roots, and half-life 4 - 6 weeks. readily translocated throughout the plant.

Selective, when used at low rates. Annual and perennial broadleafs are sensitive. But some broadleaved species are extremely sensitive to this compound at low rates. It has a relatively long soil life. (Labeled sites: non-crop land, roadsides, industrial areas, etc.)

clopyralid

Lontrel, Stinger, Transline

picolinic acid

Foliar spray Mimics plant's hormones. Mobile in soils, as not adsorbed Interferes with cell differentiation. appreciably. Possibly leaching in Absorbed by foliage and roots and sandy soils, and may result in translocated readily. Accumulates groundwater contamination. in areas of high metabolic activity Moderate to rapid decomposition; (new growth) half life 12-70 days.

Selective. More selective than picloram or triclopyr (picolinic acid herbicides). Targets primarily herbaceous broadleafs (especially from the Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Polygonaceae families). (Labeled sites: turf when applied by commercial applicators)

cyanzine

Bladex

triazine

Pre-emergent, Inhibits photosynthesis. Foliar and or sometimes root uptake. early postemergent

Leaching dependent on soil texture and amount of organic matter present; therefore rates must be adjusted. Soil life approximately 810 weeks.

Selective. Used for control of annual weeds. Used in corn. Used in particular when simazine or atrazine is likely to result in carryover injury to sensitive crops. (Labeled sites: no information)

dicamba

Banvel, Banvel SGF, Banvel II, Clarity, Trooper, Vanquish

benzoic acid

Pre-emergent Mimic plant's hormones. Absorbed Mobile in soils. Leaches readily. or foliar spray by foliage and roots; readily Leaching into root zones of trees, translocated symplastically and etc., can be a hazard. apoplastically throughout plant. Decomposition by soil microbes. In Acts as an auxin-like growth warm, moist conditions, half-life is regulator. Mechanism not known. 14 days.

Many annual, biennial, and perennial herbaceous broadleaf species, and some woody species are sensitive. (Labeled sites: home and industrial turf, parks, golf courses, non-crop lands)

24

dichlorprop (2,4-DP)

Weedone 2,4 DP

phenoxy

Post-emergent Mimics natural plant hormones. Salts may leach. Average life in soil Effective against certain broadleaf Interferes with cell differentiation. approximately 4 weeks. weeds and brush species. (Labeled Absorbed by foliage; translocated sites: no information) throughout plant.

diflufenican

Brodal

nicotinanilide

no information Bleaching. Inhibition of carotenoid no information biosynthesis.

no information. (Labeled sites: no information)

dinoseb

Basanits, Caldon, Chemox, Chemsect DNBP, Dinitro, Dynamyte, Elgetol, Gebutox, Hel-Fire, Kiloseb, Nitropone, Premerge, Sinox General, Subitex, Vertac Weed Killer

dinitrophenol

no information no information

Low persistence in soils. Half life from 5-31 days.

Not available in the U.S. (cancelled in 1986) due to adverse reproductive and health effects. A highly toxic compound to many organisms. Can pose a moderate to significant risk to groundwater.

ethalfluralin

Edge, Sonalan, Curbit

dinitroaniline

pre-emergent, Inhibits mitosis in roots and needs soil shoots. Microtubule assembly incorporation inhibitors.

no information

Selective. Should be soil incorporated, but not on cucurbits. (Labeled sites: no information)

fluroxypyr

Starane

carboxylic acid

Post emergent A growth regulator that induces characteristic auxin-type responses in plant. Rapidly absorbed by leaves and shoots.

no information

Selective. Rainfast in one hour from application. (Labeled sites: no information)

hizalofol-p-ethyl

Target

no information

Post emergent Leaf absorption; translocated through plant; accumulates at meristems (growing points).

no information

Selective. For use against annual and perennial grasses. (Labeled sites: no information)

25

imazethapyr

Pursuit

imidazolinone

Post-emergent Disrupts protein and DNA synthesis.

No information.

Selective. Use for broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses. (Labeled sites: no information) Selective. Some systemic activity. Used for control of annual and broadleaf weeds in cereals. (Labeled sites: no information)

ioxynil

no information

nitrile

no information Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II.

no information

MCPA

many: some manufacturers are: RhonePoulenc, Lilly Miller, Wilber-Ellis, Agrolinz, Inter-Ag Corp.

phenoxy

Foliar spray or Mimic plant's hormones. Absorbed Readily leached in soils. Rapid Selective. Many broadleaf species soil application by foliage and translocated decomposition by soil microbes; low sensitive. (Labeled sites: turf, nonsymplastically, and accumulates photodecomposition rate. crop lands) areas of high metabolic activity Persistence in soils under moist (new growth). Primary mode of conditions is 1 month, in dry action not known, but it affects conditions is 6 months. processes such as cell division and elongation.

Mecoprop, MCPP Cleary's MCPP, phenoxy Mecomec Turf Herbicide, Mecopar, Mecopex Turf Herbicide, MCPP, Meco-mec 4

Foliar spray; Absorbed by foliage, translocated Post-emergent to roots. Interferes with cell differentiation. Mimics natural plant hormones.

Salt formulations may leach. Selective. Safer on bentgrass lawns Adsorbed by soil colloids. Average and greens than other phenoxy persistence in soils is approximately compounds. (Labeled sites: turf) 4 weeks. May have pre-emergent activity during that time.

metribuzin

Sencor, Lexone

triazine

Soil application Inhibits photosynthesis. Absorbed or foliar spray primarily through roots, also by foliage. Translocated apoplastically through plant

Relatively mobile in soil; moderately Selective. Grasses and annual adsorbed onto organic matter and broadleaf species sensitive. Apply at clay. Leaches readily in sandy soils, lower rates when soil pH is greater less in other types. Decomposition than 7.5. (Labeled sites: turf) by soil microbes. Half life is 1 - 2 months, depending on conditions.

26

oxyfluorfen

Goal

diphenyl ether

Pre-emergent Disrupts cell permeability. or foliar spray Absorbed mainly through the shoot (meristematic). Little absorption by roots and translocation occurs in plant.

Strongly adsorbed in soil. Leaching is minimal. Not readily decomposed by microbes or photodecomposition.

Selectivity occurs by compound placement. Requires light for herbicidal activity if applied to foliage. (Labeled sites: no information)

simazine

Princep, Aquazine, Caliber 90, Gesatop, Simazine

triazine

Soil application Inhibits photosynthesis. Readily absorbed by roots (little foliar activity), and translocated apoplastically through plant to roots and shoots.

Moderate to strong adsorption to soil particles and organic matter. Leaching generally is limited; but may leach in sandy soils. Little lateral movement. Decomposition by soil microbes. May persist for considerable periods of time depending on soil conditions and application rates.

Used selectively or as complete vegetation killer. When used selectively, primarily annual grasses and broadleaf species sensitive. Activation requires considerable soil moisture. Long residual action. Carryover to susceptible species can occur. Resistance has been reported. (Labeled sites: no information)

tebuthiuron

Spike, Sprakil

substituted urea

pre- or post- Inhibits photosynthesis. Absorbed emergent primarily through roots with some foliar absorption; readily translocated.

In dry soils (those receiving less General vegetation control: including than 40-60 inches per year) most woody plants. Caution should persistence is considerable; half-life be taken due to long residual life and in wetter soils 12-15 months. No strong herbicidal properties. (Labeled significant lateral movement, nor sites: non-crop land) more than 12 inches deep with surface application. Short soil persistence. Selective. Used at low rates to control certain broadleaf weeds in crops. (Labeled sites: no information)

thifensulfuron

Harmony, Pinnacle

sulfonyl urea

Post-emergent Inhibits cell division. Interferes with acetolacelate synthase; results in rapid cessation of cell division, and plant growth in shoots and roots. Post emergent Interferes with acetolactate synthase; rapid cessation of cell division in roots and shoots, and thus plant growth.

tribenuron

Express

sulfonylurea

Short soil persistence.

Selective. Used for broadleaf weeds in wheat and barley. (Labeled sites: no information)

This information compiled from ExToxNet (2002), Oregon State University, Weed Science Program (1998), Parker (1997), Rice (1992), Ross and Lembi (1985).

27

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