Read Standards at key stage 1: English and mathematics text version

National curriculum

Standards at key stage 1

KEY STAGE

1

English and mathematics

A report for headteachers, class teachers and assessment coordinators on the 2003 national curriculum assessments

2003

2003

First published in 2004 © Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2004 ISBN 1 85838 538 5 Reproduction, storage, adaptation or translation, in any form or by any means, of this publication is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher, unless within the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Excerpts may be reproduced for the purpose of research, private study, criticism or review, or by educational institutions solely for educational purposes, without permission, providing full acknowledgement is given. Printed in Great Britain. The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority is an exempt charity under Schedule 2 of the Charities Act 1993. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 83 Piccadilly London W1J 8QA www.qca.org.uk/

Contents

Introduction English: analysis of children's performance

National results Changes to English assessment in 2003 How to use this report Writing Spelling Writing examples Implications for teaching and learning: Writing Reading Implications for teaching and learning: Reading 2

3 3 3 4 5 9 13 23 24 42 43 43 44 44 52 60 63 63

Mathematics: analysis of children's performance

National results Performance in mathematics General Number Shape, space and measures Well done: some examples of progress and continued success Implications for teaching and learning

Introduction

This report is one element of the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA) evaluation of the 2003 national assessments at key stage 1. Its purpose is to provide schools and those involved in the training of teachers with detailed information about children's responses to the 2003 national curriculum tasks and tests. The information in the report gives a unique insight into performance across England and draws out important implications for teaching and learning. Schools can use this information as a yardstick against which to compare their own children's performance. Implications for teaching and learning Separate Implications for teaching and learning leaflets were distributed to schools in November 2003. These should be placed in the context of the analysis of the 2003 national curriculum tests. The evidence on which these implications are based is discussed within this report. Test performance statistics Technical appendices that give test performance statistics and details of the technical characteristics of the tests will be provided as a web-only publication at www.qca.org.uk/ages3-14/test_tasks These statistics include `facility rates' for each question, which can be used as an indicator of the percentage of children at each level who gain the mark. Evaluation of key stage 1 assessment Each year, immediately after the key stage 1 national assessments, QCA conducts an evaluation of the assessment process from the perspective of classroom teachers and school assessment coordinators. This report is available on QCA's website (www.qca.org.uk/ages3-14/tests_tasks). The suite of reports produced as a result of the evaluation of the 2003 national assessments at key stage 1 is based on evidence drawn from the following sources:

information from a detailed analysis of children's responses to the English and mathematics tasks and tests carried out for QCA by the National Curriculum Group of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) and by the Mathematics Test Development Team (MTDT) within QCA; reports written for QCA by the National Foundation for Education Research (NFER) and QCA's Mathematics Test Development Team, following the first and second pre-test trials; test performance statistics drawn from a national representative statistical analysis conducted on behalf of QCA by the Centre for Formative Assessment Studies (CFAS), School of Education, the University of Manchester; an evaluation of key stage 1 assessment carried out by CFAS using postal and focus group surveys involving approximately 400 schools; correspondence received by QCA and the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) from Local Education Authorities (LEAs), individual schools and teachers.

QCA will continue to evaluate the key stage 1 assessments in 2004 and beyond, and the key stage 1 team will be pleased to receive comments from those involved in administering or monitoring the assessments. It is assumed that this report will be read alongside copies of the 2003 tests; the materials themselves have not been reprinted.

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English: analysis of children's performance

National results

The Autumn Package of Pupil Performance Information giving the 2003 results in teacher assessments and the tasks/tests was sent to schools in November. The results for the last five years are shown below. English national results, key stage 1, 1999­2003 (Percentage of cohort at each level) Levels 1999 Below 3 Reading task Reading test 2000 Reading task Reading test 2001 Reading task Reading test 2002 Reading task Reading test 2003 Reading task Reading test 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Writing Writing Writing Writing Writing W 3 ­ 3 ­ 3 ­ 3 ­ 3 ­ 6 5 5 4 5 1 14 ­ 13 ­ 13 ­ 12 ­ 12 ­ 11 10 9 9 13 2C 16 16 16 16 15 13 15 12 15 11 29 28 27 26 19 2B 21 18 21 21 21 20 20 20 21 20 29 30 30 31 24 2A 16 16 19 17 19 20 18 20 21 23 17 18 19 20 21 3 ­ 29 ­ 28 ­ 29 ­ 30 ­ 28 8 9 9 9 16

NB: Rows do not total 100% as children who were absent or disapplied are not shown above.

For further information on the Autumn Package refer to the DfES website at www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/performance

Changes to English assessment in 2003

The feedback on children's performance in English in the 2003 national curriculum assessments at key stages 1, 2 and 3 is organised this year to reflect the changes to the English tests. To achieve greater consistency across the key stages and to provide better diagnostic information, all English statutory and optional tests now share a common basic structure and are based on a common set of assessment focuses (AFs) for reading and for writing.

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Each question on the unseen reading booklet targets a specific reading assessment focus. Writing is assessed by two compulsory tasks, one longer and one shorter. Mark schemes are based on these assessment focuses customised to individual tasks. Assessment focuses for writing are grouped into strands for the purposes of marking. Banded mark schemes for each strand enable children to be credited separately for performance in each strand. At key stage 1, children's writing is no longer assessed using a performance description which aims to balance all aspects of writing, including handwriting and spelling. Children at each key stage now obtain a level for reading and for writing, arrived at by an accumulation of marks on reading questions and writing strands. At key stage 1, children's overall writing level is derived from their marks on the two writing tasks, combined with a mark for handwriting assessed across both tasks, and a mark from the separate spelling test. The level for reading comes from marks accumulated on the reading paper. Children also achieve a level for English overall. This year's report deals first with the findings on writing, followed by reading. The report on writing includes:

a summary of performance in both tasks in relation to the mark scheme strands and children's levels; an analysis of the features of performance of children on each level covered by the test; annotated examples at each level, using one child's writing on both of the tasks.

For spelling, a separate section reports on the results of the spelling test in a similar format to last year. The report on the reading papers is organised by assessment focus, for each of which there is:

a table of data showing the percentage of correct responses by question and level; an analysis of how children tackled questions on this assessment focus; examples of responses at different levels, with commentaries which explain the reasons for the marks awarded.

How to use this report

For readers who require an overview of performance, this can be found in the tables for each assessment focus on the reading paper and the mean mark tables for the strands on the writing tasks. Readers seeking more detail about the characteristics of performance at different levels on individual reading questions and writing strands will find this in the analyses which follow each of the tables. Readers looking for pointers for teaching to help move children from one level to the next may find the examples of children's responses and the accompanying commentaries particularly useful, along with the implications for teaching and learning for each level.

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Writing

The writing tasks for levels 1­3 The writing test followed the common structure for all the English tests from 2003, comprising two writing tasks. The longer task was a story based on a character with a flaw, such as forgetfulness or selfishness, who eventually learns a lesson as a result of their behaviour. This gave children the opportunity to write with the purpose of exploring imaginary worlds and was based on a theme that they often encounter in their reading. The shorter task was to write a set of instructions for an everyday routine or classroom procedure with which they were familiar, writing with the purpose of organising and explaining information; the exact choice of subject was left to the teacher. The marks allocated for writing were:

Longer writing task Shorter writing task Handwriting Spelling Total 18 marks 12 marks 3 marks 7 marks (scaled mark) 40 marks

The analyses of handwriting and spelling performance in the test can be found on page 9. The findings reported here were derived from the analysis of the performance of 365 children. The work of approximately equal numbers of boys and girls at each level was analysed. Marks were awarded separately in the test for different aspects of the writing in order to provide better diagnostic information. The following table gives the mean marks gained by children in the sample for each of the writing strands according to their final test levels for writing. Children's overall level for writing is derived from marks gained in each strand and both tasks. Some children may be stronger in one strand than another. The means show how marks from each strand have contributed to the writing level for the sample. Longer task: mean mark for each strand by writing level

Longer task marks available Sentence structure Punctuation Composition & effect 4 4 10 Level 1 mean mark 1.65 1.25 2.96 Level 2C mean mark 2.31 1.78 4.42 Level 2B mean mark 2.82 2.52 5.68 Level 2A mean mark 3.07 3.01 6.56 Level 3 mean mark 3.72 3.70 8.07 Total sample mean mark 2.70 2.43 5.49

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Shorter task: mean mark for each strand by writing level

Shorter task marks available Sentence structure & punctuation Composition & effect 5 7 Level 1 mean mark 1.78 2.70 Level 2C mean mark 2.64 3.84 Level 2B mean mark 3.30 4.89 Level 2A mean mark 3.96 5.67 Level 3 mean mark 4.68 6.49 Total sample mean mark 3.24 4.68

Summary

There was improvement in performance in each strand at each level in both tasks. Composition and effect was slightly weaker in the longer task where children had to select and organise more complex subject matter. Children scored better on sentence structure in the shorter task, where there were fewer choices to be made than in the longer task. Overall, children were more successful in the shorter task, based on marks gained across the strands.

Overview of children's performance at each level Level 1 For the longer task children working at level 1 were more successful in sentence structure than in the other strands. The majority were able to express ideas in sentence-like structures and a substantial minority wrote in simple and compound sentences. Almost half used simple connectives within their sentences. The vast majority used the simple past tense, starting their sentences with subject and verb, and using some simple noun phrases and adverbials. Half were aware of how full stops were used. In composition and effect more than half were able to write in relation to characters and events but very few included the character-trait idea. Most children linked some of their ideas but the ability to maintain chronology through the story proved difficult for level 1 writers. The words chosen were appropriate for the content of the stories. Establishing viewpoint was beyond most writers at this level. In the shorter task there was less difference in children's performance over the two strands of the mark scheme. The instructions were mainly in simple sentences with some simple connectives to order the points. The task itself was more likely to encourage the use of simple rather than compound or complex sentence structures. Almost all understood the need to use imperatives or the use of general you or we in this type of writing. However, their instructions lacked precision and the imperative form was not used consistently. More children showed some awareness of full stops in this task than in the longer task. In composition and effect most were able to write some instructions as separate points but experienced difficulty in bringing the points together into a series of instructions and in ordering points logically, sometimes with the use of numbering. Most used appropriate vocabulary. In marked contrast to the longer task, over half of level 1 writers showed some evidence of viewpoint. They found it easier to position themselves, possibly because of the clear purpose of the task and their role as writer.

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Level 2C For the longer task children working at level 2C were more successful in sentence structure than in the other two strands. Most wrote in simple and compound sentences, using basic connectives to sequence events. Writing was largely in the simple past tense, with sentences beginning with the subject and verb. Most had difficulty combining past tense, to relate action, and present tense, in dialogue. Most children at this level used simple phrases and adverbials. The majority did not use full stops or initial capitals with any consistency. In composition and effect, children struggled to relate the story to a character-trait, although over half did introduce recognisable characters and events into their writing. Most sequenced their stories chronologically but found it difficult to use time-related words or phrases for more effective sequencing. Most children used some appropriate vocabulary for the task but were unable to add detail or dialogue. Rather more children working at level 2C than at level 1 showed some awareness of their position as story narrator but this still remained a minority. In the shorter task the mean scores were roughly equal in both strands. Most writing was in simple sentences. Imperatives as well as present tense statements were used appropriately but instructions lacked consistency and precision. When sentences were expanded it was mostly by simple adverbs. Sentence demarcation improved slightly from level 1 but remained insecure for most children. Instructions usually had some basic connection to each other, though this was often confined to use of numbers rather than sequencing of content. Most children could not pin down their instructions clearly because they did not use sufficiently precise vocabulary, though they managed to convey more of a sense of the writer's viewpoint in addressing the reader through their instructions than in the longer task. Level 2B For the longer task children scored better overall in the sentence structure and punctuation strands than in composition and effect. Most wrote in simple and compound sentences, with a few children beginning to introduce complex sentences. Most were able to sequence the events in their stories. About half the sample were able to use the simple past tense for the narrative and change to present tense for dialogue. Any expansion of phrases was limited to simple adjectives or adverbs and children found it difficult to select more interesting words to modify their verbs and nouns, or to vary word and clause order to add interest. In most stories sentences were demarcated correctly some of the time. There were few examples of more sustained sentence punctuation or attempts to introduce other punctuation, such as speech marks or commas in lists. Some level 2B writers introduced a character-trait, though they were often unable to link this to events. Most wrote in broad chronological sequence but attempts to structure their stories more effectively with time-related words and phrases were limited. Children were able to make appropriate word choices to add detail to their stories but were not yet able to attempt specific stylistic effects, for example using description to convey humour or to build up anticipation. There was a marked improvement in numbers of children able to convey some sense of a writer's viewpoint, for example by commenting on the character's behaviour. In the shorter task children were equally successful in both strands. As in the longer task most were still writing in simple sentences but more were expanding these and introducing some compound sentences, where they were appropriate to instructions. The consistent use of the imperative still proved difficult for most children at this level. There was some expansion of the main points of the instructions through the use of simple phrases.

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Children working at level 2B were better at demarcating sentences but over half were unable to use capital letters and full stops correctly all, or almost all, of the time. Most were able to write in a series of instructions, although these were not always all relevant or complete. Points were often numbered but children were less successful in organising and presenting the content clearly by using other strategies, for example line breaks. Vocabulary was generally appropriate to convey the main aspects but only one-third at this level could select vocabulary to give more precise detail, as was also the case in the longer task. Almost all children conveyed a sense of viewpoint, for example that they were envisaging someone carrying out the instructions. Level 2A For the longer task children scored better on sentence structure and on punctuation than on composition and effect. Over half of children used complex sentences, though the range of connectives within them remained limited. Most moved between past tense for action and present tense for dialogue, and this ability was a good indicator of progression across the levels. Over half the children modified nouns and verbs and were beginning to vary word or clause order. There was a marked improvement in sentence punctuation, with over half of the children demarcating sentences, mostly correctly. Children were better able to relate the idea of a character-trait to the events of the story and to draw out some consequences from the trait, though this remained a challenge for some. Sequencing was more effective as children used more time-related words and phrases to link events. Although more children attempted to engage the reader through their descriptions, fewer than half managed this wholly successfully. The great majority of stories at level 2A had some sense of a narrator's viewpoint. In the shorter task children were equally successful in both strands. Most children wrote in expanded simple and compound sentences, appropriate to the task. The majority used the imperative consistently in precise instructions and some included complex sentence structures. As in the longer task, children used more expanded phrases. These helped to make the instructions more precise and to depict smaller steps. Most children demarcated sentences correctly all, or almost all, of the time and the improvement from 2B was greater in the shorter task. The instructions at this level were more complete, were more relevant to the task and were more clearly presented and organised. As in the longer task, vocabulary choices improved the overall clarity and precision. In this task also, almost all answers showed evidence of viewpoint as children tried to get their message across. Level 3 For the longer task children scored higher in the sentence structure and punctuation strand than in composition and effect. Most level 3 writers were using some complex sentences and simple connectives within them to sequence their stories. Almost all used time-related words and phrases to make the sequencing more effective and moved between past tense for action and present tense for dialogue. There was a marked improvement in the way children modified their nouns and verbs and varied word and clause order. By this level almost all children demarcated sentences accurately most of the time and some introduced speech marks and commas in lists. This improvement in punctuation was in the context of some more complex sentence structures. More writers at level 3 were able to illustrate the character-trait through the events in the story but many still found it difficult to carry the theme through to a conclusion. Most children attempted to engage the reader's interest, for example with humour and anticipation, and almost all conveyed a narrator's viewpoint.

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In the shorter task children were equally successful in both strands. Over half used complex sentences, but fewer than in the longer task, as to be expected by the nature of the task. Stages in instructions were conveyed precisely through apt vocabulary and expanded noun phrases and adverbials; the imperative was used consistently. In most cases, instructions were full and relevant for the purpose and almost all level 3 writers used full stops and capital letters correctly in this task. Instructions were clear and effectively organised most of the time, with appropriate vocabulary. Almost all children showed evidence of viewpoint in their writing, sometimes conveying a tone of authority or helpfulness. Handwriting Most key stage 1 children gained two marks for their handwriting. They were able to form their letters neatly and mostly in a printed style, with some attempts to join letters. From level 2B to 2A there was a marked increase in the number of children able to join their letters correctly and they were beginning to write more fluently, with almost half of those at level 2A gaining three marks. By level 3 most children gained three marks for their handwriting.

Spelling

The approach to assessing spelling was updated in 2003. The spelling test consisted of 20 words, comprising 10 picture items and 10 target words contained in a dictation passage. Children were awarded a mark for each whole word spelt correctly and the total score was then converted into a mark out of seven. This year partial credit was no longer given for writing the initial letter(s) correctly. The spelling mark was then combined with the score from the writing tasks to find the overall level awarded for writing. The spelling test was designed to be undertaken by all children being assessed at the end of key stage 1. The following analysis was based on a sample of 403 children, roughly equal numbers of boys and girls; 302 of the children were awarded a level 2 for their writing overall and 101 achieved level 3. In the table on page 10, the test words are arranged in order of percentage correct from the overall sample. Percentages correct by overall writing level for separate level 2 and level 3 samples are also given. The table shows the site of typical errors for each word, based on the mistakes children made, as well as the word class and word structure for each item. The symbol `/' is used to separate the parts (morphemes) to show each word's structure. It is clear that the words children found more difficult are those with more than one morpheme, and especially when such words also have more complex phoneme to letter correspondences. The selection of words covered four word classes, though the majority were nouns or verbs, and all were familiar words. One word, apple, was also in last year's test.

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Results from the KS1 spelling test: words in order of difficulty

Word Word class Overall % correct by over 80% pot one cap tree swing like with noun adjective noun noun noun verb preposition 97.8 95.0 93.8 91.3 90.6 84.6 80.6 by over 60% hoop sock bench apple noun noun noun noun 78.9 75.7 73.2 68.5 by over 40% riding leaf cloud children know turned verb noun noun noun verb verb 60.5 54.8 53.8 51.4 42.4 40.9 by over 20% climbed pavement stopped verb noun verb 29.3 29.0 24.3 69.3 65.3 54.5 15.9 16.9 14.2 climb/ed pave/ment stopp/ed mb ve pp -ed 71.3 90.1 91.1 87.1 86.1 87.1 57.0 43.0 41.4 39.4 27.8 25.5 rid/ing leaf cloud child/ren know turn/ed di ea ou ild kn-w ed 97.0 96.0 95.0 97.0 72.8 68.9 65.9 58.9 hoop sock bench apple oo ck nch le 99.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 100.0 97.0 97.4 93.7 91.7 88.4 87.7 79.5 75.2 pot one cap tree swing like with p one c ee ng ke th Level 3 % correct Level 2 % correct Word structure Site of typical errors

Spelling at level 2 ­ word structure Inflected forms The test included five inflected forms: three with ­ed endings, one with ­ing, and the irregular plural form children. Mistakes in the ending of children generally involved omitting the ­e. Over half the children working at level 2 spelt riding correctly and the majority of those who spelt it wrongly managed the ­ing ending, though often adding it to ride without dropping the ­e. The three words ending in ­ed were among the most difficult in the test, but this was not solely because of the ending. Over half the children working at level 2 made an error in the ending of turned and climbed, commonly turnd, ternd, climd and climbd. Fewer managed the ­ed ending correctly in stopped, where stopt was a common incorrect form. Derived forms Pavement tested the addition of a suffix to the verb pave, which though phonetically regular was likely to be less well-known to children than the word pavement itself. It proved difficult for children working at level 2, though the majority of errors were not in the suffix, but some children missed out the unstressed ­e between ­m and ­n. Relying on pronunciation here was not enough as the ­e is rarely pronounced and children needed to be familiar with the spelling of the suffix ­ment.

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Spelling at level 2 ­ phonemes to letters Consonant phonemes Where words had straightforward single sound-letter correspondence, most children identified the initial letter correctly, including words which presented hurdles elsewhere; the great majority began pavement with p­, turned with t­ and hoop with h­. There were slightly more errors with initial consonant blends, but most children also managed these well, apart from the kn- for phoneme /n/ in know, where a common misspelling was now. Some children began with with wh­, presumably over-generalising from other familiar wh words. Children were less successful when consonants followed vowels rather than preceded them. For example, a substantial number working at level 2 made an error in the ­ck in sock, omitting either the ­c or the ­k. More of the errors in swing were in the ­ng at the end than in the opening sw­. A substantial number struggled with the ­pp and ­le in apple, either giving a single ­p or reversing the ­le to ­el, or both. Consonant clusters within words proved challenging. For example, considerable numbers omitted the ­b in climbed, and slightly less omitted the ­n in bench, both reflecting over-reliance on pronunciation. Vowel phonemes Two words began with a vowel. Every child working at level 2 identified the initial a­ in apple. A few mis-spelt one, misled by the phoneme /w/, to begin the word with w­, followed by ­o or sometimes ­u. The familiarity of this word as a number meant that most children knew its spelling. Within words, short vowel phonemes caused few problems, though a small number made an error with the ­i in children, usually in combination with other errors in adjacent letters. However, many found long vowels difficult. Children largely managed the ­i in like, though confusion with the ending showed their uncertainty about split digraphs, which was also revealed in pavement where many omitted the ­e, and in riding where some failed to delete it or doubled the ­d. Double vowels were difficult for a minority of children working at level 2. A small number added ­y to tree and many of those who mis-spelt hoop, wrote hop. Variations in the spelling of the long vowel phoneme in leaf included ­ee and ­e, with or without a final ­e, again showing that the patterns for long vowel spelling are still insecure at this level. The most common mis-spelling for cloud was clod, followed by clowd. The combination of ­u plus ­r in turned led a small number to rely mistakenly on similarity of letter name to sound and write terned or ternd. Spelling at level 3 Word structure Children working at level 3 made far fewer errors in word structure than at level 2. Hardly any of their errors occurred in the endings of the words they found more difficult, for example pavement, climbed, stopped. Phonemes to letters As at level 2, children were more likely to make errors in multi-vowel and consonant phonemes. Their errors tended to indicate more awareness of plausible possibilities for representing a sound than some of the errors made at level 2. For example, no child spelt cloud as clod, but several wrote clowd, and some included an ­a. Few of the errors in leaf involved a double ­ee, but tended to place an ­e at the end, with or without the correct ­ea, showing application of partial knowledge, sometimes compounded by confusion of ­f and ­v.

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Other errors confirmed that some confident spellers remain uncertain with long vowel phonemes. Children working at level 3 made similar errors as at level 2 in riding, offering both rideing and ridding. Most wrong versions of turned were terned. They struggled with the morpheme /pave/ in pavement, but were less likely to write pavment than at level 2 and more likely to offer wrong vowel combinations. Errors in consonant combinations were similar to those at level 2. The majority of errors in climbed omitted the ­b, relying on pronunciation. Most errors in children occurred around ­ld; in stopped almost all the errors were with the ­pp. Considerable numbers were not secure with kn­ for phoneme /n/ in know, with both now and no occurring. Helping children to progress in spelling The table on page 10 shows that the children achieving level 3 in writing are very much better spellers than those gaining level 2, where significant numbers still have difficulties with familiar single morpheme words. This suggests that to secure these spelling patterns by the end of the key stage requires additional work for many children. In addition, all children would benefit from a focus on:

consonant combinations (including double consonants), especially when not at the beginning of words and when one or more of the letters is not pronounced; long vowel phonemes, both vowel combinations and split digraphs.

And for children working at level 2, especially those working just within level 2:

verb endings ­ed and ­ing when added to words with different morphemic structure.

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Writing examples

Child A ­ overall level 1: Story Sentence Structure Punctuation

· Past tense used consistently. [A2] · Mainly coherent sentencelike structures starting with subject and verb. [A2] · Uses but, when as well as and to sequence events. [A2] · Use of adverbials and noun phrases adds detail. [A2]

Summary

The Boy who didnt listen. The Boy who didnt listen was call. Jamil all was doing things whot He wont it to do everthink and he didnt listen to his mum and dad. (he must lorn to lisen? But he didnt still listen and now he listened). and when He wend to the sea sid fort There was a little Iledone he went To swim to the grenen Iledone and It was uch [attached] by alegats and his mum and dad sgerd the alegats went way and Jamil now listen?

· Some awareness of placing of full stops. [B1] · Brackets and question mark not used correctly. [not B2] · Initial capitals for proper names and new lines of text. [B1]

Summary

Recognisable sentence-like structures with correct subject and verb order but some loss of control of grammatical structure and word order impairs sense. Band A2, 2 marks

Uncertainty about where sentence units begin and end makes it difficult to follow the story. Band B1, 1 mark

Composition and effect

Simple story relates to the title and shows how Jamil's character-trait gets him into trouble. Although events are presented in broadly chronological order, the links between events are sketchy and ideas are repeated. Just enough to merit a mark in Band C3.

Summary

Just into Band C3, 5 marks

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Child A ­ overall level 1: Instructions Sentence structure & punctuation

· Continuous utterance with clauses joined by and. [D1] · Verbs in present tense describe rather than instruct. [D2] · Basic nouns without modification. [D1] · Full stops placed at end of lines, overriding units of sense. [below D1]

Summary

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

insgucn I wok up have a showere. get my sife jry and put. my clos on and get my. shoos on and my cot on. pack my luch and get in. the car and tack my cou [cousin] Jaime to nusre go to. school and linpu [line up]

One continuous utterance despite use of numbers and full stops. Band D1, 1 mark

Composition and effect

Recognisable procedure although a list of actions rather than instructions. [E2] Order of points is clear and appropriate but numbering does not support the sequence of points. [E2]

Summary

On the borderline between E3 and E2 because of lack of clarity in purpose of writing. On balance assessed as Band E2, 3 marks

Overall level summary

Makes largely intelligible attempts at each task and each is recognisably different. However, both pieces of writing are essentially a list of simple points relying on similar subject verb structures linked mainly by and. Words and phrases are arranged in sentence-like structures, but the writer is still uncertain about what constitutes a complete sentence and punctuation is haphazard. Vocabulary limited to basic nouns and verbs, with only occasional expansion to add detail. Marks for spelling and handwriting contributed to this child's overall level 1 for writing.

Moving on to Level 2C

This child now needs to: · learn to recognise and mark sentence openings and endings; · develop use of simple connectives besides and to link and sequence points in different ways; · widen vocabulary beyond basic nouns and verbs; · learn how grammatical choices (eg imperatives or present tense) change the meaning of texts.

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Child B ­ overall level 2C: Story Sentence structure Punctuation

· Simple past tense statements starting with subject and verb. [A2] · Repetition of basic verbs and pronouns. [A2]

Summary

The shift from third to first person and from past to present tense using speechlike structures causes the second half of story to become disjointed. Band A2, 2 marks

The litte girl who was always late. One day a girl was at school at 12 'o clock the hedmisdrs had to tel her off S he had to do a one hundred lins in class She brock a Pencil. She hadto do 3mour lins but theat Mont a nusi [noise] was come form the DINgLglggllng! it was the end of Playtime. It. I played with my best frend is Jamse. I playe 007 he like to play that. I play with Jack I play Jack and the ben stuc. I hav nowon to play with. Up jums Jamse. HELLO shoutid Jamse.

· Some sentences correctly demarcated by capital letters and full stops. [B2] · One exclamation mark used appropriately. [B2]

Summary

Band B2, 2 marks

Composition and effect

Story opens with a character whose character-trait is stated in the first line but becomes a first person narrative about the writer's friends. [C2] Some attempt at story-like effects, eg the opening phrase, the use of capitals for the sound of the bell, and HELLO. [C3]

Summary

Ideas are connected by references to she in the first part, less successfully in the second part by use of I, but overall the text is not coherent. Just enough evidence to merit a mark in Band C3. Band C3, 4 marks

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Child B ­ overall level 2C: Instructions Sentence structure & punctuation

· Simple sentences in present tense. [D2] · Some accurate use of initial capitals and full stops. [D2] · Pronouns change from first person singular to plural, then to general `you'. [not D3] · Final bullet point uses imperative verb appropriate to instructions. [D2]

Summary

How to get ready for school. · Iwake up at 7 'o clock · I have befast at 8 'o clock · I clen my teooth and have a wosh. · We get drest for school. · We brush my hair. · get your things ready.

Despite incomplete sentence punctuation, bullet points and line breaks support sense. Band D2, 3 marks

Composition and effect

More an account of a personal routine than a set of instructions. [E2] Points are clear and relevant to the procedure. [E3] Vocabulary is simple but choice of verbs distinguishes stages in the process: clen, have a wosh, brush. [E3]

Summary

Just into Band E3, 4 marks

Overall level summary

Each task displays some of the required features but these are not sustained. Almost all sentences are simple in structure with just one compound sentence in each task and one attempted complex sentence overall. There is occasional expansion through a noun phrase in the story, eg one hundred lins in class. Vocabulary is basic but appropriate to the task in each case. Marks for spelling and handwriting contributed to this child's overall level 2C for writing.

Moving on to Level 2B

This child now needs to: · mark sentences with capital letters and full stops more consistently, especially in narrative; · link ideas within a story, for example by using more time-related words and phrases; · move beyond a first person voice when the task requires it and sustain for the whole text.

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Child C ­ overall level 2B: Story Sentence structure Punctuation

· Mainly past tense with some variety of forms. [A2] · Sentences follow a simple subject + verb pattern. [A2] · Some opening adverbials link and sequence events. [A2] · Some subordination to develop ideas. [A3] · Mostly simple or compound sentences with clauses linked by and. [A2] · Expansion of noun phrases adds detail. [A2]

Summary

Despite some variation in linking sentences and connecting ideas, mainly speech like structures. Band A2, 3 marks

once a pon a time there was a small boy called Sam. He liked football so much that he did not lison to his mum calling time to go to the park now Sam. Sumtimes he cics the ball so hard it went over four housis in one ro. he didnot lison wen his mum arst him to go and getit. one sunny day he was playing with his larst foolball and he ciced that one over to. The next morning he stade in bed for a munth he made his dad put a dog flap on his door. arthd a munth he came out he got the foot balls bak and he owars lisond to his mum

· Many sentences correctly demarcated with full stops though few have initial capitals. [B2] · Sentence demarcation is less consistent towards end. [B2] · Lack of punctuation to distinguish mum's words. [not B3]

Summary

Band B2, 2 marks

Composition and effect

Story clearly based on a single character with a persistent character-trait. [C3] Initial events related in broadly chronological order build up a picture of Sam's obsession, but events such as staying in bed, putting the dog flap on the door are poorly motivated. [C3] The ending relates back to the opening with the recovery of the footballs and changed behaviour. [C4] Vocabulary is straightforward but choice of adjectives and phrases add some limited detail eg, four housis in one ro; his larst foolball; one sunny day; in bed for a munth. [C3]

Summary

Balance of judgements suggests mark in Band C3. Band C3, 6 marks

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Child C ­ overall level 2B: Instructions Sentence structure and punctuation

· Correctly formed imperatives used consistently throughout in simple and compound sentences. [D2] · Adverbial clause signals timing and place of final instruction. [D2] · Correct use of full stops. · Inconsistent use of initial capitals for sentence openings. [D2]

Summary

Coming into School. 1. take your cote off and hag it up. 2 chang your book. 3 take your seling Book uot and praktis your selings. 4. wen the bell goes sit on ihe cupit. [carpet]

Band D2, 3 marks

Composition and effect

Instructions are in chronological order, with separate points connected by numbering. [E3] Maintains a consistent viewpoint, giving a basic overview of the procedures to be followed on coming into school. [E4]

Summary

Sets out procedure but lacks detail that would merit a higher mark. Band E3, 5 marks

Overall level summary

Writing in both tasks relates to the purpose, though this is more fully sustained in the shorter task. Vocabulary is straightforward and there is evidence of a point of view. Basic sentence demarcation is more evident in the use of full stops than initial capitals. Though sentences are largely simple and compound there is evidence in each task of an ability to use some subordination to develop ideas. Marks for spelling and handwriting contributed to this child's overall level 2B for writing.

Moving on to Level 2A

This child now needs to: · develop the use of subordination in complex sentences to develop and link ideas in a variety of ways; · use adverbial and noun phrases to expand sentences for detail and precision; · sustain sentence demarcation to the end of longer pieces of writing and use initial capitals consistently; · learn ways of showing how a character's motives are reflected in a series of connected actions.

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Child D ­ overall level 2A: Story Sentence structure Punctuation

· Mainly simple and compound sentences. [A2] · Repetitive use of so.[A2] · Distinguishes past tense in narrative and present in dialogue. [A3] · Grammatically accurate statements, questions and phrases. [A3] · Some use of adverbials to sequence events. [A3] · Modification of nouns and verbs gives some precision. [A2]

Summary

On balance, just into band A3 despite repetition of so and and. Band A3, 4 marks

The greedy girl. Once their was a girl called Joanon. · Uses question marks and speech marks with one day she went out shopping at reasonable accuracy. [B3] once Joanne suddenly saw a fabulse toy and her mum explied "I can not afored Summary everything". "Why?" asked Joanne "because" Punctuation not securely replied mum "maybe tomorro". "Ok" moaed supporting meaning. Joanne. So they rushed to the bus staition Band B2, 3 marks and so they just caugt the bus. When they got home Joanne asked to go to the shop her mum replied yes and she nearly spent all of her mum's money her mum asked "why did you spend all of my money" "I did "not mean to" replied Joanne "we are going home" shouted mum. the next day they went shopping again frist her mum went to the bank why? so then they went to the toy shop Jo asked for a toy but when she tirned around her mum was not their so Jo went to the police station the polise offiser asked "what is your teliphone nuber" Jo replied "445679" So the polise officer rang the number and her mum said "hello" the polise said "your dauter is at the toun's polise station can you pick her up" "yes" replied her mum. So her mum came and asked to Joanne "have you learnt a lesson" "yes I have" replied. and they lived happly ever after.

· Sentences sometimes demarcated with capital letters and full stops. [B2]

Composition and effect

Character-trait is established, linked to unfolding events and the conclusion. [C4] Events chronologically sequenced but pacing uneven with more emphasis on the first shopping trip than on the second, more significant one. [C3] Story implies a moral lesson and shows the consequences of greedy behaviour though more emphasis is given to Joanne's rescue than to its causes. [C3] The characters of Joanne and mum are effectively conveyed, eg through choice of verbs: moaed, shouted, and through dialogue, and the policeman speaks in a suitably formal, official style. [C4]

Summary

Story told in a lively way through the interaction between Jo and her mother. Band C3, 7 marks

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Child D ­ overall level 2A: Instructions Sentence structure and punctuation

· Consistent use of imperative verbs. [D3] · Simple and compound sentences. [D3] · Adverbials and noun phrases used for precision. [D3] · All instructions marked with a full stop, but use of initial capitals not entirely accurate. [D2]

Summary

What you will need · a knife · 2 peices of bread · a sandwich filling · some butter · aplate What you will need to do. 1. Wash your hand's with warm water and soap. then dry them until they are dry. 2. butter your bread with a knife carefully until it is completly covered with butter and then butter the over side. 3. Wash the knife and spread the sand wich filling onto the bread. 4. place the first piece of bread onto the second peice of bread. 5. Then take the knife and cut it into half then into qater's. 6. place the qater's onto the plate. 7. then it is ready to eat.

Lack of initial capital letters and some repetition of subject nouns prevents award of highest mark. Band D3, 4 marks

Composition and effect

A sequence of precise and detailed instructions which breaks down the process into small steps. [E3] Effective overall organisation, with appropriate headings, use of bullet points and clearly presented numbered points. [E4] A sustained and consistent viewpoint presents the whole process with authority. [E4] Vocabulary choices add detail and precision. [E4]

Summary

Thoughtful and comprehensive instructions, enough to merit full marks in this strand. Band E4, 7 marks

Overall level summary

This child performs better in the shorter task in all strands, fulfilling the task with a controlled and effective piece of writing. In the story, control of transitions between narrative and dialogue is not completely secure and the overall effectiveness is reduced by uneven pace, and repetitive sentence structures and connectives, despite some lively touches in presentation of characters. Punctuation is more accurate in the shorter task, perhaps supported by the clearly defined structure of instructions. Marks for spelling and handwriting contributed to this child's overall level 2A for writing.

Moving on to Level 3

This child now needs to: · develop use of complex sentences and a wider range of connectives to express relationships in sentences with more clarity and precision; · start a new line to signal when a speaker changes in dialogue and maintain sentence demarcation to the end of a longer text; · extend vocabulary choices to add interest and detail when establishing setting and recounting events in a story; · learn ways of highlighting the most significant events in a narrative.

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Child E ­ overall level 3: Story Sentence structure Punctuation

· Expanded noun phrase introduces the main character. [A3] · A mixture of simple, compound and complex sentences generally controlled. [A3] · Adverbials used to sequence events. [A3] · Varied clause position highlights meaning. [A3] · Moves between past tense in narrative and present in dialogue. [A3] Summary Range and variety of sentence types contribute to interest of story. Band A3, 4 marks

The Girl who Never listned This is the story of Jan's daughter, called Jo. Even though Jo had very good ears she did'nt use them. For example once she was enjoying her swimming lessons, when it was finished all the children got out except for her so the swimming teacher had to get into the pool and drag Jo out of the pool and into the dressing room, but enough about the past. Now let me think of what happened yesterday. Oh yes I remember, and this is the story off Jo. It was then that tuesday afternoon a nice sunny day and they were in the beach and Jo was playing in the sand when she saw a swimming pool when her called "nooooo" she shouted but Jo didnt hear. And she jumped in the pool then something terrible happned! "HELP HELP I'M DROWNing" shouted Jo then a life guard started running. When Jo got out she was covered in cuts. And from that day on Jo always listned.

· Some commas correctly used within sentences. [B3] · Most full stops correctly placed. [B2] · Some clauses strung together without punctuation. [B2] · Speech marks, clausal commas and apostrophes mostly used accurately. [B3]

Summary

Band B3, 4 marks

Composition and effect

Character and her trait introduced in the opening sentences, though recounting the example at this point results in rather rushed presentation of the key swimming incident later on. [C4] The consequences of not listening form the story's climax and the ending refers back to the opening, implying a lesson learnt, although the reason for the cuts is not explained. [C4] Time-related words and phrases sequence events. [C4] Evidence of viewpoint is illustrated with a direct comment to the reader, while the narrator's judgement on Jo's shortcomings is implied throughout. [C4] Choice of phrasing creates a deliberate story-like effect in places, including setting out the scenario at the beginning and building a sense of anticipation and climax towards the end. [C4]

Summary

Judgements fall into Band C4 with some caveats suggesting a mark in the middle of this band. Band C4, 9 marks

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Child E ­ overall level 3: Instructions Sentence structure & punctuation

· Consistent use of imperatives. [D3] · Related steps are linked in compound sentences. [D3] · Adverbials specify how to get ready and reinforce the order of stages. [D3] · Sentences and P.E. abbreviation correctly punctuated. [D3]

Summary

Getting ready for School 1). Qietly stand up and get your P.E. bag. 2). Then qietly take your top off and put your P.E. top on. 3). Next take off your trousers and put your P.E. shorts on. 4). Finally fold your school cloths and get in the line.

Band D3, 5 marks

Composition and effect

Instructions written in a clear chronological order and organised with numbers and line breaks. However, the instructions are for getting ready for PE rather than for school as stated in title. [E3] Viewpoint is implied in the selection of content: emphasis on quietness and on folding clothes demonstrates that the process must be done with care. [E4] Vocabulary is simple but adequate for purpose. [E3]

Summary

Band E4, 5 marks

Overall level summary

Performance in both tasks is consistent across the strands, showing an ability to vary sentence structure to suit the purpose and genre of the writing, and to use punctuation mainly accurately in different contexts. Each piece has a distinctive viewpoint and conveys a sense of engagement. In each case vocabulary choices are apt for the task, though opportunities to use more precise verbs ­ rather than repeating get, put and take ­ not taken up. Marks for spelling and handwriting contributed to this child's overall level 3 for writing.

Moving on

This child now needs to: · extend the use of complex sentences and range of connectives to relate events in narrative in more varied ways, and at the same time recognise and mark where sentence breaks occur; · modify nouns to add descriptive detail and contribute to more economical expression; · make stronger links between sections of a plot, linking characters and motives through both speech and actions.

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Implications for teaching and learning

Writing In order to progress to level 2C, children achieving level 1 need to:

connect ideas together, eg in time sequence or by number; (AF3) understand how full stops are used to mark the beginnings and endings of sentences; (AF6) add -ed and -ing to different root verbs, eg stopped, riding. (AF8)

In order to progress to level 2B, children achieving level 2C need to:

sequence narrative writing by using time-related words or phrases; (AF3) vary simple and compound sentences to clarify meaning; (AF5) demonstrate consistency in the use of past and present tense, eg in dialogue and narration; (AF6) use capital letters and full stops in narrative tasks; (AF6) spell consonant clusters at the end of words, eg bench, climb. (AF8)

In order to progress to level 2A, children achieving level 2B need to:

use time-related words and phrases to structure and sequence writing; (AF3) use connectives to form complex sentences, eg because, so, if; (AF5) demarcate sentences accurately in different types of tasks; (AF6) select nouns and verbs for clarity and precision; (AF7) spell vowel digraphs and split digraphs in common words. (AF8)

In order to progress to level 3 and further, children achieving level 2A need to:

make connections between themes, characters and events in stories; (AF1) use connectives to link clauses in complex sentences, eg when, after, if... then; (AF5) use a range of vocabulary and ideas to engage the reader's interest, eg humour, anticipation in description; (AF7) spell polysyllabic words using knowledge of word structure. (AF8)

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Reading

Reading at key stage 1 was assessed by a reading aloud task at levels 1 and 2 and written tests of reading at levels 2 and 3. The level 1 and 2 reading task: the strategies used by children in reading aloud Background The reading aloud task addressed assessment focus 1 which assesses children's ability to use a range of strategies, including accurate decoding of text, to read for meaning. The analysis in 2003 was organised in the same way as in 2001 and 2002 but with an increased number of schools and larger sample size. Four researchers visited a total of 32 schools, and analysed the reading of 251 children who had already been assessed on the reading task as reading at levels 2B or 2C, as shown in the table below.

Level 2C Boys Girls Total 63 53 116 Level 2B 67 68 135 Total 130 122 251

The analysis was designed to measure the extent to which children reading at levels 2C and 2B are effective in the strategies they use. It explored children's success in identifying and blending phonemes to read words not yet recognised on sight, or to check the accuracy of their reading. The analysis was based on the selected passage from four of the texts designated for the 2003 key stage 1 reading task. The four texts, two fiction and two non-fiction, included one (Wind and Us) used each year since 2000, one (Marty Monster) used for the first time in 2002, and two used for the first time this year. This gave some continuity and comparability, together with an additional range of words for analysis in terms of children's use of phonemic strategies. All four books were used in each school where possible, whilst ensuring children did not read a familiar book or one used for their reading task.

Boys Wind and Us Ladybirds and Beetles Marty Monster Mr Wolf's Pancakes 31 34 36 29 Girls 27 31 30 33 Level 2C 28 25 35 28 Level 2B 30 40 31 34 Total 58 65 66 62

The reading activity was conducted in a similar way to the reading task. In addition, children were asked to attempt six specific words in the course of their preliminary reading, and afterwards to talk about the strategies they had used. Reading and discussion were tape recorded. A running record was used to record each child's reading of the 100-word passage, based on that for the reading task but adapted for a sharper focus on phonic strategies in particular. The table overleaf shows the coding categories and the results of the analysis by level.

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Accuracy in reading aloud

Level 2C Total percentage correct % phonic/graphic correct % correct after pause for thought % self-corrected % sight-read 87.8 6.0 1.0 1.7 79.2 Level 2B 95.2 2.4 0.6 1.4 90.9 Total 91.8 4.0 0.8 1.5 85.5

Total percentage incorrect % phonic/graphic incorrect % wrong word % omitted

12.2 6.8 4.1 1.3

4.8 2.8 1.7 0.3

8.2 4.7 2.8 0.7

Accuracy at Level 2C

Children read the majority of the words correctly, and over three-quarters of them on sight. In attempting words they could not read on sight, they were more likely to apply phonic and graphic strategies than readers working at level 2B, and more likely to vocalise their phonic strategies. However, these led them to the wrong word slightly more often than to the correct one. They substituted more incorrect words than at level 2B, suggesting that they were less able to use contextual clues from the word's position in the sentence and text to arrive at the correct word.

Accuracy at Level 2B

As to be expected, children judged to be reading at level 2B were able to read more words on sight, with fewer hesitations, errors or omissions than those reading at level 2C. With more extended sight vocabulary they were less dependent on other strategies. They tended to use phonic/graphic strategies for words they did not recognise on sight, but as at level 2C this lead them to the wrong word slightly more often than to the correct one.

The effective use of phonemic strategies and knowledge of word structure Six words were identified in each book for children to read by themselves during the preliminary reading. Coding showed how children tackled each of these words. A count was also done for each of the words in the four 100-word passages. This data, with recorded comments from children about how they tackled the reading of unfamiliar words, provided significant evidence about the extent and the success of children's use of phonemic strategies at levels 2C and 2B. Percentage of attempted responses from the 100-word passages

Level 2C % words attempted using phonic/graphic analysis % successful attempts using phonic/graphic analysis % unsuccessful attempts using phonic/graphic analysis % words substituted or omitted 13 6 7 5 Level 2B 5 2 3 2

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At level 2C

Children read most simple common words and three-letter consonant-vowel-consonant words on sight. When they were unable to do so, they were usually successful in applying phonic strategies to read these words correctly. Only a few tried to use phonics in reading simple but irregular words such as be, with varying success. There was less sounding out of single sounds than in previous years, but some children at this level failed to read words because, although they attempted to use phonic strategies by saying the sounds, they could not put them together to form the word. This approach contributed to the failed phonic-graphic attempts recorded in the table above. Readers working at level 2C recognised `ch', `sh' and `th' as phonemes. They were able to isolate initial consonant blends such as trap, skin, stem, blob, but were less secure in blending final consonants such as fact, adult and crept. Children were successful in correctly identifying vowel phonemes when they recognised them visually, for example in deep and looking. They were more confident with phonemes such as ­ar in hard and the final ­er in winter and flutter, than with the possibly less familiar ­ur in burn. They recognised the inflexional ending ­s as in crops and ­ing as in licking. Whilst many correctly recognised -ed endings, they tended to find this rather more difficult than -ing, for example, more read slamming correctly than slammed. They approached the analysis of words in linear fashion, trying to combine letters but not always holding onto what they had already said. This sometimes led to information overload, unless they were able to grasp the meaning of the word from the context. For example, some children struggled with cracks in one text whilst succeeding with sneaked in another.

At level 2B

These readers coped better with recognising long vowel phonemes than at level 2C, for example the long ­i in driving, though they struggled more with the same sound in surviving. At this level readers were relatively more likely to pause for thought, suggesting that they were taking more time to consider the meaning of the word, and using the context to work out what the word meant. They were able to try out different possibilities for ­ea, as when analysing breath, breaks or early. The firmer their grasp of the rest of the word, the easier it was to try out the possibilities for the more difficult part. Children working at level 2B, as well as those working at level 2C, struggled with final ­e in words they could not read on sight. Many were unable to apply knowledge of phonics to read words such as wake and lake, even though three-quarters successfully read pile on sight. They also found it difficult to recognise final -e when the word had an ending, for example in scared and frames and when used with a less familiar vowel sound as in huge. Many found it difficult to apply knowledge of the final ­e at speed.

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They were less hindered by word length than at level 2C because they were better able to recognise word structure and were less likely to split longer words into too many small parts. This helped them tackle words such as blizzard, difficult, crawling. Speed of processing also helped them to build on what they had already worked out. For example most could not read delicate on sight but the majority read it correctly using phonic analysis. Level 2B readers showed a grasp of a wider range of inflectional endings than at level 2C, as in words such as smallest and luckily. However, variations on familiar endings, such as plurals with ­es were often not read correctly by use of phonic strategies, for example clothes and breezes; the ­iest ending in scariest proved very difficult. Children generally did not think in terms of word stem and ending. Although some clearly described `putting on' an ­ed ending as in sneaked, many tended to `split words up' by looking for a recognisable unit at the start of the word and then bunching the remaining letters together, for example blub/ber, sno/ring. Most were able to read the plural compound words snowstorms and snowdrifts, for example explaining how they did so as `You say sn-ow and then dr-ifts'. The segmenting or `chunking' of words was often described as `finding a word within a word', even when this wasn't exactly what was required. Some children appeared to use a letter-counting approach, often reinforced by covering up part of the word. For example, one child described counting the letters in crawling. `You divide it up into four letters and four letters.' This approach led to children looking for combinations rather than single-letter sounds, but often revealed that they did not understand how the word was structured. Many children were able to describe the methods they used and one tracked the progress made: `I used to do s-h-o-p-p-i-n-g but now I do sho-pp-ing or you could do shop-ping'.

Implications for teaching and learning To move on from Level 2C children need to learn to:

consolidate their knowledge of final consonant blends; extend their knowledge of phoneme patterns to help them recognise units of sound.

To move on from Level 2B children need to learn to:

consolidate their knowledge of the split digraph vowel and ­e; use knowledge of constituent parts of words to help them build up the whole word and to recognise word stems.

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The level 2 written test of reading The reading test was based on a booklet, Sunflowers, which included a story and an information and instructional text with a range of question types. Twelve of the 28 questions were in multiple-choice format. The majority of questions covered reading assessment focuses 2 and 3, with 5 in all addressing focuses 4, 5 and 6. Questions were asked on each text, 28 in all for a total of 30 marks. The report is organised this year by assessment focuses. Assessment focus 2 The following table shows the percentage of children at each level gaining marks on each question which addressed assessment focus 2.

AF2: Understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas from texts and use quotation and reference to text. Section 1: Billy's Sunflower Q1. How had the leaves changed? Q2. What did Billy ask Dad? Q3. Which part of the sunflower was turning brown? Q4. Which part of the sunflower had bent over at the top? Q6. What did the girls tell Billy about autumn? Write 2 things. Q10. Which words tell you Billy cared about his flower? Q14. What did Billy keep? Q16. What did Billy find out about sunflowers? Tick 3 things. Section 2: So Many Sunflowers! Q17. What was Vincent Van Gogh? Q18. When was Vincent alive? Q19. Who did Vincent paint the sunflowers for? Q20. What did Paul do that tells you he liked Vincent's paintings? Q21. Why was Vincent poor? Q24. What do you need to use? Tick 3 things. Q26. Why must you stick the seeds on quickly? Q27. What are you told to do after you cut the leaf shapes out? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 80.6 59.2 51.5 11.7 11.7 62.1 22.3 17.5 86.3 89.2 87.1 35.3 16.7 94.1 61.8 65.7 94.5 98.2 98.1 77.1 61.5 99.1 92.6 88.9 87.3 82.5 79.2 42.0 30.6 85.3 59.4 57.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 49.0 43.6 38.2 42.2 25.2 51.5 40.8 10.8 55.9 74.5 73.5 81.4 55.9 58.4 61.8 35.3 80.6 88.9 89.9 98.2 85.3 87.2 88.8 80.0 62.2 69.5 67.7 74.4 56.1 66.1 64.1 42.4

No. of marks

Level 2C Level 2B Level 2A % % %

Total %

Summary

Across the levels children were more successful on questions that required direct retrieval of information. Less able readers found it more difficult to select more than one answer to a question. In general, children did better on multiple-choice questions than those questions where they had to answer in their own words, although there were exceptions to this.

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Discussion At level 2C, children were most successful in retrieving straightforward information where the words in the question were similar to those in the text, as in the one-word answer for question 17, and in choosing three items from a given list in question 24. Around half also successfully managed the multiple-choice questions 1, 10, 18 and 19. There were lower scores for questions 2, 3 and 14, where they had to write the answer, matching slightly different words in the question to the correct section of the text. Question 6 was more of a challenge for this level, with only a quarter able to select two things that the girls told Billy about autumn. There was little difference at level 2C between children being able to identify one or two things; they appeared either to answer the question correctly for the mark or, in most cases, incorrectly or not at all. Questions 26 and 27 also required answers in their own words and proved difficult at this level, with rather more children locating the answer for question 26, which was in bold in the text. Many errors on question 26 sprang from failing to note the why in the question, overlooking the final quickly, or offering an interpretation rather than reading the text. Weaker readers seemed to find it difficult to locate the key information in the middle of the final paragraph. Children achieving level 2B scored well on most of the multiple-choice questions, including question 4, whereas at level 2C many appeared to be influenced by the picture into selecting petals or leaves instead of reading to locate stem. Their considerably higher scores for question 19 suggested they were more likely to have read and retrieved the answer, rather than wrongly selecting the answers mother or father by drawing on their own experience, as appeared to be the case at level 2C. Almost three times as many children at level 2B than 2C located the emboldened reference to glue drying out for question 26. However, level 2B were only slightly more successful than level 2C with question 1 where many were misled by other nearby words in the text and selected straight or golden instead of bright. They were less successful where they were required to read the text more closely, and where they had to explain `how' or `why', even if the questions were in multiple-choice format. There was a sharp rise from level 2C to 2B in the number gaining the mark for question 27. This required following the sequence of stages across two numbered boxes, pinpointing instruction 7 and then locating the specific answer in instruction 8.

Question 27 What are you told to do after you cut the leaf shapes out? incorrect order 0 marks [L2C] Tape the leaf shapes to the stick 1 mark [L2C] Tapet leafsapes to the stick 1 mark [L2B] You stick on the leves to the stem taken from the correct place in the text 1 mark [L2B] taken from the correct place in the text taken from the correct place in the text

put glue along the paper plate

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Question 16 required an overview of the story and it proved difficult for readers at level 2B as well as at level 2C. Whereas the majority at level 2C selected one item correctly, most at level 2B were able to choose two, but only around a third were able to draw together their understanding to select all three correct answers from the given list and gain the mark, in comparison to the majority at level 2A. Children at level 2B also found question 20 on the information text demanding. Although there was a choice of answers which gained the mark, one of which closely matched the question, a surprisingly small proportion recognised it, possibly because they failed to see the connection between paintings in the question and pictures in the text. It was only by level 2A that a majority were able to answer this correctly, and even then it was the second-lowest scoring question on this assessment focus.

Question 20 What did Paul do that tells you he liked Vincent's paintings? misunderstanding of question 0 marks [L2B] he waterd the flowers unrelated to text, possibly misled by picture 0 marks [L2B] on p.16

Becos he was a fams utict

Paul panter a panten of Van Gogh answer taken from the text 1 mark [L2B]

Children achieving level 2A generally performed very well on questions assessing assessment focus 2 with some steep rises from previous levels. This included the multiple choice question 1, where they recognised the question was about the leaves, whereas at levels 2C and 2B many children selected aspects which related to petals or stem which could be readily spotted in the text beneath the sentence about leaves. However, a fifth working at level 2A failed to select all three correct answers for question 16. The multiple-choice question 21 was the most difficult on assessment focus 2 and even at level 2A fewer than two-thirds were successful. Children had to match two sides of the same process: Not many people bought his paintings in the question, with He only sold a few drawings and one or two paintings in the text. At level 2C the most favoured wrong option was He gave his money away, an incorrect inference triggered perhaps by noticing the word money in the text or applying experience rather than reading. At level 2A, as at 2B, children favoured He was always buying food, confusing cause and effect in the text's explanation. Almost as many at level 2A chose He sold paintings to a small museum, suggesting they spotted sold in a short line in the text but did not go on to read the whole sentence.

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Assessment focus 3 The following table shows the percentage of children at each level gaining marks on each question which addressed assessment focus 3.

AF3: Deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts. Section 1: Billy's Sunflower Q5. Why did Billy want to find out about autumn? Q7. Why did Billy run inside to Mum? Q8. How did Mum help Billy? Q11. Why did Billy think the flower was trying to speak? Q12. Why did Billy say "My flower is raining!"? Q13. Why did Billy run to find Mum and Dad and Laura? Section 2: So Many Sunflowers! Q22. How can you tell that people like Vincent's paintings today? 1 7.8 13.7 57.4 26.8 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 44.7 46.6 40.8 1.0 35.9 26.2 52.4 61.8 72.5 52.9 17.6 51.5 66.3 82.2 90.7 88.0 31.2 54.1 79.6 93.5 92.5 66.0 69.3 41.4 24.8 56.1 62.5 75.9 No. of marks Level 2C Level 2B Level 2A % % % Total %

Summary

Although most questions were multiple-choice, to gain marks to these how and why questions children had to think about the significance of what they read. Answers were sometimes based on personal experience rather than on textual reference. Children at all levels found it more difficult to express answers in their own words, especially where explanations were required in answer to how or why.

Discussion In general, level 2C readers found questions on assessment focus 3 harder than those on assessment focus 2. Rather more were able to understand the connection in question 13 between Billy seeing the seeds and running inside to his family, than were able to grasp the connection between autumn and Billy's anxiety about his flower in question 5. Many failed to grasp the association between the rustling leaves and the idea of the flower trying to speak to Billy in question 11, choosing the references to Billy hearing Mum or Laura speak, despite no mention of this in the text at that point. Children achieving level 2B were considerably more successful than level 2C on question 7. More were able to infer feeling, relating the word upset to the general sense of the text at that point. Roughly as many as at level 2C chose the wrong option He wanted to show mum his flower, perhaps substituting personal experience for reading, but at level 2B fewer were distracted by the other alternatives. In question 12 two-thirds of children at 2B grasped the idea of raining seeds and were able to connect it to My flower is raining in the question, and fewer were misled by the literal reference to rain than at level 2C. At both levels the most common wrong choice was He didn't want his flower to die, which was true but not directly related to the question.

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Children achieving level 2A scored highly on several of the multiple-choice questions, though question 11 was rather less well done, perhaps because to match answer to question children needed to understand the context of the sentence referring to a gust of wind rustled, as well as locating the sentence itself. A minority working at level 2A were distracted by it started to rain as were many working at levels 2C and 2B, perhaps associating rain on the flower with making a sound, but level 2A readers were not misled by references to called and talking in the other distractors. Question 8 was one of only two 2-mark questions on the test, and required children to give two pieces of information in their own words. Although children achieving level 2A were more successful than other levels, only a little over a half earned both marks. Those who earned one mark were equally likely to mention either of the two answers, suggesting they had referred to the text more than at previous levels and were able to understand the relationship between a character's motives and actions. At levels 2C and 2B more who earned one mark recognised that Mum helped Billy by drying his tears or comforting him than saw that explaining about autumn and winter was also helping Billy.

Question 8 sunflouse diy 0 marks [L2B] Telling him what autumn means both children select second example 1 mark [L2A] recognising that telling him about autumn Telling him autimn is when the world helps Billy gets ready for winter. 1 mark [L2A] by driing his tir 1 mark [L2A] whiping his eyes telling him what Autum mean 2 marks [L2A] selects two correct selected examples selects first example from text How did Mum help Billy? refers to part of what Laura said earlier in story

Question 22 also required children to answer in their own words and was the second-lowest score on the test. Children achieving level 2A tackled it much better than the other levels but nonetheless just under half did not gain the mark and it was one of the few questions which a small number at this level omitted. To earn the mark, children could infer the connection between Vincent's paintings being worth a great deal of money and that people like them today in the text near the question, or offer another sensible justification related to elsewhere in the text. Many children were unable to do either of these, tending to offer reasons, but either not sufficiently precise or not from the text. More children working at level 2A were able to offer specific text-related reasons.

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Question 22 Thay wer very good

How can you tell that people like Vincent's paintings today? 0 marks [L2C] offers general reason but not drawn from the text

Cose he was a famest poson

not sufficiently precise; would have gained mark if recognised he wasn't always famous but 0 marks [L2A] is now a general fact not a specific answer 0 marks [L2A]

Becase thay are old

When he died people brort his pantings relevant reason from the text 1 mark [L2B] They are a great deal of money 1 mark [L2A] enough to indicate connection to the value of the paintings now

They are wirth a lot of money and they are two correct reasons from text on show all over the world 1 mark [L2A]

Assessment focus 4 The following table shows the percentage of children at each level gaining marks on each question which addressed assessment focus 4.

AF4: Identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts, including grammatical and presentational features at text level. Section 2: So Many Sunflowers! Q23. What does the list on page 18 tell you? Q28. Why do you think each instruction has a number? 1 1 86.4 20.4 97.1 53.9 100.0 86.1 94.6 54.0

No. of marks

Level 2C Level 2B Level 2A % % %

Total %

Summary

Across the levels, children were better able to recognise the purpose of an illustrated list than the structural principle indicated by the numbers in instructions.

Discussion Most children were able to identify the purpose of the list in multiple-choice question 23 where the correct option included the same words what you need as at the head of the list in the text, and the word sunflower was mirrored in the page illustration. Question 28, also multiple-choice, posed more of a challenge and discriminated across levels. It required children to understand the sequential nature of instructions, which many working at level 2C were unable to do. More than a third were misled by to tell what you need, implying they were referring back to the list on the previous page, perhaps still influenced by question 23. At level 2B they tended to favour to help you read what it says, possibly because they saw the numbers as some kind of presentational strategy rather than as an essential structural feature, and at both levels a fair number chose to make it look nice. It was only by level 2A that most children understood the reason for numbering the points.

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Assessment focus 5 The following table shows the percentage of children at each level gaining marks on each question which addressed assessment focus 5.

AF5: Explain and comment on the writers' use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Section 1: Billy's Sunflower Q9. What do these words (brown, sad, droopy) tell you about the flower? 1 14.6 14.9 41.3 24.0

No. of marks

Level 2C Level 2B Level 2A % % %

Total %

Summary This proved difficult across the levels and was the lowest-scoring question on the test. There was also a high omission rate. Children found it difficult to express their answers and many repeated the words in the question or quoted from the text about the flower drooping down. When they attempted to explain, they often missed the precise point, indicating a general difficulty in understanding the meaning and impact of figurative language.

Question 9 brown and droping 0 marks [L2C] it tels you wate taey go like it is sad story shows child understands what the words relate 0 marks [L2C] to but is not an answer to this question picks up on sad from the question and refers to 0 marks [L2B] the story rather than the flower What do these words (brown, sad, droopy) tell you about the flower? repeats words in the question

These words tell you that the flower understands and explains what the words is dying convey about the flower, perhaps having read 1 mark [L2A] the next sentence, which refers to die

Assessment focus 6 The following table shows the percentage of children at each level gaining marks on each question which addressed assessment focus 6.

AF6: Identify and comment on writers' purposes and viewpoints, and the overall effect of the text on the reader. Section 1: Billy's Sunflower Q15a. (The story) ...is sad because It is happy because Section 2: So Many Sunflowers! Q25. What kind of text is in the boxes? 1 63.1 92.2 99.1 85.0 2 1 2 28.2 17.5 38.2 45.1 28.0 68.2 31.4 43.9

No. of marks

Level 2C Level 2B Level 2A % % %

Total %

Summary Children were better able to recognise a type of text than the overall effects of a text upon the reader. Across the levels children need to be able to comment on the overall effect of a text on a reader and to expand on their opinions.

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Discussion Question 25 was well-answered across all levels, with the majority of children recognising they were dealing with instructions. Question 15 required two explanations in their own words for one mark each, and children needed to have an overview of the development of the story and its effect. The question discriminated well and by level 2A just over two-thirds gained the second mark. At all levels children found it easier to say why the story was sad than why it was happy, possibly because some of the earlier questions had centred on Billy's anxieties about his flower (5, 7, 8, 10). Seeing it as a happy story required recognising the idea of the seasonal cycle rather than there being any explicit reference to happiness. This was clearly a more difficult process and especially difficult for level 2C readers.

Question 15 The story is sad because Did not want it to Diy 1 mark [L2C & L2A] The flower dies 1 mark [L2A] The story is happy because It is diying Billy is going to plant them 1 mark [L2A] shows lack of understanding of question change 0 marks [L2C] from sad to happy recognises this as a happy event for Billy relevant event in the story shows understanding of character's feelings

The level 3 written test of reading All the children who achieved level 2A on the level 2 test, and those who were assessed by their teachers as working at level 3 in reading, undertook the level 3 reading test. There were 12 questions about the story Grandfather's Pencil and the Room of Stories by Michael Foreman, presented as a free-standing illustrated booklet, and 11 questions about an information text, The Midhampton Museum, presented as an illustrated A4 folded leaflet promoting a programme of special events for children. There were 26 marks available in total. Questions covered assessment focuses 2 to 6; ten were some form of multiple-choice and the rest required children either to find and copy words from the text or to answer in their own words. The following findings are based on the analysis of 98 level 3 scripts.

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Assessment focus 2 The following table shows the percentage of children gaining marks on each question assessing assessment focus 2.

AF2: Understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas from texts and use quotation and reference to text. Section 1: Grandfather's Pencil and the Room of Stories Q2. Which words tell you the sound the pencil made when it first started to write? Q5. The wind blew into the room. Why was this important to what happened next? Tick 2. Q7. What did the boy do when he grew up? Q8. Why did Jack write to his grandfather? 2 reasons. Section 2: The Midhampton Museum Q15. Write three activities which you can try at the museum. Q16. If you wanted to find out about food which month would you visit the museum? Q17. Which of the events are free? Tick 3. Q20. When can people visit the museum? Tick 3. 2 1 1 1 1 2 32.7 42.9 84.7 58.8 68.4 2 1 1 1 1 2 98.0 78.6 94.9 18.6 68.0 No. of marks Level 3 %

Summary

Children achieving level 3 generally scored well on questions addressing assessment focus 2, though there was a considerable range of success across the different questions. They had difficulty scanning across texts and from question to text.

Discussion Question 2 had the highest success rate on the test. This question was in multiple-choice format and the correct answer appeared in the text in the same words as in the question. Children were also very successful on question 7 on the story and question 16 on the leaflet, indicating that most children understood the layout of the leaflet and how to scan across it to find the correct answer. Question 8 for two marks required children to extract two reasons why Jack wrote to his grandfather, from information about what he put in his letter. Most children gave two answers. However, incorrect reasons tended to result from inferring an answer from experience, or from another part of the story, rather than going back to the text. Question 15 was a two-mark question on the information text and less than half the children gaining level 3 were able to give three correct activities for two marks, though another third earned one mark for two correct answers. The difficulty lay in naming specific activities. Many children referred to more general topics or were simply too vague.

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Question 15

Write three activities which you can try at the museum. 0 marks 0 marks 0 marks 0 marks too general to count as an activity, no sense of participation titles of numbered sections not activities no reference to an activity

Find out how peple lived in the past Food Schools Chalk Have a go making jam Have a go in the classroom Have a go dressing up Make jam tarts Try your local skill of lace making Make up a prescription yourself

2 marks

three correct activities clearly identified in each case

2 marks

Question 17 proved to be the most difficult of the questions requiring retrieval of information and reference to the text. To earn the mark, children had to scan seven numbered sections across both sides of the leaflet, to locate the entrance costs (which were listed under the month) and find three references to free entrance. The three wrong options were each selected by over 20% of children, with `Schools' being chosen more often than the others. Question 20 was also one of the more difficult in this assessment focus. The question required careful cross-reference of each of the answer options to the information in the `Opening Times' and `Closed' sections on page 6 of the leaflet. This included relating `afternoons' in some answer options to `all day' in the leaflet. Most children working at level 3 managed to do this correctly for two of the options, but over a third made at least one slip and so did not gain the mark. The commonest correct answer was the straight match `All day Tuesday', chosen by 97% of the sample; `Friday afternoon' was chosen by more children than the other two wrong options, which were both clearly listed in the `Closed' section. Assessment focus 3 The following table shows the percentage of children gaining marks on each question assessing assessment focus 3.

AF3: Deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts. Section 1: Grandfather's Pencil and the Room of Stories Q3. Why did the pencil live in a forest before it became a pencil? Q4. Why had the floorboards travelled further than any of the other things? Q9. When does this story begin? Q12. Why would Journeys be a good, different title for this story? Explain as fully as you can. Section 2: The Midhampton Museum Q13. What is this leaflet about? Q14. What kinds of things can you learn about at the museum? Q18. In which month would you most like to visit the museum? Why do events in that month interest you? Q19. Why do you think the museum has a different event every month? Q22. What is the purpose of the leaflet? Q23. What is the same about them (Grandfather's Pencil and The Midhampton Museum)? 1 1 1 1 1 1 87.6 94.9 59.2 63.3 96.9 38.1 1 1 1 1 87.8 70.4 68.4 34.7 No. of marks Level 3 %

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Summary

Across the test, children achieving level 3 performed well on questions addressing assessment focus 3, though some individual questions within this assessment focus proved to be considerably more difficult than others.

Discussion Children were most successful on question 14 and question 22. Both were multiple-choice and required children to recognise correct generalisations about the content and purpose of the leaflet. The great majority could do this without difficulty, suggesting they were well able to take an overview of this type of text. Although question 9 was also in multiple-choice format, it required children to understand the timeline of the story and to grasp the idea that the boy at the start was the grandfather at the end. A large minority of children gaining level 3 missed this essential point. Half of the incorrect answers were in the future with some choosing a year ago and now. Question 12 had the lowest success rate in the test (35 per cent) and was omitted by 20 per cent of children. To earn the mark, answers needed to identify an aspect of the story that related to a journey or journeys. They could do this by selecting a specific aspect or by taking an overview of the story and recognising its theme. Successful answers tended to list things that travelled in the story. Children found it difficult to explain journeys as the underlying theme and few grasped the abstract notion of the journey through life. Many answers were too vague and some children did not understand the question.

Question 12 Why would Journeys be a good, different title for this story? Explain as fully as you can. 0 marks 0 marks the answer suggests an alternative, apt title but that is not what the question asks for 0 marks 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark links the proposed title to a relevant aspect of the story a summary statement but makes the explicit connection with journeys generalisation about a `different place' implies understanding that the items have all made a journey too imprecise a vague recycling of the question

Because they go on lots of ships Because if you have a journey the same title it would not be very good a different title would be a boy with a story telling pencil It would be good the pencil, the papper and the door would tell more and more stories because the pencil told his journey about his life there is lots of Journeys in this story everything comes from a drifnt plaser

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To earn the single mark for Question 18, children had to justify why the events in the month they selected interested them. Well over a third of the sample chose the month they preferred, stated the activities they liked in that month but did not go on to say why they found the events interesting, suggesting they did not grasp that the question was asking for some form of explanation. In some answers activities were not mentioned.

Question 18 In which month would you most like to visit the museum? Why do events in that month interest you? 0 marks 0 marks answer is too general and makes no reference to interest in specific events events not referred to; answer recycles the question a specific reference as to why an event in that month might prove interesting

November because I have not seen Midhampton museum 100 years ago July because I like doing that October because I would like to see if the teacher caned them

1 mark

Question 19 also required some form of explanation. Just less than two-thirds gained the mark with answers that showed thought and offered a plausible reason related to the idea of variety. Children who failed to gain the mark tended not to elaborate enough, while others missed the point, suggesting they had not fully understood the question or were not able to relate it to the content and purpose of the leaflet.

Question 19 Why do you think the museum has a different event every month? 0 marks 0 marks 1 mark just catches the idea of offering something interesting each month offers a plausible explanation supported by reference to the text general answers, not specific to the variety of events

because they can only do it every month so that people don't get mixed up because to make it good evry month So it can show you one at a time if it was only one day of showing you baking and you wanted to see that but you were at work if you cant go one day you will be abble to go another people would get bored so dfrunt piolpe can do difrunt things

1 mark 1 mark 1 mark both answers recognise the importance of variety

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Question 23 was the most difficult one on the leaflet addressing assessment focus 3. Around two-thirds of children failed to get the mark and 14 per cent omitted the question altogether. It required an overview across both texts. Many answers referred to the texts as being exciting, interesting or good, rather than grappling with the common ideas or themes. Others recognised some commonality but could not pin it down precisely enough.

Question 23 What is the same about them (Grandfather's Pencil and The Midhampton Museum)? 0 marks 0 marks 1 mark 1 mark answer offers an accurate generalisation showing understanding of common theme of past misunderstands scope of question, and not correct too general and no reference to any specific content

They are in the same booklet they both have something old they both are about the past they are aubout long ago They have both got somthing to do with a long time ago

1 mark

Assessment focus 4 The following table shows the percentage of children gaining marks on each question assessing assessment focus 4.

AF4: Identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts, including grammatical and presentational features at text level. Section 1: Grandfather's Pencil and the Room of Stories Q10. Why is the pencil important in this story? Section 2: The Midhampton Museum Q21. Why is the telephone number of the museum in bold? 1 56.7 1 61.2 No. of marks Level 3 %

Discussion Scores were similar for the two questions on this assessment focus, one on each text. Even though question 10 was in multiple-choice format, the success rate was relatively low. It required an understanding of the pencil's crucial role in recording the stories, which in turn required children to follow the organisational thread of the narrative. The most common incorrect answer was it helps the boy to write. This was a plausible distractor, but children who chose it failed to see the significance of the pencil in telling the story on its own. Question 21 was a straightforward question on presentation which might have been expected to have a higher rate of success than it did. Eleven per cent of children did not attempt to answer it at all. Children who earned the mark recognised that the bold font emphasised the telephone number and/or helped readers to notice it. However, the high omission rate perhaps suggests that this question was perceived as more difficult than it was. Some children who attempted it but did not get the mark looked for a more complex explanation. They appeared to take as read the fact that the number stood out but tried to explain why, sometimes giving the number without referring to its boldness.

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Assessment focus 5 The following table shows the percentage of children gaining marks on each question assessing assessment focus 5.

AF5: Explain and comment on the writers' use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Section 1: Grandfather's Pencil and the Room of Stories Q1. "The house slept in the moonlight". What does this tell you about the setting? Q6. Find and copy 3 words about how things moved in the wind. 2 1 1 2 83.7 22.4 29.6 No. of marks Level 3 %

Discussion The success rate on question 1 was high, showing that children of this age are able to tackle questions on this assessment focus with some success. The question required a response to literary language and the multiple-choice format enabled most readers to interpret correctly the mood of the setting from the metaphor in the sentence. Question 6 was a two-mark question, which required three correct words for two marks, and two to earn one mark. Almost all the sample attempted the question but less than a third scored both marks. The information could be found on two pages and children had to identify where the wind was active and to select words which conveyed how things moved in the wind. Some children failed to gain marks because for one or more choices they quoted whole sentences rather than single words. Others listed the things that moved, rather than giving a description of how they moved.

Question 6 Find and copy 3 words about how things moved in the wind. selection of relevant sentences, not precise words that relate to how the things moved selection of moving objects precise selection of three words conveying movement

the door danced on its hinges the pencil rolled onto the floor the paper flew out of the window the paper the pencil the door rolled flew danced

0 marks 0 marks 2 marks

Assessment focus 6 The following table shows the percentage of children gaining marks on each question assessing assessment focus 6.

AF6: Identify and comment on writers' purposes and viewpoints, and the overall effect of the text on the reader. Section 1: Grandfather's Pencil and the Room of Stories Q11. What is the main idea of the story? 1 59.2 No. of marks Level 3 %

Question 11 proved to be quite a demanding multiple-choice question. To identify the main idea that everything has a story to tell, children had to take an overview of the story as a whole and go beneath the surface. A significant minority found this hard to do and were drawn to the more literal options: everything is made of wood or pencils are the best presents.

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Implications for teaching and learning

Reading In order to progress to level 2C, children achieving level 1 need to:

use graphic and phonic knowledge to group letters in words; (AF1) learn vowel phonemes involving two letters, eg break, make, tiger, hard, burn, storm; (AF1) use semantic knowledge to relate words and phrases in questions to similar ones in texts. (AF2)

In order to progress to level 2B, children achieving level 2C need to:

read vowel phonemes in polysyllabic words; (AF1) distinguish word stems from inflexional endings and suffixes; (AF1) use contextual knowledge rather than personal experience or pictures to check meaning; (AF2) understand simple presentational features of texts; (AF4) select more than one piece of information in response to a question; (AF2) give a reason for their response to the text. (AF6)

In order to progress to level 2A, children achieving level 2B need to:

retrieve information from within paragraphs or at the end of a page; (AF2) interpret feelings and behaviour from actions in narratives and reports; (AF3) find reasons in the text to explain how or why; (AF3) understand the effect of specific words or phrases on meaning. (AF5)

In order to progress to level 3 and further, children achieving level 2A need to:

scan across a whole text to identify several relevant details or pieces of information; (AF2) follow timelines in a narrative and the significance of events in the whole; (AF4) comment briefly on the impact of specific figurative language; (AF5) identify the underlying ideas in a text. (AF6)

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Mathematics: analysis of children's performance

National results

The Autumn Package of Pupil Performance Information giving the 2003 results in teacher assessments and the tasks/tests was sent to schools in November. The results of the last five years are shown below. Mathematics national results, key stage 1, 1999­2003 (Percentage of cohort at each level) Levels 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 W 3 2 2 2 2 1 10 7 7 7 7 2C 23 17 15 15 17 2B 22 23 24 19 19 2A 20 25 23 25 25 3 21 25 28 31 29

NB: Rows do not total 100% as pupils who were absent or disapplied are not shown above.

For further information on the Autumn Package refer to the DfES website at www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/performance

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Performance in mathematics

The mathematics commentary in this report links directly across to the Implications for teaching and learning leaflet for mathematics published in November 2003. Each section starts with an implication for teaching and learning. These are italicised and emboldened. General issues related to Using and applying mathematics (UAM) are covered first, and then issues linked to Number (Ma2) and Shape, space and measures (Ma3). Exemplars from the 2003 mathematics tests are used to demonstrate good responses. Examples showing where misunderstandings, misconceptions or incomplete responses resulted in children not gaining marks are also included. For the level 2 test, children were awarded three different sub-levels 2C, 2B and 2A. Questions on the test ranged from those targeted at children who were just beginning to work in level 2 to those who were almost into level 3. Questions were generally ranked by difficulty. Where children's work in this test is discussed in this report, the emphasis is on reporting on children at whom the questions were targeted, but comparisons are often made with other children working within level 2. For the level 3 test, children whose work is discussed are solely those who were awarded level 3.

General

Teachers should encourage children to record working to help them solve problems and answer questions for which they lack the mental skills or knowledge. Answering such questions requires children to plan what they have to do, communicate what they do to solve each stage of the problem and check their work to ensure that their working and answer make sense in the context of the problem. Some of the questions in the 2003 tests had marks attributed to aspects of using and applying mathematics. The first three sections of this report focus on these aspects. Commentary in these sections also discusses questions that contain elements of UAM where these elements are not the main attribution of the question. Problem solving Teachers should encourage children to take more care in reading the provided information when solving problems. There were several questions where children may have guessed what to do or may not have paid sufficient attention to the information provided by the text and, in some cases, the diagrams. Some examples from the level 2 test are discussed below. One-tenth of children working at each of levels 2C and 2B completed the second addition for level 2 question 8 by reversing the order of the numbers given for the first addition. These children failed to apply or did not read the instruction `write four different numbers'. Many children who did apply this instruction, particularly the most able children achieving level 2, completed the second addition using numbers that were one different from the numbers chosen for the first addition. The example opposite illustrates this efficient problem-solving strategy.

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Level 2 question 8, example of a correct response.

A few children working at level 2A, and one-fifth of children working at each of levels 2B and 2C, misinterpreted the given instruction for level 2 question 23 to divide a shape into 4 equal parts using the dots inside the rectangle. These children may only have understood `shape' and `4' when reading the question and interpreted these and the dotted grid to mean that they were to draw a shape with four sides.

Level 2 question 23, example of an incorrect response.

Teachers should help children to identify and complete the steps that are required to complete a two-step problem. Some questions presented problems involving two steps where children had to carry out more than one calculation. A common error when answering these questions was to complete only one of the required calculations. One example was level 2 question 19 where just over one-third of children working at level 2B answered correctly. The most common incorrect response, made by one-tenth of these children, was to ignore `double' and to add three only. Another such question was level 2 question 27 where one-tenth of children working across level 2 completed only one stage of the problem. The common error was to find the total of the red and green sweets but then fail to proceed to find the difference between this total and 60, as shown overleaf.

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Level 2 question 27, example of an incorrect response.

In addition to two-step problems, there were questions where children had to consider two criteria simultaneously. Oral question 2 on the level 2 test asked children to write an odd number between 32 and 42. One-fifth of children working at level 2B and one-tenth of children working at level 2A considered only one of the number properties to write either an even number inside the given range or an odd number outside the range. Another such question was question 11 on the level 2 test. One-fifth of children working at level 2C, and about half as many working at level 2B, gave the answer five suggesting that they gave either the number of mornings or the number of sunny periods represented on the chart. These children probably failed to consider both criteria.

Level 2 question 11, example of an incorrect response.

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One-fifth of children working at level 3 ignored the second criterion `even', for level 3 question 12b, to make the smallest number, but not the smallest even number.

Level 3 question 12, example of an incorrect response.

Communicating Teachers should provide opportunities to use and interpret mathematical vocabulary in a range of contexts. As in previous years, there were several instances in each test where children misread or misinterpreted mathematical vocabulary. Examples of such vocabulary included cylinder, equal, taller and even. Teachers should support children, particularly boys, to communicate clearly, in written form, the methods that they use to solve problems. This may involve recording the stages in mental calculations. Children working at the lower end of level 2 made little use of working to support their thinking when completing the level 2 test. Children completing the level 3 test made greater use of working, but it was not widely used. Boys were often less likely than girls to record their working. More children may have been successful in obtaining correct answers if they had recorded working or used jottings to assist mental calculations. Indeed, children recording working were often more likely to reach a correct answer than those who did not. Recording working may also have made it easier for children to review the stages they went through, to spot obvious errors and to check answers, and for teachers to diagnose areas for improvement, or misunderstandings. Examples where the use of working may have improved children's performance are included in several sections of this report. In this section, the emphasis is on discussing performance in questions where children were asked to record their working and marks could be awarded for recording a complete and correct method even if the final answer was incorrect.

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Level 2 question 27 was a two-step problem, where children were asked to record working.

Level 2 question 27

Most children working at level 2A showed some working, but about one-third of children at each of levels 2B and 2C did not. Methods communicating efficient problem-solving strategies were most common among children achieving level 2A, including the highest scoring children likely to go on to achieve level 3. The following two examples show different types of efficient strategies. More children used a strategy similar to the first example than the second example, ie adding 20 and 16 then subtracting the total from 60 rather than subtracting 20 and 16 from 60 in two steps.

Level 2 question 27, example of a correct response.

Level 2 question 27, example of a correct response.

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Level 3 question 24 was attributed to the communicating aspect of using and applying mathematics.

Level 3 question 24

Most children awarded level 3 attempted the question, but only about one-third recorded a correct method. Using symbols such as dots to represent 70 objects was the most common method. However, about one-third of children using this method were not successful, mainly because they did not indicate how the symbols could be partitioned into fives or fourteens. Another common method, used by about one-fifth of children, involved repeated addition or subtraction. Some of these children were not successful either because they failed to communicate the number of fives or fourteens needed to complete the calculation or they recorded an incorrect number of fives or fourteens. The following responses show successful examples of the two most popular methods.

Level 3 question 24, example of a correct response.

Level 3 question 24, example of a correct response.

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Reasoning Teachers should provide children with opportunities to interpret remainders in division problems set in a variety of contexts. Each test included a question, set in context, which asked children to calculate divisions and to interpret remainders. Correctly interpreting the remainder in the context of the problem demonstrated reasoning skills; indeed part of level 3 question 19 was attributed to the reasoning aspect of using and applying mathematics. In both of these divisions, rounding the answer down rather than up was the most common error. Children who made such errors did not apply reasoning skills to the problems, checking that their answers made sense within the given context. For level 2 question 25, calculating how many packs of 5 balloons should be bought to have 18 balloons, about one-fifth of children achieving level 2A, including the highest scoring children, rounded the answer down and not up as required by the context. For level 3 question 19, a few children calculated correctly but then rounded the answer down and not up. Children who used pictorial representation were more likely to obtain the correct answer than those recording other forms of working or no working at all, although working was not common among children who achieved level 2.

Level 3 question 19, example of a correct response.

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Teachers should provide children, particularly those working at level 3, with more opportunities to visualise and reason about shapes. Two questions on the level 3 test provided opportunities for children to visualise or reason about shapes. Some children's responses suggested that their understanding of the properties of shapes was not sufficiently secure to be applied to problems involving reasoning. Oral question 3 on the level 3 test assessed children's ability to visualise or reason about a cube. The children had to determine how many faces were blue, having been told that four faces were yellow. The most common incorrect answer was four, which was written even by a few children awarded level 3. These children probably restated the number given in the question or incorrectly thought that the cube had eight faces. Level 3 question 23 assessed children's ability to determine the shape that remained after a small triangle was cut off each corner of a square. Few children annotated the square to show the shape that was left. If more children had used this strategy the number of children choosing incorrect shape names, such as `heptagon', may have been reduced.

Level 3 question 23, example of a correct response.

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Number

Numbers and the number system Teachers should continue to monitor the way that children working at or below level 2B record numbers, to encourage correct formation and discourage the reversal of digits. Throughout the key stage 1 mathematics tests, a child who records a correct answer but with a digit reversed may be awarded the mark if they answer a question correctly, since their intended answer is clear. However, a child who writes a transposed number as their answer cannot be awarded a mark since we cannot be clear about their intended answer.

Level 2 question 12, example of a digit reversed.

Level 2 question 12, example of a transposed number.

Children's answers on the tests were analysed to determine the extent to which each of these types of response occurred. More than one-third of children who achieved level 2C and more than one-quarter of children who achieved level 2B reversed digits at some point during the test; this type of response was less common among children who achieved levels 2A or 3. Children working at all levels were less likely to transpose a number than they were to reverse a digit. Teachers should continue to provide children working at the lower end of level 2 with addition or subtraction sequences and ask them to work out the rule that creates a sequence, encouraging them to apply it consistently. Level 2 question 16 showed a sequence of odd numbers with two of the numbers missing. A common error was to give an answer of 6 and 14, or 8 and 16. These responses were given by a few children achieving levels 2B and 2C. Children who gave such a response failed to appreciate that the numbers in the sequence increased by two each time. Teachers should help children to develop strategies for giving reasonable estimates of the position of numbers on number lines. Children generally did not record working to help them to give reasonable estimates of the position of numbers on number lines. The required answer for level 3 question 21 was in the range 26 to 35. Less than one-fifth of children who achieved level 3 gave an answer within this range. A few children gave an answer of 10, which lay well outside the acceptable range. These children may have wrongly applied their experience of number lines marked in multiples of 10 to answer this question and assumed that the arrow indicated the next multiple of 10 after zero. Other children gave an answer of 20, which was a better estimate, but showed no evidence of a checking strategy, such as dividing the number line into four equal sections.

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Very few children appeared to use checking strategies to confirm that their estimates were reasonable. By dividing the number line into familiar fractions, such as halves and quarters, or by using a ruler, children may have been more successful.

Level 3 question 21, example of a correct response.

Calculations Teachers should provide more opportunities for children to work with fractions to develop their understanding, so that they progress from working with one-half to one-quarter and then three-quarters. While children were generally familiar with the fraction `one-half', this familiarity did not extend to other common fractions such as `one-quarter' and `three-quarters'. For level 3 question 20, less than one-third of children were able to shade the correct number of squares. A similar number of children shaded two more squares on the grid so that half rather than the required three-quarters of the squares were shaded. These children may only have been familiar with the fraction `half'. Alternatively, they could have been influenced by the denominator of four and thought that four squares altogether had to be shaded.

Level 3 question 20, example of an incorrect response.

About one-quarter of children shaded either one or three squares. For both responses, it was likely that the numerator of three influenced their decision, which resulted either in them shading three squares altogether or in them shading three more squares.

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Teachers should continue to help children develop strategies for solving addition and particularly subtraction problems that involve bridging the tens, for example using knowledge of place value or self-drawn number lines. Several questions in each test involved subtraction calculations, including difference, where children were required to bridge across a multiple of 10. A common error was to subtract the smaller digit from the larger in each instance, even when inappropriate. Children were less likely to make this error if they used a self-drawn number line. Nearly half of children achieving level 2B answered level 2 question 15 correctly, increasing to three-quarters of those children achieving level 2A. Very few children achieving level 2B or below used working to help them answer the question. However, working was more common among children achieving level 2A. The most common form of working for these children involved a self-drawn number line, which is demonstrated below.

Level 2 question 15, example of a correct response.

A common incorrect answer was 25. This answer was given by a few children working at each of levels 2B and 2A, including the highest scoring children likely to go on to achieve level 3. This answer tended to be given by children who inappropriately used a partitioning method or vertical calculation method.

Level 2 question 15, example of an incorrect response.

For level 3 question 16, only one-fifth of children who achieved level 3 gave the correct answer. Very few children used a self-drawn number line. However, children who did record a number line, as in the example opposite, were more likely to reach the correct answer than children recording other methods or those not recording a method.

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Level 3 question 16, example of a correct response.

The most common method involved partitioning, which was generally unsuccessful.

Level 3 question 16, example of an incorrect response.

Very few children made use of the fact that 49 is almost 50, since they did not appear to subtract 50 and then compensate. Only a few children answered level 3 question 22 correctly. More children may have reached the correct answer if they had recorded working to support their thinking, as in the example below.

Level 3 question 22, example of a correct response.

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Nearly one-fifth of children gave the answer £8.35. These children were likely to have subtracted the smaller digit from the larger digit in each element of the subtraction. About the same number of children gave an answer of £8.65 instead of £7.65, indicating a different place value error. Teachers should encourage children to look carefully at the operation symbols in a calculation, ie `p', `m', `t' and `d', to determine which operation is required. Each test had at least one subtraction calculation, such as level 2 question 15 and level 3 question 16. The most common error that children made for each of these questions was to ignore the subtraction sign and add the given numbers.

Level 2 question 15, example of an incorrect response.

Teachers should discuss children's strategies for solving simple missing number problems to help them apply their understanding to harder problems. There were several questions in both tests that asked children to complete calculations where empty boxes were used to represent unknown numbers. While children were generally successful at simple versions of these problems they were often unable to apply this experience to solve more difficult versions. For level 2 question 22, nearly three-quarters of children working at level 2A answered correctly. However, about one-fifth of children also working at this level gave the answer 10 + 20, which was the closest multiple of 10 to the correct answer. While these children were able to find the missing tens digit they were unable to apply the same strategies to find the missing units digit.

Level 2 question 22, example of an incorrect response.

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Only a few children found the correct missing number for level 3 question 25. Since two-thirds of children showed no working it is possible that the success rate would have been higher had more children recorded working to support their thinking, as in the example below.

Level 3 question 25, example of a correct response.

A few children gave an answer of 300 or 346. Those giving the answer 300 probably ignored the tens and units and subtracted 400 from 700, thereby giving a rounded answer. Those giving the answer 346 probably subtracted the smaller from the larger digit in each place-value column. Teachers should continue to use coins, particularly with children working at level 2, to develop children's understanding of coin values and help them with money calculations. Less than half of children achieving level 2B gave the correct answer for level 2 question 12. Children working at or above this level were most likely to reach the correct answer if they annotated the coins, for example by drawing rings around the coins to show two groups of three or by pairing coins of the same value.

Level 2 question 12, example of a correct response.

A few children working at level 2B gave the answer 70p, the total of the coins, showing that either they did not engage with the problem of sharing the money or were only able to complete one stage of the problem. Another common type of incorrect answer recognised that the number of coins should be shared equally, but failed to recognise that each child should have the same amount of money.

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Processing, representing and interpreting data Teachers should pose questions on bar charts that encourage the children to interpret the scales accurately and to respond to the complete set of data, for example `How many children does the graph show were in the class?' Level 2 question 20 assessed children's ability to interpret information presented in a bar chart. Over two-thirds of children achieving level 2B were able to interpret the vertical axis of the bar chart, which was numbered in twos up to 10, to reach the correct answer for the first part. However, a few children achieving levels 2B and 2C gave the answer eight, one of the adjacent labelled numbers on the vertical scale. The second part of the question involved working out the total number of children represented on the bar chart. This was more demanding and less than two-thirds of children who achieved level 2A were able to reach the correct answer. However, an additional one-fifth of children achieving this level gave answers between 20 and 26, which were close to the correct answer of 23. These children probably understood what was required but made errors in reading the bar chart or adding the three values. The following example shows an efficient strategy from a child who recorded the value for each bar to help find the total.

Level 2 question 20, example of a correct response.

Another error for the second part, made by a few children achieving each of levels 2A and 2B, was to give the answer 18. This suggests that they had added the three different ages rather than finding the total number of children.

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Teachers should provide more experience of using two-criteria Carroll diagrams, with an emphasis on children describing the objects in each region by referring to the two labels showing the relevant criteria for the region. For level 3 question 13, about two-thirds of children who achieved level 3 were able to identify the right-angled triangle, which had been wrongly positioned in the region for shapes that were not triangles but did have a right angle. Some of these children annotated the shapes to identify right angles.

Level 3 question 13, example of a correct response.

A common error was to choose the trapezium, which was positioned in the correct region: `is not a triangle' and `does not have a right angle'.

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Shape, space and measures

Teachers should provide opportunities for children to become more familiar with the properties of 2-D and 3-D shapes and with interpreting pictures of 3-D shapes. Children's responses to questions involving both 2-D and 3-D shapes showed that they were not always able to apply their understanding of the properties of regular, or familiar, shapes when evaluating irregular, or less familiar, shapes. About two-thirds of children working at level 2A responded correctly to level 2 question 26, but more than one-quarter selected the hexagon at the bottom right of the diagram along with one non-hexagon. The same error was made by about one-tenth of the highest scoring children likely to go on to achieve level 3. This error suggests that children do not recognise all six-sided shapes as hexagons. The following example demonstrates the efficient method of a child who counted the vertices and the sides of each shape, probably as a checking strategy.

Level 2 question 26, example of a correct response.

Three-quarters of children achieving level 2A responded correctly to level 2 question 21. The most common errors made by children working at this level were to indicate the tall thin cylinder only or to indicate the cone as well as at least one cylinder. The second error suggests that they thought that all the pictures of 3-D shapes with a circular face represented a cylinder. This response was also made by a quarter of children working at each of levels 2B and 2C.

Level 2 question 21, example of an incorrect response.

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Teachers should provide children with strategies to remember and interpret left and right, for example in movements and in using simple maps. For level 2 question 17, nearly one-fifth of children achieving level 2, including a few of the highest scoring children on the test, indicated the second house on the right. This suggested a lack of understanding of left and right. The following example demonstrates one child's method for distinguishing between left and right.

Level 2 question 17, example of a correct response.

Teachers should provide more opportunities for children to choose appropriate units of measurement to match a particular context. Level 2 oral question 3 assessed children's ability to recognise that the word `centimetres' was the correct unit of measurement to complete a sentence describing the height of a child. Just under half of children working at level 2B answered correctly. About one-third of children working across level 2 chose `metres', showing that they recognised the need for a measure of length but were unable to choose the appropriate unit to match the context.

Level 2 question 3, example of an incorrect response.

Just over one-tenth of children working at level 2B and one-fifth of children working at level 2C chose kilograms.

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Teachers should develop children's knowledge of the relationship between familiar units of measurement, for example months in a year and grams in a kilogram. One oral question in each test assessed children's understanding of the relationship between familiar units of measurement. Children's responses demonstrated that they did not always understand these relationships. Level 2 question 4 assessed children's knowledge of the number of months in a year. Four-fifths of the children awarded level 2C and more than half of the children awarded level 2B gave an incorrect number. The most common error made by these children was to answer seven, possibly because this is the number of days in a week. Others answered 11 or 13, possibly because they had attempted to find the answer by reciting the months. Similarly, on the level 3 test, question 5 assessed children's knowledge that there are 1000 grams in a kilogram. Fewer than half the children awarded level 3 gave the correct answer. Almost as many children gave an answer of 100. Teachers should provide situations where children can use the movement of hands on an analogue clock to support them in calculating the passage of time. Less than one-half of children awarded level 3 gave the correct answer for level 3 question 14. The most common incorrect answer was four minutes, made by about one-tenth of children working at level 3. This suggests that the children treated each of the divisions on the clocks from 12 to 4 as one minute or that they gave the number the minute hand was pointing to on the second clock. The following example shows a good understanding of the relationship between minutes and the divisions on the clock and provides an effective means of working to support a calculation.

Level 3 question 14, example of a correct response.

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Well done: some examples of progress and continued success

General

Generally children achieving level 2 and those achieving level 3 attempted all questions in their tests with the exception of the last few questions, which were the most challenging. Almost all children working at level 3 recorded working where questions asked them to do so. Children responded positively to questions attributed to using and applying mathematics, even if they were not able to reach the correct answer.

Number

Almost all children working at level 2C are able to count using numbers up to 20, and most are successful at repeatedly adding fives. Most children working at level 2C and above are successful at reading data from simple tables. Most children working at level 2B and above are successful at ordering two-digit numbers. Most children working at level 3 are successful at recording four-digit numbers. Most children working at level 3 are successful at ordering amounts of money using pounds and pence notation. Most children working at level 3 are successful at solving multiplication or division questions using facts from the t5 multiplication table.

Shape, space and measures

Most children working at level 2C and above are successful at selecting a 2-D shape described by the length of its sides. Most children working at level 2C and above are able to recognise centimetres and metres as measures of length.

Implications for teaching and learning

To help children improve their performance, teachers should: General

encourage children to record working to help them solve problems and answer questions for which they lack the mental skills or knowledge. Answering such questions requires children to plan what they have to do, communicate what they do to solve each stage of the problem and check their work to ensure that their working and answer make sense in the context of the problem;

Problem solving

encourage children to take more care in reading the provided information when solving problems; help children to identify and complete the steps that are required to complete a two-step problem;

Communicating

provide opportunities to use and interpret mathematical vocabulary in a range of contexts; support children, particularly boys, to communicate clearly, in written form, the methods that they use to solve problems. This may involve recording the stages in mental calculations;

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Reasoning

provide children with opportunities to interpret remainders in division problems set in a variety of contexts; provide children, particularly those working at level 3, with more opportunities to visualise and reason about shapes;

Number Numbers and the number system

continue to monitor the way that children working at or below level 2B record numbers, to encourage correct formation and discourage the reversal of digits; continue to provide children working at the lower end of level 2 with addition or subtraction sequences and ask them to work out the rule that creates a sequence, encouraging them to apply it consistently; help children to develop strategies for giving reasonable estimates of the position of numbers on number lines;

Calculations

provide more opportunities for children to work with fractions to develop their understanding, so that they progress from working with one-half to one-quarter and then three-quarters; continue to help children develop strategies for solving addition and particularly subtraction problems that involve bridging the tens, for example using knowledge of place value or self-drawn number lines; encourage children to look carefully at the operation symbols in a calculation, ie `p', `m', `t' and `d', to determine which operation is required; discuss children's strategies for solving simple missing number problems to help them apply their understanding to harder problems; continue to use coins, particularly with children working at level 2, to develop children's understanding of coin values and help them with money calculations;

Processing, representing and interpreting data

pose questions on bar charts that encourage the children to interpret the scales accurately and to respond to the complete set of data, for example How many children does the graph show were in the class?; provide more experience of using two-criteria Carroll diagrams, with an emphasis on children describing the objects in each region by referring to the two labels showing the relevant criteria for the region;

Shape, space and measures

provide opportunities for children to become more familiar with the properties of 2-D and 3-D shapes and with interpreting pictures of 3-D shapes; provide children with strategies to remember and interpret left and right, for example in movements and in using simple maps; provide more opportunities for children to choose appropriate units of measurement to match a particular context; develop children's knowledge of the relationship between familiar units of measurement, for example months in a year and grams in a kilogram; provide situations where children can use the movement of hands on an analogue clock to support them in calculating the passage of time.

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EARLY YEARS

Curriculum and Standards

Audience Circulation lists

Headteachers, class teachers and assessment coordinators. Headteachers of schools with year 2 children, teacher training agencies and LEAs.

NATIONAL CURRICULUM 5­16 GCSE

Type Description

Information This report provides information to schools on the 2003 national curriculum assessments at key stage 1.

GNVQ

Cross ref

Reports on the other 2003 national curriculum assessments are available from QCA Publications. Separate leaflets that show the Implications for teaching and learning from this report are also available from QCA Publications (order ref: English QCA/03/1181, mathematics QCA/03/1184). Additional material covering test data is available on the QCA website.

GCE A LEVEL

NVQ

Action required

The purpose of the report is to provide schools and those involved in the training of teachers with detailed information about the strengths and weaknesses in children's performance, as indicated through the national tests.

OTHER VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS

Contact For school use

Reporting standards team (020 7509 5530)

For more copies, contact: QCA Publications, PO Box 99, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2SN (tel: 01787 884444; fax: 01787 312950) This report is also available on the QCA website (www.qca.org.uk/ages3-14/tests_tasks) Price and order ref: £4 QCA/04/1189

259500

Information

Standards at key stage 1: English and mathematics

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