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Lab 1: Organization of the Body (Organ Systems), Anatomical Terms, Measurement Review, Microscope Use OBJECTIVES: Organization of the Body On torso models and in pictures identify the major organs that are part of each of the 11 human body systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, lymphatic/immune, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, nervous, endocrine, urinary and reproductive List the general functions of each organ system Practice matching organs with organ systems (online game). Become an expert on one organ system (details provided in class) Anatomical Terms Use anatomical terminology to describe: o surface anatomical features o relative position of body features, organs Describe planes of section and practice building 3-dimensional perspective from 1 dimensional sections and vice versa (common objects, human body, organs and tissues) Recognize the main body cavities and identify the organs they contain Metric Measurement and Powers of Ten Review (review ­ do at home) Using the Microscope Identify the major parts of the dissecting and compound microscope and learn their functions Determine the total magnification at different settings Use the microscope to make accurate observations and measurements of specimens Do This (Organization of the Body): 1. Identify the 11 body systems that we will study this quarter, the major organs that comprise them and the general functions of the organ system. Fill in the table below. 2. Identify the key organs of that make up these body systems on the torso models. Body System 1.Integumentary 2.Skeletal 3.Muscular 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 10. 11. Major Organs General Functions

3. Draw a crude representation of the major organs of the 11 body systems on the diagrams below.

4. Practice: a. Fill in the Mind Map (below) b. Review: Please do Body Systems 100 Quiz bowl Exercises listed under Chapter 1 . c. Review: Please do the Organ Systems 1-4 Self Tests:


Do This (Anatomical Terms): 1. Identify anatomical position with your lab partner. 2. Identify the body landmarks listed below on a diagram and on your lab partner (pgs 12-13). Surface Body Landmarks axial digital pedal cephalic appendicular femoral pelvic femoral abdominal fibular pollex gluteal antebrachial hallux pubic lumbar axillary inguinal sternal sacral buccal mammary tarsal occipital carpal mental thoracic perineal cervical oral umbilical plantar coxal orbital acromial popliteal crural patellar calcalneal scapular

3. Use surface landmarks (above) and the directional terms (below) to describe relative position of body parts e.g. The elbow is ____________ to the wrist. The sacral region is __________ to the occipital region. Make sure to discuss all of the directional terms below. Superior/Inferior Medial/Lateral Proximal/Distal Anterior/Posterior dorsal/Ventral Superficial/Deep 4. Fill in the table. Body part/landmark Directional term Body part/landmark Elbow Proximal wrist Sacral region Medial Coxal region distal Superficial Deep Dorsal Ventral Anterior Posterior Superior lateral Inferior 5. Practice: Anatomical terms: and (select Body Regions) and (Body Regions 1- 4 short, medium or long) 6. Building 3-Dimensional Perspective. Draw what you would expect to see if you sectioned (cut) the objects below (banana, noodle, human) in the 3 planes (sagittal, frontal/coronal, transverse). Draw your "cut" on the object, what you expect to "see" (3 cuts/object) in the boxes.


7. Label the body cavities and identify 1 organ in each cavity.


Do This Homework: Metric Measurement and Powers of Ten Review (Check with me if you need help)

Make sure you understand and can fill in the rows in the table. Meters 100 m Decimeter 10 -1 m Centimeter 10-2 m Millimeter 10-3m 1 5 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7 centimeters = ________ meters 100 millimeters= ____________meters 15 micron = ______________meters 1 cm (10-2m)= ____mm (10x)= _____um(10x) 500 um = ______mm = ______ cm .0001 = 10x where x= ___________ 10,000 = 10 x where x= ___________


Microns 10 -6m 2,000,000

Using the Dissecting and Compound Light Microscope* This lab exercise is designed to help you become comfortable using both compound and dissecting microscopes, which are important tools we'll use as we investigate anatomy.

reference with more detailed explanations:

I. Compound microscopes: parts and proper care Microscopes are expensive shared instruments and must be handled carefully and cared for properly in order to function optimally. Read the information below before obtaining your microscope. Carrying the scope: When carrying a microscope, use one hand to support the base, and the other to grasp the arm. Hold it in close to your body so it is less likely to bump into obstacles as you move about. Cleaning: Keeping the microscope clean is important. Microscope lenses can only be cleaned with special lens paper (see you instructor) otherwise the very expensive lens will be damaged. For the base and the stage, you may use damp paper towels or Kimwipes (small lab tissues). Ask you teacher for help if you have questions. Using the Microscope: Details below.

II. Identify Parts of the Compound Microscope. 1. Sign up for a microscope that you will use all quarter. 2. Carefully carry the microscope to your lab bench. 3. Work with a partner to learn the parts of the microscope. 4. Label the diagram and fill in the table below (try doing from memory)

Base: Supports the scope. Important external features are the on/off switch for the light, and a knob or dial that adjusts the light intensity. For almost all of our specimens, the illuminator intensity control should be set at mid-range (6-7, if numbered). Substage light: Passes light through the specimen from below. The light bulb itself is further back in the base of the microscope, and precisely oriented mirrors and lenses send its light through here, directly beneath the condenser and the hole in the stage. Stage and stage clip : Holds the slide. A stage clip is the mechanical arm that holds the slide in place. Why is there a hole in the stage ______________________________? Condenser (condenser height knob, iris diaphragm: Small substage lens that collects light from a source and concentrates it toward a specimen (giving a more intense light beam than could be obtained directly from the source). A condenser is essential because it modifies the light beam to match the properties of the objective lens. For our purposes, the condenser will be set close to the bottom of the stage (*An experienced user can control and optimize contrast and resolution by adjusting the condenser height and condenser aperture, also called the iris diaphragm.) Coarse and fine focus knobs: Knobs on both sides of the base of the arm that move the stage. Rotate the larger, outside knob. Observe the rest of the microscope carefully. What happens? The smaller, inside knob does the same thing but in smaller steps. Arm: Vertical part of the scope that connects the base to the head. Lenses: Lenses are contained within objectives and eyepieces. Lenses are the magnifiers. Lenses focus light rays. The strength of a lens is related to its ability to focus light rays (* short focal length more magnification). eyepiece or ocular lenses: Our microscopes have two oculars and thus are binocular scopes (Visual acuity is better using both eyes). Most oculars magnify the image by 10 times (check this by examining the writing on the lens tube). Oculars can be adjusted to the distance between your eyes. Oculars can also be adjusted for differences in the way that your eyes focus by rotating the diopter adjustment ring on the base on the left eyepiece (on most of our scopes). Please start by setting this adjustment to "0". objective lenses: Your microscope will have either three or four objective lenses. Each objective contains 1-10 lenses hidden inside it that you will not be able to see (and what makes the microscope so expensive $1000 ­ 5000 for these). Light passes through an objective lens and is magnified. Objectives are labeled to indicate their magnifying power. The shortest lens is sometimes called the "scanning objective," magnifies the image 4 times (4X). The longest standard objective lens is usually 40X. Your microscope may have a fourth, higher power lens (100X). This is called the "oil immersion" lens, because to view the image properly, a drop of special oil must be placed between the lens and the slide being examined. We will NOT use the oil immersion lens in this class.

revolving turret/nosepiece: This is the attachment place for different objective lenses, and rotates to position the different lenses in the light path. Always rotate from lowest to highest power, focusing on the specimen with each objective before rotating to the next! coarse and fine focus knobs: These are the black knobs on both sides of the base of the arm. Rotate the larger, outside knob. Observe the rest of the microscope carefully. What happens? The smaller, inside knob does the same thing but in smaller steps.

Do This: Name of part 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Function of part

III. Using the compound microscope: letter e 1. Make sure that your microscope is plugged in, the light is working and set to a medium brightness, and that the scanning (4X) objective lens is rotated into place (in the light path) 2. Raise the stage to its highest point. 3. Place a "letter e" slide on the stage of the microscope with the coverslip side facing up. With a compound microscope, specimens are mounted between 2 thin pieces of glass - a thicker slide on the bottom called the "slide" and a thinner slide on top called a coverslip. Also note that the specimen must be thin enough for light to pass through it. Most specimens we'll examine are thinly sectioned (10 x 10-6 m) and stained with dye to enhance contrast between different anatomical features. ________?

________? _

4. Use the stage manipulator knobs to move the slide so that "e" is over the opening in the stage. 5. Look through the ocular lenses. a. Adjust the ocular lenses toward and away from one another until they you see just one image in a well-defined circle of light. 6. If your slide is positioned so that the letters are in the center of the hole in the stage, but all you see is light, it probably means the plane of focus is so far above or below your sample you can't see it. a. Use the coarse focus knob to slowly lower the stage until the letters come into focus. Use the fine focus knob to adjust it precisely. 7. Use the stage manipulator controls to center the "e". As you use the stage controls, notice the direction the image moves, and the direction the slide itself moves. When you move the slide to the right, what direction does the image move? __________________________ When you move the slide away from you, what direction does the image move? __________________________ 8. Use the fine focus knob to sharpen the image. 9. Rotate the 10X objective lens into place without changing anything and look through the oculars again. Our microscopes are parfocal and parcentric, which means that if the specimen is centered and in focus at one magnification, then it will also be so at different ones. However, you usually need to make slight adjustments, especially in focus, as you go from lower to higher power. Note the difference in the image when magnification was increased. By how many times is the letter magnified now? Is the light intensity as bright as it was before? If you begin using the 4X objective lens and the light is fairly dim, you may need to increase the brightness to view objects at 10X or 40X. What happens to the working distance as you increase the magnification? The distance between the objective lens and the specimen is called the working distance. Each time you view an image, note that the image has been magnified by two "sets" of lenses. The objective lens magnifies the letters by 4X (low power), and the ocular lenses magnify that image 10X more. This means that you are seeing the letters 40 times their actual size. When you change the objective to 10x, what is the total magnification of the image?

10. Make sure that some portion of the letter you are viewing is in the very center of the field of view and the image is in sharp focus. Without changing anything, rotate the 40X objective lens into place. Notice how close the tip of the lens is to the cover slip. What is this distance called? 11. Bring the image into sharp focus with the fine focus knob only! If you use the coarse focus control when the 40x objective is in place, the stage will probably elevate enough to smash the slide into the lens tip, and potentially break the slide. *If you adjust the fine focus, but still can't see anything, return to using the 10X objective lens, and reposition the slide, carefully centering the part of the letter. Then try the 40X objective lens again. Re-centering "lost" objects is a very important skill. Draw what you see below and explain what happens to the "e" or any image when you view it through the microscope and increase magnification. Unaided eye 4x 10x 40x

Total Magnification

___________ IV. Using the Microscope: Depth of field



1. Obtain a prepared slide of crossed threads, and place it on your microscope as described above. Remember to begin with the lowest-power (4X) objective lens in place. At this power, are you able to see all the threads in sharp focus? If so, that means that the depth of field is greater than the height of the stack of threads. Imagine a photograph of a field of flowers. If only one row of flowers are in focus, but those in front and behind are blurry, then the photo has a shallow depth of field. If all of the flowers, both near and far, are in focus, then the photo has a large, or deep, depth of field. When looking at the threads, can you tell which one is on top? 2. Center the portion of the threads where they cross, focus and move up to the 10X objective lens. Can you get all of the threads in focus at once on this power? 3. Center the threads and move up to the 40X lens. As you focus (using only the fine focus knob, of course), observe as the focal point moves from the top to the bottom of the stack of threads, and vice versa. 4. List the order of thread colors from top to bottom: top__________, middle __________, bottom ________________________. V. Using the Microscope: Measuring field of view and specimens Your teacher may want you to estimate the size of specimens you view with the microscope. For example how long is a sperm tail? How big is a red blood cell? How thick is the stomach wall? Microscopes sometimes have a ruler placed into one of the eyepiece lenses that makes these measurements easy, but ours do not have this feature. We'll use another strategy - a plastic ruler and a little math.

1. Make sure the 4x objective is in viewing position. Place a clear plastic ruler with millimeter markings (1 cm=10mm) across the opening in the microscope stage. If the ruler is thin enough, you can gently slip it under one side of the stage clip mechanism. Position the ruler so that one mark is at the very left edge of the field of view. 2. Count the distance across the field from left to right. If the final millimeter is not complete, estimate the portion of it in the field of view. For example, if you count 7 full millimeters, and about one-quarter of the next one, record the field diameter as 7.25 mm. This is the distance across the entire field at 40x. If an object covers the entire field like that shown below, the cell is 7.25 mm. If the object covers ½ the field, how big is it?

Cell size ________ Cell size _________ ***Record you're the field diameter measurement for your microscope here: ______________. You will need this throughout the quarter. 3. Estimate field diameters for the 10X and 40X lenses using the mathematical relationship below. Do not use the ruler since it will damage the objectives and it is not precise enough. FDA x A total mag = FDB x B total mag Rearrange the equation to solve for the unknown: (FDA x A total mag) / B total mag = FDB FD 10X lens (mm) = (40/100) x measured field diameter with 4X lens (mm) FD 40X lens (mm) = (40/400) x measured field diameter with 4X lens (mm) FD 100x lens (mm) = (40/?) x measured field diameter with 4X lens (mm) ***Record these field diameter values and on something that you will always bring to lab so that you can use them in future exercises.**** 40x total magnification: MEASURED 100x total magnification:_________________________ 400x total magnification:_________________________ 1000x total magnification:_______________________ ( this is just for fun) VI. Using the Microscope: Examining Stained Specimens Now that you have experience handling slides and using a compound microscope, you can practice working with slides that contain cells. Your goal is to determine the approximate size of the following cells:

Sperm Red Blood Cell Epithelial cells Obtain each of the 3 slide samples. 1) Examine and draw what you see above. 2. Note the total magnification used for your "picture" and 3) estimate cell size. VII. Return the compound microscope to the shelf.

VIII. Using the dissecting microscope Dissecting microscopes are also very useful tools in the study of biology. Obtain a dissecting microscope. Carry and care for these scopes in the same way as a compound microscope.

1. Explore the workings of the dissecting microscope, noting the features that it shares with your compound microscope and the things that differ. Note the similar and different features when compared to the compound microscope: oculars, a dial that can change the magnification (usually from 7X to 30X total magnification), an arm, a base, a focus knob, a light source, and a nonmoveable stage. 2. Examine at least one of the specimens that are available and interesting to you. Draw a quick sketch of what you observed with the dissecting scope. Any surprises?

3. Compare the compound and dissecting scopes.

Feature Method used to change the magnification of the image Highest total magnification available Working distance when using lowest power Does it have adjustable eyepieces? What can you use to clean the stage, but not the lenses? When specimen is moved to the right, image moves... Location of the primary light source Compound microscope Dissecting microscope


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