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USGS Weeds in the West project: Status of Introduced Plants in Southern Arizona Parks

Factsheet for:

Helianthus annuus L.

William L. Halvorson, Principal Investigator Patricia Guertin, Research Specialist U.S. Geological Survey / Southwest Biological Science Center Sonoran Desert Field Station University of Arizona 125 Biological Sciences East Tucson, Arizona 85721 Prepared by Patty Guertin December 31, 2003 Funded by: U.S. Geological Survey National Park Service

(Helianthus annuus is reportedly a native of North America; please refer to the 'origin' section under 'ecology' for details) NOTE: Helianthus annuus is a native plant. It was chosen for this project by the resource managers of the southern Arizona National Park Service management units as one of the plants they sought more information on. Helianthus annuus was found in several of the southern Arizona National Park Service management units (as noted in the 'known general distribution: National Park Service, southern Arizona group' reference section). Please refer to the 'ecology: origin' section for a more detailed explanation.

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Table of Contents: Helianthus annuus L............................................................................................................................... 4 common sunflower, annual sunflower, sunflower, wild sunflower, mirasol ......................................4 synonymous names of the species:................................................................................................... 4 species taxonomy ................................................................................................................................. 4 image of plant ...................................................................................................................................6 similar native or non-native species that could confuse identification.................................. 6 biology .................................................................................................................................................... 7 growth and reproductive strategy:...................................................................................................7 seed production: ................................................................................................................................8 seed dispersal:...................................................................................................................................8 seed longevity: ..................................................................................................................................8 ecology.................................................................................................................................................... 8 origin: ................................................................................................................................................8 ecological distribution / habitat:.......................................................................................................9 climatic and site requirements, and limitations: ............................................................................9 germination:......................................................................................................................................9 soil preferences: ..............................................................................................................................10 competitive abilities:.......................................................................................................................10 why it does well as an invasive: .....................................................................................................10 effect on natural processes/description of the threat ............................................................... 10 known general distribution............................................................................................................. 10 United States: .....................................................................................................................................10 Arizona, by county: .............................................................................................................................11 National Park Service, southern Arizona group: ..............................................................................11 Casa Grande Ruins National Monument ......................................................................................11 Chiricahua National Monument....................................................................................................11 Coronado National Memorial.........................................................................................................11 Fort Bowie National Historic Site..................................................................................................12 Montezuma Castle National Monument and Montezuma Well unit ...........................................12 Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument .......................................................................................12 Saguaro National Park...................................................................................................................12 Tonto National Monument.............................................................................................................12 Tumacacori National Historical Park............................................................................................13 Tuzigoot National Monument ........................................................................................................13 Weeds in the West Project..................................................................................................................13 control methods and management strategies ............................................................................. 13 Hand labor: .........................................................................................................................................13 Grazing:...............................................................................................................................................13 Herbicides: ..........................................................................................................................................13 contacts or technical specialists .................................................................................................... 14 bibliography........................................................................................................................................ 15 additional sources and websites .................................................................................................... 20 websites with great plant photos: ......................................................................................................21 websites with simple plant descriptions and/or photos: ...................................................................21

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Helianthus annuus L.

common sunflower, annual sunflower, sunflower, wild sunflower, mirasol family: Asteraceae synonymous names of the species:

the first name in each species list is the current and synonymous name used by Kartesz (1994). the name in bold type occurring within each species list indicates the plant name used within these documents, which is also the name provided in the southern Arizona NPS exotics database `soaraz~1.xls' (Holden 1996). Helianthus annuus L. Helianthus annuus ssp. jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser Helianthus annuus ssp. lenticularis (Dougl. ex Lindl.) Cockerell Helianthus annuus ssp. texanus Heiser Helianthus annuus var. lenticularis (Dougl. ex Lindl.) Steyermark Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus (DC.) Cockerell Helianthus annuus var. texanus (Heiser) Shinners Helianthus aridus Rydb. Helianthus lenticularis Dougl. ex Lindl.

species taxonomy

Helianthus annuus L., annual sunflower: From California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia (2002), Felger (2000), Hickman (1993), Kearney and Peebles (1960), McDougall (1973), McGregor (1976), Munz (1974), Parker (1972), Shreve and Wiggins (1964), USDA, Forest Service: Iverson (2002), USDA,NRCS, The PLANTS database (2001), Whitson et al. (1992):

(A glossary is provided at the end of this section for the plant terminology used in this section.)

life strategy: an herbaceous, C3, annual plant, 1-6.5 ft. (30-200 cm) tall or more. Reproduces by seeds. 2n=34. structure: an erect, robust, herbaceous annual plant, branching above, up to 6.5 ft. (200 cm) tall. roots: seedling initially taprooted, with maturing plants developing a large fibrous, lateral root spread. stems: stems 1-6.5 ft. (30-200 cm) tall, hispid, round, branched. Herbage rough-hispid. branching: simple to highly branched, each terminating with a composite head (capitulum). Cultivated types are mostly single-headed plants. leaves: lowermost leaves mostly opposite along stem, upper leaves mostly alternate along stem. Leaf blades narrowly to usually broadly deltoid-ovate, lower ones often cordate, to subtruncate to broadly cuneate at base, 1.5-8 in. (4-20 cm) long or more, 1.2-6 in. (3-15 cm) wide or more, entire to margins minutely to coarsely serrate, apex acute to

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abruptly acuminate; rough and pubescent, often 3-veined from the leaf base; longpetioled being often one-half as long to equaling blade. inflorescence: large, composite heads, solitary at terminal end of peduncle or terminal on a branch, or axillary; composite disk usually 0.8-3.2 in. (2-8 cm) wide or more including rays; peduncles 0.8-8 in. (2-20 cm) long, densely hispid-scabrous. Receptacle low-convex, chaffy. Heads few to many. phyllaries: phyllaries mostly ovate to lanceolate, 0.2-0.4 in. (4-6 mm) wide or more, with an abrupt acuminatation, 0.2 in. (4-5 mm) long or more, in several series, imbricate, herbaceous, glabrous to scaberulous or hispidulous on back, densely white-ciliate on margins. flowers: ray flowers sterile, 0.6-1.6 in. (1.5-4 cm) long, ligules yellow. Disc flowers perfect, corolla lobes 5, 0.2-0.3 in. (5-8 mm) long, tubular, purple-brown to yellow; each floret subtended by a small firm, paleaceous bract attached to the receptacle, often 3toothed. Pappus 2 readily deciduous, awn-like palea, 0.08-0.1 in. (2-3.5 mm) long, onehalf to two-thirds as long as disc corollas. gynoecium: disc flowers, ovary inferior. fruit: achenes 0.1-0.3 in. (3-6 mm) long or more, narrowly obovate to ovate, more or less 4 angled, somewhat compressed, glabrous to minutely puberulent especially at apex, gray to brown and occasionally mottled to striped. taxonomic glossary (Harris and Harris 1997): acuminate: tapering to a sharp point acute: tapering to a pointed apex, having more or less straight sides ciliate: having a marginal fringe of hairs cordate: heart-shaped, with a notch at the base cuneate: wedge-shaped, triangular and tapering to a point at the base deltoid: shape of an equilateral triangle entire: a leaf margin lacking teeth, notching, or divisions glabrous: smooth, hairless hispid: rough, having firm, stiff hairs hispidulous: minutely hispid imbricate: overlapping like shingles on a roof lanceolate: much longer than wide; with the widest point below the middle obovate: inversely ovate, with attachment at narrow end ovate: egg-shaped outline, with attachment at broad end palea: a chaffy scale or bract; or the uppermost bract in a grass floret peduncle: the stalk of a solitary flower or of an inflorescence perfect: having both male and female reproductive organs petiole: leaf stalk puberulent: having fine, short hairs pubescent: covered with short, soft hairs scaberulous: slightly rough to the touch, due to structure of epidermal cells, or short stiff hairs scabrous: rough to the touch (due to epidermal cell structure, or short stiff hairs) serrate: sharp teeth pointing forward, along margin strigose: having straight, stiff, sharp, appressed hairs truncate: with apex or base squared at the end as if cut off

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image of plant

photo by Patty Guertin

photo by Patty Guertin

photo by Patty Guertin

photo by Patty Guertin

similar native or non-native species that could confuse identification

Helianthus petiolaris (prairie sunflower) can often be confused with H. annuus, being similar in habit and appearance (Muenscher 1980). Generally, Helianthus petiolaris is a smaller plant with smaller leaves, smaller composite heads, shorter rays, and generally shorter in stature. Characteristics which differ, and help with identification, are the central pales of the composite disk, which are densely white-bearded at the apex on Helianthus petiolaris but are not with Helianthus annuus (McDougall 1973). The phyllaries of Helianthus annuus are generally wider than 0.16 in. (4 mm), variously ciliate, and have an abruptly attenuate apex, versus Helianthus petiolaris having phyllaries less than 0.16 in. (4 mm wide), not conspicuously ciliate, yet variable, and gradually attenuate (generally tapering from base to tip) (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002, Heiser 1947,

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Johnson and Larson 1999). Generally, Helianthus petiolaris leaves are more lance shaped with the margins not usually toothed or obscurely so (Heiser 1947, Muenscher 1980, Parker 1972). To complicate their discrete identification, the two species hybridize, with the progeny often having intermediate characteristics (Heiser 1947). Muenscher (1980) notes that Helianthus petiolaris is native from Minnesota to Manitoba, and south to Texas, and westward, and is locally introduced into the eastern states. Heiser (1954) notes that even though the distributions of Helianthus petiolaris and Helianthus annuus partly coincide, Helianthus petiolaris is mostly confined to sandy soils.

Helianthus annuus plants from Arizona: phyllaries, showing range of variation in width and shape.

photo by Patty Guertin

photo by Patty Guertin

Helianthus petiolaris plants from Arizona: phyllaries, showing general width and shape

photo by Patty Guertin

photo by Patty Guertin

biology

growth and reproductive strategy: Helianthus annuus is a summer annual; the species consists of wild, weedy, and domesticated forms which are morphologically and genetically variable (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002, Cronn et al. 1997, Muenscher 1980). Helianthus annuus plant material from California was found to be diploid; 2n=34 (Heiser and Whitaker 1948). It is a highly variable species, and hybridizes easily with several other species (Cronn et al. 1997, Stevens 2000). Helianthus annuus reproduces by seeds (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002, Muenscher 1980). Peak germination of Helianthus annuus generally occurs during spring months (Baskin and Baskin 1988). In California, Helianthus annuus seed germinates from November into April (University of California 1998). Helianthus annuus flowers from March until October-November in Arizona (Parker 1972). The capitula (composite heads) are comprised of sterile outer florets (ray flowers) lining the perimeter of the head and having showy yellow petals, and many

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less conspicuous hermaphroditic (perfect) disc florets filling the center of the capitulum (McGregor 1976). The flowers are open for 2 or more days (Putt 1940 in McGregor 1976). Flowering of the entire capitulum (composite head) takes place over several to many days depending on the size of the head; the florets can be present in all phases of development from unopened and immature to fertilized, dried florets (McGregor 1976). Climatic conditions also influence the duration of flowering, which can being extended by cool and rainy weather (Schuster 1985). Anthesis/pollen release begins with the periphery florets, and proceeds toward the florets in the center of the capitulum. The florets are protandrous (pollen mature and offered before female organs receptive) (Putt 1940 in McGregor 1976). Also, many of the disc florets are self-incompatible (requiring cross-pollination; pollen from another plant) (Putt 1940 in McGregor 1976). The first day the flowers are open, the anthers are partially exserted from the corolla, and pollen is released; pollen and nectar are collected by pollinators (Putt 1940 in McGregor 1976). The second day the flowers are open, the stigma pushes up through remnant pollen mass and then opens two lobes exposing the stigmatic surface that is receptive to pollen, yet out of reach of its own pollen (Putt 1940 in McGregor 1976); this process optimizes the chances of crosspollination. The floret will wither once fertilization occurs, occasionally waiting as long as 2 weeks, although seed set may be greatly reduced (Avetisyan 1965 in McGregor 1976). If cross pollination doesn't occur, self-pollination will occur when the stigma curves around and contacts the floret's own pollen; a mechanism insuring seed set (Heiser 1976). Helianthus annuus is pollinated primarily by insects; included are many different species of bees, bee flies, butterflies, and the Goldenrod Soldier Beetle (Hilty 2002, USDA, Forest Service: Iverson 2002). seed production: Stevens (1932) reports that an average, well-developed Helianthus annuus plant growing with little competition produces 7200 seeds/plant. seed dispersal: Helianthus annuus is dispersed by animals, birds, and by seeds dropping near the mother plant (USDA, Forest Service: Iverson 2002). seed longevity: Helianthus seeds can stay viable in the soil for many years, waiting until germination conditions are optimal (Dillard 1999). When cultivated seeds are harvested while having a 12% moisture content and stored, they will retain their viability for several years (Duke 1983). Priestly (1986) reports on mean number of years recorded for germinability to drop below 50% for agronomic species kept in 8 different storage facilities worldwide; the range reported was 2-5 years for Helianthus annuus.

ecology

origin: Helianthus annuus is native throughout North America: the western and central United States, Canada (southern Alberta, southern British Columbia, southern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan), and northern Mexico (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002, GRIN 2000, Stevens 2000) although probably not native in the eastern United States (distribution primarily west of the Mississippi River) (GRIN 2000, USDA, Forest Service: Iverson 2002). After genetic

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variation testing, Cronn et al. (1997) describes the species as having various geographic variants over its native range: Helianthus annuus var. jaegeri from the southwest, Helianthus annuus var. lenticularis widely distributed across the west, and Helianthus annuus var. annuus from the central and eastern United States. Cronn et al. (1997) found that the wild Helianthus annuus variants from the Great Plains are more closely allied with the domesticated sunflower, while the southwestern and Californian wild sunflowers were more distantly related. They also found that the midwestern variants had the highest genetic diversity. Helianthus plants have a long history of being used for food, dyes, soap, lubrication and illumination, and extensively as a medicine on the North American continent (Duke 1983, Stevens 2000). Over the last 3000 years, native Indians have cultivated and domesticated Helianthus annuus as use as a crop (Yarnell 1978 in Stevens 2000). At archeological sites dated between 4000-3000 BP and located in the midwestern United States, Helianthus annuus achenes were recovered which are similar to modern domesticated types (Crites 1993 in Cronn et al. 1997, Smith 1992 in Cronn et al. 1997). The Spaniards introduced Helianthus into Europe in the early 1500's, and in eastern Europe and Russia it was cultivated and bred for new varieties in which the oil content of the seed was increased (Cronn et al. 1997, Mabberley 1997, Stevens 2000). It was reintroduced back into the United States in the late 1800's (Stevens 2000). Plants and seeds are presently used for food, oil (for cooking, industry, varnishes and paints), fuels, fodder, silage, livestock and animal/bird feed and bedding, with Helianthus annuus seeds producing the world's second most important source of edible oil (Clarke 1977, Duke 1983). ecological distribution / habitat: In its native area: no information found. On the North American continent: Helianthus annuus is common on open sites in many different habitats throughout North America, at elevations below 579 ft. (1900 m) (Stevens 2000). Helianthus annuus typically likes to inhabit disturbed sites, roadsides, fields, and shrublands (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002, Stevens 2000). In Arizona, it is abundant on moist soils throughout most of the state from 100-7500 ft. (30-2286 m) in elevation; found along roadsides, waste places, abandoned fields, lowlands, barren sites, ditchbanks, and in cultivated crops (Parker 1972). climatic and site requirements, and limitations: Helianthus annuus plants are intolerant of shade (Duke 1983). Helianthus annuus tolerates a annual mean temperature range of 43-82°F (6-28°C) (Duke 1983). Mature Helianthus annuus plants can tolerate minimum temperatures to 28.4°F (-2°C) (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002). Helianthus annuus seedlings are less sensitive to freezing temperatures than mature plants (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002). Helianthus annuus tolerates a mean precipitation range of 7.8-157.5 in. (20-400 cm) (Duke 1983). germination: Helianthus annuus seeds have a dormancy (Baskin and Baskin 1988). The seeds have a chemical inhibitor, which is broken down by cool temperatures and adequate moisture (Dillard 1999). Helianthus seed dormancy is influenced by depth of burial

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in the soil, soil moisture, minimum winter temperatures, and the seed's resin content (Dillard 1999). Helianthus annuus seeds germinate initially at high temperatures, with the minimum temperature requirement decreasing over time (Baskin and Baskin 1988). Helianthus annuus seedlings can emerge from soil depths of at least 4 in. (10 cm) (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002). Helianthus annuus seedlings are less sensitive to freezing temperatures than the mature plants (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002). soil preferences: Helianthus annuus are intolerant of acid or waterlogged soils (Duke 1983) growing in well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soils, and often infesting fertile soils (California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia 2002). Helianthus annuus tolerates a pH range of 4.5-8.7 (Duke 1978, 1979 in Duke 1983). competitive abilities: Helianthus annuus has a highly efficient root system, and are drought tolerant except during flowering (Duke 1983). During trials in various locations in North Dakota, Helianthus annuus reduced wheat yields; 0.5, 1, 3, 9., or 23 Helianthus annuus plants/m2 reduced wheat yields by an average of 5, 7, 11, 19, and 33%, respectively (Gillespie 1982). why it does well as an invasive: no information found.

effect on natural processes/description of the threat

no information found.

known general distribution

United States: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming (USDA,NRCS, The PLANTS database 2001: Map available at Website: http://plants.usda.gov/plants/ ; then enter the common or scientific name).

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Arizona, by county: in all northern counties (Kearney and Peebles 1960, McDougall 1973) and throughout the state (Kearney and Peebles 1960); 100-7500 ft. (Parker 1972).

National Park Service, southern Arizona group: Casa Grande Ruins National Monument source listing species' presence in park: Reichhardt, K. 1992. Natural vegetation of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report NPS/WRUA/NRTR-92/45, National Park Service, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, School of Renewable Natural Resources, 125 Biological Science East, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721. 40 pp. Chiricahua National Monument source listing species' presence in park: no sources found Coronado National Memorial source listing species' presence in park:

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Parfitt, B.D. and C.M. Christy. 1992. Coronado National Memorial plant checklist ­ a synonymized list of the vascular plants. Department of Botany, Arizona State University, Tempe Arizona 85287-1601. 24 pp. Fort Bowie National Historic Site source listing species' presence in park: Bennett, P.S., R.R. Johnson, and M.R. Kunzmann. 1996. An annotated list of vascular plants of the Chiricahua Mountains: Including Pedregosa Mountains, Swisshelm Mountains, Chiricahua National Monument, and Fort Bowie National Historic Site. Special Report No. 12. United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Cooperative Park Studies Unit, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 228 pp. Warren, P., M.S. Hoy, and W.E. Hoy. 1992. Vegetation and flora of Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Arizona. Technical Report NPS/WRUA/NRTR-92/43. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Western Region, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721. 78 pp. Montezuma Castle National Monument and Montezuma Well unit source listing species' presence in park: Brian, N.J. and P.G. Rowlands. 1994. An annotated vascular plant species list for Montezuma Castle and Montezuma Well National Monuments, Arizona. Technical Report, Colorado Plateau Research Station, National Biological Survey, P.O. Box 5614, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5614. 77 pp. Herkenham, N.B., with family Graminae by A.R. Purshase. 1992. Checklist of vascular plants: Montezuma Well Section, Montezuma Castle National Monument. Appendix II, In: USDA/Soil Conservation Service. 1993. Montezuma Castle National Monument, Montezuma Well Unit: Existing resources and recommendations for landscape renewal plan development; Yavapai County, Arizona. Prepared for the United Stated Department of Interior, National Park Service. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 45 pp. Rowlands, P.G. 1999. Vegetation survey of Montezuma Castle National Monument. Division of Resources Management, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Route 1, Box 100, Ajo, Arizona 85321. 107 pp. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument source listing species' presence in park: no sources found Saguaro National Park source listing species' presence in park: Bowers, J.A. and S.P. McLaughlin. 1987. Flora and vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants 8(2):51-94. Tonto National Monument source listing species' presence in park:

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no sources found Tumacacori National Historical Park source listing species' presence in park: no sources found Tuzigoot National Monument source listing species' presence in park: no sources found

Weeds in the West Project While completing distribution mapping between Spring 1999 through Spring 2001 for the USGS Weeds in the West project in the southern Arizona National Park Service management units, Helianthus annuus (annual sunflower) was found in the following parks (Guertin 2001): Montezuma Castle National Monument and Montezuma Well unit

control methods and management strategies

Hand labor: While Helianthus annuus seedlings are small, hoe or pull the plants before seeds are mature (Muenscher 1980). Grazing: Helianthus annuus is highly palatable early in the season with palatability diminishing as the plants mature; livestock and wildlife graze the flower heads (Johnson and Larson 1999). Cooper and Johnson (1984 in Munro 1993) report of nitrate poisoning in cattle in Britain after ingestion of Helianthus annuus plants having immature seeds. Herbicides: WeedScience.org (2002) reports herbicide resistance to ALS type herbicides, specifically imazethapyr; this herbicide mode of action inhibits acetolactate synthase, disrupting protein and DNA synthesis. Some herbicides found to be effective in controlling Helianthus annuus in crops include: foramsulfuron plus iodosulfuron in corn (Collins et al. 2001); cyanazine plus atrazine in corn (Jennings et al. 1973); atrazine or dicamba in corn, propazine in sorghum, and glyphosate in cotton (Abernathy et al. 1977); bromoxynil in onions (Menges and Tamez 1981); glyphosate, with Helianthus annuus plants 2-4 ft. (61-122 cm) tall using various applicators in which a recirculating sprayer and rope wick applicators were more effective, in soybeans (Lueschen et al. 1980); metribuzin in soybeans (Hawf and Waggoner 1973); pre-emergent ethofumesate followed by postemergent phenmedipham plus desmedipham plus ethofumesate or chloridazon or diclofop in sugarbeet (Wilson et al. 1977); dicamba (Gillespie and Miller 1980), MCPA, bromoxynil, and bromoxynil plus MCPA in wheat (Gillespie and Miller 1980, Gillespie 1982). Diuron, buthidazole, and buthidazole plus diuron controlled Helianthus annuus along highway right-of-ways (Alley and Humburg 1979).

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Cautions and considerations: Herbicides, as with all management / control methods, take careful planning and attention to detail for a particular site (climate/weather, soils, topography, vegetation or lack thereof, sensitive areas, land use, target plant and infestation characteristics) and the goals to be accomplished on the site. A major consideration when using herbicides is the sensitivity and hazard to other non-target species and organisms in the area (Callihan et al. 1995, Horowitz 1996). Many of the herbicides are 'non-selective' and useful for agricultural operations, but not necessarily intended for natural environments. Even the 'selective' chemicals can harm other plants when not applied properly or when used in places where other native plants are vulnerable to their mode of action (Horowitz 1996). Improper application and /or application rates can harm many other species, along with affecting water quality; the eventual accumulation of these compounds in underground and aboveground water bodies (Callihan et al. 1995, Horowitz 1996). Also, to be considered is the potential resistance a biotype may develop to some of these compounds over time (Horowitz 1996). The information provided here is meant to give a glimpse of what has been learned, and found effective. It might not necessarily be the best approach in the Sonoran Desert; generally the environments reported on are not desert lands as little research has been done in natural environments of the Sonoran Desert to date. Nor do the same application or herbicide use laws apply across state borders in all cases. Contacts / specialists' names or offices are provided in the following section for follow up and gathering of more information pertinent to a specific environment or site. Table 1 offers information on the herbicides in this section.

contacts or technical specialists

Dr. Francis E. Northam (Ed Northam) Noxious Weed Coordinator, Plant Services Division Arizona Department of Agriculture 1688 West Adams Street Phoenix, Arizona 85007 Phone: (602) 542-3309: FAX: (602) 542-1004 e-mail: [email protected] Ed works state-wide primarily with noxious agricultural weeds, yet has also done some work to get non-native invasive plants listed that impact Arizona's natural environments He indicated he would provide, as requested, information regarding: weed biology control/management of weeds Dr. John H. Brock Professor of Applied Biological Science Coordinator of Sustainable Technologies, Agribusiness and Resources (STAR) Research Center Arizona State University East 7001 E. Williams Field Rd. Mesa, Arizona 85212 Phone: (480) 727-1240; FAX (480) 727-1961 e-mail: [email protected] Dr. Brock has done:

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invasive plant work (including control treatments) in essentially all the major vegetation types in Arizona, except the highest elevation types like mixed conifer. April Fletcher, Arizona Interagency Weed Action Group U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service P. O. Box 1306 500 Gold Ave. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103 e-mail: [email protected] April works region-wide with on-the-ground folks. Arizona Interagency Weed Action Group (IWAG) is an ad-hoc group; working on specific projects identified as species of concern by the group. IWAG consists of invasive weed folks from state and Federal resource management agencies. April is: acquainted with control methods for numerous species she knows many professionals who are doing control work, so, when she can't supply an answer, she can usually provide contacts who can. Jim Horsley, Southwest Vegetation Management Association Arizona Department of Transportation 2104 S. 22nd Avenue Phoenix, Arizona 85009 Phone: (602) 712-6135 email: [email protected] Jim indicated at ADOT they manage and control a number of native and non-native invasive species. Their experience includes Centaurea solstitialis (Yellow) and Centaurea melitensis (Malta) star thistle, Onopordum acanthium (Scotch), Carduus nutans (Musk), and Cirsium vulgare (Bull) thistle, Acroptilon repens (Russian), Centaurea biebersteinii / Centaurea maculosa (spotted), and Centaurea diffusa (diffuse) knapweed, Alhagi maurorum (Camelthorn), Halogeton glomeratus (Halogeton), Salsola sp. (Russian thistle, tumbleweed), Linaria damatica (Dalmation toadflax), Cardaria draba (Hoary cress), Tribulus terrestris (Puncture vine), Cenchrus sp. (sandbur), Convolvulus arvensis (Field bindweed), Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass), Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass), Pennisetum setaceum (Fountain grass), several mustards, Verbascum sp. (mullein), Heterotheca subaxillaris (Camphorweed) and several others. Jim has personal experience statewide and, has access to other experts from several states in the southwest.

bibliography

Abernathy, J.R., D. Hollingsworth, and J.W. Keeling. 1977. Control of volunteer sunflower in rotational crops. Progress Report, No. PR-3438, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 3 pp. Alley, H.P., and N.E. Humburg. 1979. Research in weed science. Research Journal, No. 137, Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station. 98 pp.

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Avetisyan, G.A. 1965. [Bee pollination of agricultural crops] His Pchelovodstvo. Moskva, Kolos. p. 209-248. Barkworth, M.E., K.M. Capels, and L.A. Vorobik (eds.). 2002; in production. Manual of the grasses for North America north of Mexico and flora North America north of Mexico, Volumes 24 and 25. Website: http://herbarium.usu.edu/grassmanual/default.htm then select desired species, and menu selection (map, illustration, treatment, synonymy, notes... most menu selections are not completed, although the maps are informative and wonderful) Baskin, C.C., and J.M. Baskin. 1988. Germination ecophysiology of herbaceous plant species in a temperate region. American Journal of Botany 75(2):286-305. California Department of Food and Agriculture, EncycloWeedia. 2002. Helianthus. Ed by: Healy, E.A., S. Enloe, J.M. DiTomaso, B. Roberson, N. Dechoretz, S. Schoenig, P. Akers, L. Butler, and J. Garvin. Non-Cropland Weed group, UC Extension Service, Weed Science Program, Department of Vegetable Crops, The University of California. Davis, CA. 95616. website: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/weedinfo/HELIANTH2.htm Callihan, B., L. Smith, J. McCaffrey, and E. Michalson. 1995. Yellow starthistle management for small acreages. University of Idaho, Cooperative Extension System, Agricultural Experiment Station; CIS 1025. 8 pp. Clarke, C.B. 1977. Edible and useful plants of California. California Natural History Guides: 41. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 280 pp. Collins, B., D. Drexler, M. Maerkl, E. Hacker, H. Hagemeister, K.E. Pallett, and C. Effertz. 2001. Foramsulfuron - a new foliar herbicide for weed control in corn (maize). In: The British Crop Protection Council Conference: Weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, November 12-15, 2001, Brighton, United Kingdom. British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, United Kingdom. p. 35-42. Cooper, M.R., and A.W. Johnson. 1984. Poisonous plant in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp. Crites, G.D. 1993. Domesticated sunflower in fifth millennium b.p. temporal context: new evidence from middle Tennessee. American Antiquity 58:146-148. Cronn, R., M Brothers, K. Klier, P.K. Bretting, and J.F. Wendel. 1997. Allozyme variation in domesticated annual sunflower and its wild relatives. Dillard, J. 1999. Sunflowers for wildlife in the cross-timbers. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, Texas. Website: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/wildlife_pubs/sunflowers_for_wildlife.pdf Duke, J.A. 1978. The quest for tolerant germplasm. In: ASA Special Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. American Society of Agronomy, Madison Wisconsin. p. 1-61. Duke, J.A. 1979. Ecosystematic data on economic plants. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research 17(3-4):91-110.

16

Duke, J.A. 1983. Handbook of energy crops. Helianthus annuus L. Unpublished. At: Purdue University, Center for New Crops and Plants Products. Website: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Helianthus_annuus.html ExToxNet. 2002. USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program, A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University. Website: http://ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/ghindex.html Felger, R.S. 2000. Flora of the Gran Desierto and Rio Colorado of northwestern Mexico. The University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 673 pp. Gillespie, G.R. 1982. Volunteer sunflower competition in wheat and sunflower response to diclofop. Dissertation Abstracts International 43(6):1691. Gillespie, G.R., and S.D. Miller. 1980. Volunteer sunflower control in wheat. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference, Vol. 35. p. 7-9. GRIN. 2000. Grin Taxonomy. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Website: http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax/index.html then click on 'simple queries of species data' and search for plant species. Guertin, P. 2001. Observations made during the duration of weed distribution mapping for the USGS Weeds in the West project occurring in the southern Arizona National Park Service management areas. May 1999-June 2001. USGS/BRD, Sonoran Desert Field Station, The University of Arizona, 125 Biological Sciences East, Tucson, Arizona, 85721. Harris, J.G., and M.W. Harris. 1997. Plant identification terminology: an illustrated glossary. Spring Lake Publishing, Spring Lake, Utah. 197 pp. Hawf, L.R., and T.B. Waggoner. 1973. Sencor herbicide for the control of weeds in soybeans. Pflanzenschutza Nachrichten Bayer 26(1):35-51. Heiser, Jr., C.B. 1947. Hybridization between the sunflower species Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris. Evolution 1(4):249-262. Heiser, Jr., C.B. 1954. Variation and subspeciation in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. American Midland Naturalist 51(1):287-305. Heiser, Jr., C.B. 1976. The sunflower. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 198 pp. Heiser, Jr., C.B., and T.W. Whitaker. 1948. Chromosome number, polyploidy, and growth habit in California weeds. American Journal of Botany 35(3):179-186. Hickman, J.C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA. 1400 pp.

17

Hilty, J. 2002. Annual sunflower Helianthus annuus Aster family (Asteraceae). Prairie wildflowers of Illinois. Website: http://www.shout.net/~hilty/plant_index.htm Holden, M. 1996; unpublished. Exotic plant species list, compiled for southern Arizona parks from park floras and exotic plants lists. National Park Service; Saguaro National Park; Tucson Mountain District; 'soazex~1.xls' database, in MS Excel. Horowitz, M. 1996. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon): A history of the weed and its control in Israel. Phytoparasitica 24(4):305-320. Jennings, V.M., W.G. Lovely, and D.W. Staniforth. 1973. Corn herbicide evaluations across Iowa in 1973. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference, Vol. 28. p. 80-83. Johnson, J.R., and G.E. Larson. 1999. Grassland plants of South Dakota and the northern Great Plains. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. 288 pp. Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: Volume I - Checklist. The biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 622 pp. Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: Volume II - Thesaurus. The biota of North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical Garden. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 816 pp. Kearney, T.H. and R.H. Peebles. 1960. Arizona flora. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 1085 pp. Lueschen, W.E., A.R. Martin, and J.D. Furrer. 1980. Effectiveness of glyphosate and 2,4-D for controlling sunflower, kochia and velvetleaf in soybeans with new generation applicators. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference, Vol. 35. p. 60-61. Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 858 pp. McDougall, W.B. 1973. Seed plants of northern Arizona. The Museum of Northern Arizona. Flagstaff. 594 pp. McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook, No. 496. Updated continuously. Available at Website: http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/book/index.html scroll down to Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants, and click on 'sunflower' Menges, R.M., and S. Tamez. 1981. Response of onion (Allium cepa) to annual weeds and postemergence herbicides. Weed Science 29(1):74-79. Muenscher, W.C. 1980. Weeds. Second Edition. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, 124 Roberts Place, Ithaca, New York, 14850. 587 pp.

18

Munro, D.B. 1993. Notes on poisoning: Helianthus annuus. Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Website: http://sis.agr.gc.ca/pls/pp/ Munz, P.A. 1974. A flora of southern California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles. 1086 pp. Oregon State University, Weed Science Program. 1998. Table 1. Herbicide classification according to primary site of action. Oregon State University, Extension, Research, and the Department of Crop and Soil Science. Website: http://www.css.orst.edu/weeds/Publications/table1.html Parker, K.F. 1972. An illustrated guide to Arizona weeds. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 338 pp. this publication and its illustrations are available at: http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/online.bks/weeds/ Parker, R. 1997. Agrichemicals and their properties. In: William R,D., D. Ball, T.L. Miller, R. Parker, J.P. Yenish, R.H. Callihan, C. Eberlein, G.A. Lee, and D.W. Morishita, compilers. Pacific Northwest 1997 Weed Control Handbook. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. p. 12 - 27. Parker, R. 1997. Control of problem weeds. In: William R,D., D. Ball, T.L. Miller, R. Parker, J.P. Yenish, R.H. Callihan, C. Eberlein, G.A. Lee, and D.W. Morishita, compilers. Pacific Northwest 1997 Weed Control Handbook. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. p. 304 - 342. Priestly, D.A. 1986. Seed aging. Implications for seed storage and persistence in the soil. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 304 pp. Putt, E.E. 1940. Observations on morphological character and flowering processes in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Sci. Agr. 21:167-179. Rice, Jr., R.P. 1992. Nursery and landscape weed control manual. Thompson Publications, Fresno, California. 290 pp. Ross, M.A. and C.A. Lembi. 1985. Applied Weed Science. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 340 pp. Schuster, W.H. 1985. Helianthus annuus. In: Halevy, A.H. (ed.). CRC Handbook of flowering. Vol. III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 466 pp. Shreve, F. and I.L. Wiggins. 1964. Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran Desert: Vols. I and II. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1740 pp. Smith, B.D. 1992. Rivers of change: essays on early agriculture in eastern North America. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, D.C. Spectrum Laboratories, Inc. 2003. Chemical Fact Sheet. Spectrum Laboratories, Inc. Fort Lauderdale, Florida and Savannah, Georgia. Website: http:www.speclab.com/compound/chemabc.htm use the find feature on your web browser to locate the chemical from the list, then click on chemical name.

19

Stevens, M. 2000. Annual sunflower: Helianthus annuus L. USDA/NRCS Plant Guide. USDA, NRCS, National Plant Data Center. Website: http://plants.usda.gov/ then search on 'Helianthus annuus', and click on 'plant guide' within the species' page. Stevens, O.A. 1932. The number and weight of seeds produced by weeds. American Journal of Botany 19(9):784-794. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: Iverson, L. 2002. Helianthus annuus. Illinois Plant Information Network; compiled by Ketzner, D., and J. Karnes. Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, Illinois 61820. Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/1444.co United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2001. The PLANTS database, Version 3.1 (http://plants.usda.gov/plants/). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. University of California. 1998. The Grower's Weed Identification Handbook. Cooperative Extension University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 4030. 311 pp. WeedScience.org. 2002. Herbicide resistant Common sunflower globally (Helianthus annuus). Website: http://weedscience.org/in.asp then select weed from scrolldown menu and click 'go' a list linked to occurrence reports appears, enabling access to further information about the resistance to specific herbicides. Whitson, T.D., Editor; L.C. Burrill, S.A. Dewey, D.W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, R.D. Lee, R. Parker. 1992. Weeds of the West. The Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with the Western United States Land Grant Universities Cooperative Extension Services and the University of Wyoming. 630 pp. Wiesbrook, M. 2000. Agronomic. Illinois Pesticide Review. Vol. 2000, Issue 2. Website: http://www.pestidicesaftety.uiuc.edu/newsletter/html/200002U0.html Wilson, Jr., R.G., F.N. Anderson, and G.A. Wicks. 1977. Sugarbeet weed control studies in Nebraska in 1977. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference, Vol. 32. p. 36. Yarnell, R.A. 1978. Domestication of sunflower and sumpweed in eastern North America. In: Ford, R.I. (ed.). The nature and status of ethnobotany. Anthropological Paper 67. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology. p. 289-299. Zollinger, R. 2001. Small Grain and Corn Herbicide Update. Weeds. NDSU Crop and Pest Report. Website: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/aginfo/entomology/ndsucpr/Years/2001/May/10/we eds_10May01.htm

additional sources and websites

Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service Website: http://www.reeusda.gov/1700/statepartners/usa.htm

20

This website brings you to an interface to connect with Cooperative Extension programs throughout the United States; select the desired state, enter a link, often there is a search option in which information on a plant can be searched for. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, September 2002 has published 'Linking Wilderness Research and Management. Volume 4 - Understanding and Managing Invasive Plants in Wilderness and Other Natural Areas. An Annotated Reading List. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-79-volume 4 This volume is available on the Web; Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr079_4.pdf (Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr079_4.html provides some information if problems occur in viewing this file) websites with great plant photos: http://kaweahoaks.com/html/annual_sunflower.html http://www.esb.utexas.edu/mbierner/BIO406D/images/pics/ast/helianthus_annuus.htm http://ces.asu.edu/collections/vasc_image_library/ImageIndex.jsp then click on appropriate letter, and then scroll down and click on appropriate name http://www.extension.usu.edu/weedweb/photo/PL.htm then find species and select photos under categories (such as 'plant', 'flower', 'leaf', etc) http://courses.smsu.edu/pab532f/IDList4_485.htm image to enlarge scroll down to plant and click on

involucre: http://csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/fa06/fa06086.jpg disc floret: http://csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/fa06/fa06092.jpg ray floret: http://csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/fa06/fa06091.jpg flower and leaves: http:www.calflora.net/backbonetrail/commonsunflower1.html seeds: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/seedid/ then select species Helianthus petiolaris http://ces.asu.edu/collections/vasc_image_library/ImageIndex.jsp then click on appropriate letter, and then scroll down and click on appropriate name

websites with simple plant descriptions and/or photos: http://uvalde.tamu.edu/herbarium/hean.htm http://www.americaawake.org/mtflora/Asteraceae_rd/heliant_annu.htm http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Helianthus_annuus_page.html

21

Table 1. Herbicide information for control of Helianthus annuus. TRADE NAMES

Aatrex, Atrazine, Atra-Pril, Cheat Stop

HERBICIDE

atrazine

CHEMICAL GROUP

triazine

USE

MODE OF ACTION

IN SOILS

Moderate to strong adsorption to soil particles and organic matter. Leaching generally is limited; but may leach in sandy soils, thus groundwater contamination may occur. Seldom found more than 12 in. deep. May persist for more than one season in cold or droughttype soils.

NOTES

Selective. Selectivity based on resistant plants metabolizing the compound to non-toxic materials; also can be caused by position in soil. Many annual grasses and most broadleaf species sensitive. Most products containing atrazine are restricted-use herbicides. (Labeled sites: conifer nurseries, non-crop land, turf, grass seed production)

Soil application Inhibits photosynthesis. or foliar spray Absorbed primarily through roots with some foliar absorption; apoplastic translocation; readily translocated. Accumulates areas of high metabolic activity (shoot meristems).

bromoxynil

Buctril, Brominal

benzonitrile

Foliar spray Appears to inhibit Little activity in soils. photosynthesis and respiration. Absorbed by foliage with little translocation within plant.

Selective. Primarily sensitive to annual broadleaf species. Controls some plants species resistant to 2,4-D. Restricted-use herbicide. (Labeled sites: turf)

buthidazole

no information

unclassified

no information no information

no information

no information

chloridazon (= pyrzaon)

Pyramin

pyridazinone

Pre-emergent Photosynthetic inhibitor. and postAbsorbed by both roots and emergent shoots. Apoplastically transported.

Soil type affects use. Not recommended on sands or loamy sands due to potential leaching. Organic matter should be above 5%. Average persistence is 4-8 weeks.

Used against annual weeds such as pigweed, mustard, lambsquarters, smartweed, henbit, nightshade, shepardspurse, groundsel, dock, wild radish, chickweed, in beets. (Labeled sites: no information)

22

cyanazine

Bladex

triazine

Pre-emergent, Inhibits photosynthesis. or sometimes Foliar and root uptake. early postemergent

Leaching dependent on soil texture and amount of organic matter present; therefore rates must be adjusted. Soil life approximately 8-10 weeks.

Selective. Used for control of annual weeds. Used in corn. Used in particular when simazine or atrazine is likely to result in carryover injury to sensitive crops. (Labeled sites: no information)

desmedipham

Betanex

carbamate

Post-emergent Photosynthetic inhibitor.

Half-life in soils approximately 1 month.

Used against annual weeds such as pigweed, mustard, lambsquarters, nightshade, shepardspurse, London rocket, chickweed, buckwheat, ragweed, fiddleneck, kochia in sugarbeets. Timing of application with weed and crop stage is critical. Rain within 6 hours of application may reduce weedkill. (Labeled sites: no information)

desmedipham plus Betamix phenmedipham

carbamate

Post-emergent Photosynthetic inhibitor.

no information

Used in sugar beets. (Labeled sites: no information)

phenmedipham

Betanal, Spin-Aid

carbamate

Post-emergent Photosynthetic inhibitor.

Half-life in soils approximately 25 days.

Used in sugar beets, table beets, spinach. Timing of application with weed and crop stage is critical. Rainfall within 6 hours of application may reduce weedkill. (Labeled sites: no information)

dicamba

Banvel, Banvel SGF, Banvel II, Clarity, Trooper, Vanquish

benzoic acid

Pre-emergent Mimic plant's hormones. or foliar spray Absorbed by foliage and roots; readily translocated symplastically and apoplastically throughout plant. Acts as an auxin-like growth regulator. Mechanism not known.

Mobile in soils. Leaches readily. Leaching into root zones of trees, etc., can be a hazard. Decomposition by soil microbes. In warm, moist conditions, half-life is 14 days.

Many annual, biennial, and perennial herbaceous broadleaf species, and some woody species are sensitive. (Labeled sites: home and industrial turf, parks, golf courses, non-crop lands)

23

diclofop-methyl

Illoxan, Hoslon

diphenyl ether

Post-emergent Interferes with cell division; Does not leach. inhibits meristematic region. Decomposes rapidly. Absorbed by foliage; translocated throughout plant.

Selective; although controls only young weeds. Has some residual activity. Doesn't mix well with other materials. (Labeled sites: no information)

diuron

Karmex, Direx

substituted urea

Pre-emergent Inhibits photosynthesis by or directed inhibiting the Hill reaction. foliar spray Absorbed mainly by roots, some foliar absorption, and translocated apoplastically through plant.

Adsorbed to soil on organic matter and clays. Leaching is minimal in clay, increases in sandy soils. Persists several months in soil.

Used selectively or as complete vegetation killer. When used at low rates, it can be selective; higher rates for general vegetation control. Requires a surfactant for foliar application (plants must be under 2 in. tall). (Labeled sites: field nurseries, non-crop land)

ethofumesate

Nortron, Prograss

methanesulphonate compound

Pre-emergent Absorbed by emerging or early post- shoots and by roots, emergent translocated to shoot. Not readily absorbed by foliage.

Adsorbed onto organic Selective. Used for weed control in matter. Not readily leached perennial ryegrass and sugarbeets. below 6 inches. Biodegrades (Labeled sites: turf) by soil biota. Little volatilization or photodecomposition. Half life ranges from 5-14 weeks.

foramsulfuron

AE F130360 WG70, AE F130360 WG62

sulfonylurea

Post-emergent ALS inhibitor.

no information

Control of annual and perennial grasses and certain broadleaf weeds in corn. (Labeled sites: no information)

24

glyphosate

Roundup, Rodeo, Kleenup, Accord, Honcho, Expedite Grass and Weed, E-Z-Ject, Jury, Mirage, Pondmaster, Protocol, Rattler, Ruler, Silhouette

glycine derivative

Foliar spray Absorbed by foliage and Strongly adsorbed to soil and translocated symplasticly to inactivated. Little leaching, sites of high metabolic no soil activity. Broken down activity in roots and shoots. by microorganisms. Inhibits amino acid synthesis. May be washed off if rain occurs within 6 hours.

Nonselective. Low volume applications most effective. May be washed off if rain occurs within 6 hours. Rhizome kill often best when applied to mature weeds at time of flowering. Rodeo and Accord require additional nonionic surfactant. Grass control enhanced with addition of ammonium sulfate to spray solution. Retreatment may be necessary. (Labeled sites: turf renovation, nurseries, parks, home garden, industrial landscapes)

imazethapyr

Pursuit

imidazolinone

Post-emergent Disrupts protein and DNA synthesis.

no information.

Selective. Use for broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses. (Labeled sites: no information) To control grasses in cereal crops. (Labeled sites: no information)

iodosulfuron

AEF-115008

sulfonylurea

Post-emergent no information.

no information.

MCPA

many: some manufacturers are: Rhone-Poulenc, Lilly Miller, WilberEllis, Agrolinz, Inter-Ag Corp.

phenoxy

Foliar spray or Mimic plant's hormones. soil application Absorbed by foliage and translocated symplastically, and accumulates areas of high metabolic activity (new growth). Primary mode of action not known, but it affects processes such as cell division and elongation.

Readily leached in soils. Selective. Many broadleaf species Rapid decomposition by soil sensitive. (Labeled sites: turf, non-crop microbes; low lands) photodecomposition rate. Persistence in soils under moist conditions is 1 month, in dry conditions is 6 months.

25

metribuzin

Sencor, Lexone

triazine

Soil application Inhibits photosynthesis. or foliar spray Absorbed primarily through roots, also by foliage. Translocated apoplastically through plant

Relatively mobile in soil; moderately adsorbed onto organic matter and clay. Leaches readily in sandy soils, less in other types. Decomposition by soil microbes. Half life is 1 - 2 months, depending on conditions.

Selective. Grasses and annual broadleaf species sensitive. Apply at lower rates when soil pH is greater than 7.5. (Labeled sites: turf)

propazine

G-30028, Gesamil, Milocep, Milogard, Milo-Pro, Prapazin, Primatol-P, Propinex

chlorotriazine

Pre-emergent Photosynthetic inhibitor; spray and apoplastically transported. post-emergent Primarily root uptake.

Has low to moderate leachability in soils. Depending on application rates, a high persistence in soils of be 2-3 years.

Control of broadleaf weeds and annual grasses in sorghum and Umbelliferous crops (carrots, celery, fennel). (Labeled sites: no information)

This information compiled from ExToxNet (2002), Oregon State University, Weed Science Program (1998), Parker (1997), Rice (1992), Ross and Lembi (1985), Spectrum Laboratories (2003), Wiesbrook (2000), Zollinger (2001).

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