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SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

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Vilnius, 2008

ISSN 1392-9569

SocialiniS ugdymaS. 008. nr. 5(6)

Mokslinis redaktorius ­ prof. dr. Giedr Kvieskien, Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas Socialins komunikacijos institutas, Lietuva Redakcin kolegija: Prof. habil. dr. bronislovas bitinas, Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, lietuva Prof. habil. dr. Gerd-Bodo von Carlsburg, Heidelbergo pedagoginis universitetas, Vokietija Prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Gudonis, Siauli universitetas, Lietuva ir Rusijos pedagogini ir socialini moksl akademijos akademikas Doc. dr. Valdon Indrasien, Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, Lietuva Prof. Niels Rosendal Jensen, Aarhus universitetas, Danija Prof. dr. Gary Marx, Virginijos viesj rysi centras, JAV Prof. dr. Terence masson, indianos universitetas, JaV Prof. dr. lynn r. nelson, Purdue universitetas, JaV Prof. habil. dr. Hans Uwe Otto, Bielefeldo universitetas, Vokietija Prof. habil. dr. Valdas Pruskus, Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, Lietuva Prof. dr. Kijosti Urponen, Laplandijos universitetas, Suomija Doc. dr. Romas Prakapas, Mykolo Romerio universitetas, Lietuva Prof. habil. dr. Meilut Taljnait, Socialini tyrim institutas, Lietuva - atsakingoji sekretor Prof. habil. dr. Vilija Targamadz, Vilniaus universitetas, Lietuva Prof. habil. dr. Juozas Vytautas Uzdila, Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, Lietuva Doc. dr. Loreta Zadeikait, Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo ir mokslo ministerija, Lietuva Doc. dr. Irena Zaleskien, Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, Lietuva Renata Katinait, Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, Lietuva ­ leidinio sudarytoja

iSSn 39-9569

© Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, 008 © Socialins komunikacijos institutas, 2008

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Turinys / conTenT

Giedr KVIeSKIeN, Julija gorlanoVa socioculTural inTegraTion challenges in Modern socieTy..... 5 SOCIOKULTRINS INTEGRACIJOS ISSKIAI MODERNIOJE VISUOMENJE ....................................................................................................... 30 Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT MOKyKLOJE DIRbANcI SpECIALIST bRzIAM pRObLEM ESKIzAS pEDAGOGINJE-pSIChOLOGINJE ERDVJE ............................. 31 ThE ISSUE DRAFT OF SChOOL pROFESSIONALS IN pEDAGOGICAL AND pSyChOLOGICAL SphERE .......................................................................104 loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN SOCIALINIO pEDAGOGO VEIKLOS GALIMybS pROFESINIO INFORMAVIMO SISTEMOJE ................................................................................ 51 WORK OppORTUNITIES OF SOCIAL EDUCATORS WIThIN ThE VocaTional inForMaTion sysTeM ..........................................................124 Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta Suboc TV pOzIRIS SOCIALINS pEDAGOGINS pAGALbOS MOKyKLOJE ORGANIzAVIM ............................................................................ 59 ThE pARENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS AN ORGANIzED SOCIAL pEDAGOGICAL ASSISTANCE AT SChOOL.......................................................133 Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN SpECIALIJ pOREIKI VAIK pOzITyVIOSIOS SOCIALIzACIJOS Modelis ................................................................................................................. 73 pOSITIVE SOCIALIzATION MODEL FOR ChILDREN WITh SpECIAL needs .....................................................................................................................147 Romas PRAKAPAS, renata KATINAIT NUTEIST ASMEN RESOCIALIzACIJA: SOCIALIN KOMUNIKACIJA IR EDUKACINI LKEScI REALIzAVIMAS .................................................. 81 RE-SOCIALIzATION OF CONVICTS: SOCIAL COMMUNICATION AND ThE REALIzATION OF EDUCATIONAL EXpECTATIONS ..........................155 odeta MeRfeLDAIT SOCIALINS pEDAGOGINS pAGALbOS KOMANDOS VEIKLOS MODELIS bENDROJO LAVINIMO MOKyKLOJE............................................. 93 OpERATIONAL MODEL OF A SOCIAL-pEDAGOGIC TEAM IN COMpREhENSIVE SChOOL .............................................................................168 KroniKa/chronicle .....................................................................................180

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ISSN 1392-9569

SocialiniS ugdymaS. 008. nr. 5(6)

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Giedr KVIeSKIeN, Julija gorlanoVa

socioculTural inTegraTion challenges in Modern socieTy

(based on hypothesis and research hoc Advisory Group on policies and practices for Teaching Sociocultural Diversity ED-DS (2006))

annotation. The concept is based on the view that intercultural dialogue is one tool ­ among several others ­ contributing to the democratic management of (sociocultural cultural) diversity within Lithuanian society and europe's relations with neighboring regions. The White Paper, Invites the Council of europe to elaborate and concentrate upon in years to come in Order to build "a more humane and inclusive europe". Lithuanian education and Social Policy is determined to build cohesive societies by ensuring fair access to social rights, fighting exclusion and protecting vulnerable social groups. We are exam juridical Documents and mechanism's, which help to social cultural integration, our citizens in the full respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms and our other relevant international Obligations. Key words: Sociocultural education, Civic education, Social Pedagogue/educator, diversity, intercultural and Quality.

introduction

The process of globalization, while representing economic and social progress in many ways, also presents numerous risks for creating further disparities among nations and among people. The economic instability that has occurred throughout europe, particularly in the newly-created republics of the former Soviet Union, has resulted in high rates of unemployment and the collapse of many social services upon which many people have depended for health and capital and context of cultural diversity require a willingness to participate in pluralistic political structures based on principles of justice and equitable distribution of material and symbolic resources. On the other hand, we analyze the sociocultural integration challenges in modern society with vision accompanying processes of social and political change. We argue here that the role of the professionals is not only providing for the general welfare of children and families, but creation safe sociocultural environments for all diversities and educate civic values. The main purpose of the this study is to aid social pedagogues, social workers and other education practitioners to address diversity based education with respect human rights and evaluate civic dispositions. In concrete terms, the various methods and inspiring practices presented below focus on the development of intercultural competence 5

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SocialiniS ugdymaS. 008. nr. 5(6)

in the case of pupils with widely differing social, cultural and religious backgrounds. This generic competence presupposes, in turn, other specific competences: · Sensitivity to cultural facts and sources of human diversity; · Ability to communicate and enter into dialogue; · Skills required for learning to live together such as teamwork, cooperative learning, empathic communication, peaceful conflict resolution, confidence building; · Capacity to explore symbols and deal with sensitive and controversial issues; · Critical thinking and individual deliberation. following the faro Conference, the eU Committee of Ministers debated the issue of Intercultural dialogue. The strategy to promote intercultural dialogue in european Societies, which was adopted at the Conference of european Ministers responsible for Culture in faro. The White Paper to be drawn-up by the Council of europe on Integrated policies for the management of cultural diversity through intercultural Dialogue and conflict prevention. We analyze several of programmes, which approve by Lithuanian Government and support activities in development of responsible citizen and positive socialization of youth. We share the values, which lie at human rights, democracy and the rule of law ­ and to join us in turning europe into a creative community, open to knowledge and to Diverse cultures, a civic and cohesive community. The White Paper to be drawnup by The Council of europe on integrated policies for the management of cultural diversity Through intercultural dialogue and conflict prevention, and the faro Platform for Promoting co-operation between institutions towards intercultural dialogue, constitute Advances on this front. The link between research and practice is plain to see in the structure of the our study program of Social education BA and new study program of Social Communication for MA, which includes: · a syllabus dedicated to the concepts which are fundamental to the various methods and learning experiences; · a set of intercultural learning experiences devoted to teachers, dealing with religious diversity (e.g. cooperative learning, emphatic communication, intercultural sensitivity, deliberative learning, conflict management, multiperspectivity); · examples of how to apply intercultural education principles (participation, inclusion and respect for human rights) in different education settings: in public and faith schools, formal and non-formal learning, management and school governance; 6

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· a set of innovative practices collected on the basis of a survey carried out in member states. Consequently, intercultural education is addressed at three levels: · at the level of education policies, in the form of clear-cut education aims; · at the level of institutions, especially through democratic governance, student participation, open learning settings and inclusive policies; · at teaching-staff level. The first level was clearly supported by a series of political documents in favor of sociocultural education recently adopted in the context of the Council of europe based on the White Paper, Warsaw and faro declaration. The concept is based on the view that intercultural dialogue is one tool ­ among several others ­ contributing to the democratic management of (cultural) diversity within european societies and europe's relations with neighbouring regions. The White Paper is thus placed in a larger political context and will mark the beginning of a reflection process, which the Action Plan, adopted at the Third Summit, invites the Council of europe to elaborate and concentrate upon in years to come in order to build "a more humane and inclusive europe". Diversity is the natural state of our societies. To preserve this substantive feature of life, students must learn to live in a pluralist, multicultural and multidimensional social environment. Therefore, they must be capable of exercising the right to be different. intercultural is the active dimension of diversity. It presupposes in addition to multiculturalism and pluralism, the interaction of individuals, groups and communities. As an instrument of learning democracy, intercultural education creates deliberately these situations of exchanges, mutual influence and cultural cross-fertilization. Its purpose is to enhance diversity and complexity through a constant cultural dynamism. Quality means fitness for purpose. Since many educational aims are directly linked to learning democracy (e.g. student participation, self-development, citizenship education), it is only natural for quality to be interpreted also in terms of human rights. In this sense, quality education designates an elective attainment of democracy-related educational aims. finally, the most extensive part is devoted to teaching and learning activities. We are referring to the second and fourth sections, which include concrete examples of intercultural learning activities in a context of religious and cultural diversity. The

Document CM (2005) 80 final, Chapter III ­ Building a more humane and inclusive europe, Section 6.

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purpose of these activities is to encourage teachers and other categories of educational practitioners (mediators, counselors, mentors, learning facilitators) to construct situations of dialogue, cooperative learning and team building. Unlike traditional approaches to intercultural education, promoted especially in the `80s, these methods focus not on the link between the dominant culture (e.g. dominant religion) and minority cultures (e.g. minority religions), but instead on learning to live together. The reference entity is no longer the community and the differences between several cultural communities but the manner of resolving common issues and working on joint projects. These experiences are assimilated with the aid of briefing and intercultural awareness-raising sessions which clarify the values and regulations that make learning to live together and intercultural dialogue possible. We analyze this conception on basic created and explore how themes and concepts from sociocultural, civic education and social work fields have been woven together in the unique study program and to provide the foundation for its graduates to address the numerous challenges faced by children and families in contemporary Lithuania. On the other hand, we analyze the sociocultural and civic education in framework with vision accompanying processes of social and political change in all contemporary worlds. We monitoring our study programs, study the Project Citizen experiences, the project which's used by teachers and students in 50 states of the United States of America and more than 30 countries in different regions of the world. In this article we use the study, conducted at Indiana University, Bloomington by Social Studies Development Center and the Indiana Center for evaluation. We evaluate the effects of the Project Citizen on the civic development of adolescent students in Indiana, Latvia, and Lithuania. This inquiry began in August of 1999-study program and ended with the publication of monograph in November 2000 needs. (Vontz, Thomas S., Kim K. Metcalf, and John J. Patrick, 2000) Study was repeated in 2001 and 2002 in MA degree studies in Vilnius pedagogical university. We integrated the Project Citizen as the method of Democracy education and Civic education Curriculum syllabus for baccalaureate degree students (00) and created a new master degree program with specialization: "Civic education and Communication"(2002). Main idea of this article is to conceptualize what skills and competencies do teachers and children welfare professionals require organizing the learning processes in such a way as to promote the development of life skills for social cultural, civic, economic and political participation. The children welfare system welcomed a more substantial participation of the non-governmental organizations; the position of a social educator was introduced to schools and other educational institutions. The policy was to orient lithuania towards the model of the so-called welfare states, however, due to the insufficient resources; the model was being implemented in an uneven and often illogical man8

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ner. Welfare state is a political system, when the state (but not the individual or private sector) undertakes the responsibility for the welfare of the citizen. The biggest world problem two decades ago was poverty. The Western europe meanwhile experienced the so-called "Golden Age", when the welfare reached a very high development stage, with a big number of the social exclusion groups and with the related problems. Later, when population in europe turned to be rich enough, the poverty did not play the major role any longer as for the individual or group exclusion from the society. for example, an unemployed person in the Netherlands or Germany receives a big unemployment benefit; thus one does not feel an urgent need to work. At the same time he is excluded from the society, as he is an unemployed person. This evidently demonstrates that social exclusion does not necessarily imply poverty. Both Western europe and Lithuania due to the rapid worldwide changes, AIDS/HIV epidemics, flood of emigrants nowadays face similar problems related to cultural isolation, illiteracy, social ailments as well as other urgent problems of social exclusion, which mostly affect the children. The contemporary social conflicts are the characteristics not only to the traditionally poor families, but also to the, at first glance, socially secure Western europe. The discussions about the human social development in different societies are burdened by the worsening living conditions to the majority of europeans. The majority blame the immigrant groups for poverty, although other reasons, such as the impact of globalization, are extremely complicated and contain many components as well as more difficult to comprehend. Many persons experience hardships while finding where to reside. The reaction (myths) of an average inhabitant usually is as follows: the Immigrants/Blacks/foreigners take away the residential space from us. People forget that the contemporary lack of the residential space results from the reduction of subsidies for the residential space construction and the willingness to own a bigger apartment/house. Another myth: competition for stabile employment. The typical reaction is as follows: the Immigrants / Blacks / foreigners take away our jobs from us. People tend to forget that the general labor force restructuring takes place, which is not related with the emigrants' debates. These and other social conflicts are urgent nowadays to all Western europe. The risk group children and children from the socially dysfunctional families, should be provided with the regular socio-pedagogic professional assistance, available both for the child and his/her family. Thus, the risk group children (provided the state aims at their all-rounded education leading to genuine, full-fledged members of society) should be provided with additional possibilities, such as state-funded socialization programmers, which could be individually correlated with regards to the status of the child and ones' closest environment. Thus, the positive socialization programmers should be planned on regular basis and be implemented on the national, regional institutional levels (positive socialization).

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Child should not be an appendix of his/her parents. The children should be encouraged to take active participation in decision-making together with the adults, express their opinions and be listened to. Thus, the democratic education should be developed with each and every organization that deals with children. Getting to know one's social environment, maintaining the community ties, in order to study and learn to solve social problems - lists among the most effective methods, applied in the contemporary efficient educational institutions. 1. Democracies and Active Participation (Positive Socialization) (Kvieskiene Giedre, 2005). If a child fails to internalize the first lessons of socialization within the primary socialization institution ­ the family ­ his development will be hindered. even under favorable conditions such as a safe environment and proper medical treatment in the case of illness, if the social functions of the family are not properly carried out or out of balance, there will be a direct impact on the quality of child's socialization. Thus special attention must be given to the socialization of the so-called at-risk children; those deprived of parental care, and homeless children. Additional positive socialization programs need to be instituted for these children that incorporate intensive socio-pedagogic assistance. 2. Equality and Justice. children need to have equal opportunities to choose institutions of secondary education to assist in their social and creative skill development. All children need to have equal access to positive socialization experiences and extra curricular programs, to enjoy equal state support, to participate in children's summer camps, and other socialization and creative skill development programs. We consider all children to be gifted, however, many children, starting from early childhood; do not experience optimal conditions for developing their intellectual and creative capacities. it is the responsibility of the social educator to assist in creating those conditions. 3. Human Rights and Social Responsibility/ provision of better opportunities/. all children need to have access to greater opportunities for participation and to take responsibility for their own lives, the life of their school, their community, their town, and their country. The child should be encouraged to actively participate in decisionmaking together with adults, to express opinions and to be heard. Thus, democratic education should be promoted within each and every organization that deals with children. Getting to know one's social environment and maintaining communities to examine and learn to solve social problems are among the most effective methods applied in the contemporary educational institutions. 4. Sustainability/Diversity and inclusion. every state should provide positive socialization programs to integrate children with disabilities, rehabilitate youth offenders, and other at-risk groups of children. Governments must ensure that more possibilities 0

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are created and maintained for those in need of social support or for socially excluded children, paying special attention to the their socialization and integration. Three Main Tasks of Quality of Sociocultural Integration are: · Safety for self ­ creativity; · Civic Maturity; · Value Foundation. In order to cultivate children's social and civil capacity, social responsibility, social resistance, and self-control, social educators facilitate activities within children and youth organizations, involve them in civic activities, and promote the planning and implementation of projects (e.g. service learning, civic participation) and remember tree main tasks of quality of sociocultural integration. Since the introduction of the social educator in Lithuanian schools, administrators of educational and training institutions have observed that social educators have contributed to improving the linkage between schools and other regional social agencies and report that there is now a person giving priority to social problems of children at schools. Also, the linkage with parents, children, and other child welfare institutions is improving, along with improved preventive work with children at risk, improved safety of schoolchildren and increased school attendance. Social educators have successfully applied the project method and, therefore, institutional involvement in different projects has significantly increased. Animation of cultural life in rural communities has been shown to be one of the preventive methods for successful socialization of children and youth. The three themes are not entirely new to the Council of europe. On the contrary, the Council, as the main provider of expertise on learning democracy, has a longstanding experience in the above-mentioned areas. The issue at hand is not so much about how to open the way for a new cluster of themes but rather how to look for new solutions to the educational issues raised by an enlarged europe. The solutions could stem from the Principles of diversity, intercultural and quality education. education is one of the most powerful tools to fight against social exclusion. The social exclusion is constantly threatening children from families living in poverty and the families at social risk- national minorities, refugees, prisoners, drug-addicts. Often they don't have possibility to attend school, are abandoned socially and culturally, sometimes suffer hunger, cold and violence. The most sensitive group in the society - Children are growing in unsafe environment, coursed by conflicts between their parents, Violence, their parent's drugs and alcohol using and etc. They are caught in a trap ­ Their motivation for education is very low, they are forced to look for sympathy in the Streets start to look for drugs and alcohol and are very likely to get involved into Criminality. The main aim of education is to help people at social risk to receive primary and secondary education (diplomas), to gain a qualification at demand on

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labor market and to eliminate social exclusion. Model of cooperation and networking among public, private and NGO institutions the are main purpose of sociocultural integration and social capital growing. The socialization of children is two closely interrelated components. The social integration or aiming to integrate youth into social community, alongside with the formation of consent among the majority of citizens in the country to a certain unanimous value system is a complicated objective both for the social welfare states or countries, in which the positive socialization is the priority of a state. The USA referred to often in this book allot on annual basis a substantial share of the budget for the civic education of children and youth as well as their socialization. The public or global values and their nurturing is a topic often discussed nowadays - while analyzing diverse historical periods, as well as children and youth socialization and welfare systems of different countries. Leader's, Lecture's and Teacher's Competence in Sociocultural Integration The participants of the research We use the qualitative reaserch based on hypothesis and research method of hoc Advisory Group on Policies and Practices for Teaching Sociocultural Diversity eD-DS (006). The participants of the research are the leaders, who are responsible for the main study programmes of teachers' preparation in Lithuania (8 respondents: 2 woman and man) : Vilnius Pedagogical University (6 respondents ­ Rector and Vice-Rector, 3 Dean's, 1 member of the Board), Klaipeda University (1 respondent ­ Vice-Rector), Siauliai university ( respondent ­ rector). lectures there are 8 respondents (12 woman, s men) from four Lithuanian universities. Teachers (17 respondents; 15 women and 2 men), which opinion we analize, have experience in this field not les than 5 years as professionals and volunteers. most of our teacher experts have graduated Vilnius Pedagogical university (5 respondents), Shiauliai Pedagogical University (2 respondents), the Lithuanian Conservatory (the Academy of Music and Art) (1 respondent) and the Klaipeda College (1 respondent). Respondents, as competent experts, have enabled researchers to receive the information based on their own practice about a level of preparation of teachers in sociocultural aspect. The respondents as competent experts enabled the researchers to receive the information based on their own practice and theoretical aspects about the level of teachers, lecturers, professors' preparation in sociocultural aspect.

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The analysis of the results of the research What university do you work at? Six respondents (leaders) work at Vilnius Pedagogical University, one works at Klaipeda University and one works at Siauliu University. Teachers (respondents) work in an elementary school, 8 - in basic (average), one ­ in both (elementary and basic) 4 more - in others socially cultural institutions. What kind of students' recruitment policy do you use in your institution? Answering the question on the students' recruitment policy in their education institutions, all the respondents claimed that the universities are open for new partnerships especially with foreign education institutions. Vilnius Pedagogical University and Klaipeda University are participating in erasmus Student exchange Programme. The universities provide special financial support for disabled students. What is the students' nationality at your university? The cultural diversity problem is becoming more and more relevant, popular and important in the policy of our country. However, according to various researches and data, we can assume that the importance of this topic is only taking its first steps. The majority of our students who are involved in the cultural diversity field are of Lithuanian nationality (approximately 83 %); other students are Russians, Jewish, Byelorussia's, etc. What is the policy of educators (lecturers) in the context of sociocultural diversity? The biggest attention is paid to the competence of a lecturer. Usually there are various competitions for the lecturers. They have to participate in different competitions regularly. Interest and knowledge are also important (Siauliai University Rector's comment). Almost all over the world, humanism, democracy and civil society are recognized ideals. Powerful and independent state rests on them. An attempt to prove these ideals is made at school. education and the level of people's intelligence are the main factors of the nation's culture; its independence and abilities to manage its issues are measured. They are the main ideas in the policy of educators. Which challenges in your opinion are the most important for sociocultural diversity topic to prepare future educators? 3

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One respondent pointed out that democracy, equal rights and guarantees, new teaching methods in education practice are the most important challenges for future specialists. The other respondents did not answer this question. The undergoing reform in Lithuania refers to educational experiences of Lithuania as well as europe. In their respective documents, they distinguish the following educational principles: 1. Nationality: commitment to Lithuanian culture, care for the preservation of identity and historical continuity. The education of lithuania preserves and further promotes multinational culture of the country. It acknowledges that national minorities enrich lithuanian culture. 2. Renewal: openness in maintaining universal moral virtues and the nucleus of nationality (Vilnius Pedagogical University Rector's comment). The other respondents commented that the majority of study programmes are not being renewed. Moreover, the ones, which are being renewed, cannot be flexible and mobile because of the standardization of the programmes (the necessary modules are incorporated into the accepted standards and cannot be changed easily) educational standard laws and legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania correspond to democratic standards established in international legal documents. They emphasize that education has to cherish interdependent understanding and tolerance of every nation and every racial or religious group without exception. education must do everything in the way that people, who belong to national minorities, would understand the culture and language of their country and take constructive participation in the activities and daily life of the society (Klaipeda University Vice-Rector" comment). Was there any rate of special training concerning socio-cultural diversity during your studies? ­ we ask the teachers respondents. from all interrogated, only 7 respondents have passed a separate rate of training concerning socio-cultural diversity; 10 respondents of such rate where not, but two of 10 have emphasized, that some subjects where integrated into the general educational program. If the answer was positive, we ask you to specify which of following questions (items) have been included into the program? (teacher) Answering a question on the maintenance of a rate of training (a variety of training), 2 respondents have emphasized that the big attention was given to foreign languages. "Students are learning foreign language, except for that they can freely choose additional (for example, Turkish, Polish, Spanish languages) and have an opportunity get acquainted with the other culture during the studies of foreign language". Other 5 respondents gave the list of subjects where the special training for the socio-cultural diversity has been integrated. Here are the comments of one of the

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respondents: "We studied sociology, psychology of management, political science, I think, that these subjects are based on the socio-cultural diversity." The participants of research have also paid attention to the society's attitude towards socio-cultural diversity: "The attitude towards multicultural niche of our society extends and becomes deeper". Students (the future teachers and social workers), by the opinion of one more respondent, now are trained to integrate pupils of other cultures and nationalities in comprehensive schools and classes, are prepared for the work with children of other cultures and the social status. Speaking about management of socio-cultural diversity, respondents of the research have mentioned management of conflicts as a very useful mechanism of regulation, using game-therapy and other kinds of therapy for integration of children as well, and creation of an atmosphere of mutual trust using methods of dialogue and cooperation. In the item on increasing socio-cultural diversity, the biggest part of participants, who gave positive answer to this question (7) have mentioned the civil education, the project "Citizen" made by Vilnius Pedagogical University, the organization of various actions (" to give the toys to children, to sell children's Christmas cards, to call others to be engaged in charity "), rendering of social services. One of respondents approves, that "Understanding of essence of the culture is being able to operate to it and to influence positively all processes and forces in the society. One of the respondents gave such comments on this item: "We never had such problem as racial or question of nationalities thru the years, we had common musical maintenance, not "ours" or "their"...Lithuanian culture of art we've been studying altogether and it was a natural process. Different cultures and nationalities do not have to make any influence to the work with different youth groups..." What is your general estimation of a level of teacher training in a field of sociocultural diversity comparing with requirements at the present work? 2 of 17 participants of investigation have not given any answer or comments on this item. Other 15 has evaluated the level of teacher training in a field of sociocultural diversity in this way:

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Average estimation Variety of training 3.6 points

name

comments "Knowledge of variety of training would help teachers to connect the maintenance of training with the experience of training." "Although it's been talking about the variety of training, it is still not clear ­ how to apply it in practice, because there are only few examples of untraditional variety here in Lithuania." "The variety of training is necessary, if you want to achieve better results in studies. it has to be interesting for pupils to study." "In my everyday work I face only social diversity, but I am sure the question of cultural diversity will rise very soon because of globalization and growing mobilization of people. Due to this, management of socio-cultural diversity will play very important role in the system of education." "I think that there are no questions about socio-cultural diversity, so there is no need to emphasize that." "We need different methods of socially cultural management, if we want to meet the requirements of educational system." "I think that any intervention into a globalization processes will rise a negative reaction of society. That is why pedagogue needs to learn more about how to transfer positive aspects of socio-cultural diversity, and he has to be able to stimulate socially cultural distinction". "It is understandable theoretically, but I am not sure I know how to use it in practice." "The wider is the spectrum of socio-cultural diversity ­ the better is for pupils to orientate in the socially cultural atmosphere."

Management of so- 3.4 points cio-cultural diversity

Expansion of socio- 3.3 points cultural diversity

What strategies do you need to employ in order to raise the educators' competences in your institution? (leaders) The respondents gave a list of strategy aspects to raise the educators' competences: . The real possibility of carrying out professors, associate professors, lecturers and assistant lecturers' exchange programmes in other countries; 2. Practice in foreign education institutions; 3. Participation in international conferences, seminars, etc. 6

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Are the following issues addressed in the pre-service training in your institution? for primary school level (if relevant to your institution). Teaching diversity. One respondent pointed out that the knowledge of language diversity is integrated into intercultural communication courses. Slavonic Studies, foreign Affairs, Social Communication (migration, the problems of society polyphony) are integrated in the faculty of Social Sciences and Social Communication Institute. Management Diversity, i.e. the themes of Well-balanced Development, Conflict Management, is incorporated in the general modules. enhancing diversity, i.e. Positive Socialization (Social Communication Institute), Management of Quality (Social Communication Institute, the faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology), Multicultural Communication (Social Communication Institute, the faculty of Slavic Languages) is integrated in the mentioned faculties of Vilnius Pedagogical University. Teaching diversity is relevant to Social Communication Institute (Social Pedagogy, Social Work) and the faculty of Slavic Languages. Managing diversity is relevant to Social Communication Institute (Social Pedagogy, Social Work) and the faculty of Slavic Languages. enhancing diversity is relevant to Social Communication Institute (Social Pedagogy, Social Work, Civic education). How is the content dealing with diversity issues integrated into pre-service training? One respondent maintained that usually Primary school level includes Interdisciplinary Modules, Special modules, general subjects, disciplinary modules, and gave a comment that general lectures are organized on general issues and all university students could attend them. Another respondent pointed out that junior secondary school level includes Special modules, disciplinary modules; and he emphasized that general lectures are organized on general issues and all university students can attend them. Are there any teacher trainers in your institution who specialise in sociocultural diversity? The respondents' answers were positive. Concluding all the results, a list of lecturers who specialize in sociocultural diversity is presented. One (Siauliai) respondent suggested that institutions should follow certain recommendations while integrating particular sociocultural themes. The Rector of Vilnius Pedagogical University commented on the needs of implementing the policy of sociocultural education in education policy of Lithuania, and it could acknowledge the needs of national minorities, i.e. to preserve the essential elements of ethno cultural identity such as language, cultural heritage, customs and religion; social exclusion and social risk groups could be also identified more easily.

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Please, indicate the most important things that should be done in institutions like yours to increase the competence of teacher trainers in dealing with sociocultural diversity. Some respondents recommended encouraging the preparation of new modules in particular study programmes, which have such experience as Social Pedagogy, Social Work, Social Sciences, Primary education, Pedagogy (Vilnius Pedagogical University and Siauliu University Rectors' comment). Please indicate the most important things that should be done, in institutions like yours, to increase the competence of managers in dealing with sociocultural diversity (special courses, for instance). One respondent indicated that it is important to initiate net cooperation of the leaders of the universities, which are involved in teacher training, and professionals, who initiate the main themes, and to develop their social communications. (The Rector of Vilnius Pedagogical university). non-lithuanians are dispersed throughout the entire territory of the country. However, they concentrate for the most part in the eastern and southeastern Lithuania, as well as in the towns of Vilnius, Klaipeda and Visaginas. There is unequal distribution according to their nationality as well. for example, the majority of Polish-speaking population (approximately 90 percent) lives in Vilnius and in the neighboring regions. The Vice- Rector of Klaipeda University commented and proposed to include special teachers' courses for these regions. Russian, Ukrainian and Jewish population reside for the most part in large cities in the southeastern lithuania. The rector of Vilnius Pedagogical university said that due to historical reasons, southeastern lithuania (Vilnius region) and eastern lithuania (Visaginas) have become multinational and multicultural regions and he suggested initiating a special syllabus for teachers who work in these regions. The Rector of Vilnius Pedagogical University and Vice-Rector of Klaipeda University maintained that a lack of balance within children welfare policies in new democracies and other less developed countries creates a negative impact on child's development and the human resources of the country; and the lack of emphasis on civic and social education at schools and universities will limit the possibilities for some children to become full fledged, well functioning citizens. It is necessary to train professionals who are able to competently guide the specializations for all future teacher programmes about socialization process within and outside educational establishments and who are able to assist in the education of good citizens, give them civic knowledge, cognitive and participatory civic skills and civic dispositions. The Vice-rector of Vilnius Pedagogical university said that social education with additional specialization "sociocultural education" study programmes at Social Communication Institutes (VPU) helps us to cope with the sweeping changes occurring within its borders by taking a leading role in the formation of new ideas and the 8

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creation of new institutions to benefit the society now and for the future generations and there is an excellent example how to start changing the curricula. Was there any rate of special preparation concerning socially cultural variety (distinction) during your studies? (teacher) from all interrogated, only 5 respondents have passed a separate rate of preparation concerning socially cultural variety; 8 respondents of such rate where not, but two of 8 have emphasized, that some subjects where integrated into the general educational program. The other 4 participants had no opinion on this question. If the answer was positive, we ask you to specify which of following questions (items) have been included into the program? Answering a question on the maintenance of a rate of preparation (a variety of training), 5 respondents have emphasized that the big attention was given to foreign languages. "Students are learning foreign language, except for that they can freely choose additional (for example, Turkish, Polish, Spanish languages) and have an opportunity get acquainted with the other culture during the studies of foreign language". Respondents also gave the list of subjects where the special preparation for the socially cultural variety have been integrated. "We studied sociology, psychology of management, political science, I think, that these subjects are based on the socially cultural variety." The participants of research have also paid attention to the societies attitude towards socially cultural variety: "The attitude towards multicultural niche of our society extends and becomes deeper". Students (the future teachers and social workers), by the opinion of one more respondent, now are trained to integrate pupils of other cultures and nationalities in comprehensive schools and classes, are prepared for the work with children of other cultures and the social status. Speaking about management of socially cultural variety, respondents of the research have mentioned management of conflicts as a very useful mechanism of regulation, using game-therapy and other kinds of therapy for integration of children as well, and creation of an atmosphere of mutual trust using methods of dialogue and cooperation. And, at last, in the item on increasing socially cultural variety, the biggest part of participants have mentioned the civil education, the project "Citizen" made by Vilnius Pedagogical University, the organization of various actions (" to give the toys to children, to sell children's Christmas cards, to call others to be engaged in charity "), rendering of social services. One of respondents approves, that "Understanding of essence of the culture is being able to operate to it and to influence positively all processes and forces in the society.

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If you participated in specialized preparation concerning socially cultural variety, whether it's maintenance satisfied you? 6 respondents have answered this question positively, - negatively, other participants have not commented on the answer. How do you estimate a level of your preparation in questions of socially cultural variety, comparing with competence you need at your present work? Respondents who have answered this question have estimated a variety of training in 3 points as "useful for the general development ", management of a variety have estimated in 5 points as very useful mechanism. "It is especially necessary for solving' the conflicts ", or "being trained to communicate and cooperate "; and increase of a variety - is estimated by all fives and one four. "Increase of a variety is an opportunity to apply acquired knowledge and skills in practice, organizing civil educational activities and charitable actions. During your work as the teacher, whether you have confronted any situations connected with socially cultural variety? Give examples from your class. five respondents from 17 often confront such situations. "Among pupils there always is and always will be youngsters from various social layers and cultural societies." Single mothers also where mentioned, as their children often face difficulties while integrating into a society comparing with other children. Teachers quite often are confused about this occasion: "It is often not clear, who actually cannot buy elementary school accessories because of a financial situation and who feigns ". Children of other nationalities (for example, rums), and children who study at schools for national minorities have been also mentioned. "In one class there is a Chinese pupil, his mother understands and speaks a little Russian, and the child can freely speak Lithuanian, Russian and Chinese languages. When he faces difficulties with studies, it becomes very hard to explain to his mum - what exactly is not clear and where is the problem, and the boy uses it as he like, and mother cannot supervise his educational process". Did you face the problematical situations between pupils (or pupils and personnel) for example, conflicts, harassments, segregation or groupings? Result examples. These problems appear because of social and cultural distinctions. In 5 presented examples, the problems connected with socially cultural distinctions get 2 directions - problems of a social variety (for example when someone does not wish to share the same desk with children from poor families), and problems of cultural distinction (for example, conflicts at school between Russian-speaking classes and Lithuanian classes Or 0

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unwillingness of rums to submit to the standard norms of behavior: "Rums are very original people, therefore because of differences in cultures, temperaments and different perception of the same phenomena, their reaction is totally different and frequently conflict arises on an empty place under the initiative of rums. It is very easy to quarrel with them, if you do not know, how it is necessary to work and talk with them."). Whether the level of your preparation for the working a field of socially cultural variety has helped you in situations, mentioned in questions 7 and 8? The majority of participants of the research (11) have answered positively (from 3 up to 5), one participant has assessed, equal to zero, others 5 participants have not given the answer. What is your general estimation of a level of preparation of teachers in a field of socially cultural variety comparing with what you need in your present work? The general estimation given by teachers, on a theme socially cultural variety has shown, that teachers gave average estimation to all 3 items (prevails number 3). Whether you receive the help in your present institution solving questions connected with the socially cultural distinction? Teachers approve, that social pedagogical team, colleagues, school administration, other teachers help to solve questions and problems, also help the analysis of the literature, the analysis of the international experience and improvement of professional skills (10 respondents). 4 respondents approve, that do not receive any help. Other respondents have not given comments on the question. Do you know about the laws operating in our country, concerning socially cultural variety? Speaking about the laws operating in the country, 5 respondents have admitted, that are completely are not acquainted with the given laws, 11 have answered, that know insufficiently, and 1 - that knows enough. Do you have any suggestions about the preparation of teachers working with socially cultural variety? Answering last question of the research, respondents have mentioned list of programs, connected with socially cultural distinction, have advised to organize more practical tasks and trainings similar to A.P.P.L.e., " forum Theatre " that it would be more new practical methods of work. Respondents also to study such subjects socially cultural variety during several semesters, because this knowledge is necessary at any work, especially after Lithuania entered the eU and there appears more and more people of other nationalities.

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So, according to the respondent: "the attention should be paid to a communication network of a society (TV, a press, etc.), improving system of informal education and professionals of creative culture and growing youth". Respondents ask to give a lot of attention "to knowledge of cultural distinctions of people of other nationalities, because we often face the conflicts based on this, and teachers quite often simply doesn't know the reasons and cannot solve the conflict ". One of participants has commented the question like this: "In my case it is very important is to involve parents in a school life that they would not think, that because of other nationality people don't like and don't understand them. It is also important to watch their children, to help them that there would be no lie and misunderstanding. Children in a class and at school do not pay any attention at the quiet and calm children, who do not make any problem. Problem children, especially if they are children of other nationalities "are painted in other color" as if it would be a national feature, etc. I think that there are no problems when everyone behave accordingly ". This research analyses higher education establishment lecturers' opinion about the teacher's training situation from sociocultural aspect. The respondents of this research are university leaders, professors, associate professors, lecturers and assistant lecturers of Vilnius Pedagogical University (Institute of Social Communication, faculty of Physics and Technology, faculty of Sports and Health), Mykolas Riomeris University, Vilnius University, Siauliai University, Klaipda University. There are 18 respondents in total. The duration of teaching experience differs from 0,5 to 20 years (Picture No1).

7% 7% 7% 14% 14% 7% 7% 22%

15%

Half Year Two Year Three Year Four Year Five Year Seven Year Thirteen Year Seventeen Year Twenty Year

Picture No 1. The respondents' teaching experience

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The subjects that contain sociocultural diversity taught by the respondents include Civic Participation, The Basics of Civic Education, Social Pedagogy, Professional Guidance, Technologies of Social Education, Sociocultural Education (for ba students), The Management and Project of Sociocultural Processes (for ma students), Social Communication, The Basics of Civic Education, Business Management, The Protection of Environment and People, Science of Materials, Social Ecology, The Theory of Physical Culture, Skiing, Chemical Technology, The Study of Culture, The Concepts of Modern Art Education, The Middle Class Way and Style of Life, The Models of Family Evolution of the Middle Class in the 20th Century, Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU, The EU Development and its Policy Formation, the Systems of Social Security, The Management of Social Pedagogy, Writing an MA Paper, The Basics of Visual Art. 16 respondents' answers out of 18 were positive about the sociocultural diversity in their subjects. 2 respondents denied that. 1. Briefly explain the contents of educational modalities and levels (Primary or Basic schools). The respondents distinguished the following subjects at basic School: various forms and ways of active civic participation, democratic ways of life, ways of work with national minorities, possibilities of democratic education using active participation methods, peculiarities of sociocultural processes, educational monitoring, management of institutions, social groups, child`s welfare politics, cultural diversity and multiculturalism. The modules of lectures are compulsory, alternatively optional or optional. at primary School The Comparative Aspect of Educational Reform and Subject Didactics are compulsory for all students, while such modules as Work in Project Groups, Social Groups and Child`s Welfare Politics are alternatively optional. The respondents distinguished some teaching modules, which analyze the problems of sociocultural diversity and are compulsory for everyone. They are Work in Project Groups and Child`s Welfare Politics. it was noticed that students willingly participate in seminars and civic actions. 2. Are you ready to teach taking into consideration sociocultural diversity? Most of respondents (10) confirmed this, 2 respondents disclaimed. 5 respondents carried out individual researches, 6 participated in specialized courses. One respondent had compulsory courses, 7 respondents had an optional course. One respondent's preparation to work in sociocultural diversity was voluntary. It was distinguished that one respondent participates in various projects where she gained experience as a lecturer. She prepares different strategic documents, which help to get deep into sociocultural diversity issues.

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3. How do you work on this diversity theme? The question revealed three types: the diversity of education includes everything that lets the students gain knowledge and insights in sociocultural diversity (e.g. linguistic variety at schools in europe and its outcomes, migration and its outcomes to multicultural societies, etc.); the management of diversity includes the content of programs that is designed for different work methods, attitudes and skills of group learners (e.g. bargaining, conflict management, establishing mutual trust, ability of living together, etc.); the expansion of diversity does not limit itself in knowledge or the management of diversity; moreover, it is creation of such conditions when diversity becomes valuable and includes equal rights (e.g. positive action/activity, gaining power, active public spirit). Just two respondents of 3 answered that the diversity of education was not analyzed while 7 of them said that it was analyzed. The following examples of diversity of education are social detachment and migration where theory is combined with practice. It was noticed that students feel the lack of linguistic knowledge (secondary school feedback); therefore, it becomes more complicated to use a deeper sociocultural analysis. None of the respondents objected the necessity of the management of diversity; 7 respondents answered that it is being analyzed nowadays. The examples are as following Conflict Management, Psychodrama, And Social Drama. The same methodology as in other modules is employed. Such courses as Social Pedagogy and Management analyze the strategies of the problem solving, the methodology of analysis and individual tasks presenting models of problem solving. one respondent denied the existence of the expansion of diversity while eight respondents confirmed it to be used. The examples are as following: students are encouraged to join the civic actions, charity activities, UNeSCO week of action, the Council of europe universal educational week, civic participation seeking for the rational problem solving. 4. What courses do you use to analyze the sociocultural diversity issues? The question contained four types of courses: interdisciplinary, specialized, courses attached to general subjects and courses attached to special subjects. The interdisciplinary courses contain Civic Education, The Models of Family Evolution of the Middle Class in the 20th Century, The Middle Class Way and Style of Life. The specialized courses contain Sociocultural Education. The courses attached to general subjects include Technologies of Social Education. The courses attached to special subjects include Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU and The EU Development and its Policy Formation, the Systems of Social Security.

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It was also mentioned that sociocultural diversity issues were not analyzed in such subjects as The Basics of Civic Education and Business Management. 5. Do you think this kind of education satisfies future teachers' requirements? The majority of the respondents (4) answered positively. They say that such courses develop critical thinking, enable to recognize cultural diversities and teach tolerance in real life. Some students become employed in multilingual schools where Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, english, German, Byelorussia, Jewish are taught. One of the respondents answered that the courses partly satisfy the requirements. The methodology is not effective because of the lack of students' motivation. Two of the respondents answered negatively noticing the lack of up to date issues. furthermore, the courses continue only one term, or none at all, instead ­ other subjects are taught. 6. Do you think your institution has enough experience to spread sociocultural diversity? four respondents answered negatively, ten said that their institution is experienced enough and Vilnius Pedagogical University is giving seminars, lectures, individual consultations in The Institute of Social Communication; students can participate in arranging The Week of Action, Citizen projects at schools and other institutions. During some courses (Child's Warship, Technologies of Sociocultural Education), students study the diversity of sociocultural issues and are encouraged to publish some articles, organize seminars on this issue. 7. Do you contact with students who are already teachers? Six respondents answered negatively, the same number was positive. They presented such communication types as the web, which is going to be created for graduates. However, teachers communicate at the Association of Social Pedagogues, at various festivals or meetings. Those who work usually keep in contact with the university, participate in conferences, publish articles, and participate in projects. At the moment we have some international projects and our colleagues are from Italy ­ Madragon, Germany ­ Bielefeld, the United States of America ­ Indiana and Pardues, the United Kingdom ­ Liverpool and other universities. Moreover, the assessment of graduates' opinion about proper preparation for work is carried out constantly. 8. Can you name other institutions requirements on competition about the current issue? (Training, the teaching staff of university coordination, support for all levels of management)? The respondents think that the biggest progress is made at The Institute of Social Communication as well as at the Department of Music, the Department of educology, and the Department of Art. The respondents notice the lack of this issue in other

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universities. But there are some suggestions to arrange some educational research there because it is impossible to learn social activities and solve sociocultural problems if you do not actively take part in the research and do not influence the content of the activity. dialogue and cooperation, sharing experience and science researches, lecturers and teachers exchange programs are important as well. Moreover, it is also important to arrange special training for lecturers and teachers, who train students to be teachers. 9. What skills (about sociocultural diversity) do your institution lack and needs to be improved? In the respondents' opinion, in order to develop this issue fluently, it is important to participate and cooperate in democratic projects (for example, Citizen). one of the possible positive changes is an additional program organized by The Institute of Communication. This institution arranges various educational lectures, conferences, and projects, seminars that make other institutions to advance qualification in the field of sociocultural competition. It is important to integrate this current issue into other subjects and modules or to create the new ones, which will help to gain sociocultural skills. The theory should be used with practice, students should be able to learn to work with such groups as Gypsies, migrating employees, socially abused children. This issue is in the way of solving but it depends on the motivation of a lecturer. Systematic share of experience, cooperation in scientific research, international exchange programs make a very big influence on this sociocultural issue. The present situation at school needs to be improved. All parents should get information about informal education possibilities, to raise the level of education in the humanities of future teachers, social workers; to implement new programs created on the basis of real life at universities and higher schools. It is important to cooperate and share the experience, discuss the ways to solve the problems actively. Aiming at optimal children socialization and welfare development we need to follow the principles of child's social development: · Productivity (socialization quality). Safety for self ­ creativity. a child fails to productively take the first lessons of socialization in case the first socialization institution - the family - is hindered. even with the favorable subsistence, safe environment, proper medical treatment in illness, if the social functions of family are male performed or out of balance, it has a direct impact on the quality of child's socialization. Thus a special attention needs to be given to the socialization of the so-called risk group children; those deprived of parental care, street children. Additional positive socialization programmers 6

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need to be applied for these children, intensive socio-pedagogic assistance in case socialization productivity is expected. · equality. Civic Maturity and Value Foundation. children need to have equal opportunities to choose institutions of secondary socialization, assisting in social and creative skills development. All the children need to have equal opportunities to undergo socialization and extra curricular programmers enjoy equal state support; participate at children summer vacation events, socialization, and extracurricular, creative skills development programmers. All children are gifted, however, majority of the children starting from their early childhood development, have no proper conditions to develop their intellect and creative skills. Through an analysis of new trends and challenges in europe and the U.S. it is evident that modern schools need professionals who are able to analyze social problems in the field and who possess the skills to create concrete solutions to the problems within the social environments of children and families. These professionals must acquire the knowledge and skills to be major actors in the positive socialization process of children, performing the function of child welfare advocates. In addition, social educators, in assuming responsibility for promoting a democratic, humane, and student-centered school environment, must be familiar with the principles and practices of civic education. Since there are only -5 lessons per week devoted specifically to civics in Lithuanian secondary schools and teachers may select the content of these lessons from among various texts and materials (e.g., Project Citizen, Foundations for Democracy) it is impractical for universities to provide programs that focus exclusively on civic education. Graduates would not be able to find positions in schools with only the civic education preparation. By incorporating civic education within the social education major, however, VPU graduates receive a broader preparation and have the opportunity to become more holistic and flexible professionals. This approach has been inspired by the influence of the international civic education exchanges conducted in conjunction with the Civitas program in Lithuania under the direction of Professor John Patrick and his associates at Indiana University. As a result of these contacts, VPU integrated civic education and some other syllabus from democracy teaching fields in baccalaureate program of future Social Pedagogues (2001) and design new Master's degree program with addition qualification "Civic education and Communication"(2002). Project Citizen: engaging Students with Their Government Three Main preconditions of Quality of Sociocultural Integration are: safety for self -creativity; Civic Maturity and Value Foundation.

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conclusions

· europe of XXI century becomes more and more multicultural. Due to this, requirements to the society also changes. Tolerance, forbearance, ability to live and cooperate with different cultures, respect them, guarantee equal rights and possibilities to all members of today's society ­ are the goals of each person. Management of sociocultural diversity, its socialization and integration ­ are the goals of modern professional of socio-educational assistance. · Whereas the mentioned processes passes thru all human's socio-cultural institutions (family, school, church, mass media, community etc.), it is very important to have someone who would be able to shift these processes to the right direction and manage them. In the niche of socio-education that would be a socio-educational assistant (teacher, social worker, social pedagogue, animator etc.). · Analyzing the results of research, we noticed that biggest part of respondents is satisfied with the level of training in a field of socio-cultural diversity, however only few had special courses of training. it shows that specialists are not concerned too much about socio-cultural questions and problems. · Respondents at their present work pay little of attention to the questions of sociocultural diversity. Probably, they do not have much experience and theoretical knowledge on these questions, so it shows us that organizers and trainers of professionals for socioeducational assistance have to pay more attention to cognition and management of sociocultural diversity and its importance. · The trend towards globalization and the greater unification of europe provides new opportunities for personal growth and the social development of children. The social educator can serve as a major actor in the development of the positive socialization and the protection of children's welfare, as well as creating an effective social-pedagogical assistance system. · The family, the local community, churches, and schools together with NGOs and other informal and extra curricular organizations are the major institutions that provide for the positive socialization of children.

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literatures

All different ­ all equal. education pack. [viewed 2007-03-02]. Access on the Internet: <http://projects.5ci.lt/socpedagogika/index.asp?DL=L&TopicID=103> . Crossing Borders: Multicultural Literature in the Classroom. Multicultural education Resources. [viewed 2006-12-15]. Access on the Internet: <http://www. ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/jeilms/vol15/crossing.htm> 3. Irena cepien. etnins kultros ugdymo svietimo sistemoje analiz. [viewed 2006-12-20]. Access on the Internet: <http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter/w5_show?p_ r=2232&p_d=21385&p_k=> 4. Lietuvos bendrojo lavinimo mokyklos bendrosios programos ir bendrojo issilavinimo standartai. XI - XII klass. [viewed 2006-12-15]. Access on the Internet:< http://www.pedagogika.lt/puslapis/bps/lietuviu.doc> 5. The Law on education of the Republic of Lithuania, education Resource Centre, Vilnius, 003 6. The Law on Citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania, Valstybs zinios [The Official Gazette], No 95-4087, 2002 7. The 2003/05 General Education Plans for Schools of General Education, education resource centre, Vilnius, 003 8. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Volume 1 (New york: Alfred A.Knopf, 1945), p.229. (Published originally in france, 1835). 9. John J. Patrick Source: eRIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science education Teaching Democracy. eRIC Digest: www.ericdigests.org/2004 -2/ democracy.html 10. Kvieskien G. Socializacija ir vaiko gerov. ­ Vilnius: UAB ,,Baltijos kopija". 2003. 249 p. ISBN 9955-568-04-6. Prieiga per internet: http://www.giedre.lt/Default. asp?editionID=244&DL=L&ParentID=1&TopicID=16&code=Paieska&Sear chTXT=&ArticleID=126&Page= 11. Kvieskien G. Pozityvioji socializacija. ­ Vilnius: VPU Leidykla. 2005. 184 p. iSbn 9955-0-0-9 12. Kvieskien G., Patrick J. J. Constitutional Democracy in Lithuania//civic education in Teacher education. Volume 4. The Social Studies Development Center of Indiana University in Association with Civitas: An International Civic education exchange Program. edited by Gregory e. Hamot, John J. Patrick and Robert S. Leming: Indiana University Social Studies Development Center. 2005. 180­217 p. iSbn 0-9339-8-9 1.

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Santrauka

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SOCIOKULTRINS INTeGRACIJOS ISSKIAI MODeRNIOJe VISUOMeNJe

Straipsnyje, remiantis Lietuvos Respublikos ir tarptautiniais teiss aktais (Vaiko teisi Konvencija, Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija, Lietuvos Respublikos Svietimo statymas), tyrimais (Svietimo ir Mokslo Ministerijos tyrimas ,,Uzsienieci vaik ugdymo organizavimas Lietuvos bendrojo lavinimo mokyklose"), europos Tarybos dokumentais (Vienos aukstj sluoksni susirinkimas) kita moksline literatra bei ekspertine apklausa, analizuojamas profesional socioedukacinei pagalbai rengimo lygis bei patirtis sociokultrins vairovs valdymo klausimais; siuolaikins visuomens poziris sociokultrins vairovs pazinimo bei valdymo svarb. Remiantis atlikto tyrimo duomenimis, aptariama Lietuvos pedagog bei kit asmen, dirbanci socioedukacinje sistemoje nuomon apie profesional rengimo socialins vairovs klausimais patirt ir reiksm. Esminiai zodziai: sociokultrinis ugdymas, pilietinis ugdymas, socialiniai pedagogai, vairov, tarpkultrinis, lygyb. teikta 2007 08 27

Giedr Kvieskien ­ Professor of Social Sciences (education), director of Social Communication Institute, Vilnius Pedagogical University; Sphere of scientific interests: Positive Socialization, Prevention, Social Integration; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected] Giedr Kvieskien ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) profesor, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto direktor; mokslini interes sritys: pozityvioji socializacija, prevencija, socialin integracija; adresas: Student g. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected] Julija Gorlanova ­ Master degree Student of Social Work of Vilnius Pedagogical University Social Communication Institute Social education Department; Sphere of scientific interests: Management of Socio-cultural Variety, Voluntary youth Service and youth Motivation, Valdorf Curative Pedagogy and Children suffering from Autism; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected] Julija Gorlanova ­ Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros magistrant; mokslini interes sritys: sociokultrins vairovs vadyba, jaunimo savanoryst ir motyvacija, Valdorfo gydomoji pedagogika, vaikai autistai; adresas: Student g. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected]

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Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

MOKyKLOJE DIRbANcI SpECIALIST bRzIAM pRObLEM ESKIzAS pEDAGOGINJEpSIChOLOGINJE ERDVJE

Anotacija: Siame straipsnyje analizuojama mokykloje dirbanci specialist ­ socialini pedagog, psicholog, logoped, specialij pedagog bei mokytoj padjj veikla, sprendziant pedagogines ­ psichologines mokini problemas. Apklausus 376 specialistus issiaiskinta, jog mokykloje sukurta pedagogini ­ psichologini ­ socialini problem sprendimo komanda dazniausiai spendzia mokini nenoro mokytis, mokini tarpusavio konflikt, pamok nelankymo problemas. Specialistai su mokiniais dazniausiai dirba individualiame lygmenyje, taciau darbo efektyvumui uztikrinti reikt uztikrinti tinkamas darbo slygas ir priemones. Esminiai zodziai: pedagogins, socialins ir psichologins problemos, socialins pedagogins psichologins pagalbos mokykloje komanda, pedagogin ­ psichologin pagalba, socialin pedagogin pagalba, pedagogin pagalba, psichologin pagalba, specialioji pedagogin pagalba.

vadas

Mokykla, kaip pagrindin vaiko socializacijos institucija, sparciai reaguodama ndienos isskius, kintancius visuomens poreikius, siekdama sudaryti slygas kiekvienam vaikui gyti jo prigimt atitinkant issilavinim privalo prisiimti vis daugiau socialini funkcij, kuri veiksmingas realizavimas kartu su socialin pagalb teikianciomis tarnybomis, sveikatos prieziros ir teistvarkos institucijomis, mokinio tvais (globjais, rpintojais) ir mokytojais (Zin., 1991, Nr. 23-593, Zin., Nr. 632853), uztikrint kokybisk bei visapusisk socialins pedagogins pagalbos vaikams teikim. Todl siekiant veiksmingai gyvendinti mokyklai deleguojamas funkcijas bei atliepti naujus mokyklai keliamus isskius, svarbu numatyti visapusiskos pedagogins psichologins pagalbos mokykloje organizavimo formas, bdus ir metodus. Mokslininkai J. Vaitkevicius (1995), L. A. Beliajeva ir M. A. Beliajeva (1998), V. Kucinskas ir R. Kucinskien (2000), L. V. rdachajiev (2002), L. I. Aksenova (2001), J. Oliferenko, T. I. Sulga, I. Dementjeva (2002), M. A. Galaguzova (2002), A. V. Mudrik (2002), G. Kvieskien (2005), nusakydami socialins pedagogins pagalbos samprat, akcentuoja socialins pedagogins veiklos kryptingum, orientacij tam tikras grupes bei profesional, teikianci socialin pedagogin pagalb, svarb. Kiti mokslininkai socialin pedagogin pagalb apibrzia kaip pedagogiskai orientuot socialin pedagogin veikl, skirt vaik aukljimo ir socialinms problemoms sprsti ir isskiria socialin pedagogin pagalb vaikams invalidams, naslaiciams, teiss pazeidjams ir 3

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rizikos grups vaikams (ksionova (2001). Vis tik mokykloje dirbanci specialist skaicius dar nra pakankamas, siekiant efektyvinti mokymosi proces. Pavyzdziui, LR Svietimo ir mokslo ministerijos duomenimis 2001­2002 mokslo metais bendrojo lavinimo mokyklose dirbo 737 specialij pedagog, 250 psicholog, 445 socialini pedagog, taciau j pasiskirstymas kaimo ir miesto mokyklose netolygus (Pedagogins psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelis, http://www. smm.lt/Paieska/2003_modelis. htm. p.1). Per 2003­2004 mokslo metus darbuotoj, teikianci specialij pedagogin, socialin, psichologin pagalb skaicius isaugo iki 1856 darbuotoj. Is j ­ 506 logopedai, 290 specialij pedagog, 186 psichologai, 563 socialiniai pedagogai ir 27 socialiniai darbuotojai. Pagal pateikt statistik vienam darbuotojui vidutiniskai teko 300 mokini (Lietuvos svietimas, 2003). Didjantis specialist, teikianci specialij pedagogin, socialin, psichologin pagalb, skaicius dar neuztikrina kokybiskos ir visapusiskos pagalbos teikimo mokiniams efektyvumo, nes Lietuvoje kasmet vis daugja mokini, kuriems teiktina specialioji pedagogin ir psichologin pagalba. Specialij ugdymosi poreiki mokini skaicius nuo 8,5 procento 1999­2000 mokslo metais isaugo 2003-2004 mokslo metais iki 10 proc. (Dl specialiojo ugdymo paslaug teikimo programos patvirtinimo 2004 m. lapkricio 22d. Nr. 1475, http:// www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/nutarimai/Nutar_2004_11_22_1475.htm). vairi tyrim duomenys rodo, kad nuolatinio, nenutrkstamo ir kokybisko mokymosi idja dar nra gyvendinta dl didelio skaiciaus mokyklos nelankanci, kartojanci kurs ir mokymosi neskmi turinci mokini. Kita vertus, siaurai suprantama specialij poreiki asmen vairov. ypac nepalanki situacija mokini, turinci elgesio ir emocij sutrikim, taip pat apleist pedagoginiu, socialiniu poziriu. esama mokyklos struktra nelanksti siems mokiniams, todl jie daznai keicia mokyklas arba tiesiog nebaigia pagrindins mokyklos. Apzvelgus siandienin situacij, tiekiant specialij pedagogin ir psichologin pagalb mokiniams bei specialist problemos aktualum, kyla mokslins problemos klausimai: kokias mokini problemas pedagoginje erdvje isryskina mokykloje dirbantys specialistai bei ko trksta, siekiant kokybiskos ir efektyvios pagalbos teikimo uztikrinimo. Tyrimo objektas ­ mokykloje dirbanci specialist problemos, teikiant pedagogin psichologin pagalb. Tyrimo tikslas ­ apibrzti mokykloje dirbanci specialist problemas pedagoginje psichologinje erdvje. Tyrimo uzdaviniai: 1. Isanalizuoti svarbiausias ir dazniausiai sprendziamas mokini problemas mokykloje. 2. Issiaiskinti, su kokiomis institucijomis bendradarbiauja mokykloje dirbantys specialistai. 3

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

3. vertinti specialist darbo slygas ir priemones, uztikrinancias kokybisk ir efektyvi pedagogin psichologin pagalb mokyklose. Tyrimo metodika: 1. Mokslins literatros ir nacionalini dokument analiz; . Klausimynai specialistams, teikiantiems pedagogin psichologin pagalb mokykloje, siekiant issiaiskinti, funkcijas, atsakomybes, pedagogins psichologins pagalbos efektyvum lemiancius veiksnius. pedagogins psichologins pagalbos samprata ir teisinis reglamentavimas. LR Svietimo ir mokslo ministro sakyme (Dl pedagogins ir psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelio 2003 m. birzelio 25 d. Nr. sak.-897 http://www.smm.lt/teisine_ baze/docs/isakymai/03-06-25-ISAK-897.htm.) skelbiama, jog pilieciai pagal poreik turi teis gauti specialij, pedagogin, psichologin, socialin pagalb. Akivaizdu, kad kokybiskos svietimo paslaugos, mokymosi vis gyvenim nuostatos, adekvati ir laiku teikiama psichologin ir specialioji pedagogin pagalba yra manoma valstybje, turincioje ne tik aiskiai apibrztus savo pltros prioritetus, svietimo pltros gaires, bet ir aisk specialiosios, pedagogins ir psichologins pagalbos teikimo model. Sis modelis turt ir galt atitikti modernios visuomens, vairi socialini grupi, atviros vairi gebjim ir amziaus grupi asmenims svietimo sistemos poreikius, jeigu jo funkcionavimo struktra bt aiski, t.y. vairiose institucijose dirbantys specialistai tarp savs bendradarbiaut, bet nedubliuot savo atliekam funkcij, be to, modelio gyvendinim btina paremti turimais intelektiniais ir finansiniais istekliais, nubrzti aiski specialiosios, psichologins, pedagogins pagalbos teikimo sistemos tobulinimo perspektyv ateiciai. LR Svietimo statyme pagalba mokiniui (informacin, psichologin, socialin pedagogin, specialioji pedagogin ir specialioji) - vardijama kaip viena is svietimo sistemos sudedamj dali (Zin., 1991, Nr. 23-593, Zin., Nr. 63-2853). To pagrindu 2004 m. birzelio 3 d. Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo ir mokslo ministro sakymais Nr. 837 ir Nr. 838 buvo patvirtinti psichologins pagalbos mokiniui teikimo tvarkos ir specialiosios pedagogins pagalbos teikimo tvarkos aprasai. Taigi, 2004 m. parengtose Svietimo ir mokslo ministerijos Bendruosiuose socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimo nuostatuose (Zin., 2004, Nr. 100-3729) pirm kart tvirtinama komanda kaip veiksmingos pagalbos vaikui teikja. Nuostatuose numatyta, kad pagalbos teikim mokykloje vykdo socialinis pedagogas, klasi aukltojai, mokytojai ir administracijos atstovai, t. y. skirtingi specialistai. Pagalba svietim reglamentuojanciuose dokumentuose suprantama kaip specialist, mokyklos darbuotoj vykdoma veikla, susijusi su mokini socialini bei pedagogini poreiki tenkinimu, leidzianti didinti vaiko ugdymo(si) kokyb, padidinanti svietimo veiksmingum (Bendrieji socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimo nuostatai, Zin. 2004, Nr. 100-3729).

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Mokslininkai skirtingai akcentuoja pedagogines psichologines problemas. A. Alisauskas (1999) nurodo, kad bendrojo lavinimo mokykl mokiniams bdingos sios socialins problemos: netinkamas elgesys per pamokas ir pertraukas (neklauso mokytoj, musasi ir kt.), neatlieka nam darb, vluoja pamokas, ateina mokykl nepavalg, neissimiegoj, praleidinja pamokas, namuose musami ar kitaip skriaudziami, nusikalstamai elgiasi (vagia ir kt.), nelanko mokyklos, bga is mokyklos, vartoja alkohol, rko (Alisauskas A.,1999, p.56-57). I. Atutien (1997) nurodo socialines problemas, kuri vienos yra susijusios su antisocialiniu elgesiu, kitos ­ su psichologinmis - socialinmis problemomis. Antisocialinio elgesio problemos: destruktyvus elgesys, neigiama reakcija kontrol, pamok praleidimas, bgimas is pamok, tycinis savs zalojimas, zodin agresija, fizin agresija, seksualin disharmonija, dvasinis nuopolis, teigiamas poziris antisocialinius poelgius. Psichologins-socialins problemos: nebrandumas, savs isklimas, netolerantiskumas, netinkama savs kontrol, vadovavimas, bet kokiam netinkamam elgesiui, neadekvacios emocins reakcijos, emocinis nerimas, fobija, netinkamas moralinis vystymasis (Atutien I., 1997, p.22). R. Giedrien (1999) nurodo, kad tvai ir pedagogai nuolat susiduria su vairiomis vaik ir paaugli elgesio, bendravimo sutrikim apraiskomis. Dazniausiai skundziamasi: neadaptyviu, situacijai neadekvaciu bendravimu su tvais, pedagogais ir bendraamziais; agresyviu ir delinkventisku elgesiu; emociniais sutrikimais ­ nerimastingumu, slogia nuotaika, baime; sutrikusia mokymosi motyvacija, nenoru ir nesugebjimu mokytis dl priezasci, nesusijusi su intelekto ar specifini pazintini funkcij sutrikimais; visuomenje prast elgesio norm nepaisymu; atsipalaidavimo tendencijomis, pasireiskianciomis malonum ir nepatirt spdzi ieskojimu alkoholyje, narkotikuose, orgijose ir t.t. (Giedrien R., 1999, p.7) L. Bulotait (1994) nurodo sias mokini psichologines problemas: temti santykiai su tvais, bendravimo problemos su mokytojais, klass draugais, draugais, nepasitikjimas savimi, miego sutrikimai, nuotaikos svyravimai be priezasties, tampa. Daugeliui mokini nemaloni mokyklos aplinka, jie nerimauja dl pazymi, sunkiai veikia mokymo program, jaucia baim ir tamp. Nemaza dalis mokini prisipazino, kad rkymas ir alkoholio vartojimas ­ tai vienas si problem sprendimo bd. (Bulotait L., 1994, p.51) Socialiniai pedagogai, psichologai, klasi aukltojai isskiria sesias problem grupes: 1) problemos, susij su vaik psichine sveikata, asmenybs vystymusi; 2) problemos susij su neadekvaciu "savs vertinimu"; 3) problemos, susijusios su nepalankia situacija seimoje: vaiko teisi pazeidimai, prievarta pries vaik; 4) problemos, susijusios su vaik neadekvaciu ir deviantiniu elgesiu; 5) vaik ir paaugli dezadaptacijos problemos; 6) problemos, susijusios su konfliktais ir moraliniu psichologiniu klimatu mokykloje, mikrosociume (educational thinking in Social and Special education concerning children and youngsters in care, prieiga per internet <http://www. columbia.edu/ cu/musher/, [zirta 2006-04-05]). 3

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Isanalizavus mint autori tyrim duomenis galima teigti, kad vaik socialins ir psichologins kartu ir pedagogins problemos tarpusavyje yra labai susijusios. Vaiko problemas galima suprasti trejopai: asmenybine, socialine ir pedagogine prasme. Apibendrinus mokslini saltini duomenis nustatyta, kad vaik tiek socialins, tiek psichologins problemos yra susijusios su seima, paci vaik netinkamu elgesiu ir bendravimo ypatumais. Mokslininkai (Kucinskas V., Kucinskien R. (2000), Bagdonas A. (1994) ir kt.) pazymi, kad vaik pedagoginms, socialinms ir psichologinms problemoms sprsti reikalinga kompleksin pagalba ir darbas turi vykti integruotai. Vaiko problemoms sprsti reikalinga ne tik seimos, bet ir tinkama pedagog, socialini pedagog ir psicholog parama. Sprsdami vaiko problemas ugdymo staigoje, specialistai turi teikti kompleksin pagalb: analizuoti, sprsti ir padti vaikams. Skirtingi specialistai kompleksini vaiko problem pavieniui issprsti negali. Remiantis pedagogini psichologini problem grupmis, mokslinink L. A. Beliajevos, M. A. Beliajevos (1998), M. A. Galaguzovos (1998), G. Kvieskiens (2005) tyrimais galima isskirti sias pedagogins psichologins pagalbos veiklos kryptis: 1) socialins pedagogins pagalbos organizavimas ugdytiniui; 2) darbas ugdytini grupse; 3) saugios aplinkos krimas; 4) bendravimas su ugdytojais ir institucijomis, turinciomis takos ugdymui. Taigi, mokslinje literatroje nurodomos vairios problemos, su kuriomis specialistai susiduria mokykloje. Straipsnio autors, siekdamos issiaiskinti, su kokiomis problemomis specialistai susiduria praktikoje ir kaip jas bando sprsti, atliko empirin tyrim. Su jo kai kuriais rezultatais toliau bus supazindinama. Tiriamj charakteristika. Tyrimo metu buvo apklausti mokykloje dirbantys 376 specialistai (1 pav.): 86 specialieji pedagogai, 65 socialiniai pedagogai, 114 psicholog, 72 logopedai, bei 39 mokytoj padjjai.

specialieji pedagogai 19% 10% 23% 31% 17% socialiniai pedagogai psichologai mokytoj padjjai logopedai

1 pav. Specialist pasiskirstymas pagal veiklos pobd

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Trecdalis (31 proc.) respondent ­ psichologai, beveik ketvirtadalis (23 proc.) ­ socialiniai pedagogai, 19 proc. ­ logopedai ir 17 proc. specialieji pedagogai. Tik desimtadal respondent sudar mokytoj padjjai. Tok maz si specialist dalyvavimo procent lm sios pareigybs mokykloje naujumas. 95 proc. tyrime dalyvavusi respondent, sudaro moterys. Toks respondent pasiskirstymas parodo, jog svietimo sistemoje dominuoja moteriskosios lyties asmenys. Daugiausia vyr dirba psichologais (7 proc.), po du ­ logopedais ir specialiaisiais pedagogais. Beveik trecdalis (2 pav.) specialist yra nuo 30 iki 40 met amziaus (31 proc.). Po ketvirtadal sudaro 20­30 met ir 40­50 met respondent. 17 proc. apklaustj 50­60 met amziaus ir 4 proc. vyresni nei 60 met amziaus.

4%

17%

24%

nuo 20 met iki 30 met nuo 30 met iki 40 met nuo 40 met iki 50 met nuo 50 met iki 60 met

24%

31%

virs 60 met

2 pav. Specialist pasiskirstymas pagal amzi

41 proc. svietimo sistemoje dirbanci specialist turi didesn nei 15 met darbo staz (3 pav.). Vadinasi, darbo patirtis yra pakankamai didel. Daugiau nei penktadalis ­ turi nuo 1 iki 5 ir nuo 5 iki 10 met darbo staz. 14 proc. specialist ugdymo institucijoje dirba nuo 10 iki 15 met, 1% dirba pirmuosius metus.

1% 41% 22% 1 metus nuo 1 met iki 5 met nuo 5 met iki 10 met 22% 14% nuo 10 met iki 15 met virs 15 met

3 pav. Respondent pasiskirstymas pagal darbo staz

Daugiausia respondent (4 pav.) apklausta miestuose (pasiskirstymo procentas svyruoja nuo 44 proc. iki 58 proc.), maziausiai kaimo vietovse (pasiskirstymo procentas svyruoja nuo 7 proc. iki 2 proc.). Beveik po pus specialij pedagog (51 proc.) ir 36

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

socialini pedagog (48 proc.) dirba miesto svietimo institucijose, apie penktadalis (atitinkamai 19 proc. ir 18 proc.) ­ apskrities, rajono centruose, ketvirtadalis ­ miesteliuose. Kaimo vietovse apklausta 3 proc. specialij pedagog ir 7 proc. socialini pedagog. Analizuojant psicholog pasiskirstym pagal vietov, pastebta, jog didziausias procentas si specialist koncentruojasi miestuose (58 proc.) ir tik 2 proc.kaimo vietovse. Miesteliuose ir apskrities/rajono centruose sie specialistai pasiskirst apylygiai ­ atitinkamai 20 proc. ir 18 proc. Ketvirtadalis (44 proc.) mokytoj padjj dirba miesteliuose ir apskrities/rajono centruose, trecdalis - kaimo vietovse.

logopedai mokytoj padjjai ps ichologai s ocialiniai pedagogai s pecialieji pedagogai 0,0 2,8 5,1 5,1 1,8 7,0 3,1 17,5 19,3 24,4 17,4 24,6 18,5 20,0 40,0 20,8 15,3 30,8

56,9 43,6 57,9 47,7 50,8 60,0 80,0

Kaimo vietov Mies telis aps krities /rajono centras Didmies tis

4 pav. Specialist pasiskirstymas pagal vietov, kurioje dirba

Tyrimo metu teirautasi apie mokyklos, kurioje dirba specialistai, tip (46 pav.).

9,7 5,1

logopedai mokytoj padjjai psichologai socialiniai pedagogai specialieji pedagogai 0,0

27,8 30,8 38,5 16,7 21,9

52,8

Gimnazija 54,4 Pagrindin mokykla vidurin mokykla

14,0 9,2

34,9 41,9 33,8 40,0 47,7 60,0

20,0

5 pav. Mokykloje dirbanci specialist pasiskirstymas pagal mokyklos tip

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Daugiausia psicholog (55 proc.), logoped (53 proc.), specialij pedagog (48 proc.), socialini pedagog (42 proc.), mokytoj padjj (39 proc.) dirba vidurinse mokyklose. Pagrindinse mokyklose dirba daugiausia socialini pedagog (35 proc.) ir specialij pedagog (34 proc.), maziausiai ­ psicholog (22 proc.). 10 proc. logoped bei 5 proc. mokytoj padjj dirba gimnazijose. pedagogins psichologins problemos mokykloje. 71 proc. tyrime dalyvavusi specialist kaip aktualiausi problem (6 pav.), vardino mokini nenor mokytis. 64,3 proc. respondent nurodo mokini tarpusavio konfliktus, 60 proc. pamok praleidinjimo problemas. Kaip rodo gauti rezultatai, keturios aktualiausios problemos yra siejamos su paci mokini asmenybinmis problemomis. Penktoje vietoje vardintas tv abejingumas j vaik problemoms. Si problem vardina 47,1 proc. vis specialist. Mokini ­ mokytoj konfliktus pazymi daugiau nei trecdalis (36,4 proc.) specialist. Ne tokiomis aktualiomis problemomis mokyklos specialistai vardina seksualin ir fizin prievart, patiriam is mokytoj.

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SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Fizin prievarta patiriama is kit mokini Fizin prievarta patiriama is mokytoj emocin prievarta patiriama is kit mokini emocin prievarta patiriama is mokytoj seks ualinis priekabiavimas patiriamas is kit mokini seks ualinis priekabiavimas patiriamas is mokytoj Tarpus avio konfliktai s u kitais mokiniais Konfliktai s u mokytojais Kit mokini elges io problemos pamok metu Reketavimas alkoholio vartojimas narkotini medziag vartojimas toks ini medziag vartojimas nedomus lais valaikio organizavimas mokykloje nuovargis dl per dideli mokymos i krvi Pamok praleidinjimas Mokini nenoras mokytis Mokytoj abejingumas mokini problemoms tv abejingumas j vaik problemoms Kita (ras ykite) 2,4 9,7 8,4 10,0 3,9 3,8 10,8 3,2 0,8 10,0 1,1

33,7

42,7

64,3 36,4 50,8

39,5 60,0 71,0

47,1

0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,0 80,0

6 pav. Specialist vardintos mokini problemos mokykloje

Aktualiausios problemos (1 lentel), logoped nuomone, yra mokini nenoras mokytis (75 proc.), tv abejingumas j vaik problemoms (59,7 proc.) ir tarpusavio konfliktai su kitais mokiniais (56,9 proc.).

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Mokytoj padjjai akcentuoja mokini nenoro mokytis (69,2), tarpusavio konflikt su kitais mokiniais (64,1 proc.) bei mokini elgesio pamok metu problemas (59 proc.). Psicholog nuomone, didziausios problemos, su kuriomis susiduria mokiniai, yra tarpusavio konfliktai su kitais mokiniais (64,0 proc.), mokyklos lankomumo (58,8 proc.) ir emocins prievartos, patiriamos is kit mokini (56,1 proc.), problemos. Socialiniai pedagogai kaip aktualiausias problemas mokykloje isskiria pamok praleidinjim (77,9 proc.), tarpusavio konfliktus su kitais mokiniais (73,3 proc.), mokini nenor mokytis (68,6 proc.). Specialieji pedagogai nurod tokias problemas: mokini nenor mokytis (87,7 proc.), tarpusavio konfliktus su kitais mokiniais (63,1 proc.) bei mokini elgesio problemas pamok metu ir pamok praleidinjim (61,5 proc.).

1 lentel Specialist vardint problem, su kuriomis susiduria mokiniai mokykloje, procentinis pasiskirstymas socimospecialielogopepsicholo- aliniai kytoj ji pedadai gai pedagopadjjai gogai gai Tv abejingumas j vaik proble59, 8, 0, 8,8 58,5 moms 68,6 8, 5,0 69, 5, Mokini nenoras mokytis 55,6 6, 58,8 ,9 6,5 Pamok praleidinjimas Nuovargis dl per dideli mokymosi 50,0 6, 36,8 9,8 ,6 krvi Kit mokini elgesio problemos , 59,0 8, 6,0 6,5 pamok metu 55,3 , , 3,9 3, Konfliktai su mokytojais Tarpusavio konfliktai su kitais mo56,9 6, 6,0 3,3 63, kiniais emocin prievarta patiriama is kit 3,9 30,8 56, 50,0 ,6 mokini

Tyrime teirautasi ar vyksta bendradarbiavimas tarp specialist, dirbanci mokyklose ir kit institucij, teikianci pagalb vaikui. Remiantis specialist, dirbanci mokykloje, atsakymais, galima teigti, jog didel dalis mokykloje dirbanci specialist bendradarbiauja su kitomis institucijomis (7 pav.). Dazniausiai bendradarbiauja socialiniai pedagogai (91,9 proc.), psichologai (88,6 proc.) ir specialieji pedagogai (80 proc.). 77,78 proc. tyrime dalyvavusi logoped taip pat palaiko rysius su vai0

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

riomis institucijomis. Maziausiai su kitomis institucijomis bendradarbiauja mokytoj padjjai (53,8 proc.).

specialieji pedagogai 12,37,7 socialiniai pedagogai 5,8 2,3 psichologai 6,1 5,3 mokytoj padjjai 23,1 20,5

80,0 91,9 88,6 53,8 77,8 neatsak ne taip

logopedai 12,5 9,7

0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 100,0 120,0

7 pav. Specialist nuomon apie rysi su kitomis institucijomis palaikym

Dazniausiai yra bendradarbiaujama (8 pav.) su dienos (25,1 proc.) ir sveikatos centrais (21,5 proc.). Apie penktadalis vis specialist bendradarbiauja su policija (20,6 proc.) ir VTAT (18,8 proc.). Reciausiai bendradarbiaujama su NVO (7.9 proc.) ir konfesinmis organizacijomis (5 proc.).

Kita NVO Konfesins organizacijos Sveikatos centrai Dienos centrai seninija Policija VTaT 0,0 10,0 2,8 3,4 14,4 17,5 7,9 14,5 5,0 10,0 10,4 21,5 20,8 18,9 25,1

36,0 38,4 Niekada Kartais Daznai

23,6 27,0 14,0 19,1 25,7 20,6 18,8 20,0 30,0

33,0 38,4 40,0 50,0

8 pav. Specialist bendradarbiavimas su kitomis institucijomis

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Logopedai dazniausiai palaiko rysius (2 lentel) su sveikatos centrais (20,8 proc.). 21,1 proc. mokytoj padjj daznai palaiko rysius su sveikatos centrais, kiek reciau su VTAT (17,9 proc.) ir policija (20,5 proc.). Psichologai dazniausiai rysius palaiko su VTAT ir dienos centrais (35,1 proc.). 21,1 proc. psicholog daznai bendradarbiauja su policija ir sveikatos centrais, o 14,0 proc. su NVO ir seninija. Trecdalis psicholog niekada nebendradarbiauja su konfesinmis organizacijomis, beveik ketvirtadalis ­ su seninija, o penktadalis vis psicholog ­ su NVO. Kas desimtas tyrime dalyvavs psichologas teig, jog daznai socialins ­ pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos teikim traukia PPT (15,8 proc.). Specialieji pedagogai dazniausiai bendradarbiauja su VTAT (16,9 proc.), ir sveikatos centrais (12,3 proc.). Taip pat apie desimtadal specialij pedagog teig, jog daznai traukia socialins ­ pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos teikim policij (10,8 proc.), seninij (9,2 proc.). Tik du specialieji pedagogai daznai pasitelkia NVO (3,1 proc.). Apie trecdal specialij pedagog nurod, jog socialins ­ pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos teikim, traukia PPT (29,2 proc. ­ daznai, 6,2 proc. - kartais). 59,3 proc. socialini pedagog palaiko rysius su policija, 57 proc. su VTAT. 33,7 proc. socialini pedagog daznai bendradarbiauja su seninija. Su sveikatos ir dienos centrais aktyviai bendradarbiauja 29,1 proc. ir 22,1 proc. socialini pedagog. Reciausiai bendradarbiaujama su NVO (daznai ­ 16,3 proc., kartais ­ 33,7 proc.) bei konfesinmis organizacijomis (daznai ­ tik 4,7 proc., kartais ­ 19,8 proc.). Niekada su konfesinmis organizacijomis nra bendradarbiav 41,7 proc., dienos centrais ­ 24,4 proc., NVO ­ 23,3 proc., seninija ­ 19,8 proc., sveikatos centrais ­ 5,8 proc., policija (2,3 proc.) vis socialini pedagog. Apibendrinant socialini pedagog duomenis apie institucijas, trauktas socialins ­ pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos teikim, galima teigti, jog intensyviausiai socialiniai pedagogai bendradarbiauja su policija ir VTAT, reciau ­ su seninija, sveikatos ir dienos centrais, o reciausiai ­ su NVO ir konfesinmis organizacijomis. Dar desimtadalis (11,6 proc.) socialini pedagog pazymjo, jog daznai tenka bendradarbiauti su PPT, VKC (laikinosios paramos grup), globos namais, kitomis svietimo staigomis, savivaldybe ir visa bendruomene. Tyrimu siekiama nustatyti kiek mokini, tv bei pedagog vidutiniskai per metus konsultuoja, organizuoja individualias tstines konsultacijas ar grupines pratybas mintieji specialistai.

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

2 lentel Mokykloje dirbanci specialist bendradarbiavimo su vairiomis institucijomis procentinis pasiskirstymas

specialistai daznumas Daznai Kartais Niekada Daznai Kartais Niekada Daznai Kartais Niekada Daznai Kartais Niekada Daznai Kartais Niekada VTaT 9, , 5,3 0,3 ,9 5, 35, 3,5 ,3 5,0 6, ,3 6,9 6, 0,0 Policija 6,9 9, 9, 5, 0,5 ,9 , 6,5 ,3 59,3 30, ,3 0,8 ,5 33,8 Seninija ,8 , 5,0 0,3 5, 0,5 ,0 30, 3, 33, 0,9 9,8 9, , 9, dienos centrai 9, 9, 0,8 0,3 5,6 ,8 35, , ,9 , 5,6 , ,3 ,3 30,8 Sveikatos centrai 0,8 3, 9, , 38,6 9,6 , 38,6 9,6 9, 5,3 5,8 5, , 6,9 Konfesins nVo organizacijos , 3,9 , 8, , ,3 35, , 9,8 ,9 6, 3, ,9 8, ,8 6,3 33, 3,3 3, 0,8 6, 9, 6, 0,5 3,5 ,0 ,6 , 6,9 3,6 5, ,6 Kita 0,8 ,8

logopedai

mokytoj padjjai psichologai socialiniai pedagogai specialieji pedagogai

Nustatyta, kad daugiausia su mokiniais dirba socialiniai pedagogai (3 lentel). Vienam socialiniam pedagogui vidutiniskai per mokslo metus tenka 119,6 mokini. Individualias tstines konsultacijas socialiniai pedagogai organizuoja vidutiniskai 43,7 mokiniams per vienerius mokslo metus. Grupinse konsultacijose socialinis pedagogas vidutiniskai per mokslo metus dirba su 26,5 mokini. Psichologai dazniausiai teikia vienkartines individualias konsultacijas mokiniams. Vienam psichologui vidutiniskai per mokslo metus tenka 98,4 mokini. Individualias tstines konsultacijas psichologai organizuoja beveik tris kartus mazesniam mokini skaiciui (vidutiniskai vienam psichologui per vienerius mokslo metus tenka 35,2 mokini, kuriems organizuojamos individualios tstins konsultacijos). Grupinse konsultacijose psichologui per mokslo metus tenka 41,5 mokinys.

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Logopedai per mokslo metus vienkartines individualias konsultacijas suteikia 30,3 mokiniams. Individualias tstines konsultacijas logopedai organizuoja beveik du kartus mazesniam mokini skaiciui (vidutiniskai vienam logopedui per vienerius mokslo metus tenka 17,3 mokini). Grupinse konsultacijose vienas logopedas vidutiniskai per mokslo metus dirba su 13,5 mokini. Specialieji pedagogai dazniausiai teikia mokiniams vienkartines individualias konsultacijas. Vienam specialiajam pedagogui per mokslo metus vidutiniskai tenka 29,6 mokini. Individualias tstines konsultacijas specialieji pedagogai organizuoja 20,6 mokini. Grupinse konsultacijose vienas specialusis pedagogas vidutiniskai per mokslo metus dirba su 23,4 mokiniais. Maziausiai mokinius konsultuoja mokytoj padjjai. Vidutiniskai vienam mokytoj padjjui per vienerius mokslo metus tenka tik 3,1 mokinys, kuriems organizuojamos individualios tstins konsultacijos. Grupinse konsultacijose vienas mokytoj padjjas vidutiniskai per mokslo metus dirba tik su 2,4 mokiniais.

3 lentel Specialist nurodytas vidutiniskas mokini, su kuriais dirbama, skaicius ir vidurkis per vienerius mokslo metus

logopedai bendras skaicius 8 9 Mokytoj padjjai Vi- ben- Vidur- dras durkis skaikis cius 330 9 9 8,5 3, , Psichologai Specialieji Socialiniai pedagogai pedagogai ben- Vi- benbendras dur- dras Vidras Vidurskai- kis skai- durkis skaikis cius cius cius 9,6 0,6 3, 65 90 3 9,6 3, 6,8

Individualiai 1 kart konsultuojami besikreipiantieji Organizuojamos individualios tstins konsultacijos Organizuojamos grupins konsultacijos

30,3 ,3 3,5

86 98, 9 3059 35, 053 385 ,5 0

Su tvais daugiausiai dirba socialiniai pedagogai (4 lentel). Remiantis socialini pedagog atsakymais, galima teigti, jog vidutiniskai vienas socialinis pedagogas per vienerius mokslo metus konsultuoja 43,7 tvus, o individualiose tstinse vidutiniskai dalyvauja 17,3, grupinse ­ 14,6 tv. Psichologas per vienerius mokslo metus konsultuoja 41,4 tv. Individualiose tstinse vidutiniskai dalyvauja 12,3, o grupinse ­ 13,4 tv.

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Specialusis pedagogas per vienerius mokslo metus konsultuoja 22,1 tvus: individualiose vienkartinse konsultacijose vidutiniskai dalyvauja 19,9, o grupinse 18,3 tv. Logopedas per vienerius mokslo metus konsultuoja 12,2 tv: individualiose tstinse vidutiniskai dalyvauja 5,3, o grupinse 4,6 tvai. Mokytoj padjjai is vis specialist reciausiai dirba su tvais. Darbui su tvais yra taikomos individualios vienkartins konsultacijos (vidutiniskai vienas mokytoj padjjas per vienerius mokslo metus konsultuoja 5,6 tvus). Individualiose tstinse konsultacijose vidutiniskai dalyvauja tik 1 tvas, o grupinse 2,4 tv.

4 lentel Specialist nurodytas vidutiniskas tv, su kuriais dirbama, skaicius ir vidurkis per vienerius mokslo metus Mokytoj Specialieji Socialiniai logopedai Psichologai padjjai pedagogai pedagogai benbenbenbenbenViViViViVidras dras dras dras dras durkis durkis durkis durkis durkis skaiskaiskaiskaiskaicius cius cius cius cius individualiai kart konsul880 , 9 5,6 36 , 58 9,9 3, tuojami besikreipiantieji Organizuojamos individu383 5,3 0 ,0 8 ,3 598 , 3 ,3 alios tstins konsultacijos Organizuojamos grupins 33 ,6 08 , 3, 550 8,3 569 ,6 konsultacijos

Aktyviausiai su mokytojais (5 lentel) dirba psichologai. Vienas psichologas per vienerius mokslo metus vidutiniskai kart individualiai konsultuoja 34,8 mokytojus, tstins konsultacijos vykdomos 13,9, o grupins ­ 9,4 mokytojams. Vienas socialinis pedagogas per vienerius mokslo metus vidutiniskai kart individualiai konsultuoja 23,8 mokytojus. Tstinse individualiose socialini pedagog konsultacijose dalyvauja vidutiniskai 16,8 o grupinse ­ 14,3 pedagog. Specialusis pedagogas per vienerius mokslo metus vidutiniskai kart individualiai konsultuoja 22 mokytojus. Tstinse individualiose konsultacijose dalyvauja perpus

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maziau pedagog (vidutiniskai 12,6, o grupinse ­ daugiau pedagog (vidutiniskai 19 pedagog per vienerius mokslo metus). Logopedas per vienerius mokslo metus vidutiniskai kart individualiai konsultuoja 7,3 mokytojus. Tstinse individualiose logoped konsultacijose dalyvauja 3,1 o grupinse ­ tik keli pedagogai (2,1 pedagogas). Vienas mokytoj padjjas kart individualiai konsultuoja 3,4 mokytojus. Tstinse individualiose logoped konsultacijose dalyvauja vidutiniskai tik 0,9, o grupinse ­ keliais pedagogais daugiau (, pedagogas).

5 lentel Specialist nurodytas vidutiniskas mokytoj, su kuriais dirbama, skaicius ir vidurkis per vienerius mokslo metus Mokytoj Specialieji Socialiniai logopedai Psichologai padjjai pedagogai pedagogai ben- Vi- ben- Vi- ben- Vi- ben- Vi- ben- Vidras dur- dras dur- dras dur- dras dur- dras durskai- kis skai- kis skai- kis skai- kis skai- kis cius cius cius cius cius Individualiai 1 kart konsultuojami 59 ,3 3 3, 3,8 638 90 3,8 besikreipiantieji Organizuojamos individualios tsti- 3 3, 35 0,9 3,9 89 ,6 0 6,8 3 ns konsultacijos Organizuojamos grupins konsul- 5 , , 39 9, 56 9 3 ,3 tacijos

Kadangi daugelis mokini problem ­ kompleksins, todl siekiant j veiksmingos pagalbos, btinas vis specialist komandinis darbas. Tyrimu siekiama issiaiskinti komandos veikl ugdymo realybje. Daugiau nei pus mokyklos specialist (9 pav.) teigia, jog mokykloje yra socialini pedagogini psichologini problem sprendimo komanda.

6

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

specialieji pedagogai socialiniai pedagogai psichologai mokytoj padjjai logopedai 0,0

75,4 74,4 70,2 56,4 80,6 20,5

12,310,8 17,4 8,1 22,8 7,0 23,1 15,34,2 Taip Ne neatsak

20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 100,0 120,0

9 pav. Socialins pedagogins psichologins pagalbos komandos egzistavimas

Logoped nuomone, socialins ­ pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos mokykloje komanda sprendzia probleminio mokini elgesio, mokymosi sunkum ir mokyklos lankomumo problemas. Gana daznai si komanda dalyvauja sudarant programas, skirtas specialij ugdymosi poreiki mokiniams, bei sprendzia konfliktines situacijas, kylancias tarp mokini. Mokytoj padjjai teigia, kad si komanda dalyvauja sudarant programas, skirtas specialij ugdymosi poreiki mokiniams bei sprendzia konfliktines situacijas, kylancias tarp mokini. Pasak psicholog, mokykloje komanda sprendzia probleminio mokini elgesio, mokymosi sunkum ir mokyklos lankomumo problemas. Be to si komanda dalyvauja sudarant programas, skirtas specialij ugdymosi poreiki mokiniams bei sprendzia konfliktines situacijas, kylancias tarp mokini. Specialij pedagog nuomone, socialins ­ pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos mokykloje komanda sprendzia specialij poreiki mokini mokymosi sunkum, program sudarymo, mokymosi motyvacijos ir mokyklos lankomumo problemas. Gana daznai si komanda inicijuoja bendradarbiavim tarp mokyklos bendruomens nari, sprendzia kitas mokini elgesio problemas, organizuoja pagalb specialij ugdymosi poreiki mokiniams. Socialiniai pedagogai pritaria kit specialist issakytoms mintims apie sios komandos atliekamas funkcijas ir papildo, nurodydami, jog si komanda sprendzia mokini elgesio, emocij ir psichologines problemas. Specialist veiklos slygos. Tyrimu nustatyta (6 lentel), kad devyni is desimties tyrime dalyvavusi logoped turi savo atskir kabinet, 81,9 proc. yra aprpinti arba apsirpin reikalingomis darbo priemonmis, 73,6 proc. turi galimyb saugiai laikyti dokumentacij, 41,7 proc. turi kompiuter. Didziausia problema - telefono bei internetinio rysio stoka, tik penktadalis logoped turi internet ir telefonin rys. Pus mokytoj padjj yra aprpinti reikalingomis darbui priemonmis, trecdalis turi viet, kurioje gali saugiai laikyti informacij, apie ketvirtadal ­ turi savo atskir kabinet ir kompiuter, penktadaliui yra sudaryta galimyb naudotis internetiniu rysiu.

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Maziau nei penktadalis mokytoj padjj naudojasi telefoniniu rysiu ir gali uztikrinti klient konfidencialum. 76,3% tyrime dalyvavusi psicholog pazymjo, kad turi savo atskir kabinet, 66,7 proc. naudojasi kompiuteriu, taciau tik 43 proc. turi galimyb naudotis internetiniu rysiu. Daugiau negu pus psicholog turi darbui reikalingas priemones, telefonin rys. Beveik pus psicholog neturi galimybs saugiai laikyti dokumentacij bei uztikrinti klient konfidencialum. Kas trecias specialusis pedagogas turi reikalingas darbui priemones, atskir kabinet. Daugiau nei pus (58,5 proc.) specialij pedagog turi galimyb saugiai laikyti dokumentacij, taciau apie galimyb uztikrinti klient konfidencialum uzsimin tik vienas specialusis pedagogas. 43,1 proc. tyrime dalyvavusi specialij pedagog savo kabinete naudojasi kompiuteriu, taciau internetin rys turi tik ketvirtadalis (26,2 proc.). Daugiau nei pus (76,7 proc.) socialini pedagog turi savo atskir kabinet ir kompiuter, 72,1 proc. yra aprpinti reikalingomis darbo priemonmis, 62,8 proc. turi galimyb saugiai laikyti dokumentacij. Daugiau nei pusei respondent (59,3 proc.) sudaryta galimyb naudotis internetiniu rysiu bei slygos klient konfidencialumo uztikrinimui. 43 proc. socialini pedagog naudojasi telefoniniu rysiu.

Specialist nuomon apie darbo slyg tinkamumo uztikrinim mosocilogope- kytoj psicho- aliniai dai padj- logai pedajai gogai 8,5 8, 6,3 6, atskirs kabinets , 3, 66, 6, kompiuteris 50,0 3,0 9, 5, telefons 59,3 3,6 0,5 3,0 internets 58,8 , 8,9 8, reikaling darbui priemoni turjimas 33,3 , 6,8 3,6 galimyb saugiai laikyti dokumentacij galimyb uztikrinti klient konfidencialum 66, 5, 5,6 59,3 (saugi kabineto vieta) 6 lentel specialieji pedagogai 0,8 3, 5, 6, ,3 58,5 ,5

Isvados

1. Specialist nurodytos svarbiausios ir dazniausiai sprendziamos mokini problemos mokykloje yra: mokini nenoras mokytis, tarpusavio konfliktai su kitais mokiniais, pamok praleidinjimas, kit mokini elgesio problemos pamok metu, tv abejingumas j vaik problemoms, emocin prievarta patiriama is kit mokini, nuovargis 8

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

dl per dideli mokymosi krvi, konfliktai su mokytojais, fizin prievarta patiriama is kit mokini. Reciausiai sprendziamos problemos: seksualinis priekabiavimas patiriamas is mokytoj, fizin prievarta patiriama is mokytoj, seksualinis priekabiavimas patiriamas is kit mokini, toksini ir narkotini medziag vartojimas. 2. Intensyviausiai su kitomis institucijomis bendradarbiauja socialiniai pedagogai ir psichologai, pakankamai daznai - specialieji pedagogai ir logopedai. Reciausiai su kitomis institucijomis bendradarbiauja mokytoj padjjai. Dazniausiai yra bendradarbiaujama su dienos ir sveikatos centrais, daznai ­ su policija, VTAT ir PPT, reciausiai bendradarbiaujama su NVO ir konfesinmis organizacijomis. 3. Vis specialist nuomone, dazniausiai individualiai dirbama su mokiniais. Su tvais specialistai dirba zymiai reciau, o su mokytojais reciau negu su tvais. Daugiausia su mokiniais ir j tvais dirba socialiniai pedagogai ir psichologai. Reciausiai su tvais dirba logopedai ir mokytoj padjjai. Aktyviausiai su mokytojais dirba psichologai, siek tiek reciau ­ socialiniai pedagogai ir specialieji pedagogai. Logopedai ir mokytoj padjjai su mokytojais dirba reciausiai. 4. Daugiau nei puss tyrime dalyvavusi specialist nuomone, komanda, sprendzianti mokini socialines ­ pedagogines ­ psichologines problemas, mokykloje yra suburta. Socialins ­ pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos mokykloje komanda sprendzia probleminio mokini elgesio, konfliktini situacij sprendimo, specialij poreiki vaik programos sudarymo ir j ugdymo problemas. 5. Specialist darbo slygos ir priemons mokyklose dar nra uztikrintos. Geriausiai darbo priemonmis yra aprpinti logopedai ir socialiniai pedagogai, skurdziausia ­ mokytoj padjj materialin baz. Atskir kabinet turi devyni is desimties logoped ir tik ketvirtadalis mokytoj padjj, kompiuteriais naudojasi trys ketvirtadaliai socialini pedagog ir tik ketvirtadalis mokytoj padjj. Galimyb naudotis internetu turi trys penktadaliai socialini pedagog ir tik penktadalis mokytoj padjj, telefoniniu rysiu naudojasi nuo puss tyrime dalyvavusi psicholog iki sestadalio tyrime dalyvavusi specialij pedagog ir mokytoj padjj. Tik maza dalis logoped ir mokytoj padjj apsirpin reikalingomis darbo priemonmis turi galimyb saugiai laikyti dokumentacij.

Literatra

. . 3. Alisauskas A. Socialins problemos bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje: mokini socialiniai poreikiai ir j tenkinimas // Socialiniai tyrimai: tarpdisciplininis poziris. -998-999, nr. -3, p. 55­56. Atutien I. Socialins problemos mokykloje//Socialinis darbas mokykloje: konferencijos medziaga. ­ Silut: Prsija, 1997, p. 22­25. Bulotait L. Mokini psichinio atsparumo ugdymas / Psichologin pagalba mokyklai: konferencijos medziaga. ­ Vilnius, 1994, p. 51­55.

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. 5. 6. . 8. 9. 0. . . 3. . 5. 6.

cepukas R. Socialini pedagog veiklos, profesini kompetencij ir studij tiksl santykis // Pedagogika. ­ ISSN 13925-0340. ­ 2001, Nr. 51, p. 21­26. Dl bendrj socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimo nuostat patvirtinimo 2004 m. birzelio 15 d. Nr. ISAK-941., http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/ isakymai/04-06-15-ISAK-941.htm. Dl pedagogins ir psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelio 2003 m. birzelio 25 d. Nr. sak.-897 http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/isakymai/03-06-25-ISAK-897.htm.) Dl specialiosios pedagogins pagalbos teikimo tvarkos apraso patvirtinimo http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/isakymai/04-06-03-ISAK-838.htm. Dl specialiojo ugdymo paslaug teikimo programos patvirtinimo 2004 m. lapkricio 22 d. Nr. 1475., http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/nutarimai/ Nutar_2004_11_22_1475.htm. educational thinking in Social and Special education concerning children and youngsters in care, prieiga per internet <http://www. columbia.edu/cu/musher/, [zirta 2006-04-05]). Giedrien R. vadas / Vaik psichologinis konsultavimas. ­ Vilnius: Presvika, 999, p. 5­8. Kucinskas V., Kucinskien R. Socialinis darbas svietimo sistemoje. Teorinis aspektas. ­ Klaipdos universiteto leidykla, 2000. Lietuvos Respublikos Svietimo statymas, http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/ docs/istatymai/i-1489.htm. Lietuvos Respublikos Specialiojo Ugdymo statymas Nr. VIII -969., http://www. smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/istatymai/viii-969.htm. Lietuvos svietimo reformos gairs, 1993:15. Pedagogins psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelis. http://www. smm.lt/ Paieska/2003_modelis.htm. Vaitkevicit V. Tarptautini zodzi zodynas. ­ Vilnius: Zodynas, 2001.

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Vilija Targamadz ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) profesor, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros ir Vilniaus universiteto filosofijos fakulteto edukologijos katedros profesor; mokslini interes sritys: svietimo vadyba, socialin atskirtis; adresas: Universiteto g. 9/1, LT-01513 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p. [email protected] Dziuginta Valeckien ­ Klaipdos universiteto Pedagogikos fakulteto Socialins pedagogikos katedros doktorant, asistent; mokslini interes sritys: patyci prevencija mokykloje; adresas: H. Manto g. 84. LT-92264, Klaipda, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected] Egl Kvieskait ­ Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros doktorant, asistent; mokslini interes sritys: zini visuomen; tarpkultrin komunikacija, pilietinis ugdymas; adresas: Student g. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected]

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Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN

SOCIALINIO pEDAGOGO VEIKLOS GALIMybS pROFESINIO INFORMAVIMO SISTEMOJE

Anotacija. Straipsnyje, analizuojant mokslin literatr, dokumentus bei kiekybinio tyrimo rezultatus, aptariamos socialinio pedagogo veiklos galimybs profesinio informavimo sistemoje. Nagrinjama profesinio informavimo kaip pirmins profesinio orientavimo grandies samprata. Aptariamos socialinio pedagogo kaip profesinio informavimo konsultanto veiklos funkcijos, j realizavimas ugdymo institucijose. Pateikta bendrojo lavinimo mokykl VIII­XII klasi mokini, j tv, klass aukltoj bei mokykl vadov apklausos rezultat analiz. Pazymima, kad socialini pedagog vaidmuo vykdant bendrojo lavinimo mokykl mokini profesin informavim yra nepakankamas. Akcentuojama profesinio informavimo kompetencijos ugdymo traukimo socialinio pedagogo rengimo studij programas btinyb. Esminiai zodziai: profesinis informavimas, profesinis orientavimas, profesinio informavimo konsultantas, socialinis pedagogas.

vadas

Pasirengimas profesinei veiklai yra itin svarbus jauno zmogaus tobuljimo procesas, kuris reikalauja tam tikr gdzi, gebjim bei slyg savs pazinimui, informacijos apie siuolaikin darbini veikl pasaul kaupimui bei santykio su juo nustatymui. Zyms mokslo ir technikos pasiekimai, sparts technologiniai, ekonominiai, socialiniai ir politiniai pokyciai, lydimi nauj profesij atsiradimo ir sen isnykimo, slygoja nauj pozir profesijos rinkimosi fenomen. Profesins veiklos planavimas, paliecia kiekvien zmog, siekiant skmingai silieti ir sitvirtinti nuolat kintanciame darbo rinkos pasaulyje ir tampa permanentiniu bei neisvengiamu procesu. Siuolaikinje dinamiskoje, itin greitai besikeiciancioje ir modernjancioje visuomenje didel reiksm turi maksimalus asmens galimybi potencialo atskleidimas, skmingas prisitaikymas prie darbo rinkos poreiki, atsakomybs uz savo sprendimus suvokimas, gebjimas mokytis ir tobulti vis gyvenim. efektyvus ir savalaikis profesinis informavimas, konsultavimas ir orientavimas turi lemiamos reiksms skmingai asmens socializacijai, o kokybiskai teikiamos profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo bei orientavimo paslaugos yra svarbios tiek svietimo sistemai, tiek darbo rinkai bei j tarpusavio sveikai. Sios paslaugos yra sudedamoji aktyvios darbo rinkos politikos dalis bei vienas svarbiausi mokymo ir uzimtumo politikos element nacionaliniu, regioniniu ir vietos lygmenimis. Siuolaikin profesins karjeros projektavimo teorij vairiais aspektais pltojo sie uzsienio sali tyrjai: Parsons, 1909, Super, 1961, Tilinghast, 1964, Holland, 1973, Harren, 1979, Hoyt, 1979, Rubinton, 1980, Hesketh, 1982, fukuyama, 1980, 5

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1982, 1984, Herr, Cramer, 1984 ir kiti. Profesijos pasirinkimo, profesinio pasaukimo problematika buvo pakankamai placiai nagrinjama ankstesniuose Lietuvos edukolog bei psicholog darbuose (Gucas, 1937; Sulcas, 1973; Kontvainas, 1976; Galkyt, 1977; Jovaisa, 1978; Kregzd, 1988; Beresnevicien, 1990; Jatautait, 1991; Zilinskien, 1994; Petrauskait, 1996, Lauzacks, 1999, 2005; Pukelis, 2004). Taciau socialinio pedagogo veiklos galimybs profesinio informavimo sistemoje, j profesinio informavimo veiklos ypatumai bei funkcijos Lietuvos mokslinink dar nra tyrinti. Tad mokslin problema yra apibrziama klausimu: · Kokios yra socialinio pedagogo veiklos galimybs gyvendinant profesin informavim bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje? Tyrimo tikslas ­ atskleisti socialinio pedagogo veiklos galimybes profesinio informavimo sistemoje. Uzdaviniai: 1. Pristatyti profesinio informavimo, kaip pirmins profesinio orientavimo grandies, ypatumus. 2. Apzvelgti profesinio informavimo situacij bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje. 3. Nustatyti socialinio pedagogo veiklos galimybes gyvendinant profesin informavim. Objektas ­ socialinio pedagogo veiklos galimybs profesinio informavimo sistemoje. Tyrimo metodai ir organizavimas: · teorins literatros bei dokument analiz, · anketin apklausa, · statistini duomen analiz. Teorine mokslins literatros bei svietim reglamentuojanci dokument analize siekta aptarti profesinio informavimo kaip pirmins profesinio orientavimo grandies ypatumus bei teorines socialinio pedagogo veiklos galimybes profesinio informavimo sistemoje. Kadangi problemos analiz grindziama profesin informavim, konsultavim bei orientavim reglamentuojanci dokument analize, autors, siekdamos aiskumo, straipsnyje linkusios vartoti svokas, apibrztas siuose dokumentuose. empiriniu tyrimu buvo siekta nustatyti mokini galimybes pasinaudoti profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo paslaugomis bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje bei identifikuoti socialini pedagog dalyvavim profesinio informavimo veikloje. Tyrimas buvo atliekamas Alytaus, Anyksci, Birstono, Ignalinos, Jurbarko, Molt, Pasvalio, Siauli, Siluts, Sirvint rajonuose, Utenos ir Vilniaus miestuose bei rajonuose. Tyrimo metu buvo apklausta 828 bendrojo lavinimo mokykl VIII­XII klasi mokiniai, 450 j tv, 189 klass aukltojai ir 14 mokykl vadov. Socialinio pedagogo veikla profesinio informavimo sistemoje. Profesinis informavimas vardijamas kaip sudtinis profesinio orientavimo komponentas, kurio 5

loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

tikslas ­ zini apie profesij turin, ypatumus ir reikalavimus, profesijos gijimo, kvalifikacijos klimo ir sidarbinimo galimybes suteikimas. Remiantis mokslinje literatroje (Lauzackas, 2005; Jovaisa, 1999; Kucinskien, 2003 ir kt.) bei teisiniuose dokumentuose pateikt profesinio informavimo svok analize, pagrindin profesinio informavimo tiksl galima apibrzti kaip tikslini grupi poreikius atitinkancios informacijos rinkim, tvarkym bei teikim, taip sudarant slygas adekvaci ir racionali profesijos rinkimosi ir karjeros planavimo sprendim, atitinkanci tiek individo asmenybs poreikius, tiek darbo rinkos situacij, primimui. Profesinio informavimo uzdavinius, pristatomus vairiuose strateginiuose dokumentuose, apibendrinant galima vardinti kaip informacijos apie svietimo sistem, primimo slygas bei specialybes, kuri galima mokytis profesinse ir aukstosiose mokyklose, patarim dl profilinio mokymosi, kvalifikacij bei profesij ssaj, kvalifikacijos gijimo, tobulinimo ir perkvalifikavimo galimybes bei tvark, darbo rink bei jos prognozes, karjeros galimybes teikimas tikslinms grupms atsizvelgiant j amzi bei poreikius. Profesinis informavimas, kaip sudtinis profesinio orientavimo komponentas, europos Sjungos kontekste laikomas vienu is svarbiausi veiksni, skatinanci mokymsi vis gyvenim, uzimtum, darbo jgos prisitaikym prie rinkos slyg, verslum bei lygias galimybes (Mokymosi vis gyvenim memorandumas, 2000; europos uzimtumo gairs, 2005). LR Svietimo statymo naujojoje redakcijoje, siekiant padidinti svietimo veiksmingum, yra akcentuojamas pagalbos, tame tarpe ir informacins, teikimas bei prieinamumo uztikrinimas mokiniams, j tvams (globjams, rpintojams), mokytojams ir svietimo teikjams (Zin., 2003, Nr. 63-2853). Lietuvos Svietimo ir mokslo ministerija kartu su Socialins apsaugos ir darbo ministerija siekdama gyvendinti nacionalinius bei eS prioritetus svietimo bei socialinje srityse, 2003 m. pabaigoje patvirtino Lietuvos profesinio orientavimo strategij (Zin., 2004, Nr. 56-1955). Vadovaujantis siuo dokumentu pradta kurti nauja aplinka profesinio orientavimo sistemos pltotei Lietuvoje: pradtos steigti profesinio informavimo vietos, o darbo kokybei jose uztikrinti 2003 met pabaigoje pradti rengti pirmieji profesijos patarjai (nuo 2005 met ­ profesinio informavimo konsultantai); kuriamas profesinio informavimo infrastruktros modelis; parengti profesinio informavimo ir profesinio konsultavimo standartai ­ dokumentai, reglamentuojantys teikiamas profesinio informavimo ir konsultavimo paslaugas ir j turin, apibrziantys pagrindinius principus bei keliamus kvalifikacinius ir etinius reikalavimus profesinio informavimo bei profesijos konsultantams. Profesinio informavimo kompetencij placija prasme galima vardinti kaip specialisto gebjimus teikti efektyvias profesinio informavimo paslaugas. Jos matais galima laikyti kliento poreiki identifikavimo ir ()vertinimo, informacijos kaupimo, analizavimo, informacini technologij taikymo, tikslins informacijos teikimo gebjim visum. Profesinio informavimo kompetencij turinci specialist btinyb yra akcentuojama europos komisijos strateginiuose dokumentuose, pabrzianciuose

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profesinio orientavimo paslaug tobulinimo poreik (Mokymosi vis gyvenim memorandumas, 2000; Komisijos komunikatas: bendros mokymosi vis gyvenim erdvs sukrimas, 2001; europos uzimtumo gairs, 2001). Tokio tipo specialist rengimas atliept ir OeSD, eTf, CeDefOP, Bolonijos proceso rekomendacijas modeliuojant Lietuvos aukstojo mokslo kait. Taciau tiek darbo rinkos, tiek svietimo sistemoje stokojama specialist, teikianci profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo paslaugas, sios paslaugos yra teikiamos mokiniams, dirbantiems ar studentams, kurie patys aktyviai iesko pagalbos. Tuo tarpu rizikos grups asmenims tokia pagalba dazniausiai yra neprieinama. Siekiant uztikrinti profesinio informavimo ir konsultavimo paslaug prieinamum ir kokyb nuo 2005 met profesinio informavimo paslaugas ugdymo institucijose teikia ne tik profesinio informavimo konsultantai, bet ir dalyk mokytojai, klasi aukltojai, psichologai ir socialiniai pedagogai (Zin., 2005, Nr.602132). G. Kvieskiens teigimu, socialiniai pedagogai, dirbantys bendrojo lavinimo mokyklose, atsako uz psichini ir fizini, asmenini ir kolektyvini mokini ypatybi ir j raidos slyg analiz, pagalbos, stiprinant mokini psichin ir fizin sveikat, teikim, mokini socialini gdzi ugdym, pagalbos pozityviai mokinio asmenybs bei intelektinei raidai teikim (Kvieskien, 2005). Socialiniams pedagogams, atsizvelgiant j veiklos pobd ir sritis ugdymo institucijose, priskiriama svieciamoji (supazindinti tikslines grupes su karjeros planavimu bei karjeros planavimo gebjim ugdymu), ugdomoji (karjeros planavimo gebjim ugdymo program sudarymas ir vykdymas) ir konsultacin (pataria, konsultuoja profesins karjeros planavimo klausimais: profesijos pasirinkimo, kvalifikacijos tobulinimo, tolesnio mokymosi, sidarbinimo, profesins karjeros galimybi klausimais) funkcijos (Zin., 2005, Nr.60-2132 ). Sio straipsnio autori nuomone, priskirtosios profesinio informavimo funkcijos praplecia ir papildo jau vykdom socialinio pedagogo veikl kontekst. Tyrimo rezultatai ir j aptarimas. Teikiam paslaug kokyb pirmiausia priklauso nuo sias paslaugas teikianci specialist kompetencij, zini ir gdzi, todl atliekant tyrim svarbu buvo issiaiskinti ne tik bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje teikiam profesinio informavimo, orientavimo ir konsultavimo paslaug organizavim ir koordinavim, raisk, kokyb ir efektyvum, bet ir kas dazniausiai teikia mintas paslaugas mokiniams. Tyrimo metu buvo pasidomta, kokios yra mokini profesinio neapsisprendimo priezastys. Gauti rezultatai parod, kad net 45 proc. respondent mokini kaip pagrindin savo neapsisprendimo dl bsimos profesijos priezast vardina informacijos sia tema trkum. Kaip parod tyrimo rezultatai informacijos profesinio informavimo tema trksta visoms tyrime dalyvavusioms tikslinms grupms. Atsakym variantai pateikti 1 pav. Analizuojant tyrimo rezultatus paaiskjo, kad dazniausiai uz profesinio informavimo paslaug teikim mokyklose be direktoriaus pavaduotojo ugdymui (taip atsak 34,9 proc. apklaust klass aukltoj ir 42,9 proc. mokykl vadov) yra atsakingi ir 5

loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

1 pav. Atsakym klausim ,,Ar pakanka mokykloje informacijos renkantis profesij?" pasiskirstymas (proc.)

socialiniai pedagogai (taip atsak 21,5 proc. apklaust klass aukltoj ir 21,4 proc. mokykl vadov). Taigi galima daryti prielaid, kad mokyklose socialiniams pedagogams formaliai yra deleguotas profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo bei orientavimo veiklos organizavimas bei vykdymas. Kas antras tyrime dalyvavs mokyklos vadovas nurod, kad profesinio orientavimo (ar informavimo) konsultacijas turt teikti socialinis pedagogas arba psichologas. Mokykl vadovai tokiai savo nuomonei paaiskinti pateik argumentus: (1) pagalba turi bti teikiama vairi specialist, kurie gerai pazsta mokin, o mokiniai pasitiki socialiniu pedagogu, (2) mokyklos veikla profesinio konsultavimo klausimais turt bti kryptinga ir vairiapusiska; (3) mokykloje turt bti profesionalas, kurio pagrindin uzduotis bt teikti pagalb profesinio orientavimo klausimais. Taciau apibendrinus mokini apklausos rezultatus paaiskjo, kad maziausiai pagalbos profesinio informavimo ir konsultavimo klausimais mokiniai sulaukia is mokyklos psichologo (75,1 proc.) socialinio pedagogo (68, proc.) bei profesinio informavimo konsultanto (58 proc.) (zr. 2 pav.). Analizuojant tyrimo rezultatus paaiskjo, kad is socialinio pedagogo profesinio informavimo ir konsultavimo pagalbos dazniau sulaukia pagrindini mokykl (14,3 proc.) nei vidurini mokykl (1,7 proc.) ar gimnazij (8,9 proc.) mokiniai (²=37,6, p<0,000). Tyrimo rezultatai parod, kad, nors socialiniams pedagogams svietimo staigose formaliai yra deleguotas profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo bei orientavimo veikl organizavimas ir realizavimas, taciau realiai sias funkcijas jie gyvendina menkai. Toki situacij mokyklose patvirtina ir apklausoje dalyvavusi mokini tv atsakymai. Priezastys lemiancios tok vis dar menk socialini pedagog sitraukim profesinio informavimo veikl galt bti j didelis veiklos krvis ir/arba nepakankama kvalifikacija profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo veikloms vykdyti.

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2 pav. Asmenys, teikiantys mokiniams profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo paslaugas

mokykloje

Didzioji dauguma tyrime dalyvavusi tv nurod, kad socialinis pedagogas profesinio informavimo ir konsultavimo paslaugas teikia retai, taciau siek tiek maziau nei pus tyrime dalyvavusi respondent ­ mokini tv ­ nuomone, socialinis pedagogas tokias paslaugas turt teikti (zr. 3 pav.). Is esamos ir siekiamos/pageidaujamos situacijos palyginimo matyti, kad profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo veikl mokykloje btina intensyvinti, proces tikslingai traukiant atsakingus ir motyvuotus specialistus. Taigi, galima daryti isvad, kad mokykloje tikslinga stiprinti profesinio orientavimo, ypatingai paslaug teikimo srit, ypating dmes skiriant socialini pedagog informuotumui bei visokeriopai pagalbai, skatinant j iniciatyv bei domjimsi sia veikla, akcentuojant jiems

3 pav. Tv nuomon apie tai, kas teikia ir turt teikti profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo paslaugas mokykloje

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loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

deleguot funkcij tak ir reiksm. Sie specialistai ne tik pagerint profesinio orientavimo paslaug kokyb bendrojo bei profesinio ugdymo lygmenyje, bet ir uztikrint kokybisk pirmins profesins pagalbos (informacijos suteikimas, savs pazinimas, socialini gdzi ugdymas, problem identifikavimas, tarpininkavimas tarp mokyklos-tv-profesinio rengimo sistemos bei mokinio) suteikim ir, kilus rimtesnms problemoms, tikslin nukreipim pas reikiamus specialistus.

Isvados

Mokslins literatros, dokument bei kiekybinio tyrimo analiz leidzia daryti isvadas, kad: · Profesinis informavimas apibrziamas kaip sudtinis profesinio orientavimo komponentas, kurio tikslas ­ zini apie profesij turin, ypatumus ir reikalavimus, profesijos gijimo, kvalifikacijos klimo ir sidarbinimo galimybes suteikimas. europos Sjungos kontekste jis laikomas vienu is svarbiausi veiksni, skatinanci mokymsi vis gyvenim, uzimtum, darbo jgos prisitaikym prie rinkos slyg, verslum bei lygias galimybes. · Profesinio informavimo paslaug prieinamumas bei kokyb bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje nra pakankamas. Si paslaug kokyb neabejotinai priklauso nuo jas teikianci specialist kompetencij, zini ir gdzi. Profesinio informavimo kompetencij placija prasme galima vardinti kaip specialisto gebjimus teikti efektyvias profesinio informavimo paslaugas. Jos matais galima laikyti kliento poreiki identifikavimo ir ()vertinimo, informacijos kaupimo, analizavimo, informacini technologij taikymo, tikslins informacijos teikimo gebjim visum. Tyrimas atskleid, kad, nors socialiniams pedagogams formaliai yra deleguotas profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo bei orientavimo veikl organizavimas ir realizavimas mokykloje, taciau realiai sias funkcijas jie gyvendina menkai. Priezastys lemiancios toki situacij galt bti socialini pedagog didelis veiklos krvis ir/arba nepakankama kvalifikacija profesinio informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo veikloms vykdyti. Profesinio informavimo (ar karjeros planavimo) kompetencijos ugdymas turt bti trauktas socialini pedagog rengimo studij programas.

Literatra

. . Jovaisa, L., 1999, Profesinio konsultavimo psichologija. Vilnius: Agora. Kucinskien, R.,2003, Ugdymo karjerai metodologija. Klaipda: Klaipdos universiteto leidykla.

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Kvieskien, G., 2005, Pozityvioji socializacija. Vilnius: Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto leidykla. . Lauzackas, R., 2005, Profesinio rengimo termin aiskinamasis zodynas. Kaunas: Vytauto didziojo universiteto leidykla. 5. Lietuvos Respublikos Svietimo statymas, 2003// Valstybs zinios, 2003 Nr. 63853. 6. Profesinio informavimo ir konsultavimo paslaug teikimo reikalavim aprasas. lr Smm, LR SADM, 2006-05-12, Nr. SAK-739/A1-116. . Profesinio orientavimo strategija. LR SMM, LR SADM, 2004-04-17, Nr. SAK1635/A1-180. 8. Pukelis, K., Garnin, D., 2004, Lietuvos karjeros konsultavimo sistema// Profesinis rengimas: tyrimai ir realijos, 2004, 8: 92-107. Kaunas: VDU leidykla. 9. Socialinio pedagogo kvalifikaciniai reikalavimai. LR SMM, 2002-03-06, SAK- 66. 0. Svietimo gairs: Lietuvos svietimo pltots strategins nuostatos, 2003-2012 m.: projektas, 2002. Vilnius: Spauda. 3.

teikta 2007 10 08

Loreta zadeikait ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) daktar, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros docent; mokslini interes sritys: socialin pedagogika, svietimo politika ir vadyba; adresas: Student g. 39, LT08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected] Asta Railien ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) doktorant, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros lektor; mokslini interes sritys: karjeros planavimo gdzi ugdymas, profesinis orientavimas ir informavimas; adresas: Student g. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected]

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loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN

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Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

TV pOzIRIS SOCIALINS pEDAGOGINS pAGALbOS MOKyKLOJE ORGANIzAVIM

Anotacija. Straipsnyje analizuojamas tv poziris socialins pedagogins pagalbos organizavimo efektyvum ir jos poreik. Tyrimu siekta atskleisti tv nuomon socialins pedagogins pagalbos vykdym ir organizavim mokykloje. Atlikto tyrimo rezultatai rodo su kokiomis svarbiausiomis problemomis, tv nuomone, dazniausiai susiduria j vaikai mokykloje, tv zinojim apie mokyklos specialist teikiamas pagalbas ir kokius mokyklos specialistus dazniausiai kreipiasi tvai sprendziant aukljimo problemas. Esminiai zodziai: Socialin pedagogin pagalba, mokyklos specialistai, mokymosi problemos, mokiniai, tvai.

vadas

Vienas is pagrindini siuolaikini svietimo tiksl isugdyti atsaking, savarankisk, patriotisk asmenyb, sugebanci skmingai konkuruoti nuolat kintanciame pasaulyje [12]. Vertinant siuolaikinio pasaulio isskius, svietimo misija tampa pagalba padti asmeniui suvokti siuolaikin pasaul bei isugdyti zmog, norint ir galint nuolat mokytis [13]. Taigi, mokykla siekdama uztikrinti pagrindini svietimo strategijos pltots tiksl ­ prieinamumo tstinumo ir socialinio teisingumo ­ realizavim, privalo rpintis ugdymo proceso kokybe. Kaip pazymima Valstybs svietimo sistemos nuostatuose (2003), ugdymo proceso kokyb ­ apsprendzia nuoseklumo ir nenutrkstamumo princip gyvendinimas bei socialini ir pedagogini ugdymosi slyg sudarymas kiekvienam mokiniui. Statistikos departamento duomenimis 2001­2002 m. m. moksi apie 55000 specialij poreiki mokini, t. y. beveik 10 proc. nuo visos mokini populiacijos (583850) [18]. Pagal SMM duomenis 2001 m. mokyklos nelankanci mokini skaicius buvo 684 mokiniai, 2002 ­ 550 mokini, 2003 m. ­ 572 mokiniai [12], o 2005 m. mokyklos nelank arba veng j lankyti net 2294 mokini [17]. Vidutiniskai kurso kartoti paliekama 0,6 proc. mokini nuo bendro mokini skaiciaus: 1­4 klasi ­ 0,3 proc., 5­8 klasi ­ 1 proc., 9­10 klasi ­ 2,8 proc., 11­12 klasi ­ 2,3 proc. Tyrimai rodo, kad antrameciavimas padidina iskritimo is mokyklos tikimyb 45­50 proc. [19]. Nelankanci mokyklos, kurs kartojanci ir mokymosi neskmi turinci mokini skaiciaus didjimas rodo, kad mokykla dar nepakankamai atsizvelgia mokini poreiki vairov, nepajgi tinkamai parinkti efektyvius darbo metodus bei strategijas organizuojant ugdymosi proces. 59

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Mokiniui, patyrusiam mokymosi neskmes, svarbi ne tik dalykin pagalba. Aktualia ir reiksminga jam tampa pedagogin ir psichologin pagalba, kurios jis sulaukia pakankamai retai. Tyrimais nustatyta, kad is 10 proc. mokini, turinci mokymosi sunkum, psichologo, logopedo, socialinio pedagogo pagalbos sulauk 0,6 proc. apklaustj [12]. Mokslininkai [1, 4] vienareiksmiskai pripazsta pedagogins ir psichologins pagalbos svarb veikiant mokymosi neskmes, skiriasi tik mokslinink rekomenduojami pagalbos bdai. Mokslininkai pabrzia, kad norint veikti bet kokio pobdzio sunkumus, btinas nuodugnus psichologinis ir pedagoginis asmenybs tyrimas. P. Dereskeviciaus teigimu, siekiant tikslesnio problemos vertinimo ir efektyvesns strategijos parinkimo, btina, kaip manoma anksciau nustatyti asmenybs formavimosi sutrikimus, j priezastis ir atskleisti pedagoginio apleistumo laipsn [1]. Herm (2004) pataria atsizvelgti ir vertinti vaiko gyvenimo slygas, seimos padt ir kitas socialines aplinkybes [4]. S. L. Belikovos manymu, didesn poveik asmenybei turi specialiai organizuotos grups taka [8]. S. B. Rimm, mokymosi nepazangumui veikti konstruoja psichologins pagalbos model, kur sudaro: vertinimas, bendravimas, ekspektacij keitimas, vaidmen modelio identifikacija, trkum taisymas ir pastiprinim keitimas [6]. Psichologai pazymi, kad agresyvs vaikai daznai praleidinja pamokas, nelanko mokyklos, o tai tiesiogiai slygoja mokymosi neskmi atsiradim. Vadinasi, pagalbos mokymosi neskmms veikti teikim, galima sutapatinti su pagalbos agresyviems vaikams ypatumais. D. Nasvytiens (2005) teigimu, teikiant pagalb agresyviems vaikams, pirmiausia btina bendradarbiauti su tvais. Bendradarbiavimas bus efektyvus tik tada, kai tvai bus tinkamai paruosti, tai yra zinos koks elgesio modelis efektyviausias aukljant agresyv vaik, kokiais principais reikia vadovautis siekiant norimo rezultato. Mokslinink pazymi, kad agresyv elges galima pakeisti norimu, apdovanojant vaik uz tinkamo elgesio raisk ir nepastiprinant netinkamo elgesio[5]. Kiti mokslininkai tirdami nepazangumo veikimo bdus, akcentuoja pagalb, nukreipt mokinio motyvacijai sustiprinti. N. L. Gage ir D. C. Berliner vadovaujasi principu, kad motyvacija paaiskina, kas gali elges pastiprinti, orientuoti tiksl, teigia, kad ji yra priemon siekti mokslo pazangumo [3]. Pabrziama, jog siekiant, kad motyvacija skatint pazangum bei numatyt, koks elgesio pastiprinimas bus efektyviausias, btina zinoti vaiko interesus, veikl kurioje vaikas savarankiskai ir motyvuotai veikia. Siekiant padti mokymosi neskmes patirianciam mokiniui, mokymosi veikl reikia organizuoti taip, jog ji uztikrint bent minimal skms jausm. Taip organizuotas mokymosi procesas suteiks stiprybs, pasitikjimo savimi, bei padrsins tolimesniam veikimui. A. K. Markova (1988) nurodo, jog stiprinant mokini mokymosi motyvacij, svarbu atsizvelgti mokini mokymosi motyvacijos lyg. 60

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D. Steipek (1988), nurodo, kad mokini noras mokytis, j pazangumas priklauso nuo to, kaip patys mokytojai sivaizduoja mokini mokymsi, koki rezultat tikisi [16]. Mokyklos mikroklimatas, mokytoj palaikymas, meil, padrsinimas ir susirpinimas mokinio mokymosi rezultatais privercia mokinius rimciau mokytis ir siekti mokslo pazangumo. Taigi pedagogin ­ psichologin pagalba, tai kompleksin pagalba. Nra vieno visiems priimtino ir vienodai veiksmingo pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos organizavimo bdo. Mokslininkai vienareiksmiskai pripazsta, kad teikiamos pagalbos skm lemia individualus mokini pazinimas. Vadinasi, pedagogins ­ psichologins pagalbos efektyvum galima apibrzti, kaip pedagog pastangas pastebti mokini mokymosi neskmes, veikiant mokymosi sunkumus. Organizuojant pedagogin pagalb, svarbu vadovautis principu, kad teikiama pagalba bus naudinga, efektyvi ir tinkamai vertinta mokini tada, kai pedagogas mokinio problemas laikys savo asmeninio darbo trkumais, nes nesugebjo laiku pastebti mokymosi neskmi uzuomazg. Socialins pedagogins pagalbos organizavime svarbus vaidmuo atitenka ugdytinio seimai. Seimos ir mokyklos bendradarbiavimo btinyb akcentavo R. Civinskas (2006), teigdamas, kad organizuojamos paramos vaikui mechanizmas neveikia dl to, kad neveikia tv ir mokyklos bendradarbiavimo mechanizmas. Tv traukimas ir savanoriskas dalyvavimas socialins pedagogins pagalbos organizavime yra vienas is pagrindini pagalbos efektyvinimo kriterij. Tyrimo tikslas: Atskleisti tv pozir pedagogins, psichologins, socialins pagalbos poreiki teikimo ypatumus. Tyrimo metodika. Kiekybinis tyrimas, atliktas 2006 m. Svietimo ir mokslo ministerijos uzsakymu. Tyrimui panaudotas uzdaro tipo klausyminas tvams. Tyrimo duomenys apdoroti naudojant SPSS kompiuterin program. Tyrimo imtis: 666 tv. Tyrimo rezultatai ir j aptarimas. Tyrimu siekta issiaiskinti tv pozir tai, su kokiomis svarbiausiomis problemomis mokykloje dazniausiai susiduria j vaikai (1 pav.). Isskirtos dvi problem grupes: viena j susijusi su mokytojo veiklos ypatumais, kita ­ su paci mokini elgesiu. Dazniausiai (57,7 proc.) tvai nurodo nuovarg, atsirandant dl dideli mokymosi krvi ir kit mokini netinkam elges pamok metu (50,3 proc.). Svarbiomis ir reiksmingomis problemomis vardijami tarpusavio konfliktai su kitais mokiniais (46,5 proc.) bei mokytoj nenoras aiskinti papildomai (33,9 proc.). Kiek reciau vardijamas nedomus laisvalaikio mokykloje organizavimas (31,8 proc.), emocin prievarta

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(29,6 proc.), patiriama is kit mokini ir mokytoj, neaiskus mokomosios medziagos aiskinimas (24,3 proc.). Pasak daugiau nei penktadalio tv, mokiniai nesupranta kaip ruosti nam darbus (20,4 proc.) bei patiria konfliktus su mokytojais (20,6 proc.).

1 pav. Problemos su kuriomis dazniausiai susiduria mokiniai mokykloje (tv poziriu)

Tyrimu domtasi, dl koki aukljimo problem tvai kreipsi mokyklos specialistus ( pav.).

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2 pav. Specialistai, kuriuos pagalbos kreipsi tvai, sprendziant snaus/ dukters aukljimo problemas

Nustatyta, kad tvai aukljimo problemas dazniausiai sprendzia kartu socialiniu pedagogu (n=665), kiek reciau (n=347) su klass aukltoju ir psichologu (n=314). Reciausiai aukljimo problemas tvai sprendzia su logopedu (n=130), specialiuoju pedagogu (n=87) ir mokytojo padjju (n=66). Analizuojant tyrimo duomenis dl problem specifiskumo, paaiskjo, kad socialinis pedagogas, tv poziriu sprendzia vairesnes problemas nei kiti specialistai. Viena is dazniausiai (n=47) vardint aukljimo problem, kuri padeda veikti socialinis pedagogas ­ konfliktai: su tvais, mokytojais, tarpusavio konfliktai, konfliktins situacijos mokykloje. socialin pedagog tvai kreipiasi dl bendravimo (n=28), netinkamo vaik elgesio (n=28), pamok nelankymo, praleidinjimo (n=28), iskilus socialinms problemoms (n =10). Pazymtina, kad labai retai tvai socialin pedagog kreipiasi dl reketavimo, valkatavimo, nemokamo maitinimo organizavimo. psicholog tvai dazniausiai (n=57) kreipiasi, iskilus bendravimo problemoms, konfliktams su tvais, mokytojais ir kitais mokiniais. Kiek reciau, s specialist kreipiamasi susidrus su fizine ir emocine prievarta (n=18), vaik nenoru mokytis (n=16), motyvacijos stoka (n=12). Vertinant aukljimo problemas, dl kuri tvai kreipsi specialj pedagog, nustatyta, kad problem klasifikacija palyginti su kitais mokykloje dirbanciais specialistais yra siaura. Specialusis pedagogas dazniausiai (n=50) padeda papildomai aiskindamas pamok medziag ir nam darbus. Tv teigimu, reciausiai specialj pedagog kreipiamasi esant adaptacijos, kalbos sutrikimo bei zaling proci problemoms. Reciausiai, apklaustj manymu, problemas issprsti gali padti mokytojo padjjas. s specialist, tvai kreipiasi vaikui nesupratus naujos medziagos (n=8), iskilus neaiskumams dl nam darb (n=5). Kai kurie tvai nurod, kad mokytojo padjj kreipiasi dl laisvalaikio organizavimo, vaik patiriamo priekabiavimo ir speciali poreiki problem. 63 TV POZIRIS SOCIALINS PeDAGOGINS PAGALBOS MOKyKLOJe ORGANIZAVIM

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Tyrimo duomenys rodo, kad klass aukltojas sprendzia vairaus turinio aukljimo problemas (n=79). Dazniausiai klass aukltojas padeda sprsti elgesio (n=48) ir bendravo (n=29) problemas. Aktualios ir reiksmingos yra informacijos stokos (n=28), mokyklos nelankymo (n=27) problemos ir konfliktai (n=27). Reciau tvai klass aukltoj kreipiasi susidr su motyvacijos stokos, fizins, emocins prievartos bei dl zaling proci problem. Nustatyta, kad logoped dazniau kreipiasi tvai susidr su kalbos sutrikim problemomis (n=92). Tyrimu domtasi, kaip tvai yra informuoti apie specialist teikiam pagalb (3 pav.).

3 pav. Tv zinojimas apie mokyklos specialist teikiamas pagalbas

Nustatyta, kad tvai geriausiai informuoti apie klass aukltojo (87,5 proc.) ir psichologo (77,8 proc.) teikiam pagalb. Taip pat daugiau nei 60 proc. apklaustj zino apie socialinio pedagogo bei logopedo veikl mokykloje. Maziausiai (22,4 proc.) tvai informuoti apie mokytojo padjjo veikl. Apie specialiojo pedagogo teikiam pagalb zino daugiau nei trecdalis (35,7 proc.) apklaust tv. Analizuojant respondent atsakymus (n=390) dl zinojimo, koki pagalb gali suteikti psichologas, paaiskjo, kad, sis specialistas tv teigimu, teikia psichologin pagalb (n=164), sprendzia bendravimo problemas (n=55), teikia emocin palaikym (n=23), konsultuoja (n=21). Nedaugelis tv, kaip teikiam pagalb, pazymjo konflikt sprendim (n=16), patarimus (n=11), isklausym (n=9) ir pokalbius (n=7). Tv poziriu, socialinis pedagogas gali padti sprsti socialines (n=63) ir mokyklos nelankymo problemas (n=49). Reciau nurodomos bendravimo (n=19), prevencinio darbo (n=17), konsultavimo (n=8), tarpininkavimo (n=8) ir individualaus darbo (n=5) paslaugos. 6

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Nustatyta, kad tik nedidel apklaustj tv dalis (n=87) gali vardinti, kokias problemas mokykloje gali padti sprsti specialusis pedagogas. Pagalb veikiant mokymosi sunkumus nurod 71, darb su vaikais turinciais specialiuosius poreikius ­ 38, specialij program rasym pazymjo 17 respondent. Remiantis apklausos duomenimis (n=66) dl mokytojo padjjo teikiam paslaug, nustatyta, kad tvai dazniausiai nurodo pagalb mokytojui (n=23) ir pagalb mokiniams veikiant mokymosi sunkumus (n=22). Tyrimo rezultatai (n=347) rodo, kad respondentai gerai informuoti apie klass aukltojo teikiamas paslaugas. Tai rodo isvardintos pagalbos vairov. Dazniausiai tvai nurod darb su klase (n=76), informacijos teikim (n=71). Bendradarbiavim su tvais, vaikais ir mokytojais (n=46), pagalb sprendziant mokymosi problemas (n=41) akcentavo mazesn s klausim atsakiusij dalis. Kai kurie respondentai isskyr pagalb aukljimo (n=29) ir lankomumo (n=21) klausimais. Gauti tv (n=130) atsakymai rodo, kad respondentai tiksliai zino apie logopedo teikiamas paslaugas. Pagalb kalbos sutrikimo (disleksija) atvejais pazymjo 267 respondentai ir rasymo (disgrafijos) ­ 15 respondent. Tyrimu siekta issiaiskinti, kas informavo tvus (n=473) apie mokykloje dirbanci specialist paslaugas. Daugiau nei trecdalis atsakiusij tv dazniausiai, kaip informacijos saltin apie specialist teikiamas paslaugas nurodo klass aukltoj (n=150). Reciau informacij tvai gauna is administracijos (n=70), ziniasklaidos (n=59). Kartais (n=33) apie specialist teikiamas paslaugas tvai suzino tv susirinkim metu. domu pastebti, kad dalis atsakiusij s klausim savarankiskai suzino (n=23), nes dirba svietimo sistemoje. Nedidel dalis tv nurod, kad suzino is snaus/dukters (n=14), is pazstam (n=18), is spaudos ir literatros (n=10). Pazymtina, kad tik 16 respondent nurod, kad apie teikiamas paslaugas suzinojo is paci mokykloje dirbanci specialist. Analizuojant tyrimo duomenys, paaiskjo (4 pav.), kad tvai turintys aukstj arba aukstesnj issilavinim zymiai geriau informuoti apie specialist teikiamas pagalbas, nei tvai turintys vidurin issilavinim.

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4 pav. Tv issilavinimas ir zinojimas apie mokyklos specialist teikiamas pagalbas

Tyrimu siekta issiaiskinti, kaip daznai tvams teko kreiptis pagalbos mokyklos specialistus. Analizuojant respondent atsakymus, nustatyta, kad tvai dazniau nesikreipia specialistus, nei kreipiasi daznai (5 pav.). Didzioji tv dalis nurod, kad mokytojo padjj (62 proc.), specialj pedagog (61,6 proc.), socialin pedagog (58,7 proc.), psicholog (53,3 proc.) ir logoped (52,9 proc.) niekada pagalbos nesikreip. Dazniausiai apklaustieji pagalbos kreipiasi klass aukltoj. Tai, kad niekada nesikreip klass aukltoj nurod tik kiek daugiau nei ketvirtadalis (26,7 proc.) apklaust tv.

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5 pav. Tv nesikreipimo mokykloje dirbancius specialistus daznis

Tyrimu siekta issiaiskinti dl koki problem tvams teko kreiptis specialistus. Dazniausiai tvai (n=382) pagalbos kreipiasi klass aukltoj susidr su elgesio (n=64) bei aukljimo (n=24) problemomis ir konfliktais (n=28). Reciau tvai pazymi prasto lankomumo (n=17), neobjektyvaus vertinimo (n=18 respondent), santyki (n=18), pazangumo (n=12), drausms (n=10), nenoro mokytis (n=10) ir drausms (n=10) problemas. socialin pedagog is viso kreipsi 103 respondentai. Gauti duomenys rodo, kad socialin pedagog dazniausiai kreipiasi dl nemokamo maitinimo (n=20), elgesio problem (n=19), mokyklos nelankymo (n=15). Labai retai kreipiasi dl pamok praleidinjimo (n=9), konflikt (n=8), fizins ir emocins prievartos (n=7). Tik vienas kitas tvas kreipsi dl mokini zaling proci, bendravimo problem, vagysts, reketo bei mokymosi sunkum. Nustatyta, kad psicholog kreipsi 130 tv. Remiantis apklausos duomenimis, psicholog dazniausiai tvai kreipiasi susidr su bendravimo (n=15), elgesio (n=13) problemomis ir konfliktais (n=10). Atsakiusieji taip pat akcentavo psichologines (n= 8), baims (n=8), santyki (n=6) problemas. Reciausiai tvai nurod nenoro mokytis (n=5), prievartos (fizins, emocins, psichologins) (n=6) bei motyvacijos (n=5) problemas. Kitos problemos ­ agresija, lankomumas, adaptacija, reketavimas, buvo pamintos po 1­2 kartus. specialj pedagog dazniausiai tvai (n=19) kreipiasi iskilus mokymosi sunkumams. Rezultat pasiskirstymas rodo, kad logoped dazniausiai kreipiasi tvai susidr su kalbos, tarties defekt (n=99) problemomis. Reciau kreipiasi dl rasybos (n=14), mokymosi problem (n=1).

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Tik 12 tv nurod, kad kreipsi mokytojo padjj. Problemos, dl kuri buvo kreipiamasi s specialist: mokymosi medziagos nesupratimas (n=8), elgesio problemos (n=1), kalbjimo sutrikimai (n=1) ir konfliktai (n=1). Pateikti duomenys rodo, kad papildomai tvai dl sveikatos sutrikim kreipiasi medicinos sesel (n=1), dl problem su kitais mokytojais, nepageidautino j elgesio ­ direktori (n=6), dl vaiko sumusimo ­ policij (n=1), dalyko mokytoj dl mokymosi problem ­ tik 2. Domtasi, kokios pagalbos tvai sulauk is mokykloje dirbanci specialist. Rezultat pasiskirstymas rodo, kad dazniausiai pagalbos tvai sulaukia is klass aukltojo (n=363). Individuali pagalb nurod 247, grupines konsultacijas pazymjo 35 respondentai. Reciau tvai vardija darb su seima (n=12), vaikais (n=13), reikiamos informacijos suteikim (n=13) bei konsultacijas (n=14). Is kit specialist, tv teigimu, pagalbos sulaukiama reciau. Analizuojat psichologo pagalbos teikim tvams, nustatyta, kad pagalbos sulauk 124 respondentai. Dazniausiai nurodoma individualioji pagalba (n=97), darbas su seima (n=11) ir konsultacijos (n=8). 96 respondentai nurod, kad sulauk pagalbos is socialinio pedagogo. Dazniausiai suteiktos pagalbos pobdis ­ individualus (n=65). Tvai isskyr individualias konsultacijas, pokalbius. Reciau nurodomos grupins konsultacijos (n=12), darbas su seima (n=5), pagalba sprendziant vairaus pobdzio problemas (n =3). Individualios pagalbos 27 apklaustieji sulauk is specialiojo pedagogo. Po vien respondent nurod, kad jiems buvo teikiama grups konsultacija ar gavo konkrecias rekomendacijas. Is logopedo reikiamos pagalbos sulauk 108 respondentai. Atsakiusieji pazymjo individualij pagalb (n=78), grups konsultacijas (n=9), kalbos korekcij (n=8). Mokytojo padjjo pagalbos sulauk 12 tv. Daugelis respondent dazniau nurodo individualij pagalb (n=9), nei papildom aiskinim (n=1). Rezultatai rodo, kad is medicinos sesels individualios pagalbos sulauk 1 respondentas. Is mokyklos direktoriaus individualios pagalbos sulauk 4 respondentai. Vienas respondentas pazymjo, kad buvo kreipiamasi direktori, taciau jokios pagalbos nesulauk. Siekta issiaiskinti, kokios pagalbos pasigedo tvai is mokykloje dirbanci specialist. Klass auklto teikiam paslaug kokyb vertino 66 tvai. Tobulinant klass aukltojo teikiamas paslaugas pabrztina, kad, tv teigimu, siems specialistams kartais trksta dmesio (n=11) ir konkretaus darbo (n=6). Vienas-du respondentai pazymjo aktyvaus dalyvavimo, tolerancijos, empatijos, objektyvumo, geranoriskumo ir kompetencijos stok klass aukltojo darbe. 68

Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

6 pav. Tv vertinimas dl specialist suteiktos pagalbos

Psichologo teikiamos pagalbos kokyb vertino 26 respondentai. Paaiskjo, kad efektyviai pagalbai trksta dmesingumo (n=5), geresnio ismanymo (n=3), individualumo (n=2) ir konfidencialumo (n=1). Rezultat pasiskirstymas rodo, kad socialinio pedagogo teikiam paslaug kokybe nepatenkinti 13 tyrime dalyvavusi tv. Dazniausiai tvai nurodo, kad socialiniams pedagogams j darbe trksta nuoseklumo (n=4), nuosirdumo (n=5). Po vien respondent pasigedo kompetencijos, konfidencialumo, supratingumo ir atjautimo. Specialiojo pedagogo teikiam paslaug kokyb vertino 8 respondentai, kurie nurod, kad siam specialistui trksta konkretumo, nuoseklumo, atsakomybs, dmesingumo, darbo su vaikais turinciais specialius ugdymo poreikius. Logopedo teikiamos pagalbos kokyb vertino 3 respondentai. Pagrindiniai teikiamos pagalbos trkumai ­ kokybiskas darbas (n=3) ir aiskumas (n=1). Tiriant mokytojo padjjo teikiamos pagalbos kokyb paaiskjo, kad j vertino tik vienas respondentas, nurods, kad sis specialistas retai bna mokykloje.

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vertinant tai, kad tik labai maza dalis tv atsak atvir klausim apie tai, kokios pagalbos jie pasigedo is specialist, galima daryti prielaid, kad tvai dazniausiai pagalbos sulaukia. Pastebima tendencija, jog dazniausiai teikiama pagalba tvai nepatenkinti, jei jie stokoja dmesingumo ir sigilinimo j problemos atvej. Tyrimu domtasi, kaip daznai tvai yra patenkinti suteiktos pagalbos kokybe. Rezultatai rodo (6 pav.), kad tvai daznai bna patenkinti suteiktos pagalbos kokybe. ypac ryskus rezultat pasiskirstymas vertinant klass aukltojo ir kit mokykloje dirbanci specialist pagalb. Nustatyta, kad klass aukltojo pagalbos efektyvum teigiamai vertino beveik pus tyrime dalyvavusi respondent (47,1 proc.), kad daznai patenkinti pazymjo 23,4 proc., neigiamai vertino tik 3 proc. tv. Patartina atkreipti dmes mokytojo padjjo ir specialiojo pedagogo pagalb vertinimus. Specialiojo pedagogo darb teigiamai vertino 6,8 proc. respondent, daznai pazymjo ­ 3,5 proc., ne ­ 4,7 proc. apklaustj. Panasi tendencija islieka tiriant mokytoj padjj suteikiamas paslaugas: taip nurod 4,1 proc., daznai ­ 3, proc., ne ­ , proc.

Isvados

1. Tv nuomone, svarbiausios pedagogins psichologins problemos mokykloje yra ­ nuovargis dl dideli mokymosi krvi, netinkamas mokini elgesys pamok metu, tarpusavio konfliktai su kitais mokiniais bei mokytoj nenoras aiskinti papildomai. 2. Pagalbos tvai dazniausiai kreipiasi klass aukltoj. Nustatyta, kad tvai gerai informuoti apie klass aukltojo, socialinio pedagogo ir psichologo teikimas pagalbas. Maziausiai tvai informuoti apie mokytojo padjjo ir specialiojo pedagogo teikiam pagalb 3. Dazniausiai tvai pagalbos kreipiasi dl: · nemokamo maitinimo, elgesio problem, mokyklos nelankymo ­ socialin pedagog; · bendravimo, elgesio problem ir konflikt atvejais ­ psicholog; · mokymosi sunkum ­ specialj pedagog; · elgesio ir aukljimo problem, konflikt ­ klass aukltoj; · kalbos, tarties defekt ­ logoped; · mokymosi medziagos nesupratimo bei elgesio problem ­ mokytojo padjj. 4. Klasi aukltoj, socialini pedagog, psicholog suteiktos pagalbos kokybe apklausti tvai yra patenkinti. Maziau patenkinti ­ mokytoj padjj ir specialij pedagog teikiamos pagalbos kokybe. 0

Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Literatra

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Dereskevicius P. Aukljimo sunkum salinimas mokykloje: metodins rekomendacijos. Vilnius: Pedagogikos mokslinio tyrimo institutas, 1987. 131 p. fonagy P. Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis. New- york: Other Press, 2001, p. 6 Gage N. J. Pedagogin psichologija / N. J. Gage, D. C. Berliner, Vilnius: Alna litera, 993. 63 p. Herm S. Sunks vaikai: praktiniai patarimai aukltojams ir tvams. Vilnius: Alma littera, 00. 60 p. Nasvytien D. Vaiko elgesio ir emocins problemos: konspektas, psichologinis vertinimas ir pagalba. Vilnius: Leidykla, 2005. 91 p. Rimm S. B. Sumazjusio pazangumo sindromas. Vilnius: Solertija, 1998. 267 p. Civinskas R. Vengianci lankyti mokykl vaik problemos ir poreikiai / R. Civinskas, V. Levickait, I. Tamutien, Kaunas: Spindulys, 2006. 152 p. . . . ­ : , 003. 5 p. 3 Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausyb, nutarmas, Nr. 764 [zirta 2007-04-02]. Prieiga prie Internet http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/nutarimai/764.htm Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo statymas (1995) [zirta 2005-06-01]. Prieiga per Internet: <http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:pxqyRBfNU0IJ:www3.lrs. lt/cgi-bin/preps2%3fCondition1%3D36279%26Condition2%3D+Lietuvos+R espublikos+%C5%A1vietimo+%C4%Afstatymas+1995&hl=lt&lr=lang_lt< Valstybs svietimo strategijos (2003) [zirta 2007-04-02]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/search?q=cache:yo6_gPKa0gQJ:www.smm.lt/teisine_ baze/docs/strategija2003-12.doc+lietuvos+%C5%A1vietimo+strategijos&hl =lt&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=lt&lr=lang_lt Neskmingo mokymosi mastai ir priezastys, 2003: <http://www.smm.lt/svietimo_bukle/docs/NMMP_ataskaita.doc> Psichologins pagalbos mokiniui teikimo tvarkos aprasas: <http://www.lps. vu.lt/index.php?id=pedagogine&doc=0> Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo ir mokslo ministro 2004 m. birzelio 15 d. sakymas Nr. ISAK-941. [zirta 2005-05-23]. Prieiga per Internet <http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/Student_Motivatation.html> [zirta 2007-04-04]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/search?q=cache: wKCLXptQ2Z4J:vaikams.lrs.lt/informaciniai/nelankantysmokyklos2005. pdf+2004+-+2005+mokslo+metais+nelankan%C4%8Dius+vengian%C4%8 Dius&hl=lt&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=lt&lr=lang_lt

11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

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17.

[zirta 2007-04-28]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/ search?q=cache:421qk_k7el0J:www.smm.lt/svietimo_bukle/docs/SPVIP_ataskaita.doc+vaikai+turintys+specialiuosius+poreikius+statistika&hl=lt&ct=clnk& cd=3&gl=lt 18. [zirta 2007-05-01]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/search?q=cache: l2A0LP6awvMJ:www.vilnius.lt/svietimas/MTP/Vilniaus_mokyklu_tinklo_dabartis.htm+mokini%C5%B3+kartojan%C4%8Di%C5%B3+kurs%C4%85+stat istika&hl=lt&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=lt

teikta 2007 09 28

Valdon Indrasien ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) daktar, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros vedja, docent; mokslini interes sritys: ugdymo technologijos; socialiniai tyrimai; adresas: Student g. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected] Violeta Suboc ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) doktorant, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros asistent; mokslini interes sritys: tyrim metodologija, mokymosi neskms; adresas: Student g. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected]

Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN

SpECIALIJ pOREIKI VAIK pOzITyVIOSIOS SOCIALIzACIJOS MODELIS

Anotacija. Straipsnyje aptariamos teorins specialij poreiki vaik pozityviosios socializacijos prielaidos: socializacij nulemianci veiksni , pozymi ir slyg vairov, pateikiami ir pagrindziami sutrikusio intelekto vaik pozityviosios socializacijos modelio struktriniai elementai, atskleidziami j gyvendinimo ypatumai, organizuojant vaik gyvenim bei socializacij praktinje veikloje vienoje is bendruomeninio naujo tipo socialini institucij, kurioje gyvena sutrikusio kai nuo gimimo lik be tv globos. Tyrinjamas socializacijos procesas apm 10-ies met laikotarp, per kur socializacijos modelio sudtini dali pagrstumas buvo tikrinamas daugeliu vairi vaiko veiklos srici tyrimais, patvirtinusiais sudaryto sutrikusio intelekto vaik socializacijos modelio teisingum bei efektyvum. Tyrim rezultat pagrindu pateikiamos pagrindini socializacijos veikl, takojanci pozityvij socializacij, slygos, o taip pat negali vaik ugdymo bei lavinimo pedagoginiai-socialiniai metodai bei bdai, naudingi praktiniam socializacijos modelio gyvendinimui. Esminiai zodziai: Specialij poreiki vaikai, dalyvumas, funkcionavimas, pozityviosios socializacijos modelis, socialin interiorizacija, socialin adaptacija.

vadas

Lietuvoje vykstantys svarbs socialiniai-politiniai, vertybiniai ir teisiniai pokyciai, kuri kontekste keiciasi poziris negaliuosius, j socialin padt ­ siekiama gyvendinti pagrindines negalij teises, padti negaliajam sijungti ir dalyvauti bendruomens gyvenime. Prioritetu specialiojo ugdymo sistemoje tampa specialij poreiki vaik socializacija, kuri mokslinink ( G. Andrejeva, B. Bitinas, C. Cooley, e. Goffman, I. Kon, G. Kvieskien, J. Vaitkevicius) apibdinama kaip ,,procesas ir rezultatas, kai aktyviomis vaiko pastangomis sisavinama socialin patirtis, kuri jis perima aktyviai sveikaudamas su socialine aplinka, is pradzi tik domdamasis, vliau j stebdamas, o dar vliau tiesiogiai sveikaudamas su ja. Is pradzi patirtis yra atgaminama, o vliau interpretuojama ir savitai transformuojama." (A. Juodaityt, 2002, p. 77 ). Taigi, isskiriamos dvi socializacijos proceso dalys: pirmoji ­ socialin individo adaptacija prie socialini ­ kultrini slyg, norm bei vaidmen, socialini grupi bei organizacij ; antroji ­ socialin interiorizacija, kai individas ne tik pasyviai perima socialin patirt, o aktyviai su ja sveikauja, transformuodamas isorin patirt vidin. vairios socializacijos teorijos ( bihevioristin, psichoanalitin, socialinio ismokimo, kognityvin, socialini main ir kt.) akcentuoja subjektyv vaiko asmenybs sveikos su aplinka pobd ir siekia paaiskinti bei pagrsti, koki vidini struktr dka 3

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ir kaip vaiko socialinis patyrimas sveikaujant su aplinka tampa vaiko pozityviais ar negatyviais asmenybs vidiniais dariniais, veikianciais jo komunikacij sistemas bei socialini veiksm procedras. Socializacijos teorijos ir empiriniai tyrimai vaik ugdymo praktik orientuoja tai, kad socializacijos pobd ir pozityvum lemia ir vadovavimas vaiko socializacijai, siekiant socializacijos kokybs. Vaikystje tokiais socializacijos vadovais tampa suaugusieji ir kiti socializacijos agentai ­ bendraamzi grups,bendruomenins institucijos, ziniasklaida. Tad toks dvipusis socializacijos procesas vadinamas pozityvija socializacija, kuri suprantama ,, kaip pozityvi veiksm politika (pozityvios socializacijos scenarijus), kuria remdamiesi tam tikri asmenys ar j grups koreguoja socializacijos subjekt elgsen, siekdami tvirtinti kultros pozityviuosius komponentus ir sudaryti uzkard visuomenei nepriimtin sios kultros element pasekmms."( G.Kvieskien, 2005, p.27). problema. Specialiojo ugdymo sistema specialij poreiki vaik ugdyme pagrindin dmes sutelk integracijos procesus, sutrikimo korekcij, struktruot mokym, palikdama nuosalyje specialij poreiki vaik sveik su aplinka, dl ko jie nesugeba sitraukti socialins veiklos struktras, nepasirengia socialinei savirealizacijai ir savarankiskam gyvenimui. Todl iskyla btinyb analizuoti ir keisti specialij poreiki vaik galimybes ir bdus sveikauti su visais aplinkos elementais, padedanciais siekti geresnio atitikimo tarp negaliojo poreiki ir aplinkos, t. y. socializuotis. Nors specialij poreiki vaik socializacijai bdingi bendrieji socializacijos vaikystje pagrindai, taciau reikalingos ir papildomos socializcijos valdymo strategijos, slygos bei veiksniai, kuriuos istyrus, susisteminus ir buvo sudarytas specialij poreiki vaik pozityviosios socializacijos modelis. Tyrimo objektas ­ 4­21 met sutrikusio intelekto vaik pozityviosios socializacijos bendruomeninje socialins globos institucijoje procesas . Tyrimo tikslas ­ pagrsti specialij poreiki vaik pozityviosios socializacijos model, sudaryt remiantis socializacijos strategij, saltini ir prielaid, slyg bei veiksni tyrim visuma. Tyrimo organizavimas. Socializacijos proceso organizavimas, analiz ir apibendrinimas apm 10-ies met laikotarp, per kur atliktas longitidinis 60ies specialij poreiki vaik socializacijos tyrimas, apimantis dalini socializacijos krypci tyrimus, kuriuose dalyvavo Vilniaus miesto vaik pensiono, dviej Vilniaus miesto specialij mokykl, Specialiojo ugdymo centro 120-imt darbuotoj: specialij ir socialini pedagog, socialinio darbo ir medicinos specialist, uzimtumo veiklos pedagog ir aukltoj. Tyrimo metu vykstantys specialij poreiki vaik socializacijos proceso ypatumai buvo aprasyti ir paskelbti metodini straipsni rinkiniuose ,,Negalij seksualumas(2002), ,,Negalij bendravimas simboli- gest kalba"(2004) ir autors monografijoje ,,Specialij poreiki vaik socializacija" (2005).

Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

1. Specialij poreiki vaik pozityviosios socializacijos modelio prielaidos. Specialij poreiki vaik gyvenimo kokyb priklauso nuo visuomens pozirio negaliuosius, taikomo globos modelio charakteristik: medicininis modelis laiko negaliuosius ligoniais, kuriuos reikia gydyti ir socialiai neutralizuoti; raidos, normalizacijos bei integracijos modeliai orientuoti tai, kad negaliesiems, tame tarpe ir proto negals zmonms bt sudarytos tokios pat galimybs vystytis ir mokytis, kaip ir neturintiems negalios, kad jiems bt prieinami kasdieniniai visuomens gyvenimo aspektai. Siuo metu intensyvja naujo pozirio negalij glob sklaida ­ paramos modelis, kuris akcentuoja funkcin ir socialin negalij integracij, grindziam realiais socialiniais kontaktais su bendruomens nariais ir dalyvavimu bendrame socialiniame gyvenime, individualiu bendravimu. Skirtingus pozirius negalij sveik su aplinka J. Ruskus (2002) pavadino klinikiniu-korekciniu ir socialiniu-interakciniu modeliais ir apibdindamas j skirtumus atskleid socialinio-interakcinio modelio privalumus: poziris negaliuosius pagrstas humanizmo, normalizacijos, gyvenimo kokybs principais, socialini vaidmen valorizacija, inkliuzija. Sio modelio filosofins prielaidos tapo Vilniaus miesto specialij poreiki vaik gyvenimo pensione pagrindu. Remiantis humanistiniu poziriu proto negals zmog bei jo gyvenim, pensione vaikams uztikrinamos tokios slygos: 1) teis normaliai gyventi, neatsizvelgiant tai, koki negali ar sutrikim vaikas turi; 2) bti pripazintam tokiu, koks esi, netgi jei esi kitoks; 3) turti galimyb lavintis pagal savo sugebjimus; 4) gyventi bendrijoje su vienu ar keliais zmonmis; 5) turti teis vienodas gyvenimo slygas( A.Bakk, K. Grunevald, 1997) Proto negals vaik gyvenimo organizavimas pensione pagrstas normalizacijos principais: normalus dienos (miego, valgymo ir pan. laikas) ir met ritmas(atostogos, darbas, svents); darbo, poilsio ir gyvenimo viet atskyrimas; amziaus tarpsni ypatum supratimas( vaikas, paauglys, suaugs, pagyvens zmogus); pagarba individualiems poreikiams; ,,seimyninio" tipo socialin edukacin aplinka; pagarba kontaktui tarp dviej lyci; seimos ir specialist bendradarbiavimas; normali ekonomini slyg uztikrinimas( B. Nirj, 1969). Organizuojant specialij poreiki vaik pozityvij socializacij atsizvelgta mokslinink (A. Alisauskas, M. Atkinson, J.Ambriukaitis, A. Bagdonas, V. Bursuck, I. elijosien, R. Ivoskuvien, J. Kauffman ir kt) isskiriam dviej socializacijos pusi ­ pozityvios socialins aplinkos sudarymo ir asmens adaptacijos aplinkoje svarb, kurios vadinamos negalij gyvenimo kokybs principais: isskiriamos dvi socializacijos proceso kintamj grupes: 1-a grup ­ objektyvs kintamieji, susij su socialins aplinkos slygomis ir asmens sveika su jomis, t. y. veiklos sritys, socialinis tinklas, asmeninio pasirinkimo galimybs, institucin aplinka; 2-a grup ­ subjektyvs kintamieji, orientuoti individuali poreiki tenkinim ir sukeliamus emocinius rysius, takojancius socialini santyki pltr, t.y. komunikacija, savarankiskumas, taSPeCIALIJ POReIKI VAIK POZITyVIOSIOS SOCIALIZACIJOS MODeLIS

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patumas. Visi isvardinti socializacijos kintamieji yra svarbs, taciau j reiksm ir taka yra individuals ir saviti, todl ir objektyvij kintamj gyvendinimas priklauso nuo subjektyviosios gyvenimo patirties, kuri padeda isorinius poveikius ,,perdirbti" vidin, ko pasekoje zmogus gyja socialin status ir is individo tampa asmenybe. Tad specialij poreiki vaik socializacijoje isryskja trys pagrindins socializacijos kryptys, kurios ir sudaro socializacijos modelio pagrind: 1) socialin adaptacija, kurios turin sudaro socialini poreiki patenkinimo dinamika; 2) asmens aktyvumas, kuris pasireiskia dalyvaujant ir sveikaujant su gyvenimo tikrove; 3)socialini poreiki ir veiklos skatinimas bei organizavimas. 2. praktin socializacijos modelio struktra. Mokslininkai (U. Bronfenbrenner, 1977; N. Dezin, 1997; J. Gardner, 1992; Ch. Zastrov, 1999;) socializacijos procese akcentuojantys adaptacin sveik tarp asmens ir aplinkos, analizuojantys tos sveikos esm ir pasekmes abiems dalyviams , veda socialins ekologijos paradigm ir isskiria vaik socializacij nulemiancius veiksnius: nustatyti bendriausias socializacijos slygas( A. Davis,1984), visuomens kultros tak( L. Krappmann, 1991), socialin-ekonomin teritorijos status(H. Rolf, 1980). Siloma atkreipti dmes sesias vaik socializacijos sritis:1) socializacijos slygas vietinje bendruomenje; 2) seimos struktr ir jos nari pozicijas vaiko atzvilgiu; 3) seimos nari asmenybines charakteristikas: 4) vaik ugdymo stili seimoje;5) vaik poreiki ir elgsenos pozymius;6) vaik elges kitose staigose. Analizuodami kiekvien is si srici, pastebjome, kad mokslinink pozicijos dl socializacij nulemianci veiksni skiriasi: vieni labiau akcentuoja seimos tak vaiko socializacijai, kiti sieja vaiko elges su ,,kognityvins veiklos strategija"(L. Krappmannas, 1991), treti issamiau aptaria socializacijos slygas, kurias nulemia tokie vaiko mokjimai, kaip kalba, orientavimasis socialinse situacijose, ,,matomas" elgesys ugdymo institucijose ir kt. Apibendrindami mokslinink silomus bendriausius socializacijos veiksni klasifikavimo variantus mes turjome atsizvelgti papildomus specializuotus veiksnius, susijusius su pensione gyvenanciais vaikais: 1) specialij poreiki tenkinimo ypatumus, 2) socialinio funkcionavimo ribotumus, 3) deprivacijos ypatumus, 4) dalyvavimo veiklose aplinkybes. Rmms Tarptautine yd ,veikl ir dalyvumo klasifikacijos koncepcija-ICIDH2(1999), kurioje pateiktas biopsichosocialinio (A. Bagdonas, 1999) negalumo modelis padeda vertinti vaiko galimybes dalyvauti veiklose, isskirti ir vertinti socialini veiksni tak negaliojo gyvenime. Tokiu bdu pazin ir vertin vairi veiksni struktras bei j elementus isskyrme Vilniaus miesto vaik pensione gyvenanci(likusi be tv globos nuo gimimo) specialij poreiki vaik socializacijos veiksnius, pozymius bei rodiklius, kuriuos apjungus visum sudarme pensiono vaik pozityviosios socializacijos model ( 1 lentel). 6

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1 lentel Sutrikusio intelekto vaik pozityviosios socializacijos modelis Socializacijos Socializacijos veikl Socializacijos veiklas veiklos pozymiai takojancios slygos 1. Bendravimas 1.1.Komunikacijos ko- 1.1.1.Suvokimo lavinimas kyb 1.1.2.Simboli-gest kalbos (alternatyviosios komunikacijos) taikymas 1.2.emocij raiska 1.2.1.Prieraisumo lavinimas 1.2.2.Gero emocinio klimato sudarymas

1.3.Tarpasmeniniai san- 1.3.1.Socialini gdzi lavinimas tykiai 1.3.2.Adaptyvaus elgesio formavimas 2. Sveika su aplin- 2.1.Dalyvavimas ka 2.1.1 Individuali program sudarymas 2.1.2.Veiklos parinkimas bei jos pritaikymas

2.2.Aplinkos pritaiky- 2.2.1.Asmenins erdvs sukrimas mas 2.2.2.Patalp struktravimas 2.3.Rysiai su bendruo- 2.3.1.Bendruomens institucij bei j veikl mene pazinimas 2.3.2.Socialini kontakt vairov 3. Socialinis elge- 3.1.Stimuliacijos meto- 3.1.1.Adekvaci vaiko raidai metod taikymas sys d taikymas 3.1.2.Natralios ir aktualios aplinkos bei gyvenimo situacij panaudojimas 3.2.Lytiskumo proble- 3.2.1.Seksualinis vaik elgsenos stebjimas ir m sprendimas individualus koregavimas 3.2.2.Darbuotoj ir negalij lytiskai orientuotas mokymas (is) 3.3.Zaidimo gebjim 3.3.1.Zaidim aplinkos krimas lavinimas 3.3.2.elgsenos formavimas socialiniuose zaidimuose

Is pateiktos lentels matyti, kad specialij poreiki vaik socializacijos modelio pagrind sudaro vaiko veikla ir dalyvumas, kurie derinami su negaliojo funkcij ribotumais ir aplinkos pozymiais. Veikla, kaip teigiama ICIDH-2 koncepcijoje(1999), tai vaiko funkcionavimas, veikimas vairiose gyvenimo srityse: 1) zirjimo, klausymo ir atpazinimo; 2)mokymosi, zini taikymo ir uzduoci atlikimo; 3) komunikacins veiklos; 4)judesi veiklos; 5) judjimas aplinkoje; 6kasdienio gyvenimo veiklos; 7) bSPeCIALIJ POReIKI VAIK POZITyVIOSIOS SOCIALIZACIJOS MODeLIS

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tinosios prieziros ir nam apyvokos veiklos; 8) tarpasmenin elgsena; 9) reagavimas ypatingas situacijas ir j veikimas; 10) naudojimasis pagalbinmis priemonmis bei technika. Integruojant sias veiklas 3-ys veikl kryptys ­ bendravimas, sveika su aplinka, socialinis elgesys pasirinktos socializacijos rodikliais, kuri kiekvienas turi savo pozymius. Isskirtieji pozymiai atspindi vaiko dalyvum ­ sitraukim gyvenimo situacijas, kurios, pagal ICIDH-2(1999), skirstomos 7-ias grupes: 1) dalyvumas prizirint save; 2)judamasis dalyvumas; 3)informacinis dalyvumas; 4)dalyvuma socialiniuose santykiuose; 5)dalyvumas mokymosi, darbo, laisvalaikio ir dvasinio gyvenimo srityse; 6) ekonominis dalyvumas; 7)dalyvumas pilietiniame ir bendruomens gyvenime. Siekiant praktinio socializacijos veikl-rodikli bei j pozymi taikymo buvo numatytos socializacijos veiklas takojancios slygos, atskleidziancios pedagoginiosocialinio darbo kryptis bei metodus vaik ugdytojams. Sukurtas socializacijos modelis specialij poreiki ugdymo bei globos institucijai tapo kaip orientyras, padjs sistemiskai apjungti visum vidinius ir isorinius poveikius vaikams tiek teoriniame, tiek ir praktiniame lygmenyse. Kiekvieno pateikto socializacijos modelio elemento pagrstumas buvo tikrinamas pagal toki organizuojam veikl schem: vaik stebjimas ­ diagnostinis tyrimas ­ atitinkamos krypties pedagogins-socialins veiklos bei poveiki organizavimas-pokyci tyrimas ­ rezultat apibendrinimas. Socializacijos proceso bei modelio efektyvumas taip pat buvo vertintas atskir vaik gyvenimo srici raidos tyrimais: vaik savarankiskumo ir socialini gdzi, suvokimo ir komunikacijos kokybs, adaptyvaus elgesio, zaidimo gebjim, gero klimato ,,seimose" poveikio vaik emocinei raidai ir kt.

Isvados

1. Sudarytame specialij poreiki vaik pozityviosios socializacijos modelyje isskirti socializacijos veiklos-rodikliai ir j pozymiai bei juos takojancios slygos yra svarbiausios vaik socializacijos procese. Pltojant kiekvien socializacijos veikl krypt rekomenduojama: 1.1. Sudaryti negaliems vaikams tinkamas b e n d r a v i m o p r i e l a i d a s: a) gerinti komunikacijos kokyb ir lavinti suvokim panaudojant simboli ir gest kalb; b) sudaryti slygas vaik emocij raiskai kuriant ger emocin klimat vaiko seimoje ir jo veiklos grupje, lavinant vaiko prieraisum prie j auginancio-globojancio asmens; c) padti uzmegzti ir palaikyti tarpasmeninius santykius su bendraamziais ir suaugusiaisiais, lavinti vaik socialinius bei savarankiskumo gdzius ir formuoti j adaptyv elges. 8

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1.2. Organizuoti vaiko s v e i k s u a p l i n k a: a) pltoti vaiko socialinius kontaktus bei rysius su vairiais zmonmis ir bendruomeninmis institucijomis bei j veikla; b) sudaryti slygas vaikui dalyvauti ,,tolimos" ir ,,artimos" bendruomens veikloje ir planuoti bei derinti veikl individualiose vaiko socializacijos programose; c) pritaikyti aplink vaiko socialini bei bazini poreiki tenkinimui ir dalyvavimui veiklose, struktrinant patalpas ir sukuriant jose asmenines erdves, parenkant reikalingas ir atitinkancias vaiko raid bei sutrikimus priemones. 1.3. formuoti ir modifikuoti vaik s o c i a l i n e l g e s : a) taikyti adekvacius vaiko raidai ir galimybms stimuliacijos metodus ir panaudoti natralias vaiko gyvenimo situacijas; b) sprsti vaik lytiskumo problemas stebint ir individualiai koreguojant vaik seksualin elgsen, mokant darbuotojus ir negaliuosius, kaip suprasti seksualin raisk ir sprsti iskylancius probleminius klausimus dl seksualumo; c) lavinti vaiko gebjimus zaisti, sukuriant palanki zaidim aplink, panaudojant zaidimus vaiko elgsenai formuoti ir koreguoti. 2. Specialij poreiki vaik socializacijos skm lemia geros vadovavimo socializacijos veiklai ir institucijai strategijos: 1) pozityviosios socializacijos veiklos modelio(-i)sudarymas bei perspektyv (misijos, vizijos, tiksl, uzdavini) numatymas; 2) organizacijos intelektini ir materialini, laiko ir aplinkos istekli analiz ir tinkamas valdymas; 3) darbuotoj motyvacijos bei nusiteikimo darbui tyrimas ir j kompetencijos didinimas, tobulinant asmenines darbuotoj charakteristikas ir vertinant j kvalifikacij (zinias, gebjimus, vertybes), mobilizuojant darbuotojus socialinms-pedagoginms novacijoms gyvendinti.

Literatra

1. 2. Atstovavimo sutrikusios raidos zmoni teisms pagrindai. ­ Vilnius, 2003. Bagdonas A. Tarptautin yd, veikl ir dalyvumo klasifikacija: Negalij ir funkcionalumo matmen vadovlio BeTA ­ 1 apmatai. ­ Vilnius, 1999. 3. Bakk A. Grunevald K. Globa. ­ Vilnius, 1997. 4. Bitinas B. Aukljimo teorija ir technologija. ­ Vilnius, 2004. 5. Cooley Ch. Human nature and social order. ­ New york, 1962. 6. Davis A. Socialization and Adolescent Personality. ­ Chicago, 1994. 7. cerniauskait D. Gintilien G. Adaptyvaus elgesio vertinimo svarba diagnozuojant vaiko protin atsilikim. ­ Medicina-36, 2000. 8. Galkien A. Pedagogin sveika integruoto ugdymo slygomis. ­ Siauliai, 2003. 9. Juodaityt A. Socializacija ir ugdymas vaikystje. ­ Vilnius, 2002. 10. Kvieskien G. Pozityvioji socializacija. ­ Vilnius, 2005. 11. Krappman L. Soziologische Dimensionen der Identitat. ­ Stuttgart, 1991.

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12. Nirje B. The normalization principe and its human management implications. ­ Baltimor, 1969. 13. Rolff H. Socialization and Auslese durch die Schule. ­ Heidelberg, 1980. 14. Ruskus J. Negals fenomenas. ­ Siauliai, 2002. 15. Vaicekauskien V. Specialij poreiki vaik socializacija. ­ Vilnius, 2005. 16. Vaitkevicius J. Socialins pedagogikos pagrindai. ­ Vilnius, 1995. . Steman C. Socialinio darbo su proto negalios vaikais pagrindai. ­ Vilnius, 1999.

teikta 2007 09 05

Violeta Vaicekauskien ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) daktar, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros docent; mokslini interes sritys: socialini darbuotoj rengimo prielaidos, socialins globos bei pagalbos kokybs vertinimas; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el p.: [email protected]

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SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Romas PRAKAPAS, renata KATINAIT

NUTEIST ASMEN RESOCIALIzACIJA: SOCIALIN KOMUNIKACIJA IR EDUKACINI LKEScI realizaViMas

Anotacija. Straipsnyje analizuojama nuteist asmen resocializacijos problema. Atskleidziamos resocializacijos proceso pozityvum ir efektyvum skatinancios slygos: nuolatinis procesas, tstinumas, specialist kvalifikacijos klimas ir pan. Apibendrinta mokslin literatra iliustruojama empirinio tyrimo duomenimis. Pateikiant tyrimo duomenis daromos isvados, kad nuteistieji turi isreikstus edukacinius poreikius. Be to, nuteisti asmenys, kuri issilavinimas yra zemesnis nei vidurinis, vykdo daugiausia nusikaltim; kad jaunesniojo amziaus (18­24 met) kalinti asmenys labiau motyvuoti profesiniu poziriu nei kit amziaus grupi tiriamieji. Analizuojant tyrimo duomenis pristatoma, kad nuteistieji, kurie buvo aukljami savo biologini tv seimoje, dazniau palaiko siltus ir atvirus tarpusavio santykius su tvais nei tie, kurie augo ne savo biologinje seimoje. Taip pat dauguma kalint asmen projektuoja savo ateit laisvs atmimo vietoje (70 %.). Daugiau nei 60 %. respondent planuoja isj laisv pragyvenimo saltinius uzsitikrinti teistais bdais. Esminiai zodziai: socializacija, resocializacija, reintegracija, nuteisti asmenys.

Aktualumas ir problema. Globali erdvi ir jose vykstanci transformacij, kaip kiekybini ir kokybini pokyci, slygojanci visuomens is esms naujos bsenos susiformavim, pasekoje siandienin visuomen naujai vertina pavoj ir rizikos vairov. B. Melnikas (2002) teigia, kad tai esmin visuomens saugumo ir stabilumo uztikrinimo aplinkyb. Taciau, pasak Z. Bauman (2002), rpinimasis asmeniniu ,,apsaugotumu" tarsi skatina propaguoti normas ir draudimus. Visame pasaulyje didja valstybi biudzet islaidos ,,statymo ir tvarkos pajgoms", daugiausia nuolatiniams policijos briams ir kaljim tarnyboms. Tuo tarpu dar XX a. devintajame desimtmetyje rodyta, kad veiksnumo apribojimo, atbaidymo ir bausms teorijos yra logiskai ydingos ir empiriskai nerodomos (Mathiesen, 1990). Nuteist ir grzusi is kalinimo staig asmen socialin integracija ­ viena is ndienos visuomens problem. Pazymtina tai, kad Lietuvos pagal nuteist asmen skaici nereprezentuoja statistiniai rodikliai tarptautinse suvestinse uzimantys vienas is pirmaujanci pozicij (Sakalauskas, 2005). Pastaruoju metu mokslinje edukologinje literatroje diskutuojama apie resocializacijos fenomen (Merkys, Ruskus, Juodraitis, 2002; Kvieskien, 2005). Be to, atkreiptinas dmesys Kanados, Skandinavijos ir kt. sali pazangi konkrecios srities patirt, suponuojanci nuteist asmen reintegracijos proceso darn vyksm. Kaip liudija europos patirtis, daugjant nuteistj skaiciui visuomenje, lygiagreciai kyla ir kriminogeninis lygis: visuomenje prasideda psichosocia8

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lini yd pltra, kuri laikui bgant tampa vis sunkiau kontroliuojama (Stasinskas, 2005). J. Dermontas (2005) pabrzia, kad statym ir bausmi grieztinimas negali sustabdyti nusikalstamumo, o atvirksciai ­ tik paruosia palanki dirv jo plitimui. Atskleidziant nepalanki minimos socialins rizikos grups atzvilgiu dabartin situacij, pristatoma grieztesnms bausmi normoms lygiagreti laisvs atmimo bausmi reabilitacijos alternatyva ­ socialin reabilitacija arba resocializacija, kaip visateisio piliecio ugdymas, reikalinga nuteisto asmens maksimaliam funkcionavimui, naudingumui, vertingumui tiek sau paciam, tiek seimai, tiek ir visuomenei. europos Taryba kovoja uz laisvs atmimo viet sistemos humanizavim ir rengia valstybms narms rekomendacijas, kaip pagerinti kalinam asmen laikymo slygas. (1987 m. vasario 12 d. europos Tarybos Ministr Komitetas prim rekomendacij Nr. R (87) 3 ,,europos kalinimo taisykls"). Vis dazniau nagrinjami klausimai tiek politiniu europos sjungos, tiek ir nacionaliniais salies lygmenimis, susij su arestuot asmen laikymu, lygtiniu paleidimu, ilgalaikmis laisvs atmimo bausmmis nubaust kalini laikymo rezimu, svarstomos vairios alternatyvios bausms, nesusijusios su laisvs atmimu. Lietuvoje esanti nuteist ir grzusi is kalinimo staig asmen resocializacijos sistema nra tobula. Atskirus minimos problemos aspektus tyrinja teiss moksl (Michailovic, 2001; Kiskis, 2001; Uscila, 2003; Dermontas, 2005 ir kt.), socialinio ugdymo (Ruskus, 2002; Kvieskien, 2005, Kuginyt-Arlauskien, 2006 ir kt.) atstovai, taciau stokojama mokslini tyrim, skirt atskleisti nuteistj resocializacijos lkescius. Be to, dar nra pakankamai atskleist pozityvi socialins integracijos mintos socialins atskirties grups atzvilgiu sprendini (Zin., 2004, Nr. 169-6223). Nagrinjama problema ­ nuteist asmen resocializacijos procesas. Todl straipsnio tikslas yra siekis atskleisti nuteist asmen resocializacijos edukacinius lkescius, socialins komunikacijos inspiruotus. Nagrinjamos problemos tyrimo objektas ­ nuteist asmen resocializacijos lkesciai. Tyrimas atliktas europos Bendrij iniciatyvos equal programos projekto ,,Kryzkel: koalicija uz lygi konkurencini galimybi darbo rinkoje stiprinim", remiamo Lietuvos Respublikos ir is dalies europos Sjungos europos socialinio fondo iniciatyva. Tyrimo tikslin grup ­ 113 Lukiski tardymo izoliatoriuje-kaljime kalinci asmen (vyr), kuriems iki isjimo laisv liko iki vieneri met laiko (Zaleskien ir kt., 2006). Resocializacija. Kaip zinia, prevencijos sistemos paskirtis yra reguliuoti neigiam socialins aplinkos tak, vairaus lygio kriminogeninius procesus ir reiskinius, slygojancius teisi pazeidim padarymo situacijas ir asmenybs deformacijos apraiskas. Socialiniai nukrypimai ir dezadaptacija yra netinkamo socialinio vystymosi ­ sociopatogenezs, takotos vairi neigiam aplinkos veiksni, aukljimo, psichobiologini ypatybi ­ rezultatas (, 1993). Netinkamo socialinio vystymosi pasekmje formuojasi atitinkamos elgesio formos, pavyzdziui, susij su taisykli pazeidimu ir nusikalstamumu. 8

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Resocializacijos priemons priskirtinos vlyvajai nusikalstamumo prevencijai ir taikomos tiems, kurie jau yra padar vien ir daugiau nusikaltim (Jatkevicius, 2003). Jos taikytinos tiems nuteistiems, kurie atlik vis arba dal laisvs atmimo bausms, isjo laisv, ir kuriems reikia resocializacijos ir reintegracijos bendruomen ir visuomen. Si prevencijos grandis ­ resocializacija ­ slygiskai vadinama pokriminalins justicijos terminu, kadangi ji baudziamuosiuose ar bausmi vykdymo statymuose, priskirtuose kriminalinei justicijai, praktiskai nra reglamentuota. Resocializacijos priemons pradedamos taikyti, kai asmuo formaliai netenka rysio su kriminaline justicija, ir kriminalinei justicijai priskiriamos smurtinio nusikalstamumo prevencijos priemons, reglamentuotos baudziamosios, baudziamojo proceso ir bausmi vykdymo teiss norm, tokiam asmeniui jau praktiskai nebra taikytinos. I. Michailovic (2001) teigimu, resocializacija traktuotina kaip aukljimas, kurio uzdavinys yra socializacija.

1 schema. Resocializacijos procesas

Resocializacijos esm yra kokybiniai pakeitimai, kuri pasekm ­ pritarimas normoms ir kultros vertybms. Resocializacijos procesas btinas tuomet, kai individo socializacija jau kazkada vyko, bet vliau dl vykdyto nusikaltimo susilpnjo, ir tais atvejais kai individui dl vairi aplinkybi nepavyko pasiekti tinkamos tam tikru gyvenimo etapu socializacijos. Resocializacija (zr. 1 schem) ­ tai etapas, einantis po desocializacijos, ir reiskiantis nauj, vertybi, norm, vaidmen ir elgesio taisykli mokym bei mokymsi. Vadinasi, pirmiausia praeinamas socializacijos etapas (kultrini norm ir socialini vaidmen sisavinimo procesas), po to dl nepalanki aplinkybi, taip pat dl buvimo laisvs atmimo institucijoje, tampa desocializuotas (t. y. atpranta nuo sen vertybi, norm, vaidmen ir elgesio taisykli), ir galiausiai jam reikalinga resocializacija (, 1998). Analizuodami nusikaltusi nepilnameci resocializacijos apraiskas, tyrjai (Merkys, Juodraitis, Ruskus ir kt, 2002, 29­31) pabrzia resocializacijos ir ugdymo proces holistiskum kaip alternatyvi misij bausmi ir izoliacijos priemones taikancioms penitencinms institucijoms. Resocializacija kaip ir ugdymas laikomi daugiamaciu, kryptingu, is dalies kompeteting specialist (pedagog, vadybinink ir kt.) valdomu procesu. Mint samprat papildo R. Kalendra (2006), kuris, tyrindamas asmen, nu83 NUTeIST ASMeN ReSOCIALIZACIJA

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teist laisvs atmimu, nuolatinio ugdymo ir mokymosi prielaidas Lietuvoje, teigia, kad resocializacija ­ permanentinio mokymosi ir ugdymosi bdas, skatinantis efektyvesn grzimo normal gyvenim laisvje proces. Analogiskai, nagrindama teistvarkos pazeidimus padariusi nepilnameci resocializacijos trikdzius, G. Liaudinskien (2005) resocializacij vardija kaip kompleksin, integral proces su daugiapakops programos turiniu. Panasi paralel tarp socializacijos ir resocializacijos proces pastebi A. Juodaityt (2002). Analizuodama socializacijos fenomen, autor isskiria pirmin ir antrin socializacijas. Pirmins socializacijos procesas paprastai vyksta ankstyvu zmogaus gyvenimo periodu, t.y. vaikystje. Socialini fakt pagrindimas dabartimi ­ specializavimasis profesinje srityje, gijant atitinkamus socialins komunikacijos gdzius ir reikiamas zinias ­ priskiriamas antrinei socializacijai, kuri, pasak autors (Juodaityt, 2002, 50­51), prilyginama resocializacijai. Resocializacija ­ tai suaugusi zmoni antrin socializacija, kurios pagrind sudaro zini, vertybi, norm, ideal, status, vaidmen, gdzi transformavimasis ir nauj gijimas. ypac ryskiai resocializacija pastebima tada, kai zmogus patenka naujas situacijas (pvz., kaljim, nusikaltli grupuot, psichiatrijos ligonin arba, priesingai, iseina is mintos aplinkos). Be to, pazymtina, kad laisvs atmimo bausmei taikomos resocializacijos alternatyvos, kaip prevencins priemons, reikalingum pagrindzia kalinimo staig tyrimai (Vileikien, Gecnien, 1999), is kuri matyti, kad jas grzta apie 50 procent pakartotinai nusikaltusi asmen. Viena pagrindini toki recidyvini nusikaltim priezasci ­ profesini bei socialini gdzi praradimas. Dar vien pakartotinio nusikalstamumo slygojanci aplinkyb isskiria S. Kuklianskas (1995), teigdamas, kad nuteistj resocializacijos mechanizme egzistuoja tokie trkumai, kaip proceso trkinjimas, pozityvi slyg grzti darbo rink nebuvimas, nevyriausybini organizacij pasyvumas, specialist profesionalumo stoka ir pan. Inovatyvi resocializacija apima plat vairi institucij, dirbanci su socialins rizikos asmenimis, tinkl. Pozityvaus tinklo veikimas, pirmiausia neatsiejamas nuo teisingumo, socialini tarnyb, penitencini staig darbuotoj reikiam kompetencij ugdymo bei kvalifikacijos klimo. Programa (Zin., 2004, Nr. 23-709) numato ,,tobulinti organizacij, teikianci nuteistiesiems ir asmenims, paleistiems is laisvs atmimo viet, socialins reabilitacijos ir integracijos visuomen paslaugas, tinklo infrastruktr, ugdyti j gebjimus teikti sias paslaugas". Vidin resocializacijos proceso sistem sudaro vairs specialistai sveikoje su nepilnameciu, jo tvais, jo socialiniu tinklu. G. Liaudinskien (2005) numat penkias pamatines resocializacijos srities specialybes: pedagogai, socialiniai darbuotojai (socialiniai pedagogai ­ aut.), psichologai, teisininkai ir policijos pareignai, kurie atstovauja teissaugos ir socioedukacines institucijas. Vadinasi, tikslinga bt paminti, kad nuo mint specialist turim kompetencij priklauso skminga socialins rizikos grupi asmen resocializacija. 8

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Siekiant pozityvios nuteistj resocializacijos, svarbu ne tik kelti penitencini institucij personalo kvalifikacij, ugdyti reikiamas kompetencijas, taciau dert atsizvelgti ir paties nusikaltusio asmens turimus lkescius. Dabartins lietuvi kalbos zodyne (1993: 374) ,,lkestis" aiskinamas dvejopai: ,,laukimas" arba ,,viltis". ,,Laukimo" svoka psichologine prasme apibdinama kaip lkesci, tikjimosi sistema, apimanti socialines sveikas ir sankcijas tarp grups nari, kuri atsiskleidzia tuomet, kai individas tikisi is kit grups nari elgesio modelio, atitinkancio j paci vaidmenis, o kiti grups nariai atitinkamai laukia analogisko minto individo atitikimo jo atliekamam vaidmeniui (Psichologijos zodynas, 1993, 69). Taigi penitencins institucijos darbuotojo tinkamai atliekamas vaidmuo pagal turim kvalifikacij ir kompetencijas gali teigiama linkme motyvuoti nusikaltus asmen keisti visuomenei nepriimtin elgesio model. Tai patvirtina Tolmano teorija (Adair, 2006, 146), skelbianti, kad lkesciai gali daryti tak asmens motyvacijos stiprumui, jei to pasekm uzsibrzto tikslo siekimas, siuo atveju tai galt bti nuteistj skminga resocializacija. Vadinasi, penitencinse institucijose resocializacijos proceso efektyvum gali nulemti darbuotoj ir nuteistj tarpusavio santykiai, grindziami motyvacine paskata. Todl, nuteistiems asmenims skirtos resocializacijos programos/projektai pasiteisins tuomet, kai jos/jie atitiks mint asmen turimus lkescius. Apibendrinant mint autori teiginius, resocializacija laikytina tikslingu holistiniu procesu, siekiant pozityvaus grzimo visuomenin gyvenim per kompleksins pagalbos bei socioedukacini priemoni prizm. Socialin komunikacija ir edukaciniai nuteistj lkesciai. Tyrimo organizavimas rmsi keliomis prielaidomis: 1) asmenys, kurie dl nusikalstamos veikos ilg gyvenimo laikotarp praleisdami kalinimo staigose praranda dal savo turt socialini ir profesini gdzi; 2) Lietuvoje trksta tikslios informacijos apie trkstam gdzi ir gebjim poreik asmenims, kuriems iki isjimo laisv lik maziau negu vieneri metai, rengiantis reintegracijai visuomen. Be to, zinoma, kad dalis nuteistj tam tikr laik buv izoliuoti nuo visuomens, vliau, atlikus bausm ir grzus is laisvs atmimo viet, nerodo iniciatyvos ieskant darbo arba tiesiog yra prarad laisvje gyvenantiems pilieciams prastus socialinio bendravimo gdzius ir nesugeba savistoviai tinkamai bendrauti su artimaisiais, draugais, darbdaviu. Remiantis mintomis teorinmis prielaidomis, buvo atlikta 113 Lukiski tardymo izoliatoriuje-kaljime kalinci asmen (t. y. vis, kuriems iki isjimo laisv liko vieneri metai ir maziau) anonimin anketin apklausa. Anketine apklausa siekta atskleisti ne tik trkstamus nuteistj poreikius, bet ir j turimus gdzius, gebjimus, mokymosi motyvacij ­ visa tai, kas daro tak resocializacijos procesui. Anket sudar keturi klausim blokai. Pirmame bloke pateikiami klausimai apie respondento bendrus socialinius/demografinius duomenis, t. y. amzius, tautyb, turimas issilavinimas, nusikalstamumo pobdis ir pan. Antro bloko klausimais siekta surinkti informacij apie nuteistojo socialins komunikacijos poreikio

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tenkinim ir jo bendravimo ypatumus su seima, draugais, staigos darbuotojais ir pan. Klausimai apie profesines esamas ir bsimas tendencijas suformuluoti treciame bloke. Paskutiniu bloku buvo norima issiaiskinti mokymosi motyvacij. Didzij tyrime dalyvavusi respondent dal (41,6 %) sudar 18­24 met asmenys, kurie, kaip parod tyrimo rezultatai, dazniausiai (22 %) patenka laisvs atmimo vietas su pirmu teistumu. Be to, sios grups atstovams, lyginant su kitomis amziaus grupmis, bdingas daznesnis (trys ir daugiau) teistumas ­ taip nurod 15 % respondent. Maziausi tiriamj dal (4,4 %) sudar 61 met ir vyresnio amziaus apklausti asmenys. Tiriant nuteistj issimokslinim, paaiskjo, kad daugiausiai respondent (41,6 %) turi vidurin, kiek maziau (32,7 %) pagrindin, 17,7 % ­ pradin, ir tik 2,7 % aukstesnj ir aukstj issilavinimus. Pazymtina, kad pirm teistum dazniausiai zymjo asmenys, turintys vidurin (19 %), pagrindin (16 %) ir pradin (13 %) issilavinimus. Reciausiai nusikalstam veik sitraukia aukstesnj (3 %) ir aukstj (3 %) issilavinimus turintys asmenys. Analizuojant nuteistj bsimuosius gyvenimo planus, pastebta, kad dauguma respondent (apie 70 %) projektuoja savo ateit bdami laisvs atmimo vietoje. Galima tendencija, kad minti asmenys isj laisv planuoja veikti pozityvia linkme (zr. 1 pav.).

1,8 29,1 43,4 Visk apm st Siek tiek apm st Apie tai negalvojo Neatsak

25,7

1 pav. Bsimj gyvenimo plan vertinimas (%)

Vertinant respondent artimiausios ateities planus, esminiu iseities tasku yra laikomas issilavinimas ir jo taka bsim projekcij realizacijai, j bvio gerinimui (Zr. 1 lentel).

86

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1 lentel gyto issilavinimo taka ateities projektavimui (N 113) ateities planai Susi- silieti Nezino gyti baigti Issilavinimas Susiras- kurti ssigyti Sukurti arba moks- profeti darb savo kming bst seim neatsalus sij versl versl k Pradinis 5 Pagrindinis 0 3 5 Vidurinis 6 3 5 3 6 Aukstesnysis Aukstasis

Is atlikto tyrimo duomen matyti, kad jaunesniojo amziaus kalinti asmenys labiau motyvuoti profesiniu poziriu lyginant su kitomis amziaus grupmis. Baigti mokslus pasiryz (13 %), susirasti darb (12 %) jaunesniojo amziaus respondent, reciau nurodomas noras gyti profesij (6 %). Taciau atkreiptinas dmesys tai, kad jaunesniojo amziaus tiriamj grup dazniausiai (7 %) is vis tyrime dalyvavusi grupi teigia, kad nezino kuo uzsiims isj laisv. Toks rezultat pasiskirstymas isryskina pastarj asmen grup, kuriai ypac aktuali ir reiksminga specialist pagalba. Sie galt koordinuoti skmingos resocializacijos programas ir tarpininkauti jas realizuojant. Taciau pazymtina tai, kad didzioji dalis tiriamj nepakankamai suvokia galim specialist pagalb (zr. 2 pav.). Vertinant duomen apie socialins pagalbos poreikio aktualum, kyla btinyb papildomai tirti socialini darbuotoj turim profesin kompetencij bei kelti j kvalifikacij specifins darbo krypties plotmje.

15 40

Didelis Mazas Pagalbos nereiks Nezinau

36 9

2 pav. Bsimas socialins pagalbos poreikis (%)

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Kaip atskiras socialins komunikacijos aspektas tyrimo metu buvo tirtas nuteistj santykis su seima. Gaut rezultat analiz atskleid, kad asmenys, kurie augo savo biologinje seimoje, vyraujant pozityviems tarpusavio santykiams, pasizymi didesniu iniciatyvumu, turi zymiai daugiau ryzto, lyginant su kitais tyrime dalyvavusiais respondentais. Tokiose seimose aug (37,2 %) yra link susirasti darb, 19,5 % ­ baigti mokslus, taip rodydami, kad supranta mokslo ir darbo svarb, kad vykt skminga socializacija visuomenje. Seimos aukljimo stilius tiesiogiai susijs su sveikiniais santyki aspektais (zr. 3 pav.). Taigi pastebtina, kad seimos (tv, broli, seser, sutuoktini, vaik) palaikymas tampa svariu kintamuoju, o kartais net ir lemiamu veiksniu nuteistiesiems planuojant savo ateit ir taip uztikrinant skming integracij visuomenin gyvenim.

50 40 30 20 10 0 Gali atvirai bendrauti, atsiverti Gali kreiptis pagalbos Nebendrauja Autoritarin Dem okratin Globos institucija

3 pav. Seimos aukljamosios pozicijos taka socialinei komunikacijai (%)

Analizuojant nuteistj komunikacinius rysius su buvusiais draugais, pazymtina, kad pus (50,4 proc.) tiriamj daznai bendrauja su draugais ir artimais zmonmis laisvje. Taciau atkreiptinas dmesys tai, kad dalis (12,4 proc.) apskritai nebendrauja, o 10,6 proc. nuteistj siuos klausimus neatsak visai. Tai leidzia teigti, kad pastarieji asmenys jaucia psichosocialin diskomfort ir jiems reikalinga specialist pagalba. Siekiant atskleisti nuteist asmen profesinius lkescius, buvo tiriami respondent gyvenimo planai (zr. 4 pav.). Paaiskjo, kad (43,3 %) respondent, visk gerai apgalvojo, (25,7 %) ­ numat bendrus bruozus, (18,6 %) nezino k veiks isj laisv, (10,6 %) apklaustj visai apie tai negalvojo ir (1,8 %) neatsak. Dauguma, o tai sudaro apie 70 % tyrime dalyvavusij, projektuoja savo ateit dar bdami kalinti. Privalu pazymti, kad dl tokio rezultat pasiskirstymo galima tiktis optimistins prognozs, nes minti asmenys isj laisv planuoja kryptingai veikti, o racionali projekcija, tiktina, sumazins rizik pakartotinai sitraukti nusikalstam veik. 88

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10,6 18,6

1,8 43,3

Visk gerai apgalvojo Numat bendrais bruozais Nezino Apie tai negalvojo

25,7

Neatsak

4 pav. Gyvenimo plan vertinimas (%)

Tyrimo duomenys leidzia teigti, kad grzus is laisvs atmimo vietos didzioji dauguma (60,2 %) respondent planuoja teistais bdais uzsidirbti pinig, ­ tai leidzia manyti, kad toks pasirinkimas neleis atsidurti pakartotinai kalinimo staigose. Teistus ir neteistus bdus pasirinko (14,2 %) apklaustj, o neteistus pazymjo (3,5 %) respondent. Taigi, keltina prielaida, kad trecdalis iseisianci laisv apklaustj pateks pakartotinai nusikalstanci asmen rizikos grup. Analizuojant edukacinius poreikius, buvo teiraujamasi galim edukacini perspektyv. Respondent pateikti atsakymai labai vairs ­ nuo siekio baigti mokslus, gyti profesij iki siekio mokytis uzsienio kalbas. Mint poreiki realizavimo optimali slyg krimui ir edukacini strategij kryptingam ir veiksmingam parinkimui svarbs nuteistj mokymosi bd ir form pageidavimai (mokymasis grupje ­ 16 proc., individualus mokymasis ­ 14 proc., euristinis mokymasis ­ 8 proc., paties sudarytas mokymo planas ­ 6 proc. ir pan.). J gilesn analiz suponuoja galim efektyvesni resocializacini strategij krim.

Isvados

­ Pakankamai didelis pakartotinai nusikalstancij ir grztancij nelaisv skaicius, tarp j ir jaunimo, tik byloja apie btinyb Lietuvoje sukurti nuteistj ir grzusi is kalinimo staig asmen resocializacijos sistemos model, perimant pozityvi kit sali patirt, kuris parengt mintus asmenis sitraukti darbo rink ir siekti, kad sios diskriminuojamos grups tapt vienodai konkurencinga darbo jga bei garantuot pilnavert gyvenim laisvje.

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­ Is tyrimo rezultat matyti, kad tie asmenys, kuri issilavinimas yra zemesnis nei vidurinis, vykdo daugiausiai nusikaltim. Reciau nusikalsta asmenys, turintys aukstesn nei vidurin issilavinim. ­ Tyrimu nustatyta, kad nuteistieji, kurie buvo aukljami savo biologini tv seimoje, dazniau palaiko siltus ir atvirus tarpusavio santykius su tvais nei tie, kurie augo ne savo biologinje seimoje. ­ Dauguma kalinci asmen turi isreikstus edukacinius poreikius ir vizij, kaip juos patenkinti. ­ Is apklausos rezultat matyti, kad dauguma kalint asmen projektuoja savo ateit laisvs atmimo vietoje (70 %).

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22. VILeIKIeN, egl; GecNIeN, Svetlana. Kriminalins justicijos poveikis nepilnameci teiss pazeidj asmenybei ir j elgesiui. Vilnius: P.Kalibato I Petro Ofsetas, 999. 83 p. iSbn 9986-8-36-. 23. ZALeSKIeN, Irena; LUKSIeN-BARKAUSKAIT, Zivil; SUBOc, Violeta; BALKUT, Asta. Lukiski tardymo izoliatoriuje ­ kaljime kalinci asmen edukacini poreiki tenkinimo perspektyvos: tyrimo rezultat apzvalga [rankrastis]. Vilnius: 2006. . Alternatyviomis bausmmis nuteistj asmen socialin integracija probleminiuose regionuose. Vilnius: UAB ,,Vaibra", 2005. ISBN 9955-9324-3-0. 5. Dabartins lietuvi kalbos zodynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedij leidykla, 1993. [374] p. ISBN 5-420-01242-1. 6. Nukentjusij asmen ir socialins rizikos grupi socialins apsaugos politika. Is: Socialinis pranesimas 2004. Vilnius: Socialins apsaugos ir darbo ministerija, 2005. 194 [146] p. iSSn 8-30. 27. Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybs nutarimas. ,,Dl Nuteistj ir asmen, paleist is laisvs atmimo viet, socialins adaptacijos 2004­2007 met programos patvirtinimo". (Zin., 00, nr. 3-09), Vilnius: LR Vyriausybs portalas [interaktyvus]. Vilnius: 2004 m. vasario 9 d. Nr. 143, [zirta 2006-10-20]. Prieiga per internet: <http://www. vyriausybe.lt/teises_aktai/files/2004/02/2231.doc>. 8. Psichologijos zodynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedij leidykla, 1993. 368 [69] p. iSbn 5-89950-06-6. 29. ADAIR, John eric. 100 patarim vadovui. 208 [146] p. ISBN 9955-24-068-7. 30. BAUMAN, Zygmunt. Globalization: the Human Consequences. New york: Columbia university Press, 998, p. 36. iSbn 0-3-8-. 31. MATHIeSeN T. Prison on Trial: a Critical Assessment. london, 990. 32. .. . , 1993. 33. .. C . : , 2002. 256 [162] c. ISBN 5-7139-0271-4. 34. , . . . : , 1998, 381 c. ISBN 5-88687-038-5: 9.00.

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Romas prakapas ­ Mykolo Romerio universiteto edukacins veiklos katedros docentas; mokslini interes sritys: deviacija, prevencija, penitencija, pedagogin etika, monitoringas; adresas: Ateities g. 20, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lietuva, el. p.: [email protected] Renata Katinait ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) magistr, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto Socialins pedagogikos katedros asistent; mokslini interes sritys: nuteist asmen socialin integracija, penitencija; adresas: Student g. 39, LT08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected]

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SOCIALINS pEDAGOGINS pAGALbOS KOMANDOS VEIKLOS MODELIS bENDROJO LAVINIMO MOKyKLOJE

Anotacija. Siandieninje visuomenje, patirianciai globalizacijos proces pasekmes, vaik ir jaunimo problemos tampa vis sudtingesns, todl j sprendimui nebeuztenka vieno profesionalo kompetencijos ir pastang. Tai reiskia, jog ir pagalba moksleiviams turi bti kompleksin, apimanti visos mokyklos bendruomens, vairi specialist bei socialini partneri pastangas, nukeiptas vieningos pagalbos strategijos gyvendinim. Todl kiekviena ugdymo institucija turi surasti priemones ir bdus, kaip mobilizuoti organizacijos nari energij ir j gabumus tam, kad bt pasiektas pagrindinis tikslas ­ uztikrintos mokymo ir mokymosi slygos, galinancios gyti kompetencij ir gebjim sprsti problemas bei priimti sprendimus. Vadinasi, socialin pedagogin pagalba neatsiejama nuo komandinio darbo. Svietimo dokumentuose pabrziamas socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimas komandoje, akcentuojama specialist bei ugdytoj, teikianci socialin pedagogin pagalb, komandinio darbo kompetencija, taciau nra apibrzta kaip turt bti konstruojama bei funkcionuoti socialins pedagogins pagalbos komanda bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje, tenkinant mokini socialins pedagogins pagalbos poreikius? Esminiai zodziai: socialins pedagogins pagalbos komanda, socialins pedagogins pagalbos komandos veiklos modelis.

Mokslins problemos pagrindimas. Siandieninje visuomenje, patirianciai globalizacijos proces pasekmes, vaik ir jaunimo problemos tampa vis sudtingesns, todl j sprendimui nebeuztenka vieno profesionalo kompetencijos ir pastang. Tai reiskia, jog ir pagalba moksleiviams turi bti kompleksin, apimanti visos mokyklos bendruomens, vairi specialist bei socialini partneri pastangas, nukeiptas vieningos pagalbos strategijos gyvendinim. Todl kiekviena ugdymo institucija turi surasti priemones ir bdus, kaip mobilizuoti organizacijos nari energij ir j gabumus tam, kad bt pasiektas pagrindinis tikslas ­ uztikrintos mokymo ir mokymosi slygos, galinancios gyti kompetencij ir gebjim sprsti problemas bei priimti sprendimus. Vadinasi, socialin pedagogin pagalba neatsiejama nuo komandinio darbo. Svietimo dokumentuose pabrziamas socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimas komandoje, akcentuojama specialist bei ugdytoj, teikianci socialin pedagogin pagalb, komandinio darbo kompetencija, taciau nra apibrzta kaip turt bti konstruojama bei funkcionuoti socialins pedagogins pagalbos komanda bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje, tenkinant mokini socialins pedagogins pagalbos poreikius? Tikslas. Suprojektuoti hipotetin socialins pedagogins pagalbos komandos veiklos bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje model, atitinkant mokini socialins pedagogins pagalbos poreikius. Tyrimo objektas. Socialin pedagogin pagalba bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje. 93

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Socialins pedagogins pagalbos komandos veiklos modelio konstravimas. ,,Tarptautini zodzi zodyne" (Vaitkevicit, 2001, p. 645) modelis apibrziamas kaip pavyzdys, pagal kur gali veikti masina, organizacija, pramons mon ir pan. Kai kurie mokslininkai nurodo, kad modelis ­ tai sivaizduojama ar praktiskai realizuota sistema, kuri, atvaizduodama tiriamj objekt, duoda mums naujos informacijos apie s objekt (Kricevskij, Dubovskaja, 2001, p. 56). Galima teigti, kad modelis ­ tai slyginis tiriamo objekto vaizdinys, apibdinantis ideali situacij. Vadinasi, SPPK veiklos model galima apibrzti kaip slygin pagalbos proceso valdymo sistem. Komand modelius mokslininkai klasifikuoja pagal vairius kriterijus: dalyvaujanci komandoje institucij skaici, komandos nari atsakomyb, komandos tikslin grup, lyder bei veiklos charakteristikas. Konstruojant SPPK veiklos model atsizvelgta mokykl kaip atvir sistem, kurios kaip organizacijos pagrindinius pozymius lemia rysiai su isorine aplinka; mokyklos vidiniai poreikiai ir galimybs, istekliai, mokyklos bendruomens grupi sveika; esminiai vertybiniai konkrecios mokyklos pagrindai: filosofija, misija, bendri tikslai, strategija bei pedagogins sistemos bendra struktra, turinys, organizacija, technologijos (Targamadz, 1999, p. 22­47; Dobranskien, 2002, p. 70, Dalin, Rolf, Kleekamp, 1999, p. 14­161). Sudarant SPPK veiklos model remtasi: ) socialinio darbo modeliais: bendravimo modeliu, skirtu darbui su seima, siekiant geresns seimos komunikacijos, kai darbuotojas suprantamas kaip komunikacijos modeliuotojas (Satir, 1976); ekologiniu, orientuotu skatinti grupi funkcionavim, organizacines struktras, socialin tinkl bei fizin aplink (Germain, Gitteman, 1980); bendruomens pltros modeliu, skirtu bendruomens galimybi pltojimui ir integracijai, kai problemos sprendziamos kartu su bendruomene ir procese orientuojamasi tyrimus, projektus (Cox, erlick, Rothman, Tropman, 1987); tarpininkavimo modeliu, orientuotu individo sveika su aplinka (Shulman, 1999); socialinio planavimo modeliu, pagrstu bendruomens organizavimu (Cox, erlick, Rothman, Tropman, 1987); uzduoties modeliu, taikomu teikiant trumpalaik pagalb ir sprendziant problemines gyvenimo situacijas (Wiliam, Sanders, Horn, 995). ) grup veikianci kintamj struktros modeliu, kuris suteikia specifiskumo kiekvienos organizacijos veiklos modeliui. 3) C. Lim, H. S. Adelman (1997), J. Dryfoos (1994), M. Kirst (1991), C. R. Uphold ir M. V. Graham (1993) pateiktu mokyklos komandos krimo modeliu, kur sudaro du etapai: nari atranka ir mokyklos situacijos analiz bei komandos veiklos pasirinkimas. Pirmajame etape savanoriskumo principu vyksta komandos nari atranka: komand traukiami mokyklos specialistai, administracija, mokytojai. Mokslininkai pabrzia btinyb traukti komand psichologus, konsultantus, mokyklos socialinius darbuotojus, socialinius pedagogus, medicinos darbuotojus, specialiojo ugdymo personal, admi9

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nistracijos atstovus. Siame etape nagrinjama reali mokyklos situacija, apibrziamos vyraujancios problemos, bendruomens galimybs bei istekliai. Antrajame etape pasirenkama komandos veiklos sritis. Mokslininkai vardija tokias galimas mokyklos komandos veiklos sritis: klass kaip bendruomens stiprinim, pagalb mokiniams ir mokini seimoms, pagalb krizi atvejais ir krizi prevencij, pagalb pereinamuoju laikotarpiu (adaptacija), bendradarbiavimo su seima stiprinim (Lim, Adelman, 1997; Dryfoos, 1995, p. 147­172; Kirst, 1991, p. 615­618; Uphold, Graham ,1993, p. 204­211). 4) D. fisher (1981, p. 33) sisteminiu modeliu, kurio pagrindins sudedamosios dalys: organizacijos valdymas, komandos struktra, kontrol, komunikacija tarp komandos nari ir organizacijos bei organizacijos isors; 5) pedagogins psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelio lygmenimis (Zin., 2003, Nr. 743451), sveikatos konsultavimo tarnyb modeliu (<http://www.chronology.ndo.co.uk>, [zirta 2006 05 20]), kuriuose isskiriami pagalbos lygmenys bei komand sudarymo slygos. Tyrimo metodas ­ ekspert apklausa. ekspert vertinimo metodikos imties tr sudar 20 ekspert, kurie pateik silymus dl SPPK veiklos modelio konstravimo. ekspert apklausos procedra vyko struktrizuoto interviu forma. ekspert vertinimo metodo zingsniai: I. Ekspert atrinkimo procedra. Atrinkti keturi kategorij asmenys, is viso ­ 20 ekspert: penki ekspertai, dirbantys socializacijos, vaiko gerovs srityje ir nuo 2001 met dalyvav socialini pedagog etat vedimo programoje, reng visus dokumentus ir norminius aktus, susijusius su socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimu; penki ekspertai ­ Lietuvos universitet dsytojai, turintys socialini moksl daktaro laipsn, dstomuose teoriniuose kursuose integruojantys socialins pedagogins pagalbos ir specialist komandos temas; penki ekspertai ­ mokykl administracijos atstovai, turintys ne mazesn kaip penkeri met vadybinio darbo patirt, j mokyklose yra veikiancios socialins pedagogins pagalbos grups; penki socialiniai pedagogai, turintys ne mazesn kaip penkeri met darbo patirt, vadovaujantys socialins pedagogins pagalbos grups veiklai mokykloje. II. SPPK veiklos modeliavimas. Struktrizuoto interviu metu ekspertai pateik hipotetin SPPK veiklos model. Interviu metu buvo pateikti atviri klausimai, apimantys hipotetinio SPPK veiklos modelio: 1) SPPK funkcionavimo lygmenis; 2) komandos tiksl; 3) komandos valdym; 4) komandos funkcijas; 5) komandos normas; 6) komandos sudt; 7) socialinius partnerius. IV. Hipotetinio modelio parengimas. Remiantis ekspert pateiktais vertinimais parengiamas hipotetinis SPPK veiklos modelis. Apibendrinant rezultatus, lyginami ekspert teoretik (1 ir 2 ekspert tipai) ir praktik (3 ir 4 ekspert tipai) atsakymai. Tyrimo rezultatai. Atlikus ekspert apklausos turinio analiz, identifikuota 19 urinio kategorijos, kurias sudaro 46 subkategorijos, apibdinancios svarbiausius SPPK veiklos modelio ypatumus.

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1 lentel Ekspert apklausos rezultatai: kategorijos ir subkategorijos eil. Kategoeil. KategoSubkategorijos Subkategorijos nr. rijos nr. rijos 5. Normos Susirinkim . SPPK veiklos lygmenys organizavimas Valdymo Stebsena Vaidmen lygmuo pasiskirstymas Tyrim organizavimas 6. Sudtis Mokyklos specialistai (6) Saviregulia- Pagalba Klasi aukltojai cijos Norm nustatymas Direktorius lygmuo Vykdytoj Veiklos organizavimas Direktoriaus pavaduotojas lygmuo Socialini Bendradarbiavimas Tv atstovas partneri lygmuo Socializacija Mokini atstovas . Tikslas Pagalba Asmuo, atsakingas uz mokyklos neformali veikl Partneryst . Atsiskai- Mokyklos taryba tymas uz Administracija 3. Tikslo Komandos nariai rezultatus Direktorius formuotojas Administracija Darbo grup Mokyklos bendruomen Mokyklos direktorius Mokytoj taryba 8. Atsiskai- Mokyklos taryba . Komandos Koordinavimas ­ funkcijos vadyba tymas uz rezultatus Administracija Konsultavimas ­ pagalba Istekli telkimas ­ Direktorius socialinis pedagoginis projektavimas Prevencin veikla Mokyklos bendruomen Korekcija Mokytoj taryba Tyrim 9. Koman- Pavaldi mokyklos administraorganizavimas dos vieta cijai ir mokyklos tarybai mokyklos Savarankiska Sveikatos priezira struktGyvenimo gdzi roje ugdymas

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Apibendrinus tyrimo duomenis SPPK veiklos model galima konstruoti is keturi tarpusavyje susijusi lygmen (1 pav.): ) valdymo lygmens, kur sudaro tarpusavyje susij komponentai: mokyklos taryba, mokyklos direktorius ir komandos tikslas;. ) savireguliacijos lygmens, kur sudaro tarpusavyje susij komponentai: komandos uzdaviniai, normos, rezultatas; 3) vykdytoj lygmens, kur sudaro tarpusavyje susij komponentai: komandos nari funkcijos ir komandos nari sudtis; ) socialini partneri lygmens, kur sudaro skirting socialini institucij atstovai Remiantis ekspert isvardintomis valdymo lygmens veiklomis, pastarsias galima suskirstyti keturias subkategorijas: planavimo, informavimo, pagalbos, stebsenos. Planavimo tikslas ­ sudaryti komand, numatyti veiklos kryptis bei tikslus. Informavimas ­ tai bendruomens svietimas apie komandos veikl. Pagalba apima vairi istekli paieska, socialini partneri telkimas ir socialins pedagogins pagalbos komandos veiklos uztikrinimas. Stebsenos elementai, ekspert teigimu, ­ SPPK veiklos vertinimas bei analiz, siekiant uztikrinti veiklos kokyb. Pazymtina, kad pirmenyb ekspertai teikia planavimui ­ taip nurodo pus ekspert (n=10). Trecdalis ekspert (n=7) pirmenyb teikia informavimui. Tiek ekspertai praktikai, tiek teoretikai pabrzia planavimo svarb valdymo lygmenyje. Informavimas svarbesnis ekspertams teoretikams (n=10). Toki veiklos rs isskyr tik desimtadalis ekspert praktik. ekspert atsakymuose galima isskirti dvi savireguliacijos lygmens kokybines subkategorijas ­ pagalb bei komandos veiklos norm nustatym. Pagalba apima pagalbos plano rengim, problem identifikavim, pagalbos form parinkim ir j veiksmingumo nustatym, veiklos veiksmingumo sivertinim. Pagrindinis tikslas ­ kompleksins pagalbos uztikrinimas. Komandos veiklos norm nustatymo subkategorij apibdina pareig pasiskirstymas. ekspert poziriu, svarbu tolygiai pasiskirstyti pareigomis, priimti vidinius susitarimus, motyvuoti komandos narius veikti ir tam juos skatinti. Vykdymo lygmenyje svarbi tik viena veiklos organizavimo subkategorija. J ekspertai apibdina kaip mokyklos pagalbos komandos telkim, uz atskiras veiklos sritis atsaking asmen numatym, vairi program ir projekt inicijavim, organizavim ir gyvendinim, pagalbos sistemos krim, veiklos mokykloje ir uz jos rib koordinavim, nuolatin vertinim ir situacijos analizavim bei bendruomens galinim. Daugiau kaip puss respondent (n=12) atsakymuose isryskja SPPK kaip pagalbos sistemos krjos vaidmuo, trecdalis ekspert (n=7) pazymi SPPK kaip socialins pedagogins pagalbos koordinator. Bendradarbiavimo lygmeniu ekspert interviu atsakymuose galima isskirti bendradarbiavimo subkategorij, kuri apibdina socialini partneri sitraukimas komand pagal numatytas veiklos kryptis; bendradarbiavimas uztikrinant veiksming pagalb;

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veiksm derinimas, teikiant pagalb. Taigi pagrindinis sio lygmens tikslas ­ socialini partneri traukimas ir galinimas. Apibendrinant ekspert apklausos rezultatus galima teigti, kad valdymo lygmeniu planuojama SPPK veikla, numatomos jos prioritetins kryptys, apie tai informuojama bendruomen, savireguliacijos lygmeniu SPPK veikla modeliuojama, vykdymo lygmeniui bdingas SPPK organizavimas, o socialiniai partneriai traukiami, siekiant uztikrinti kokybisk socialin pedagogin pagalb. Nagrinjant socialins pedagogins pagalbos tiksl apibdinancius ekspert atsakymus buvo isskirtos trys subkategorijos: socializacija, pagalba, partneryst. Penktadalis respondent (n=4) SPPK tikslu laiko vaik socializacij, kurios turinys apima galinim, ugdym, sutarim su aplinka, bendruomene. Pus ekspert tiksl sieja su pagalba, kuri suprantama kaip: teis moksl, mokymosi motyvacijos atkrimas, pagalba vaikams grzti nuosekli mokymosi sistem, atsparumo neigiamai takai ugdymas, veiksmingo mokini ugdymosi ir mokymosi mokykloje uztikrinimas, prielaid pozityviai vaiko pilietinei brandai sudarymas. Taciau didel dalis ekspert (n=16) pagalbos subkategorij tiesiogiai sieja su socialine, pedagogine, psichologine pagalba. ekspertai atsakymuose nurodo iskilusi socialini pedagogini problem sprendim, socialini funkcij atkrim, intelektins, emocins, socialins ir fizins pagalbos mokiniams ir bendruomenei organizavim bei vykdym. Apibendrindami galime daryti isvad, kad respondentai isskiria skirtingas tikslines grupes, kurioms skirta socialin pedagogin pagalba: daugiau nei pus respondent (n=13) mano, kad pagalba turi bti teikiama tik vaikui, septintadalis ekspert pabrzia pagalbos teikim vaikui ir seimai (n=2), tiek pat ekspert pabrzia pagalb bendruomenei, sestadalis (n=3) ekspert neisskiria jokios tikslins grups. Pateikto klausimo analiz parod, kad ekspertai apibrzia skirtingus SPPK tikslus. Taciau jau pats komandos pavadinimas rodo, kad pagalba daugiausia yra skirta vaikui. Ji gyvendinama uztikrinant mokinio teis moksl, veiksmingas ugdymosi slygas, pozityvias vaiko socializacijos bei pilietins brandos prielaidas ir reikiamos pagalbos teikim. Atlikus ekspert apklausos rezultat analiz nustatyta, kad vis ekspert SPPK sampratose dazniausiai kartojamos socializacijos ir pagalbos svokos. Vadinasi, komandos tikslas yra orientuotas socializacij ir pagalb. Palyginus ekspert teoretik ir praktik rezultatus galima teigti, kad apibrzdami tiksl mokslininkai isskiria pagalb, o ekspertai, dirbantys ugdymo institucijose, ­ socializacij, pagalb, prevencij, mikroklimat, specialist telkim. formuluodami tikslus trecdalis ekspert (n=7) remiasi Bendraisiais socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimo nuostatais ir Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo statymu, pus (n=10) ­ pedagogine patirtimi, po vien ekspert ­ mokyklos koncepcija, socializacijos programa ir mokykl nuostatais. Daugiau nei pus ekspert (n=12) teigia, kad SPPK komandos tikslas turi atitikti svietimo ir vaiko gerov reglamentuojancius dokumentus. 98

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ekspertai vardija siuos uz SPPK tiksl formulavim atsakingus mokyklos bendruomens atstovus: komand, administracij, strateginio planavimo darbo grup, mokyklos direktori. daugiau nei pus ekspert (n=12) pabrzia, kad tiksl formuluoja komandos nariai, vliau jis derinamas su mokyklos administracija ir pateikiamas tvirtinti mokyklos tarybai. Kas astuntas ekspertas (n=2) mano, kad komandos tikslus kartu turi formuluoti komanda ir administracija. Vienas ekspertas pabrzia, kad tikslams formuluoti sudaroma strateginio plano darbo grup, kuri traukiami 1­2 komandos nariai, zinantys mokyklos tikslus, gebantys formuluoti socialins pedagogins pagalbos bendrj tiksl. Kitas ekspertas pabrzia mokyklos direktoriaus svarb, nes btent jis pagal Bendruosius socialins pedagogins pagalbos nuostatus atsako uz socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikim. Apibendrinant ekspert pozir SPPK tiksl formulavim galima teigti, kad tikslus formuluoja pati komanda, tada juos derina su administracija ir teikia tvirtinti mokyklos tarybai. Siekiant issiaiskinti SPPK veiklos kryptis, ekspertams buvo uzduotas klausimas: ,,Kokias funkcijas SPPK galt atlikti?". Atsakymuose klausim isryskja 18 ekspert vardint funkcij, kurias galima grupuoti 8 kategorijas.Visi ekspertai (n=20) isskiria koordinacin ir vadybin komandos funkcijas. 16 ekspert nurodo konsultavimo ir pagalbos teikimo funkcijas, kuri turinio elementai yra sie: pagalba, rekomendacijos ir konsultacijos. Kas penktas ekspertas (n=4) pazymi istekli telkimo ir socialinio pedagoginio projektavimo funkcijas. Jas sudaro socialini partneri bendruomenje paieska, pagalbos vaikui ir seimai tinklo krimas, projekt krimas ir gyvendinimas. Pus ekspert (n=10) pabrzia prevencin SPPK veikl, suprantam kaip neigiam reiskini ir poelgi numatymas, pagalba siekiant j isvengti. Korekcin funkcij pazymi penktadalis ekspert (n=4). Ji apima elgesio korekcij, elgesio dinamikos stebjim. Korekcins funkcijos reiksm pabrzia ekspertai vadybininkai (mokykl administracijos atstovai) ir ekspertai dstytojai, kurie prie sios kategorijos priskiria ir socialini gdzi ugdym. Kitos dvi ekspert kategorijos sios funkcijos neisskiria. Trecdalis ekspert (n=7) pabrzia tyrim organizavimo funkcij, kurios turin, pasak vienos eksperts dstytojos, sudaro tyrim inicijavimas ir organizavimas, vaiko poreiki bei socialini paslaug kokybs vertinimas, ugdymo aplinkos saugumo vertinimas. Kiti ekspertai tyrimo turinio nedetalizuoja. Po vien ekspert isskiria gyvenimo gdzi, sveikatos prieziros funkcijas. Lyginant ekspert teoretik ir ekspert praktik atsakymus reiksming skirtum nepastebta. Pagrindines komandos normas, remiantis ekspert tyrimo rezultatais, galima suskirstyti 4 subkategorijas: SPPK susirinkim organizavimas, komandos vaidmen pasiskirstymas, kvalifikacijos klimas, veiklos vertinimas. Susirinkim organizavimo subkategorij apibdina susitikim su komanda, bendruomene ir socialiniais partneriais reguliarumas bei susirinkim planavimas. Remiantis ekspert atsakymais galima teigti, kad SPPK susitikimai turt bti organizuojami ne reciau kaip du kartus per mnes. Susitikimai su mokyklos taryba, kuriuose atsiskaitoma uz veiklos rezultatus, turt vykti vien kart per metus. ekspertai nenurodo, kaip daznai turt vykti susikimai su mokyklos

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bendruomene, taciau remiantis mokyklos veiklos organizavimu galima daryti prielaid, kad tai turt vykti 2­3 kartus per metus (po kiekvieno trimestro arba kart per pusmet). ekspertai pabrzia, kad visi socialiniai partneriai kart per metus turi bti kvieciami prie apskritojo stalo, kur aptariama mokyklos ir teritorins bendruomens sveika sprendziant vaik socialines pedagogines problemas mokykloje ir mikrosociume. Atsakymuose isryskja viena is SPPK veiklos norm ­ komandos nari vaidmen ir atsakomybs pasidalijimas, taciau placiau tai neapibrziama. Keli ekspertai numato kvalifikacijos klim, siekiant tobulinti komandinio darbo kompetencijas, taciau neapibrzia nei kvalifikacijos klimo trukms, nei turinio. ekspert nuomone, vien kart per mnes btina vertinti komandos darb, nustatant rezultat pasiekimo lyg. Skaiciuojant leksini semantini vienet pasikartojimo daznius isryskjo, kad daugiau nei pus ekspert (n=13) paminjo susitikim bei atsiskaitymo uz rezultatus reguliarum, penktadalis (n=4) pabrz aisk komandos nari vaidmen ir atsakomybs pasidalijim. Vadinasi, svarbiausios komandos veiklos normos, lemiancios komandos veiklos veiksmingum, yra reguliars komandos nari susitikimai su partneriais ir mokyklos bendruomene, numatyti atsiskaitymai uz veiklos rezultatus bei tikslus ir aiskus komandos nari vaidmen pasidalijimas. Apibendrinant apklaustj nuomon apie galim komandos sudt paaiskjo, kad visi (n=20) komandos sudt traukia socialin pedagog, psicholog ir klasi aukltojus, beveik visi (n=19) komandos sudtyje nort matyti mokyklos direktoriaus pavaduotoj, daugiau nei pus (n=11) ­ specialj pedagog, visuomens sveikatos prieziros specialist, maziau nei pus (n=8) ­ logoped. Tik keli ekspertai (n=2) komandos sudt traukt tv, mokini atstovus, asmen, atsaking uz neformalj ugdym. Vadinasi, svarbiausi komandos nariai ­ mokykloje dirbantys specialistai, vienas administracijos atstovas ir klasi aukltojai. Socialiniai partneriai komandos veikl traukiami tik atsizvelgus problemos pobd. Kaip reikalingiausi partneriai isskiriami Vaiko teisi apsaugos tarnyba, policija ir pedagogins psichologins tarnybos. Pus ekspert (n=10) komandos veikl traukt seninij, daugiau kaip ketvirtadalis ekspert (n=6) ­ baznyci, pirmins sveikatos prieziros centrus. Tik keli ekspertai (n=2) kaip socialinius partnerius mini dienos, bendruomens ar krizi centrus. ekspertai neturi bendros nuomons atsakydami klausim ,,Kam komandos nariai turt atsiskaityti uz rezultatus?" Remiantis ekspert issakyt leksini semantini vienet paminjimo dazniais galima isskirti dazniausiai minimas mokyklos taryb bei mokyklos administracij. Maziau nei pus ekspert (n=8) teigia, kad atsiskaityti reikt mokyklos tarybai, nes ji yra savivaldos institucija veikianti mokyklos mokini labui ir galinti padti mokyklos administracijai gyvendinti sprendimus. ekspert manymu, mokyklos taryba teikia silymus dl komandos veiklos prioritet ir dalyvauja formuluojant jos veiklos tikslus, todl komanda turt jai atsiskaityti uz savo darbo rezultatus. 00

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Kas penktas ekspertas (n=4) teigia, kad komanda turt atsiskaityti ir mokyklos tarybai, ir mokyklos administracijai, nes direktorius atsako uz mokyklos veikl ir drauge uz pagalbos vaikui teikim, o taryba ­ savivaldos institucija, atstovaujanti vaiko ir bendruomens interesams. Kad SPPK turt atsiskaityti mokyklos administracijai, mano penktadalis ekspert (n=4). J nuomone, administracija turi zinoti socialines pedagogines problemas ir j sprendimo bdus, nes su ja aptariamos svarbiausios problemos. Atsiskaitym mokyklos administracijai pabrzia ekspertai praktikai, dirbantys socialiniais pedagogais. Teoretik atsakymai vairs: vieni nurodo atsiskaitym ir mokyklos administracijai, ir mokyklos bendruomenei, kiti ­ mokyklos direktoriui, treti ­ mokyklos tarybai, ketvirti ­ mokytoj tarybai. Tik vienas ekspertas mano, kad komanda uz rezultatus turi atsiskaityti vien tik mokyklos bendruomenei. Lyginant ekspert teoretik ir praktik atsakymus galima daryti isvad, kad net pus ekspert pabrzia atsiskaitomyb mokyklos tarybai, kita pus linkusi atsiskaityti mokyklos administracijai ir bendruomenei. Siekiant suzinoti komandos viet mokyklos struktroje, ekspert buvo paprasyta vardinti, koki viet joje komanda turt uzimti. Galima isskirti tris charakteristikas, geriausiai apibdinancias komandos viet mokyklos struktroje, t.y. komandos pavaldumas, veiklos teisinimas bei biudzetas. Pus ekspert teigia, kad SPPK turt bti pavaldi mokyklos administracijai ir mokyklos tarybai. ekspert nuomone, SPPK turt bti atskiras padalinys, atliekantis socialins pedagogins pagalbos funkcij. Pus ekspert komandos pavaldumo nenurodo, o pabrzia jos savarankiskum. J nuomone, tai savarankiskai veikianti komanda mokyklos struktroje. Ketvirtadalis ­ pabrzia komandos teisinim mokyklos nuostatuose ir struktroje. ekspertai teigia, kad tai savarankiskai veikianti institucija, jungianti administracijos specialist ir mokytoj veikl, numatyt mokyklos nuostatuose. Vienas respondentas mano, kad komandos nuosavas biudzetas padt geriau atlikti komandos funkcijas.

Isvados

1. SPPK veikl galima skaidyti 4 lygmenis: valdymo, savireguliacijos, vykdytoj ir socialini partneri. Pirmame lygmenyje svarbiausios planavimo ir informavimo veiklos, antrame ­ SPPK veiklos modeliavimas, treciame ­ organizavimo veikla, kurios tikslas orientuotas kokybiskos socialins pedagogins pagalbos sistemos sukrim, ketvirtame ­ socialini partneri galinimas. 2. Komandos veiklos ypatumai priklauso nuo SPPK vietos mokyklos struktroje. Remiantis ekspert atsakymais galima teigti, kad SPPK ­ savarankiskai veikianti komanda, teisinta mokyklos nuostatuose ir pavaldi mokyklos administracijai ir mokyklos tarybai.

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3. Komandos tikslas suvokiamas kaip vaiko socializacija bei pagalbos vaikui teikimas. SPPK nariai formuluoja komandos tikslus bei derina su mokyklos administracija ir teikia mokyklos tarybos tvirtinimui. 4. Svarbiausios komandos veiklos normos, lemiancios komandos veiklos veiksmingum, yra reguliars susitikimai, numatyti atsiskaitymai uz veiklos rezultatus bei tikslus ir aiskus komandos nari vaidmen pasidalijimas. 5. Svarbiausi komandos nariai ­ mokykloje dirbantys specialistai, vienas administracijos atstovas ir keli klasi aukltojai. Socialiniai partneriai traukiami pagal problemos pobd. 6. SPPK veiklos rezultatai vertinami dviem lygmenimis: komandos lygmeniu, kada savo veikl vertina patys komandos nariai bei bendruomens lygmeniu, kada komandos veiklos vertinim inicijuoja mokyklos administracija bei mokyklos taryba, vertina mokyklos bendruomen.

Literatra

Cox f. M., erlick J. L., Rothman J., Tropman J. e. 1987: Strategies of Community Organization, 4 th ed. Itasca, Illinois: f. e. Peacock. 2. Dalin P., Rolf H. G., Kleekamp B. 1999: Mokyklos kultros kaita. Vilnius: Tyto alba. 3. Dobranskien R. 2002: Mokyklos bendruomens vadyba: monografija. Klaipda: Klaipdos universiteto leidykla. 4. Dryffos J. 1994: Full-service schools: A revolution in health and social services for children, youth, and families. San francisco: Jossey-Bass. Prieiga per internet: <http://proquest.com> [zirta 2006-01-15]. 5. Kirst M. 1991: Improving children's services. Phi Delta Kappan, , 65­68. 6. fisher D. 1981: Communication in Organizations. USA: West Publishing Company fisher (1981, p. 33). 7. Germain C. B., Gitteman A. 1980: The Life Model of Social Work Practice. new york: Columbia University Press. 8. Kricevski R. L., Dubovskaja e. M. 2001 ­ . . . . 2001: . : . 9. Lim C., Adelman H.S. 1997: establishing school-based collaborative teams to coordinate resources: A case study. Social Work in Education, 19, 66-, prieiga per internet: http://www.leaonline.com/doi/pdf, [zirta 2006-05-12]. 10. Pedagogins psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelis, Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo ir mokslo ministro 2003 m. birzelio 25 d. sakymas Nr. ISAK-897 ­ Valstybs zinios, 003-0-5, nr. -35. 11. Satir V. 1976: Con- Joint family Therapy. CA: Palo Alto. 1.

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12. Sveikatos konsultavimo tarnyb modelis prieiga per internet: http://www. leaonline.com/doi/pdf, [zirta 2006-05-12]. 13. Targamadz V. 1999: Bendrojo lavinimo mokykla: mokini edukacinio stimuliavimo aspektas. Kaunas: Vaitkevicit V. 2001: Tarptautini zodzi zodynas. Vilnius: Zodynas. 14. Uphold C. R., Graham M. V. 1999: Clinical Guidelines in Adult Health (2nd Edition). Gainesville, florida: Barmarrae Books. Pages 1­18. 15. William L., Sanders S., Horn P. 1995: educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of educational Outcomes. ­ Education Policy analyses archives, vol. 3, no. 6, March 3. Prieiga per internet: <http://www.epaa. asu.edu/epaa/v3n6.html> [zirta 2006-04-09].

1 pav. SPPK veiklos modelis

teikta 2007 10 01

Odeta Merfeldait ­ Socialini moksl (edukologija) daktar, Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Socialins komunikacijos instituto direktors pavaduotoja; mokslini interes sritys: socialin pedagogika, komandinis darbas, socialin partneryst; adresas: Student g. 39, LT08106 Vilnius, Lietuva; el. p.: [email protected]

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Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

ThE ISSUE DRAFT OF SChOOL pROFESSIONALS IN pEDAGOGICAL AND pSyChOLOGICAL SphERE

annotation. This article is focused on investigation of professionals who work at school activity dealing with pedagogical and psychological student problems. The specialists are the following: social educators, psychologists, speech therapy people, special pedagogues as well as teacher assistants. In fact, having employed 376 replies of the mentioned ones above it turned out that there exists a team dealing with pedagogical and psychological and social matters in schools. It concentrates on solving such troubles as student reluctance to study, their interrelational conflicts, lesson skipping, etc. A prevailing phenomenon is an individual level between a pupil and a worker, though, for it to be effective eligible working conditions and means should be a must. Key words: Pedagogical and psychological and social matters, the team of social pedagogical psychological assistance, pedagogical assistance, psychological help, and special pedagogical help.

introduction

The school as the basic institution for child's socialization and rapidly reacting towards today's challenges as well as society's shifting needs has to accept a growing number of social functions. Basically, their proper implementation in association with other services providing social assistance and health and juridical institutions including parents (care takers) and teachers (Zin., 1991, Nr. 23-593, Zin., Nr. 63-2853) should make sure that children obtain a highly qualified and thorough social pedagogical help. In addition, the school ought to provide conditions for each child to gain education according to their nature. It is essential to present organizational forms and ways of thorough pedagogical psychological assistance trying to realize school roles and implement challenges. While defining social pedagogical help concept, the researchers J. Vaitkevicius (1995), L. A. Beliajeva ir M. A. Beliajeva (1998), V. Kucinskas ir R. Kucinskien (2000), L. V. rdachajiev (2002), L. I. Aksenova (2001), J. Oliferenko, T. I. Sulga, I. Dementjeva (2002), M. A. Galaguzova (2002), A. V. Mudrik (2002), G. Kvieskien (2005) lay stress on social pedagogical activity direction and great importance on the orientation towards particular groups and professionals providing social help. Whereas others determine the mentioned concept as pedagogically oriented social pedagogical activity devoted to solving child educational and social issues. furthermore, they distinguish social pedagogical help for disabled children, orphans, lawbreakers and children from risk groups (ksionova (2001). Though, it is necessity to point out that the number 0

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of professional working in schools is not sufficient to effectively make the studying process. for instance, according to the data 2001­2002 of the Ministry of education, 737 special educators, 250 psychologists, 445 social pedagogues were employed in mainstream schools. However, we would like to emphasize that their distribution was not smooth ( the model of pedagogical psychological help, http://www. smm. lt/Paieska/2003_modelis.htm. p.1). fortunately, the number of workers providing the assistance of social pedagogical, social and psychological help has increased and reached the number of 1856 in the year 2003­2004. The proportion was the following: 506 speech therapy workers, 290 special pedagogues, 186 psychologists, 563 social pedagogues and 27 social workers. It has been estimated that one worker has to take care of 300 students (Lietuvos svietimas, 2003). However, the boosting numbers do not say anything about effectiveness and quality. The fact is that the figures of children who use this kind of help is also rising. The number of special education needs students grew up from 8,5 % in the year 1999­2000 to 10% in 2003­2004. (The confirmation of special education providing services 22nd November 2004; Nr. 1475, http://www. smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/nutarimai/Nutar_2004_11_22_1475.htm). As the data demonstrate, the idea of constant and qualified studying has not been implemented yet for there are a vast proportion of students who do not attend schools, repeat the course or other difficulties. On the other hand, the variety of special need persons is limitedly comprehended. Moreover, taking students who have behaviour and emotional disorders as well as those who are not properly taken pedagogical and social care of, the situation is hardly beneficial. They do not benefit from the present school structure, therefore, they tend to change learning institutions or even worse, they do not graduate the basic one. Having viewed nowadays pedagogical and social and psychological background and judging the relevance of their use we have come up to the questions of the scientific issue. They are the following: what student problems are highlighted by pedagogical professionals working in schools and what is lacked to realise qualified and effective help provision. The object of the research is the problems, which are faced by specialists working in schools who provide pedagogical and psychological help. The aim of the research is to define matters of professionals working in schools in pedagogical and psychological sphere. The objectives of the research are the following: 1. To analyse the most common and the most essential student problems at school. 2. To find out the institutions specialists cooperate with. 3. To evaluate conditions and means of professionals which make pedagogical psychological assistance effective and qualified in schools.

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The methods of the research are as follows: 1. The analyses of scientific literature and national data; . The questionnaire to specialists providing pedagogical psychological help in schools. The aim was to demonstrate functions, responsibilities, aspects causing pedagogical psychological help effectiveness. The concept of pedagogical psychological help and its juridical regulation. According to the Law of the Minister of education (pedagogical psychological help provision model June 25, 2003. Nr. 897 http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/ isakymai/03-06-25-ISAK-897.htm ), citizens are entitled to getting special pedagogical psychological social assistance. It is obvious that qualified educational services, ever lasting studying provisions, adequate and provided on time psychological and special pedagogical help is available in the state, which has certain development priorities, educational progress references as well as a proper pedagogical psychological help provision model. Actually, it could and should match education system needs of a modern society and various social groups and groups differently aged and with various abilities. Though, their functional structure has to be clear, i.e. specialists working in different institutions would cooperate but their functions would not be the same. Besides, the implementation of the model must be supported by present intellectual and financial resources and to define a crystal clear future improvement perspective of special pedagogical psychological help provision system. The education Law defines the help for the student (informational, psychological, social and special pedagogical and special) as one of the education system component (Zin., 1991, Nr. 23-593, Zin., Nr. 63-2853). Based on it, order schedule for psychological assistance provision for a student and special pedagogical help provision were confirmed by the Minister of education Law on 3rd June, 2003, nr. 83 and nr. 838. Hence, in 2004 it was the first time the team as a provider of effective help for a child was confirmed in the schedule (Zin., 2004, Nr. 100-3729) of General Social pedagogical help provision of the Ministries of education and Science. It is claimed that the help in schools is given by social pedagogues, class authority, teachers, and administrative representatives, i.e. different specialists. The help in the education Regulation Documents is determined as the activity of specialists and school workers and is related to satisfaction of student social and pedagogical needs. in fact, it allows to increase child education quality and to boost effectiveness of education (The Schedule of General social pedagogical help provision, Zin. 2004, Nr. 100-3729). Researchers employ a different classification for pedagogical and psychological issues. A. Alisauskas (1999) points out these social matters characteristic to mainstream students: indecent behaviour during the lesson and break (ignorance of teachers 06

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remarks, fighting, i.e.), they do not do their homework and are late for lessons; what is more, they come to school having had neither sleep nor breakfast, tired, they also skip lessons and are beaten at home or experience other discomfort. At times they commit crimes such as theft or do not attend school, consume spirits and smoke (Alisauskas A., 1999, p.56­57). I. Atutien (1997) demonstrates problems in two ways. Some are related to antisocial behaviour, others are connected with psychological ­ social matters. The former ones are the following: destructive behaviour, a negative reaction towards control, skipping lessons, a deliberate self hurting, verbal aggression, sexual disharmony, spiritual lapses, a positive attitude towards antisocial acting. The later way includes such issues as immaturity, self conceit, intolerance, inappropriate self control, management to any indecent behaviour, inadequate emotional reactions, emotional turmoil, phobia, miserable moral development (Atutien I., 1997, p.22). R. Giedrien (1999) states parents constantly face with various children and teenagers disorders of behaviour and communication. The most ordinary complaints are about forward conversing with parents, pedagogues and peers; aggressive behaviour; emotional troubles are worries, dismal mood, dread; problematic studying motivation, reluctance to learn due not to disorders of intellectual or special cognitive functions; common behaviour norms are ignored; relaxing tendencies leading to consuming spirits, doing drugs, etc. (Giedrien R., 1999, p.7). In L. Bulotait (1994) opinion, students face with these matters ­ tense relations with parents, communicational problems with teachers, classmates, friends, not being confidence, sleep disorders, unreasonable fluctuation of mood, tense. In addition, school atmosphere is not pleasant for them and they worry about evaluation and do badly at school; moreover, they feel threat and tension. Surprisingly, some students admitted spirits and smoking to be the way out of the mentioned issues (Bulotait l., 99, p.5). Social pedagogues and psychologists define 6 problem groups: 1. Problems of personal development which are related to child's mental health; 2. troubles about inadequate self evaluation; 3. matters concerned about unwelcoming situation in the family, i.e. breaking child's rights, violence against them; 4. problems connected with inadequate behaviour; 5. children and teenagers disadaptation issues; 6. conflicts and moral psychological climate at schools and in microsociums (educational thinking in Social and Special education concerning children and youngsters in care, access via the Internet <http://www. columbia.edu/ cu/musher/, [connected 2006-04-05]).

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Having analysed the data of the above mentioned researchers, it is possible to claim that children social and psychological issues as well as pedagogical ones are interrelated. Virtually, there are three ways comprehending their troubles, i.e. personal, social, and pedagogical. We can draw a conclusion that their social and psychological disorders are related to the family and their own inappropriate behaviour and communicational peculiarities. The researchers (Kucinskas V., Kucinskien R. (2000), Bagdonas A. (1994) ir kt.) state that a complex help is fundamental to solve children social and psychological and pedagogical problems. Though, it must be integrated. Actually, not only the family but a right pedagogue, social pedagogue and psychologist support is of great importance. Solving these issues in educational institutions, specialists have to provide complex assistance such as investigate, solve and help children. So different professionals can not find a way out on his/her own. According to pedagogical psychological issue groups and researchers performed by L. A. Beliajeva, M. A. Beliajeva (1998), M. A. Galaguzova (1998), G. Kvieskien (2005) it is possible to define the following activity direction of pedagogical psychological help, i.e. organizing social pedagogical assistance for a child, work in the groups; creation of safe atmosphere, communication with educators and institutions influencing studying. Thus, the scientific literature has indications of a variety of problems, which the specialists encounter at school. The authors of the article have conducted an empirical survey, aiming to clarify the problems, which the specialists encounter in practice and the ways of their solution. Some of the results obtained will be presented further on. Characteristics of the ones being investigated. 376 working specialists have been questioned in schools (figure 1.), i.e. 86 special pedagogues, 65 social pedagogues, 114 psychologists, 72 speech therapy workers, 39 teacher assistants.

special pedagogues 19% 10% 23% 31% 17% social pedagogues psychologists pedagogues assistants speech therapy specialists

Figure 1. The distribution of specialists due to their activity form

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One third (31 %) of respondents was psychologists, social pedagogues consisted almost a fourth (23 %) whereas 19 % of speech workers were involved as well as 17 % of special pedagogues; only one tenth was teacher assistants. In fact, such a respectively small percentage refers due to the novelty of this position in schools. 95% of all respondents are women what allows to draw an obvious conclusion that females are a dominant sex as far as it concerns an education system. Taking men in consideration, most of them are psychologists (7 %), speech workers and special pedagogues (2 %). As the following example demonstrates (figure 2.), a third (31 %) of specialists is aged from 30 to 40. A fourth of them are of age 20­30 and 40­50. Less than that (17 %) work being of age 50­60 and only 4% are older than 60 years old.

from 20 till 30 years from 30 till 40 years from 40 till 50 years 24% 31% from 50 till 60 years more than 60 years

17%

4%

24%

Figure 2. Age distribution of the specialists

Less than half (41 %) of the respondents has at least experience of 15 years working as specialists (figure 3.). Hence they are experienced enough. More than a fifth has been working between 1­5 and 5­10 years. In addition, 14% experience is 10­15 years and only 1 % has been on this field for the first year.

Figure 3. Work experience distribution of the specialists

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The largest amount of respondents (figure 4.) was questioned in towns (the percentage of distribution is between 44 % ­ 58 %) and the least in countrysides (7 %­2 %). It is obvious that almost half of special pedagogues (51 %) and social pedagogues (48 %) work for an educational system in towns and a fifth (respectively 19 % and 18 %) in the centre of districts and regions and only one fourth in suburbs.The respondents (respectively 3 % and 7 %) working there were asked. As far as it concerns psychologists, they are concentrated in towns (58 %) and only 2 % of them have the position in a countryside. In the centre of districts and regions their amount is rather equal,i.e. respectively 20 % and 18 %. Less than a half (44 %) of teacher assistants work in little towns and the centre of districts and regions and a third in suburbs.

2,8 5,1 5,1 1,8 7,0 3,1

speech therapy specialists pedagogues assistants psychologists social pedagogues special pedagogues

20,8 15,3 30,8 43,6 17,5 19,3 24,4 17,4 24,6 18,5

56,9

village small town

57,9

county towm city

47,7 50,8

0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0

Figure 4. The distribution of specialists taking their working place into consideration

The respondents were also inquired about the school type they work in (figure 5.). The most common school type is the secondary school. There are the following professionals: psychologists (55 %.), speech therapy workers (53 %.), special pedagogues (48 %.), social pedagogues (42 %.), teacher assistants (39 %.). Whereas the basic schools have such a proportion as social pedagogues (35 %) and special pedagogues (34 %), the least number is the psychologists (22 %). Taking gymnasiums into consideration, the employ 10 % of speech therapy workers and 5 % of teacher assistants. 0

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

speech therapy specialists

9,7

27,8

52,8

pedagogues assistants

5,1

30,8 38,5 16,7 21,9 14,0 Gymnasium 54,4 34,9 41,9 33,8 Basic school Secondary school

psychologists

social pedagogues

special pedagogues

9,2

47,7

0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0

Figure 5. The distribution of the school type specialists' work in

The pedagogical and psychological issues in schools. The main matter named by 71 % of respondents was defined as student reluctance to learning (figure 6.). The following one mentioned by 64,3 % questioned ones was student interrelation conflicts; 60 % pointed out the problem of lesson skipping. Hence, as the results clearly demonstrate, the three most relevant issues are related to their own personal matters. Moreover, parents' indifference to their children troubles is of pretty great importance (indicated by 47,1 % of the specialists). Besides, students ­ teacher collisions are noted too by 36,4 %. At least sexual and physical violence from the teacher is referred to problem solving circle as well. According to the speech therapy workers, the key matters are (table 1) student reluctance to learning (75 %), parents indifference to their children troubles (59,7 %) and student conflicts with peers (56,9 %). In the opinion of teacher assistants, they point out the matters such as student reluctance to learning (69,2 %), student conflicts with peers (64,1 %) and behaviour things during the lesson (59 %). As it seems to psychologists, they define the following issues: interrelated arguments (64 %), lesson skipping (58,8 %) and emotional disorder experienced by other peers (56,1 %).

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Pshycical abuse from oher pupil's Pshycical abuse from teacher's emotional abuse from other pupil's emotional abuse from teacher's sexsual abuse from other pupil's sexsual abuse from teacher's Conflicts with teachers Conflicts with other pupil's Behavioral problems of other pupils during the lessons Racketeering alcohol using Drug using using of toxic material uninspiring leisure time organisation at school Fatigue for huge learining load Truant playing Pupil's indisposition to learining teacher's unconcern about pupil's problems Parent's unconcern about children's problems Other 2,4 10,0 3,2 0,8 1,1

33,7

42,7

36,4 64,3 50,8 8,4 10,0 3,9 3,8 10,8 39,5 60,0 71,0 9,7 47,1

0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,0 80,0

Figure 6. Student issues at schools indicated by the specialists

Lesson skipping (77,9 %) and quarrels among themselves (73,3 %) and student reluctance to learning (69,2 %), are the troubles pointed out by social pedagogues.

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Referring to special pedagogues, the prime problems are student reluctance to learning (87,7 %), interrelated conflicts with other peers (63,1 %), behaviour matters during the lesson and their skipping (61,5 %).

Table 1 Student issues at schools indicated by the specialists (percentage) speech pedaspecial psycholo- social pedtherapy gogues pedagists agogues specialists assistants gogues Parents indifference to their 59, 8, 0, 8,8 58,5 children troubles Student reluctance to learn5,0 69, 5, 68,6 8, ing 55,6 6, 58,8 ,9 6,5 Lesson skipping exhaustion due to burden 50,0 6, 36,8 9,8 ,6 of studying Behaviour matters during , 59,0 8, 6,0 6,5 the lesson 55,3 , , 3,9 3, Arguments with teachers interrelational conflicts 56,9 6, 6,0 3,3 63, among peers emotional and physical vio3,9 30,8 56, 50,0 ,6 lence experienced by peers

It is necessary to emphasize that cooperation among specialists working in schools and other institutions providing help for the child heeded the attention to find out how actively, if it exists, is performed. The replies apparently demonstrated that professionals do communicate with other institutions (figure 7.). In fact, the most active ones are social pedagogues (91,9 %), psychologists (88,6 %) and special pedagogues (80 %), speech therapy workers (77,8 %). Teacher assistants tend to get in contact least (53,8 %).

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speech therapy specialists pedagogues assistants psychologists social pedagogues special pedagogues 0,0

7,7 12,3 2,3 5,8 5,3 6,1 20,5 23,1 9,7 12,5 53,8

80,0 91,9 88,6 yes no not answered

77,8

20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 100,0

Figure 7. The specialist view about getting in contact with other institutions

The most popular are the Day and Health Centre (21,5 %) ( figure 8.). The police (20,6 %) and VTAT (18,8 %) are cooperated with by the fifth of the respondents. Besides, NGO's (7,9 %) and confessional organizations (5 %) are the contacted institutions as well.

2,8 3,4

other NGO confession organisation Health center Day care center County Police CRPS

14,4 7,9 17,5 14,5 36,0 38,4

5,0

10,0 10,4 21,5 20,8 18,9 25,1 14,0 23,6 27,0 19,1 25,7 20,6 18,8

never seldom often

33,0

38,4

0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0

Figure 8. The specialist cooperation with other institutions

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

The Health Centres (20,8 %) are favourite for speech therapy workers (Table 2). 21,1 % of teacher assistants get in touch with the Health Centres and VTAT (17,9 %) and the police (20,5 %). Psychologists communicate with VTAT and the Day Centres (35,1 %), 21,1 of them cooperate with the police and the Health Centres and 14 % with NGO's and the town hall. A third of them never get in contact with confessional organizations, almost a fourth with the town hall and a fifth with NGO's. every tenth psychologists claims they involve PPT into a social-pedagogical-psychological help provision (15,8 %). Special pedagogues fancy working with VTAT (16,9%) and the Health Centres (12,3 %). Though, one of tenth states using the police (10,8%) and the town hall (9,2 %), PPT (29,2 % responded using it frequently; 6,2 % ­ seldom) assistance for the problem solving. Only two ones do never apply to NGO's (3,1 %). 59,3 % of social pedagogues work with the police and CRPS (57 %) and the town hall (33,7 %). However, they actively communicate with the Health Centres (29,1 %). The least proportion of cooperation is with NGO's (16,3 % ­ often; 33,7 % ­ rarely) and confessional organizations (4,7 % ­ often; 19,8 % ­ seldom). As taking all social pedagogue respondents into consideration, 41,7 % has never got in contact with confessional organizations, 24,4 % ­ with the Daily Centres, 23,3 % ­ with NGO's, 19,8% with the town halls, 5,8 % with the Health Centres, 2,3 % with the police. To sum social pedagogues data up about institutions involved into a social-pedagogical-psychological help provision, we can draw a conclusion they communicate most actively with the police and CRPS; despite these institutions, they tend to keep in contact with the town halls, the Health and Daily Centres; the most rarely used are NGO's and confessional organizations. 11,6 % of social pedagogues point out involving PPS, VKC (temporary support group), social houses, other educational institutions, the town hall and the society. The performed research was employed to find out what is the average number of parents, teachers and pedagogues organizing individual continuous consultations or group training. It has emerged social pedagogues work with children most (Table 3). She/he has 119,6 students to take care of in the period of a school year. Individual continuous consultations are organized by social pedagogues for an average 43,7 students in a school year; though, they work with 26,5 children in group consultations. Psychologists usually provide with a onetime consultation for students and it is 98,4 of them in a school year. As far as it concerns individual continuous consultations, they are performed for a much less amount of children, i.e. 35,2 and 41,5 students a year in group consultations.

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Table 2 The school specialist cooperation with various institutions (percentage) conThe The fesThe fredaily Health sional Specialists crPS Police Town NGO's other quency cen- cen- orgaHall tres tres nizations often 9, 6,9 ,8 9, 0,8 0,8 Speech Seldom , 9, , 9, 3, , 6,9 ,8 therapy workers never 5,3 9, 5,0 0,8 9, 3,9 3,6 often 0,3 5, 0,3 0,3 , 5, Teacher Seldom ,9 0,5 5, 5,6 38,6 , ,6 assistants 9,6 8, never 5, ,9 0,5 ,8 often 35, , ,0 35, , , ,9 0,5 8, 3,5 psychologists Seldom 3,5 6,5 30, , 38,6 ,3 never ,3 ,3 3, ,9 9,6 35, ,8 ,0 often 5,0 59,3 33, , 9, , 6,3 ,6 social Seldom 6, 30, 0,9 5,6 5,3 9,8 33, , pedagogues 5,8 ,9 3,3 never ,3 ,3 9,8 , often 6,9 0,8 9, ,3 5, 3, 9, Special Seldom 6, ,5 , ,3 , 6, 0,8 6, pedagogues 6, never 0,0 33,8 9, 30,8 6,9 3,

Judging speech therapy workers they provide with onetime individual consultations 30,3 number of students and take care of 17,3 of them a year organizing individual continuous consultancies. an average 3,5 child are in group consultations. Special pedagogues are the most common providing students with the onetime consultancies the average being 9,6 children in a school year and 0,6 students in individual continuous ones as well as 3, in a group consultation. The least number consulting students are teacher assistants. Actually, only 3,1 students are provided with individual continuous consultancies and only , get group consultations by one teacher assistant.

6

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Table 3 The number and the average of students in a school year indicated by the specialists Speech Teacher PsycholoSpecial Social therapy assistants gists Pedagogues Pedagogues workers Total aver- Total aver- Total aver- Total aver- Total avernum- age num- age num- age num- age num- age ber ber ber ber ber 1st time appli- 8 30,3 330 8,5 86 98, 9 9,6 65 9,6 ers individually consulted once Organized ,3 9 3, 3059 35, 053 0,6 90 3, continuous individual consultancies Organized 9 3,5 9 , 385 ,5 0 3, 3 6,8 group consultations

Social pedagogues mostly work with parents. According to them, 43,7 parents are consulted a year by one specialist; in continuous individual consultancies 17,3 parents take part every year and 14,6 in groups. Psychologists consult , parents a year, ,3 in continuous individual consultancies and 3, in groups. Taking special pedagogues into consideration, they usually give counsel to 22,1 parents; 19,9 parents are consulted by a individual onetime consultancies and 18,3 of them in groups. Besides, the speech worker involve 12,2 parents a year; continuous individual consultancies are used by 5,3 and group ones by ,6 parents. in fact, teacher assistants work with parents least, i.e. only 5,6 parents a year in individual onetime consultancies and parent participates in continuous individual consultancies and only , in groups.

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Table 4 The number and the average of parents who are worked with by the specialists in a school year Speech theraTeacher PsycholoSpecial Social py workers assistants gists pedagogues pedagogues Total aver- Total av- Total aver- Total av- Total average num- age num- er- num- age num- er- number ber age ber ber age ber 1st time appliers 880 , 9 5,6 36 , 58 9,9 3, individually consulted once Organized continuous individual consultations Organized group consultations 383 5,3 0 ,0 8 ,3 598 , 3 ,3

33

,6

08

,

3,

550

8,3

569

,6

As it is obviously seen (Table 5), the most active working with teachers are psychologists dealing with 3,8 teachers a year. continuous individual consultations typically involve 13,9 teachers and groups 9,4 ones. The social pedagogue normally consults 3,8 teachers a year. In continuous individual speech therapy worker consultations 16,8 teachers take part annually and ,3 pedagogues in groups. The special pedagogues consult averagely 22 teachers. Only 12,6 of them participate in continuous individual consultations and in groups approximately 19 pedagogues a year. The speech therapy workers normally counsel 7,3 teachers a year, 3,1 in continuous individual consultations and only , pedagogue in groups. The teacher assistant once provide 3, teachers with an individual consultation. moreover, in continuous individual consultations they involve only 0,9 and in groups , pedagogues.

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SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Table 5 The number and the average of teachers who are worked with by the specialists in a school year Speech Teacher PsycholoSpecial Social therapy assistants gists pedagogues pedagogues workers Total aver- Total aver- Total aver- Total aver- Total avernum- age num- age num- age num- age num- age ber ber ber ber ber 1st time appliers individually 59 ,3 3 3, 3,8 638 90 3,8 consulted once

Organized continuous individual consultations

3

3,

35

0,9

3

3,9

89

,6

0

6,8

Organized group consultations

5

,

,

39

9,

56

9

3

,3

As it has been pointed out above most student matters are complex therefore specialist teamwork is highly recommended to come up to effective help. The research was to find out the team activity in educational reality. As the figure 9. demonstrates more than half school specialists declare the school to have social pedagogical and psychological issue solving team.

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Speech therapy specialists Pedagogues assistants Psychologists Social pedagogues Special pedagogues

10,8 12,3 8,1 7,0 17,4 22,8 23,1 20,5 4,2 15,3

75,4 74,4 70,2 56,4 80,6

not answered no yes

0,0

20,0

40,0

60,0

80,0 100,0

Figure 9. Social pedagogical and psychological help team existence

In speech therapy workers' view social pedagogical and psychological help team solve student behaviour problems, learning difficulty and school attendance issues. It is essential to emphasize the team participates while composing programmes for special need students and, in addition to this, it copes with conflict cases among peers. The special pedagogues add to the mentioned above the problem of lack of motivation. Therefore the team inspires the communication among school's society members, try to solve other student behaviour problems, organize the assistance for special need children. furthermore, social pedagogues do accept the functions of the team complementing with the emotional and psychological problems. The conditions of specialist activity. As it emerged from the research, 9 speech therapy workers out of 10 possess a separate office (Table 6), 81,9 % are quite well equipped, 73,6 % have an opportunity to safely keep documentation, 41, 7% have a computer. In fact, the biggest disadvantage is the lack of the telephone and the Internet connection; indeed, only a fifth have an access to them. Judging teacher assistants, half of them are accommodated with the necessary equipment, a third have a room for the data to save and a fourth work in their own office with a computer; however only a fifth is available to the Internet access. Less than that use telephone connection and are disabled to ensure customer confidentiality. 76,3 % of psychologists pointed out having their own office, 66,7 % use a computer, though, less than half, i.e. 43 % are available to the Internet. A better situation is 0

Vilija TARGAMADZ, Dziuginta VALeCKIeN, egl KVIeSKAIT

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

with necessary equipment and the telephone connection although they can not ensure customer confidentiality and the ability to safely keep information is rather poor. Considering special pedagogues, every third of them have proper equipment and a separate office. 58,5 % is lucky having the chance of secretly keeping the data; despite this fact, only one special pedagogue pointed out the customer confidentiality. 43,1 % possesses their own computers, however, only a fourth (26,2 %) are available to the internet access. As far as it concerns social pedagogues, 76,7 % work in their office and use a computer; 72,1 % are perfectly accommodated with work measures, two thirds are able to keep safely the information and more than a half can use the Internet and even ensure customer confidentiality. 43 % of social pedagogues are available to the telephone access.

The specialists' view on work condition suitability Speech Social therapy Teacher Psychol- pedaworkers assistants ogists gogues A separate office 8,5 8, 6,3 6, A computer , 3, 66, 6, a telephone 9, 5, 50,0 3,0 The internet 3,6 0,5 3,0 59,3 The necessary equipment for work 8,9 8, 58,8 , The ability to keep safely the data 3,6 33,3 , 6,8 The ability to ensure customer's confidentiality (a safe office place) 66, 5, 5,6 59,3 Table 6 Special pedagogues 0,8 3, 5, 6, ,3 58,5 ,5

conclusions

1. Virtually specialists define the most essential and frequently solved student issues at school are the following: their reluctance to studying, interrelational conflicts among peers, lesson skipping, behaviour matters during the lesson, parental indifference to children troubles, emotional and physical violence experienced by peers, exhaustion due to burden of studying, arguments with teachers; the other not so usual are sexual teacher harassment, the consumption of toxic and narcotic substance. 2. As far as cooperation with other institutions is concerned, the most active are social pedagogues and psychologists, then special pedagogues and speech therapy workers. In fact, the most sluggish ones appeared to be teacher assistants. Apart from the most popular institutions such as The Daily and Health Centres, the police and

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VTaT and PPT are involved as well. in addition, the least ones to be connected with happened to be NGO's and confessional organizations. 3. In the opinion of each specialist, students are sure to be taken care of; on the other hand, parents are worked with as well but not to a such high extent. Actually, mainly social pedagogues and psychologists deal with students and their parents and only a slight fraction of speech therapy workers and teacher assistants. In addition to this, psychologists are the most common to work with teachers and less active are social and special pedagogues. 4. More than half respondents claimed a social pedagogical and psychological help team existing in schools. It solves problematic student behaviour, conflict cases, composing programmes for special needs children as well as their educational matters. 5. Unfortunately, professional work conditions and equipment are not totally ensured. The lucky ones are speech therapy workers and social pedagogues having the best position. However the worst are teacher assistants for indigent material base. 9 speech therapy workers out of 10 function in their own offices whereas such a possibility is provided for a fourth of teacher assistants; computers are used by three fourths of social pedagogues and only a fourth of teacher assistants. The access to the Internet is available to three fifths of the former mentioned ones and a fifth of the later. Taking telephone connection into consideration, the situation is rather various, i.e. starting with half of the psychologists using it and a sixth of special pedagogues and teacher assistants. Sadly a slight fraction of speech therapy workers and teacher assistants are perfectly accommodated with working equipment or have a possibility to safely keep documentation.

literature

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Alisauskas A. Socialins problemos bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje: mokini socialiniai poreikiai ir j tenkinimas // Socialiniai tyrimai: tarpdisciplininis poziris. -998-999, nr. -3, p.55­56 Atutien I. Socialins problemos mokykloje//Socialinis darbas mokykloje: konferencijos medziaga. ­ Silut: Prsija, 1997, p. 22­25 Dl bendrj socialins pedagogins pagalbos teikimo nuostat patvirtinimo 2004 m. birzelio 15 d. Nr. ISAK-941., http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/ isakymai/04-06-15-ISAK-941.htm Dl darzelio-mokyklos bendrj nuostat tvirtinimo. Svietimo ir mokslo ministro sakymas 2000 11 24 Nr. 1418. http://www. smm.lt/Teisin_informacija/Isakymai/doc/00_1418.htm Dl mokyklos psichologo bendrj pareigini nuostat 2005 m. liepos 22 d. Nr. ISAK ­ 58, http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/isakymai/05-07-22-ISAK-1548.htm.).

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Dl mokyklos specialiojo pedagogo bendrj pareigini nuostat 2005 m. gruodzio 29 d. Nr. ISAK-2676, http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/isakymai/05-12-29-ISAK-2676.htm.) Dl pedagogins ir psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelio 2003 m. birzelio 25 d. Nr. sak.-897 http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/isakymai/03-06-25ISAK-897.htm.) Dl socialinio pedagogo kvalifikacini reikalavim ir pareigini instrukcij patvirtinimo 2001 m. gruodzio 14 d. Nr. 1667, http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/ docs/isakymai/01_12_1667.htm.) Dl specialiosios pedagogins pagalbos teikimo tvarkos apraso patvirtinimo http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/isakymai/04-06-03-ISAK-838.htm) Dl specialiojo ugdymo paslaug teikimo programos patvirtinimo 2004 m. lapkricio 22 d. Nr. 1475., http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/nutarimai/ Nutar_2004_11_22_1475.htm) Dl svietimo staigos specialiojo ugdymo komisijos sudarymo ir darbo organizavimo tvarkos 2000 m. rugpjcio 17 d. Nr. 1057., http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/isakymai/00_1057.htm). Kucinskas V., Kucinskien R. Socialinis darbas svietimo sistemoje. Teorinis aspektas. ­ Klaipdos universiteto leidykla, 2000. Lietuvos Respublikos Svietimo statymas, http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/ docs/istatymai/i-1489.htm). Lietuvos Respublikos Specialiojo Ugdymo statymas Nr. VIII -969., http://www. smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/istatymai/viii-969.htm) Pedagogins psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelis. http://www. smm.lt/ Paieska/2003_modelis.htm.

Vilija Targamadz ­ Professor of Social Sciences (education), Professor of the Department of Social Pedagogy, Social Communication Institute, Vilnius Pedagogical University; Professor of Vilnius University faculty of Philosophy Department of Social education; Sphere of Scientific interesrs: management of education, social abandonecs address: Universiteto str. 9/1, LT-01513 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected] Dziuginta Valeckien ­ Doctoral student of Klaipda University, Assistant of the Social Pedagogic Department, faculty of Pedagogy; Sphere of scientific interests: Bullying Prevention at School; address: H. Manto str. 84. LT-92264, Klaipda, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected] Egl Kvieskait ­ PhD student of Social Sciences (education) at Vilnius Pedagogical University Social Communication Institute Social education Department; Sphere of scientific interests: Knowledge Society, Intercultural Communication, Citizenship education; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected]

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loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN

WORK OppORTUNITIES OF SOCIAL EDUCATORS WiThin The VocaTional inForMaTion sysTeM

annotation. The Paper, while analysing scientific sources, relevant documentation and results of the quantitative research, considers work opportunities of social educators within the vocational information system. It also investigates the concept of vocational information as the initial step of vocational guidance, reviews functional responsibilities of a social educator as a vocational information counsellor and realisation of these functions in education institutions. The Paper also contains the analysis of questionnaire filled in by 8­12 grade pupils of comprehensive schools, their parents, class tutors and heads of schools. It revealed that the role of social educators in rendering vocational information services to pupils of comprehensive schools was insufficient and, consequently identified the necessity to include the development of vocational information competences into the curricula of study programmes of social educators. Key words: vocational information, vocational guidance, vocational information counsellor, social educator.

introduction

Pre-vocational activity is one of the key processes of the development of a young person, requiring certain skills, capacities, conditions for self-cognition, information about the current world of professional activities and identification of the relationship with this world. Significant scientific and technical achievements, rapid technological, economic, social and political changes followed by the emergence of new professions and disappearance of the old ones, predetermine a new approach towards the phenomenon of selection of a profession. Planning of professional activity affects everyone who seeks successful integration into the constantly changing labour market, and, consequently, becomes a constituent part of a permanent and inevitable process. In the modern dynamic, rapidly changing and developing society, the optimal reveal of the potential of individual capacities is instrumental, as well as successful adjustment to the labour market needs, understanding of responsibility for own decisions and lifelong learning capacities. effective and timely vocational information, counselling and guidance are very important for successful socialisation of an individual, whereas effectively rendered vocational information, counselling and guidance services are of utmost importance to both: the education system, labour market and their interaction. The above services are part of the active labour market policy and one of the key

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

elements of training and employment policy at national, regional and local levels. The modern vocational career theory has been diversely developed by the following foreign researchers: Parsons (1909), Super (1961), Tilinghast (1964), Holland (1973), Harren (1979), Hoyt (1979), Rubinton (1980), Hesketh (1982), fukuyama (1980,1982, 1984), Herr, Cramer (1984) and others. Problems related to the selection of a profession and professional mission have been widely investigated in the earlier works of the Lithuanian educologists and psychologists (Gucas, 1937; Sulcas, 1973; Kontvainas, 1976; Galkyt, 1977; Jovaisa, 1978; Kregzd, 1988; Beresnevicien, 1990; Jatautait, 1991; Zilinskien, 1994; Petrauskait, 1996, Lauzackas, 1999, 2005; Pukelis, 2004). However, work opportunities of a social educator within the vocational information system, peculiarities and functions of their vocational information activity have not yet been investigated by the lithuanian scientists. in view of this, a scientific problem could be determined by the following question: · What are work opportunities for a social educator in rendering vocational information services in comprehensive school? · Object of the research ­ to reveal work opportunities of a social educator within the vocational information system. Tasks 1. To present peculiarities of vocational information as the first step of vocational guidance. 2. To review vocational information situation in comprehensive school. 3. To determine work opportunities of a social educator in rendering vocational information services. Object ­ work opportunities of a social educator within the vocational information system. Research methods and organisation · Analysis of scientific sources and documents, · Questionnaire, · analysis of statistical data. The aim of the analysis of scientific sources and documents regulating education is to review peculiarities of vocational information as the first step of vocational guidance, as well as theoretic work opportunities of a social educator within the vocational information system. Since problem analysis is based on the analysis of documents regulating vocational information, counselling and guidance, the authors of the Paper, while seeking transparency, decided to apply in the Article the concepts defined in these documents. By the empirical investigation the efforts were made to determine pupils` opportunities in using vocational information, counselling and guidance services in comprehensive school, and to identify involvement of social educators in vocational information work.

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The research was executed in Alytus, Anyksciai, Birstonas, Ignalina, Jurbarkas, Moltai, Pasvalys, Siauliai, Silut, Sirvintos districts and Utena and Vilnius cities and districts. During the research, 828 comprehensive school pupils of 8­12 grades, 450 parents, 89 class tutors and class heads were inquired. Work of a social educator within the vocational information system. Vocational information is defined as a constituent part of vocational guidance, the key objective of which is provision of knowledge on content, peculiarities and requirements of relevant professions, as well as possibilities in acquiring profession, upgrading qualification skills and employment. Pursuant to the analysis of vocational information concepts presented in the scientific sources (Lauzackas, 2005; Jovaisa, 1999; Kucinskien, 2003 etc.) and legal documents, the key objective of vocational information can be defined as accumulation of information complying with the needs of target groups, as well as arrangement and provision of this information by creating conditions to make an effective and right decision on selection of profession and career planning, complying both with the individual needs and with the labour market situation. In general terms, vocational information tasks, presented in various strategic documents, can be identified as provision of information on the education system, terms of enrolment and specialities which could be studied in vocational and higher schools; advice on profile learning, relationship between qualifications and professions, possibilities and the procedure for acquisition, upgrading skills and requalification, information on labour market and its forecasts, and career opportunities to target groups depending on their age and needs. Vocational information as a composite part of vocational guidance is considered, within the european Union`s context, as one of the key factors promoting lifelong learning, employment capacities, adjustment of labour force to market conditions, entrepreneurship skills and equal opportunities (Memorandum on Lifelong Learning, 2000; european employment Guidelines, 2005). With a view to increasing efficiency of education, the new wording of the Law on education of the Republic of Lithuania highlights provision of assistance (including information) and assurance of accessibility of information to pupils and their parents (guardians, custodians), teachers and educators (Official Gazette, 2003, No 63-2853). The Ministry of education and Science (MeS) of the Republic of Lithuania, together with the Ministry of Social Security and Labour (MSSL), with a view to implementing the national and eU priorities in the sphere of education and social security, have approved, at the end of 2003, the National Vocational Guidance Strategy (Official Gazette, 2004, No 56-1955). Pursuant to the above document, elaboration of a new environment for the development of the vocational guidance system has commenced in Lithuania, namely: the first vocational information positions were established, and first vocational advisors trained by the end of November 2003 (from 2005 ­ vocational 6

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information counsellors); a model of vocational information infrastructure is currently under establishment. Besides, standards of vocational information and vocational counselling documents regulating the provided vocational information, counselling services and their content, were elaborated; these documents specify key principles and qualification and ethical requirements for vocational information and vocational counsellors. In general, the competence of vocational information can be specified as capacities of a specialist to render effective vocational information services. Its standards might include a whole range of skills related to identification and assessment (evaluation) of needs of a client, accumulation and analysis of information, application of information technologies and provision of target information. The necessity of specialists with vocational information competences is stipulated in the strategic documents of the european Commission, highlighting the need for the development of vocational guidance services (Memorandum on Lifelong Learning, 2000, Commissions Communiqué: establishment of A Single Lifelong Learning Space, 2001; european employment Guidelines, 2001). Training of the above specialists would be in conformance with the recommendations of the OeSD, eTf, CeDefOP and the Bologna process in modelling the development of higher education in Lithuania. However, both, labour market and education system lack specialists to render vocational information, counselling and guidance services; these services are usually provided to pupils, the employed or students who are independently searching for an assistance. meanwhile the above assistance is not accessible to risk group persons. With a view to securing accessibility and quality of vocational information and counselling services, from the year 2005 vocational information services in education institutions have been rendered not only by vocational information counsellors, but by teachers of different subjects, class tutors, psychologists and social educators (Official Gazette, 2005, No 602132). According to Ms.Kvieskien, social educators working in comprehensive schools, are responsible for the analysis of mental, physical, personal and collective peculiarities of pupils and conditions of their development; for provision of support in strengthening mental and physical health of pupils; for education of social skills of pupils and provision of assistance for positive development of pupils as personalities, and their intellectual development (Kvieskien, 2005). According to the nature of work and spheres in education institutions, social educators perform the following functions: educational (introduction of career planning and education of career planning skills to target groups), educational (elaboration of programmes on training career planning skills and their implementation), and counselling (advice and counselling on issues related to planning of professional career, selection of a profession, upgrading qualification skills, further education, employment and

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career opportunities) (Official Gazette, 2005, No 60-2132). According to the authors of this Paper, the attributed vocational information functions extend and supplement the context of the ongoing activities of a social educator. Results of the research and their overview. Quality of rendered services first of all depends on the competence, knowledge and skills of specialists rendering the above services; therefore, while executing the research, it was necessary to specify not only organisation, co-ordination, quality and effectiveness of vocational information, guidance and counselling services rendered in comprehensive school, but also the providers of the above services. The researchers were interested in difficulties faced by pupils while making decisions on selection of a profession. The received results revealed that even 45% of pupils indicated lack of information on the above subject as a key obstacle preventing from making a right decision on their future profession. according to the research results, all target groups participating indicated lack of information on vocational information. Options of responses are presented in figure 1.

Figure1. Breakdown of answers to question: is information in schools sufficient in selecting a profession (%)

When analysing the research results it turned out that usually the responsibility for provision of vocational information services in schools is delegated to deputy directors for education (indicated by 3,9 of respondents-class tutors and ,9 school heads) and social educators (indicated by ,5 inquired class tutors and , school heads). Thus, a conclusion can be made that organisation and rendering of vocational information, counselling and guidance services in schools are formally delegated to social educators. every second head of school indicated that vocational guidance (or 8 loreta ZADeIKAIT, asta RAILIeN

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information) consultations should be rendered by a social educator or psychologist. School heads provided the following arguments: (1) assistance shall be provided by a variety of specialists knowing their pupils (the pupils' trust in social educators is also important); (2) school activities related to vocational information issues shall be a well-tailored and diverse; (3) a school should employ a professional, the key task of whom should be to provide assistance on vocational guidance issues. However, while summarising the research results it turned out that the least support is rendered to pupils by a school psychologist (75,1%), social educator (68,7%) and vocational information counsellor (58%) (see figure 2).

Figure 2. Persons rendering vocational information, counselling and guidance services to school pupils

During the analysis of the research results, it turned out that most frequently vocational information and counselling services are rendered by a social educator to pupils attending basic schools (14,3%) rather than secondary schools (1,7%) or gymnasiums (8,9%) (²=37,6, p<0,000). Pursuant to the research results, although formally organisation and realisation of information, counselling and guidance functions in education institutions are delegated to social educators, actually the level of performance of these functions is low. The above situation in schools is confirmed by the answers of pupils` parents. The reasons determining such a low level of involvement of social educators in the vocational information activity, might be their huge work load and/or insufficient qualification in providing information, counselling and guidance services.

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The majority of parents involved in the research indicated that vocational information and counselling services are rarely rendered by a social educator; whereas according to a less than a half of respondents (pupils` parents), the above services should be rendered by a social educator (figure 3).

Figure 3. Opinion of parents on who should render vocational information, counselling and guidance services in schools

The comparison of the current and desirable situation shows that it is necessary to intensify vocational information, counselling and guidance work in schools by involving responsible and motivated specialists. In view of this, a conclusion could be made that the sphere of vocational guidance, especially service rendering, should be enhanced by giving more attention to provision of relevant information, diverse assistance to social educators, promotion of their initiatives and interest in the above activity and by highlighting the impact and importance of functions delegated to social educators. These specialists could not only improve quality of vocational guidance services in the sphere of comprehensive and vocational education, but could also ensure efficient provision of primary vocational assistance (provision of information, self-cognition, education of social skills, identification of problems, mediation within the school-parent-vocational training system and a pupil), and, in case of serious problems, refer pupils to relevant specialists.

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conclusions

The analysis of scientific sources, documents and the quantitative research provides for elaboration of the following conclusions: · Vocational information is defined as a composite part of vocational training, the key objective of which is provision of knowledge on the content, peculiarities and requirements of professions, and on possibilities to acquire profession, upgrade qualification skills and employment. Within the context of the european Union this is one of the major factors facilitating lifelong learning, employability, adjustment of labour force to market conditions, development of entrepreneurship skills and equal opportunities. Access to and quality of vocational information services in comprehensive schools is insufficient. Quality of these services undoubtedly depends on the competence, knowledge and skills of their providers. In general terms, the competence of vocational information can be specified as capacities of a specialist to render effective vocational information services. All the above might fall into an integrated system of such capacities as identification and evaluation/assessment of clients` needs, accumulation of information, application of information technologies and provision of target oriented information. The research revealed that although formally organisation and realisation of information, counselling and guidance functions in education institutions are delegated to social educators, actually the level of performance of these functions is low. The reasons determining such a low level of involvement of social educators in the vocational information activity, might be their huge work load and/or insufficient qualification in rendering information, counselling and guidance services. Training of vocational information (or career planning) competences should bee included into the study programmes for preparation of social educators.

references

. . 3. . Jovaisa, L., 1999, Profesinio konsultavimo psichologija (Vocational Counselling Psychology) Vilnius: Agora. Kucinskien, R.,2003, Ugdymo karjerai metodologija (Methodology for Career Education). Klaipeda: Publishing Office of Klaipeda University. Kvieskien, G., 2005, Pozityvioji socializacija (Positive Socialisation). Vilnius: Publishing Office of Vilnius Pedagogical University. Lauzackas, R., 2005, Profesinio rengimo termin aiskinamasis zodynas (Explanatory Vocabulary of Vocational Training Concepts). Kaunas: Publishing Office of Vytautas the great university.

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5. 6. . 8.

9.

The Law on Education of the Republic of Lithuania. 2003// State News, 2003 No 63-853. Description of requirements for provision of vocational information and counselling services.. Ministry of education and Science (MeS), Ministry of Social Security and Labour (MSSL) of the Republic of Lithuania, 12/05/2006, No SAK-739/A1-116. Strategy of Vocational Guidance. MeS, MSSL, 17/04/2004, No SAK- 1635/A180. Pukelis, K., Garnien, D., 2004, Lietuvos karjeros konsultavimo sistema// Profesinis rengimas: tyrimai ir realijos (The Lithuanian Career Counselling System//Vocational Training: Research and Realia, 2004, 8: 92-107. Kaunas: Publishing Office of Vytautas the great university Qualification requirements of a social educator. MeS, 06/03/2002, SAK- 66. Education Guidelines: Strategic Provisions for the Development of Education in Lithuania, 2003-2012: draft, 2002. Vilnius: Spauda.

Loreta zadeikait ­ doctor of Social Sciences (education), Associate Professor of Vilnius Pedagogical University Social Communication Institute Department of Social Pedagogy, Sphere of scientific interests: Social education, education Policy and Management; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected] Asta Railien ­ PhD student of Social Sciences (education), lecturer at Vilnius Pedagogical University Social Communication Institute Social education Department; Sphere of scientific interests: education of Career Planning Skills, Vocational Guidance and Counseling; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected]

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Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

ThE pARENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS AN ORGANIzED SOCIAL pEDAGOGICAL ASSISTANCE AT SChOOL

annotation. The article analyzes parents' attitude towards the requirements of social pedagogical assistance and organized effectiveness. The aim of the research was to reveal parents' opinion related to implementation of an organized social pedagogical assistance at school. The results of the research display the most important problems, according to parents' opinion, that their children most often face at school as well as parents' awareness of assistance provided by specialists who work at school. The article also gives information to which specialists parents refer to solve the problems connected with education. Key words: Social pedagogical assistance, specialists working at school, learning problems, schoolchildren (students), parents.

introduction

One of the main aims of contemporary education is to train a responsible, independent, patriotic personality, capable to compete successfully in this ever changing world [12]. When evaluating the challenges of the modern world, the mission of education turns into assistance to help a person to understand the contemporary world and to educate a person who is willing and can learn constantly [13]. Thus, the school seeking to guarantee the main educational strategy development aims, such as realization of accessibility continuity and social justice ought to take care of the process quality. As it is described in the State educational system's strategies, the quality of the educational process is defined by implementation principles of consistency and continuity and formation of social and pedagogical conditions to teach every schoolchild. According to the data of the Statistics Department, 55000 children with special needs studied during 2001­2002 school years. This constitutes almost 10 percent of all schoolchildren's population (583850) [18]. According to the data of the Ministry of education and Science for the year 2001 there were 684 children playing truants, in 2002 there were 550, in 2003 there were 572 [12] children and in 2005 even 2294 [17 ] did not attend school or avoided attending it. On average, 0.6 percent of schoolchildren from general number have to repeat the course: 1­4 grades-0.3 %, 5­8 grades- 1%, 9­10 grades- 2.8 %, and 11­12 grades- 2.3 %. The research shows that possibility to be expelled from school for those who remain for the second year in the same class increases by 45­50 percent [19]. The increasing numbers of truants, schoolchildren who remain for the second year in the same class and the ones 33

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who face failure to learn show that school pays insufficient attention to the variety of schoolchildren's needs and is unable to choose the effective work methods and strategies to organize the process of education. The student who has experienced failures to learn needs help not only studying the subject. Pedagogical and psychological assistance is very important to him (her), but he (she) gets it very rarely. The research shows that out of 0 percent students with learning difficulty only 0.6 percent [12] received help from a psychologist, speech therapist or social pedagogue. Scientists [1, 4], Herm (2004) and others unanimously acknowledge the importance of pedagogical and psychological assistance while overcoming failures to learn. The scientists emphasize that in order to overcome any type of difficulty a thorough study of the personality is required. P.Dereskevicius states that in order to get exact evaluation of the problem and choose an effective strategy it is necessary to diagnose disorder of personality formation, its cause and to disclose the degree of pedagogical negligence as soon as possible [1]. Researchers advise taking child's living conditions, family status and other social circumstances into consideration and evaluate them [4]. In S.L.Belikova's opinion, a greater impact on a person has the influence made by a specially organized group. S.B.Rimm has constructed a model of psychological assistance to overcome learning difficulties which consists of evaluation, communication, changes of expectations, identification of roles model, correction of shortcomings and changes of reinforcement [6]. Other scientists while investigating the ways how to overcome an academic failure emphasize help, directed to strengthen student's motivation. N.L.Gage and D.C.Berliner are guided by the principle that motivation explains what factors can reinforce one's behavior, orient towards the goal and seek good progress [3]. It is pointed out that if you wish motivation to encourage progress and to foresee which reinforcement of the behavior is the most effective, it is necessary to know child's interests and the activity where child's behavior is motivated and independent. In order to help the student who faces learning failure it is important to organize his (her) activities in such a way that at least minimal feeling of success would be guaranteed. The organized learning process will give strength, self confidence and will encourage for further activity. A.K.Markova (1988) states that in order to strengthen students' motivation to learn, it is necessary to pay attention to the level of students' motivation. D.Steipek (1988) suggests that students' desire to learn and their progress depend on how teachers themselves imagine students' learning and what results they expect [16]. 3

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Psychologists state, that aggressive children more often play truant, do not attend school and this directly determines failure to learn. This leads to conclusion that assistance offered to overcome failures to learn can be identical to specific features of assistance given to aggressive children. According to D.Nasvytiene's statement, while providing assistance to aggressive children first of all it is necessary to cooperate with their parents. cooperation will be effective only if parents are prepared in a proper way; if they know which model of behavior is the most appropriate in educating an aggressive child and which principles to follow looking for a desirable result. The scientist emphasizes that aggressive behavior can be changed into a desirable one with the help of reward for proper behavior expression on the one hand and no reinforcement for their bad behavior on the other [5]. Research proves that the microclimate at school, teachers' support, love, encouragement and preoccupation with student's learning results make students learn more seriously and seek advancement. Thus pedagogical-psychological assistance is a complex assistance. There is not one way of an organized pedagogical-psychological assistance that would be acceptable and equally effective. Scientists unanimously agree that success of the assistance provided is determined by individual possibility of knowing schoolchildren. So, we can define the effectiveness of pedagogical-psychological assistance as teachers' efforts to notice schoolchildren's failures to learn, overcoming learning difficulties. In organizing pedagogical assistance, it is important to follow the principle that the assistance provided will be useful, effective and properly assessed by school children only when a pedagogue accepts student's problems as drawbacks of his personal work, when he notices rudiments of failure to learn. Great importance is attached to student's family when social-pedagogical assistance is being organized. The necessity of family and school cooperation was stressed by R.Civinskas (2006). He stated that the mechanism of organized support does not function if the mechanism of parents and school cooperation does not work. So parental involvement and voluntary participation in organizational process of socialpedagogical assistance is one of the main criteria for assistance effectiveness. Aim of the research: To reveal parents' attitude towards special features of pedagogical, psychological and social assistance provided to their children. Methodology of the research. Quantity research was carried out following the order of the Ministry of education and Science. A closed type questionnaire for parents was used in the research. The research data was processed with the help of SPSS computer software. Volume of the research: 666 parents. Results of the research and the discussion.

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The aim of the research was to find out the parental attitude towards the problems their children most often meet at school (picture 1). Two groups of problems were chosen: one of them is connected with special features of teacher's activity; another is connected with behavior of schoolchildren. Most often (57.7 %) parents indicate fatigue which occurs due to heavy teaching load and improper behavior of other children during lessons (50.3 %). Inter-conflicts with other children are often mentioned as important and significant (46.5 %) as well as teachers' unwillingness to explain additionally (33.9 %). Uninteresting spare time activity which is organized at school is not so often mentioned (31.8 %), emotional abuse (29.6 %) caused by other schoolmates and teachers, an incomprehensible explanation of teaching material (24.3 %). The fifth part of parents' state that schoolchildren do not understand how to do homework (20.4 %) and are in conflict with their teachers (20.6%).

Teachers do not explain additionally Teachers explain the lesson's material in an incomprehensible way Schoolchildren do not understand how to do homework Schoolchildren do not understand teaching material presented in the lesson Fatigue due to a heavy teaching load An uninteresting spare time activity organized at school Behavior problems of other classmates during the lessons Conflicts with teachers

20,6

33,9

24,3

20,4

32

57,7

31,8

50,3

Inter-conflicts with schoolmates

46,5

Emotional abuse caused by other schoolmates 0 10

29,6

20

30

40

50

60

70

%

1 picture. Problems schoolchildren most often meet with at school (parental attitude)

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The research also gives information to what specialists' parents most often refer to for advice in connection with problems of education (picture 2).

Speech therapist Class teacher Teacher's assistant Special pedagogue Psychologist Social pedagogue 0 100 200 300

66 87 314 665 130 347

400

500

600

700

Num ber of respondents

Picture 2. Specialists who got the greatest number of requests from parents related to solving behavioral problems of their son/daughter

It was stated that parents most often solve the problems of education with social pedagogue (n=665), more rarely with class teacher and psychologist (n=314). The most rarely parents solve problems with speech therapist (n=87) and teacher's assistant (n=66). While analyzing the research data related to specific problems the conclusion was drawn that social pedagogue, according to parents, solves a greater variety of problems in comparison with other specialists. The problem of conflicts is the most often mentioned (n=47) by parents. In their opinion, a social pedagogue helps to overcome the conflicts with parents, teachers, inter-conflicts and conflicting situations at school. Parents address the social pedagogue when the problems of communication (n=28), improper behavior, attendance, truancy (n=28) and social problems (n=10) occur. It is worth mentioning that parents very rarely refer to the social pedagogue in connection with racketeering, idleness, catering free of charge. Parents most often contact with psychologist when problems of communication, conflicts with parents, teachers or other schoolchildren come up. Less often parents address this specialist in connection with physical and emotional abuse (n=8), reluctance to learn, lack of motivation (n=12). While evaluating problems of education, addressed to special pedagogue, it was stated that classification of problems, the special pedagogue deals with, is rather narrow in comparison with other specialists who work at school. Special pedagogue most often (n=50) helps with additional explanation of lesson's material and homework.

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The rarest cases when parents address a special pedagogue are those of language impairment, adaptation and harmful habits. Teacher's assistant, according to parents, has only few requests to help. Parents address this specialist when schoolchildren do not understand new teaching material (n=8) or homework is not clear to them. Some of the parents stated that they ask teacher's assistant to help organize spare time activity and solve problems connected with child abuse and special needs. The research data shows that class teacher solves educational problems of diverse content (n=79). Most often the class teacher helps to solve problems connected with behavior (n=48) and communication (n=29). Urgent and significant are such problems as lack of information (n=28), truancy (n=27) and conflicts. Parents not so often address the class teacher when they come across the problems of physical and emotional abuse, lack of motivation and harmful habits. Parents raising children with language impairment usually address a speech therapist (n=92). The research has been done to find out if parents have information about the assistance provided by specialists (picture 3).

Speech therapist Class teacher Teacher's assistant Special pedagogue Psychologist Social pedagogue 64 22,4 35,7 77,8 66,2 87,5

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

%

Picture 3. Parent's awareness of assistance provided by school specialists

It was stated that parents are best informed about the assistance provided by class teacher (87.5%) and psychologist (77.8%). Also more than 60 % of parents know about the activities of social pedagogue and speech therapist. least of all parents are informed about teacher assistant's work. More than one third of parents (35.7%) know about assistance offered by special pedagogue. 38

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While analyzing the answers of the respondents (n=390) as for awareness of assistance provided by psychologist, it became clear that this specialist, according to parents, offers psychological assistance (n=164), solves problems of communication (n=55), provides emotional support (n=23) and consults (n=21). Not many parents, as assistance provided, mentioned solution of conflicts (n=16), advice (n=11), hearing out (n=9) and conversations (n=7). In parents opinion, social pedagogue can help in solving social (n=63) and attendance problems (n=49). Not so often parents mention communication (n=19), preventative work (n=17), consultations (n=8), mediation (n=8) and individual work (n=5) services. It was ascertained that only a small group of parents who were questioned can enumerate the problems that can be dealt with a special pedagogue. 71 of all the respondents stated assistance given while overcoming learning difficulties, 38 mentioned work with children with special needs and 38 marked writing of special programs. On the basis of research data (n=66) as for teacher's assistant services one can conclude that parents most often mention help to the teacher (n=23) and assistance for schoolchildren in overcoming learning difficulties (n=22). The results of the research (n=347) show that respondents are quite well informed about a class teacher services. This is proved by diversity of the services that were mentioned. Most often parents stated the work with class (n=76), supply of information (n=71), cooperation with parents, children and teachers (n=46), assistance for solving learning problems (n=41) was mentioned by a smaller group of respondents. Some of them marked issues of education (n=29) and attendance (n=21) assistance. The answers of parents (n=130) show that respondents exactly know about the services rendered by speech therapist. 267 respondents marked assistance with language impairment (dyslexia) and writing impairment (disgraphia) was marked by 5 respondents. The aim of the research was also to find out who informed parents (n=473) about services provided by specialists at school. more than one third of the respondents pointed out a class teacher as a source of information about services provided by specialists at school (n=150). Less often parents receive information from administration (n=70), media (n=59). Sometimes (n=33) parents find out about services provided at school during parents meeting. It is interesting to note that part of the parents who answered the question independently get information because they work in the system of education. A small group of parents answered that they find out information from their son/daughter (n=14), acquaintances (n=18), from press and literature (n=10). Only 16 respondents stated that they had found out about services from specialists working at school.

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While analyzing the data of the research it became clear (picture 4) that parents who have further (college) or higher (university) education are far better informed about the assistance provided by specialists rather than parents who have high (secondary) school education.

200 247

Higher

70 120 227 195 78 108

Further

20 41 94 79 50 71

Secondary education

16 21 57 39

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Number of respondents Social pedagogue Teacher's assistance Psychologist Class teacher Special pedagogue Speech therapist

Picture 4. Parents' education and awareness of assistance provided by specialists who work at school

The aim of the research was to find out how often parents asked specialists who work at school for help. While analyzing the answers of the respondents it was noticed that parents more often do not ask specialists for help rather than ask often (picture 5). Majority of parents pointed out that they never asked for help such specialists as teacher's assistant (62%), special pedagogue (58.7%), psychologist (53.3 %) and speech therapist. Most often they ask class teacher for help. A little more than one fourth (26.7%) of parents have never asked class teacher for help.

0

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62

Speech therapist

26,7

52,9 61,6 53,3 58,7

Special pedagogue Social pedagogue 0 10 20 30 % 40 50

60

70

Picture 5. Frequency of parents who never ask for help the specialists working at school.

The aim of the research was to find out what problems made parents address the specialists. Most often parents (n=382) ask class teacher for help when they meet with the problems of behavior (n=64), education (n=24) and conflicts (n=28). More rarely parents underline such problems as poor attendance, non-objective assessment (n=18 respondents), relationship (n=18), advancement (n=12), discipline (n=10), reluctance to learn (n=10). 03 respondents addressed the social pedagogue. The data that was received shows that parents ask social pedagogue for catering free of charge (n=20), behavioral problems (n=19), attendance (n=15). Very rarely they address the specialist in connection with truancy (n=9), conflicts (n=8), physical and emotional abuse (n=7). Only one parent addressed the social pedagogue with regard to schoolchildren's harmful habits, communication problems, and theft, racketeering and learning difficulties. it was stated that 30 parents referred to a psychologist. on the basis of the research data, the parents address the psychologist when they meet such problems as communication (n=15), behavior (n=13) and conflicts (n=10). The respondents also stressed psychological problems (n=8), fear (n=8), relationship (n=6). Most rarely parents underlined unwillingness to learn (n=5), abuse (physical, emotional, psychological) (n=6) and problem of motivation (n=5). Other problems, such as aggression, attendance, adaptation, and racketeering were mentioned once or twice. When schoolchildren come across learning difficulties their parents (n=19) most often refer to a special pedagogue. The results of the research show that parents in most cases ask speech therapist for help when their children come across such problems as language impairment, pronunciation defect (n=99). Less often they tackle the problems of writing (n=14) and learning (n=1).

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Only 12 parents stated that they asked teacher's assistant for help. The problems were as following: incomprehensible teaching material (n=8), behavior problems (n=1), language impairment (n=1) and conflicts (n=1). The data presented show that due to health problems parents referred to medical nurse additionally (n=1), as for problems with other teachers and teacher's misbehavior they complained to the principal (n=6), for assault against a child parents informed the police (n=1), and due to learning problems only 2 addressed the teacher of the subject. The issue of the assistance received from the specialists was also analyzed. The results show that most often parents receive help from class teacher (n=363). Individual aid was marked by 247 respondents and group consultations by 35 respondents. Not so often parents mention work with the family (n=12), children (n=13), supply of required information (n=13) and consultations (n=14). from other specialists, according to parents, information is provided less often. 124 respondents were offered assistance by psychologist. most often individual assistance (n=97) is rendered as well as work with the family (n=11) and consultations (n=8). 96 respondents stated that they were given assistance by social pedagogue. The character of the assistance provided is most often an individual one (n=65). The parents outlined individual consultations and conversations. it was not so often that group consultations were mentioned (n=12) or wok with the family (n=5) and assistance in solving different types of problems (n=3). The respondents received individual help from 27 special pedagogue. One respondent was given group consultation and one respondent received specific recommendation. The assistance of speech therapist was given to 08 respondents. They underlined individual assistance (n=78), group consultations (n=9), speech correction (n=8). 12 parents received assistance from teacher's assistant. Majority of respondents mentioned individual help (n=9) rather than additional explanation (n=1). The results show that 1 respondent received individual help from a medical nurse. 4 respondents received help from the principal of school. One respondent mentioned that his request for help from the principal went unanswered. It was important to find out what kind of assistance was not provided by specialists working at school. The quality of the services provided by class teacher was assessed by 66 parents. In order to improve the services provided by class teacher it was underlined that, in parents' opinion, these specialists lack attention (n=11) and concrete work (n=6). One or two respondents underlined lack of active participation, tolerance, empathy, objectivity, benevolence and competence in class teacher's work.

Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Teacher's assistant Speech therapist Class teacher Special pedagogue Psychologist Social pedagogues 0

4,7 3,2 4,1 3,6 3 6,8

16,4 15,3

47,1

4,7 3,5 4,5

6,8 7,2

16,5

3,6

6,2

16,1

10

Yes Often

20

No

30

40

50

%

Picture 6. Parents' evaluation of the assistance provided by the specialists

6 respondents evaluated the quality of the assistance provided by psychologist. as it turned out, in order to render effective assistance psychologist lacks consideration (n=5), better knowledge (n=3), individuality (n=2) and confidentiality (n=1). distribution of the results shows that 3 parents who participated in the research are not satisfied with the quality of services provided by social pedagogues. Most often parents underline that in their work social pedagogues lack consistency (n=4), cordiality (n=5). One by one respondent stressed lack of competence, confidentiality, understanding and compassion. 8 respondents evaluated the quality of services provided by social pedagogue. The parents stated that this specialist lacks exactitude, consideration and work experience training children with special needs. 3 respondents evaluated the quality of services provided by speech therapist. The main drawbacks of the services are qualitativeness (n=3) and clearness (n=1). While investigating the quality of the services provided by teacher's assistant it became clear that it was evaluated only by one respondent who pointed out that one can meet teacher's assistant at school very rarely.

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The fact that only a small group of parents answered an open question about lack of the services provided by specialists helps us to conclude that parents receive assistance they need. There is a tendency for parents to express their dissatisfaction when specialists lack consideration and do not get deep into the essence of parents problem. The research also shows how often parents are satisfied with the quality of the services provided (picture 6). The results show that parents are often satisfied with the quality of the services. one can notice a distinct distribution of the results while evaluating class teacher's assistance and the assistance of specialists who work at school. It was stated that almost half (47.1%) of the respondents who participated in the research positively evaluated the effectiveness of the class teacher's assistance. 23.4% of the respondents marked that they are often satisfied and only 3% of the parents gave negative evaluation. It is advisable to pay attention to teacher's assistant and special pedagogue help evaluation. 6.8% of respondents evaluated the work of special pedagogue positively, 3.5% marked often and 4.7% marked no. A similar tendency remains while evaluating services provided by teachers' assistants; 4.1% marked yes, 3.2%- often, 4.7% no.

conclusions

1. In parents' opinion, the most important pedagogical-psychological problems at school are such as fatigue due to heavy loads of teaching, improper behavior of schoolchildren during lessons, inter-conflicts with schoolmates and teachers' unwillingness to explain the teaching material additionally. 2. Parents most often ask class teacher for help. It was ascertained that parents are well informed about the assistance provided by class teacher, social pedagogue and psychologist. 3. Most often parents ask specialists assistance in relation to: · Catering free of charge, behavior problems, school attendance ­ social pedagogue. · Communication, behavior problems and conflicts ­ psychologist. · Learning difficulties ­ special pedagogue. · Problems of behavior and education, conflicts ­ class teacher. · language, speech defects ­ speech therapist. · Teaching material incomprehensibility and problems of behavior ­ teacher's assistant. 4. The parents, who participated in the research, are satisfied with the quality of assistance provided by class teachers, social pedagogues and psychologists. They are

Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

less satisfied with the quality of assistance provided by teachers' assistants and special pedagogues.

references

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Dereskevicius P. Aukljimo sunkum salinimas mokykloje: metodins rekomendacijos. Vilnius: Pedagogikos mokslinio tyrimo institutas, 1987. 131 p. fonagy P. Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis. New- york: Other Press, 2001, p. 6. Gage N. J. Pedagogin psichologija / N. J. Gage, D. C. Berliner, Vilnius: Alna litera, 993. 63 p. Herm S. Sunks vaikai: praktiniai patarimai aukltojams ir tvams. Vilnius: Alma littera, 00. 60 p. Nasvytien D. Vaiko elgesio ir emocins problemos: konspektas, psichologinis vertinimas ir pagalba. Vilnius: Leidykla, 2005. 91 p. Rimm S. B. Sumazjusio pazangumo sindromas. Vilnius: Solertija, 1998. 267 p. Civinskas R. Vengianci lankyti mokykl vaik problemos ir poreikiai / R. Civinskas, V. Levickait, I. Tamutien, Kaunas: Spindulys, 2006. 152 p. . . . ­ : , 003. 5 p. 3. Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausyb, nutarmas, Nr. 764 [zirta 2007-04-02]. Prieiga prie Internet http://www.smm.lt/teisine_baze/docs/nutarimai/764.htm. Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo statymas (1995) [zirta 2005-06-01]. Prieiga per Internet: <http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:pxqyRBfNU0IJ:www3.lrs. lt/cgi-bin/preps2%3fCondition1%3D36279%26Condition2%3D+Lietuvos+R espublikos+%C5%A1vietimo+%C4%Afstatymas+1995&hl=lt&lr=lang_lt< Valstybs svietimo strategijos (2003) [zirta 2007-04-02]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/search?q=cache:yo6_gPKa0gQJ:www.smm.lt/teisine_ baze/docs/strategija2003-12.doc+lietuvos+%C5%A1vietimo+strategijos&hl =lt&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=lt&lr=lang_lt. Neskmingo mokymosi mastai ir priezastys, 2003: <http://www.smm.lt/svietimo_bukle/docs/NMMP_ataskaita.doc> Psichologins pagalbos mokiniui teikimo tvarkos aprasas: <http://www.lps. vu.lt/index.php?id=pedagogine&doc=0> Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo ir mokslo ministro 2004 m. birzelio 15 d. sakas Nr. ISAK-941. [zirta 2005-05-23]. Prieiga per Internet <http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/Student_Motivatation.html> [zirta 2007-04-04]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/search?q=cache: wKCLXptQ2Z4J:vaikams.lrs.lt/informaciniai/nelankantysmokyklos2005.

11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

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pdf+2004+-+2005+mokslo+metais+nelankan%C4%8Dius+vengian%C4%8 Dius&hl=lt&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=lt&lr=lang_lt 17. [zirta 2007-04-28]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/ search?q=cache:421qk_k7el0J:www.smm.lt/svietimo_bukle/docs/SPVIP_ataskaita.doc+vaikai+turintys+specialiuosius+poreikius+statistika&hl=lt&ct=clnk& cd=3&gl=lt 18. [zirta 2007-05-01]. Prieiga per Internet http://209.85.135.104/search?q=cache: l2A0LP6awvMJ:www.vilnius.lt/svietimas/MTP/Vilniaus_mokyklu_tinklo_dabartis.htm+mokini%C5%B3+kartojan%C4%8Di%C5%B3+kurs%C4%85+stat istika&hl=lt&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=lt

teikta 2007 09 28

Valdon Indrasien ­ doctor of Social Sciences (education), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Social Pedagogy, Social Communication Institute, Vilnius Pedagogical University; Sphere of scientific interests: educational Technologies, Social Researches; address: Student str., LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected] Violeta Suboc ­ PhD student of Social Sciences (education), asisstant at Vilnius Pedagogical University Social Communication Institute Social education Department; Sphere of scientific interests: Research Methodology, Learning failure; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected]

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Valdon INDRASIeN, Violeta SUBOc

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN

pOSITIVE SOCIALIzATION MODEL FOR ChILDREN WITh SpECIAL NEEDS

annotation. The article deals with the theoretical preconditions of socialization of children with special needs: the diversity of factors, features and conditions determining socialization, the structural elements of socialization model for children with mental disorders are presented and grounded, the peculiarities of their implementation are disc1osed when organizing their life and socialization in practical activity in one of new type social institutions where the children with mental disorders live remaining without parents' care since their birth. The period of 10 years of socialization is researched during which the validity of elements of socialization model was checked by researches of various children activities spheres that grounded the effectiveness and correctness of presented socialization model for children with mental disorders. This is illustrated by the analysis of the data of the empirical research for children with mental disorders where the adaptation of behaviour in socialization sphere of 40 children with mental disorders living in social institution is evaluated. On the basis of the research results the conditions of the main socialization activities influencing socialization are presented as well as the communication preconditions of the handicapped children and pedagogical and social methods of their development, relation with the environment, formation and modification of social behaviour, which is useful for the practical implementation of socialization model. Key words. Children with special needs, participation, functioning, positive socialization model, social interiorisation, social adaptation.

introduction. In the recent decade in Lithuania there have taken place important social, political, as well as legal changes and changes of values, in relation whereto approach to handicapped and their social situation is changing: it is sought to implement main rights of handicapped, to help handicapped to enter and take part in community life. In the special education system priority is given to socialization of children with special needs which is defined by scientists (G. Andrejeva, B. Bitinas, C. Cooley, e. Goffman, I. Kon, G. Kvieskien, J. Vaitkevicius) as "process and result, when social experience is gained by an active effort of a chiid. it is copied by a chiid actively interacting with social environment, at the beginning only expressing interest, later observing it, and more later directly interacting with it. At the beginning experience is recalled, and later interpreted and individually transformed." (A. Juodaityt, 2002, p. 77). Therefore, there are separated two parts of the socialization process: the first one is social adaptation of an individual to social and cultural conditions, norms and roles, social groups as well as organizations; the second is social interiorisation, when an individual not only passively takes over social experience, but also interacts with it actively trans

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forming external experience to internal. Different socialization theories (behaviouristic, psychoanalytic, social learning, cognitive, social exchanges, etc.) emphasize subjective nature of interaction of a child and environment and seek to explain and ground what internal structures determine transformation of child's social experience info positive or negative internal formations of child's personality in interaction with environment which influence his/her communication systems and procedures of social actions and how does it happen. Socialization theories and empirical researches orientate children education practice to the fact that nature of socialization and its positiveness is fated by managing child's socialization seeking for better socialization quality. Back to the childhood such socialization managers are adults and other socialization agents, such as peer groups, community institutions, press. Therefore such a mutual socialization process is called positive socialization which is understood "as politics of positive actions (positive socialization scenario), basing on which certain individuals or their groups correct behaviour of socialization subjects seeking to consolidate positive cultural components and to form a barrier for consequences of the cultural elements unacceptable in society."(G. Kvieskien, 2005, p. 27). problem. In the special education system of children with special needs general attention was paid to integration processes, disturbance correction, structured teaching, leaving aside interaction of children with special needs and environment, because of that they aren't able to engage into social activities structures, are Dot prepared for social self-realisation and independent life. Therefore there is a necessity to analyse and alter possibilities of children with special needs as well as ways of interaction with all environment elements which assist in seeking for better compliance of needs of handicapped and environment, i.e. to socialise. Though common basics of socialization in childhood are characteristic to socialization of children with special needs, additional socialization management strategies, conditions and factors are required. The model of positive socialization of children with special needs was created after having researched and group ed mentioned aspects. Research subject: The process of positive socialization of 4­21 year old children with mental disorders in social care institutions. The goal of the research is to substantiate the model of positive socialization of children with special needs formed having regard to the whole of researches of socialization strategies, sources and preconditions, conditions as well as factors. Research organization. Organisation, analysis and generalization of the process of socialization covers a. 10 year period during which there was performed a longitudinal research of socialization of 60 children with special needs including researches of partial socialization trends where 120 employees from the Vilnius City Boarding School, two special boarding schools in Vilnius city and the Special education Center participated: special and social educators, social work and medica1 specialists, oc8

Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

cupation teachers. Peculiarities of the socialization process of children with special needs during the research were described and announced in selections of methodical articles "Sexuality of Handicapped" (2002), "Communication of Handicapped in the Language of Symbols and Gestures" (2004) and in the author's monograph "Socialization of Children with Special Needs" (2005). 1. Assumptions of the model of positive socialization of children with special needs. Life quality of children with special needs depends on community attitude to handicapped, applied care model characteristics: according to the medical approach handicapped are sick, they have to be treated and neutralized socially; development, normalisation and integration models are oriented to the opinion that handicapped, including people with mental disturbances, should have equal possibilities for development and learning as those who are not handicapped. They have to be accessible routine community life aspects. At the time new attitude to the care of disabled becomes more and more popular ­ support model which emphasizes functional and social integration of disabled based by real social contacts with community members and participation in common social life, individual communication. J. Ruskus (2002) called different attitudes to interaction of handicapped and environment clinical ­ correctional and social ­ interactive models and describing their differences revealed benefits of social ­ interactive mode1: attitude to handicapped is based by principles of humanism, normalisation, life quality, valorisation of social roles as well as inclusion. Philosophic preconditions of the model became the base of life for children with special needs living in the Vilnius City Boarding School. According to the humanistic approach to a person with mental disorder and his/her life, in the boarding school there are assured following conditions: 1) the right to normal living irrespective of what disorder a child has; 2) to be acknowledged the way you are, even if you are different; 3) to have a possibility to develop your skills; 4) to live in a community with one or several persons; 5) to have a right to equal living conditions (A. Bakk, K. Grunevald, 1997). Organization of life of children with mental disorders in boarding schools is based by normalisation principles: normal rhythm of day (sleeping, eating and similar times) and change of seasons (holiday, work, vacations); separation of work, leisure and living places; understanding of age phase peculiarities (child, teenager, adult, senior); respect to individual needs; social education environment of "family" type; respect to contacts between two genders; cooperation of the family and specialists; assurance of normal economical conditions (B. Nirj, 1969). Organising positive socialization of children with special needs there was regarded the importance of two parts of socialization ­ formation of positive social environment and individual's adaptation to environment, which are called principles of handicapped

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life quality ­ distinguished by scientist (A. Alisauskas, M. Atkinson, J.Ambriukaitis, A. Bagdonas, V. Bursuck, I. elijosien, R. Ivoskuvien, J. Kauffman etc.). The following two groups of socialization process variables are separated: Group 1 includes objective variables related to conditions of social environment and personal interaction with them, i.e. social network, possibilities of personal choice, institutional environment; group 2 includes subjective variables oriented to satisfaction of individual needs and caused emotional relations influencing development of social relations, i.e. communication, independence, identity. All listed variables of socialization are important, however their importance and influence are individual and characteristic, therefore implementation of objective variables depends on subjective life experience which helps to make external factors internal, as a consequence a person acquires social status and is no more an individual, he/she is a personality. Thus, three main socialization trends are emphasized in socialization of children with special needs, they form the basis for socialization model: 1) social adaptation which consists of dynamics of satisfaction of social needs; 2) personal activeness which shows up participating and interacting with reality of life; 3) stimulation and organization of social needs and activities. 2. practical structure'of socialisation model. Scientists (U. Bronfenbrenner, 1977; N. Dezin, 1997; 1. Gardner, 1992; Ch. Zastrov, 1999) who emphasize adaptation interaction of a person and environment analysing the essence and consequences of the interaction for both members in the socialization process, introduce the paradigm of social ecology and separates factors which fate socialization of children: determination of common conditions of socialization (A. Davis, 1984), influence of community culture (L. Krappmann, 1991), social ­ economical status of territory (H. rolf, 980). it is proposed to turn your attention to the following six spheres of children socialization: 1) socialization conditions in local community; 2) family structure. and its members positions with respect to a child; 3) characteristics of family members personalities; 4) style of children education in family; 5) features of children needs and behaviour; 6) children behaviour in other institutions. Analysing every of the fields, we noticed that scientists opinions to factors which fate socialization differ: some of them emphasize influence of the family, the others refer child's behaviour with "the strategy of cognitive activities" (L. Krappmann, 1991), the third ones discuss socialization conditions which are fated by such child's skills as speech, orientation in social situations, "visible" behaviour in scholastic institutions, etc. Summarizing the most common variations of classification of socialization factors proposed by scientists we had to take into consideration additional special factors related to children residing in a boarding school: 1) peculiarities of satisfaction of special needs, 2) limits of social functioning, 3) peculiarities of deprivation, 4) circumstances of participation in activities. We based on international conception of negative features, activities and participation 50

Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

- ICIDH-2 (1999) where the submitted model of biopsychosocial (A. Bagdonas, 1999) disability helps to assess child's possibilities to participate in activities, distinguish and evaluate influence of social factors in the life of a handicapped person. When we became familiar with and assessed structures of different actions and their elements, we've distingueshed socialization factors, features and indexes related to children with special needs residing in the boarding school (remaining without parents care since birth). We have combined them and formed a model of positive socialization of children living in the boarding school (Table ).

Model of positive socialization of children with mental disorders Socialization activities features of socialization activities Table 1

Conditions influencing socialization activities

1. Communica- 1.1. Quality of communica- 1.1.1. Development of understanding tion 1.1.2. Usage of the language of symbols and gestion tures (appliance of alternative communication) 1.2.1. Development of devotion 1.2. expression of emotions 1.2 1.2.2. formation of good emotional atmosphere 1.3.1. Development of social skills .3. interpersonal relations 1.3.2. formation of adaptive behaviour 2.1.1. Preparation of individual programs . interaction with .. Participation ... Selection of activities and its adaptation environment ... creation of personal space .. adaptation of environ- 2.2.2. Structuring of premises ment 2.3.1. Cognition of community institutions and their functions 2.3. Relations with community .3.. Variety of social contacts 3. Social behav- 3.1. Application of stimula- 3.1.1. Application of methods adequate to tion methods child's development iour 3... usage of natural and actual surrounding as well as life situations 3.. Solution of gender prob- 3... observation of sexual children belems haviour and individual correction 3.2.2. Sexual education of employees and handicapped people 3.3. Development of play 3.3.1. Creation of play environment skills 3.3.2. formation of behaviour in social games

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The presented table shows that the base of socialization model of children with special needs is child's activities and participation which are coordinated with limitations of functions of handicapped and features of surroundings. as it is stated in the conception ICIDH-2 (1999) activities are child's functioning and activities in different life fields: 1) seeing, hearing and recognition; 2) learning, appliance of knowledge and performance of tasks; 3) communication activities; 4) movement activities; 5) movement in surroundings; 6) routine activities; 7) obligatory maintenance and household activities; 8) interpersonal behaviour; 9) reacting to exceptional situations and their overcoming; 10) usage of auxiliary means and technique. Integrating these activities there are three trends of activities ­ communication, interaction with environment, social behaviour, selected socialization indexes which all have their own features. Listed features reflect child's participation ­ involvement to life situations which according to ICIDH-2 (1999) are divided in to seven groups: 1) participation in self-care; 2) movement participation; 3) information participation; 4) participation in social relationships; 5) participation in learning, work, free time and spiritual life fields; 6) economical participation; 7) participation in society and community life. Seeking for practical socialization activities ­ application of indexes and their features there were foreseen conditions influencing socialization activities revealing trends of educational/social work and methods for children educators. formed socialization model became a guide for institutions of development of special needs and for care which helped to systemically join to one whole internal and external influences to children in theoretical as well as practical level. Validity of every element of the presented socialization model was checked according to the following scheme of organized activities: children observation ­ diagnostic research ­ organization of educational & social activities and influences of appropriate trend ­ research of changes summarisation of results. efficiency of socialization process and model was assessed by researches of different children life spheres: influence of children independence and social skills, perception and communication quality, adaptive behaviour, play skills, good atmosphere for emotional development "in families", etc.

conclusions

1. In the formed model of positive socialization of children with special needs there are separated socialization activities indexes and their features as well as conditions influencing them are the most important in children socialization process. 5

Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

While developing every trend of socialization activities it is recommended following: 1.1. To assure appropriate communication preconditions for disabled children: a) to improve quality of communication and to develop perception using the language of symbols and gestures; b) to provide conditions for expression of children emotions creating a good atmosphere in the child's family and, in the group of his activities, developing child's devotion for the person taking care of him and bringing him up; c) to help to enter into interpersonal relations with coevals and adults, to develop children social and independence skills and to form their adaptive behaviour. 1.2. To organize child's interaction with environment: a) to develop child's social contacts and relations with different people and community institutions as well as their activities; b) to assure to a child condition for participation in activities of "distant" and "close" community as well as to plan and coordinate activities in individual child's socialization programs; c) to adapt environment to satisfaction of child's social and basic needs and participation in activities structuring premises and creating there personal spaces, selecting necessary means corresponding to child's development and disorders. 1.3. To form and modify children s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r: a) to apply stimulation methods corresponding to child's development and possibilities as well as to use natural situations of child life; b) to solve children gender problems observing and individually correcting children sexual behaviour, training employees and handicapped to understand sexual expressions and to solve arisen issues of sexuality; c) to develop child's play skills creating favourable environment for paying with the help of games designed to form and correct child's behaviour. 2. Success of socialization of children with special needs is fated by good socialization activities and institution management strategies: 1) formation of positive socialization activities model as well as determination of perspectives (mission, vision, objectives, tasks); 2) analysis of organization's intellectual, material, time and environment resources and their appropriate management; 3) research of employee motivation and attitude to work, increasing their competence of developing personal employee characteristics and evaluating their qualification (knowledge, skills, values), mobilising employees for implementation of social ­ educational innovations.

references

1. 2. Atstovavimo sutrikusios raidos zmoni teisms pagrindai. ­Vilnius, 2003. Bagdonas A. Tarptautin yd, veikt ir dalyvumo klasifikacija: Negalij ir funkcionalumo matmen vadovlio BeTA-1 apmatai. ­ Vilnius, 1999.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Bakk A., Grunevald K. Globa. ­ Vilnius, 1997. Bitinas B. Aukljimo teorija ir technologija. ­ Vilnius, 2004. Cooley Ch. Human nature and social order. ­ New york, 1962. Davis A. Socialization and Adolescent Personality. ­ Chicago, 1994. cerniauskait D. Gintilien G. Adaptyvaus elgesio vertinimo svarba diagnozuojant vaiko protin atsilikim. ­ Medicina-36, 2000. Galkien A. Pedagogin sveika integruota ugdymo slygomis. ­ Siauliai, 2003. Juodaityt A. Socializacija ir ugdymas vaikystje. ­ Vilnius, 2002. Kvieskien G. Pozityvioji socializacija. ­ Vilnius, 2005. Krappman L. Soziologische Dimensionen der Identitat. ­ Stuttgart, 1991. Nirje B. The normalization principe and its human management implications. ­ Baltimor, 1969. Rolff H. Socialization and Auslese durch die Schule. ­ Heidelberg, 1980. Ruskus J. Negals fenomenas. ­ Siauliai, 2002. Vaicekauskient V. Specialij poreiki vaik socializacija. ­ Vilnius, 2005. Vaitkevicius J. Socialins pedagogikos pagrindai. ­ Vilnius, 1995. Steman C. Socialinio darbo su proto negalios vaikais pagrindai. ­ Vilnius, 1999.

teikta 2007 09 05

Violeta Vaicekauskien ­ doctor of Social Sciences (education), Associate professor at Vilnius Pedagogical University Social Communication Institute Social education Department; Sphere of scientific interests: Assumptions of Social Worker Professionalism, Quality Assessment of Social Care and Help; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected]

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Violeta VAICeKAUSKIeN

SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

Romas PRAKAPAS, renata KATINAIT

RE-SOCIALIzATION OF CONVICTS: SOCIAL coMMunicaTion and The realizaTion oF EDUCATIONAL EXpECTATIONS

annotation. The article analyses the problem of the re-socialization of convicts. The conditions encouraging the positiveness and effectiveness of the process of re-socialization are revealed here, namely, the constant process, continuity, specialists' improvement of professional skills and the like. The generalized scientific (academic) literature is illustrated (grounded) by the empirical research data. While presenting the research data, the conclusion that convicts have evident educational needs is made. Besides, convicts who do not have a secondary education commit the highest number of crimes. It also comes into light that younger convicts (aged between 18 and 24) are more motivated in a professional sense than people of other age groups (ages). Through the analysis of the research data it is shown that convicts who have grown up in the families of their biological parents maintain warm and open mutual relationships with their parents more often than those who have not been raised in their biological families. In addition, the majority of the convicted project their future in prison (70 %). More than 60 % of respondents plan to ensure their means of subsistence legally after the release from prison. Key words: socialization, re-socialization, reintegration, convicts.

Urgency (topicality) and the problem. Global spheres and the transformations that take place within them as quantitative and qualitative changes appear to determine the formation of an absolutely new societal state. Consequently, the present-day society estimates the variety of risks and dangers anew. B. Melnikas (2002) argues that it is the key circumstance assuring the security and stability of a society. However, according to Z. Bauman (2002), concern for personal security serves as if to stimulate the propagation of norms and prohibition. The budget expenses of many countries on the "law and order forces", mostly on constant police detachments and imprisonment services, are going up all over the world. On the other hand, back in the ninth decade of the 0th c. it was proved that the theories of the restriction of legal capacity, scaring away and punishment are logically defective and empirically improvable (Mathiesen, 1990). Social integration of the convicted and those who have been released from imprisonment is one of the problems of the present-day society. It should be noted that Lithuania, as far as the number of convicted persons is concerned, is no longer represented by the statistical data that occupy one of the leading positions in international summaries (Sakalauskas, 2005). The phenomenon of re-socialization has 55

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lately been discussed in academic educational literature (Merkys, Ruskus, Juodraitis, 2002; Kvieskien, 2005). In addition to that, attention should be paid to Canada's, Scandinavia's and other countries' advanced experience within a concrete domain that assures a harmonious development of convicts' reintegration. According to european experience, along with the steady increase of the number of the convicted in the society, the crime rates are rising: the expansion of psychosocial faults (vice) within the society is beginning, and it is gradually getting out of control (Stasinskas, 2005). J. Dermontas (2005) emphasizes that it is impossible to reduce the number of criminal acts by making the laws and punishment harsher. On the contrary, it only enhances its spread. While disclosing the unfavourable present situation of the social risk group in question, a parallel rehabilitation alternative to imprisonment with more severe punishment norms is presented ­ social rehabilitation or re-socialization as a development of a full-right citizen is necessary for the maximum functioning, usefulness, and worth of a convict both for him-/herself (themselves) and his/her (their) family and society. The Council of europe (the european Commission) fights for the humanization of the system of imprisonment institutions, and produces recommendations for the member states concerning the improvement of the living conditions in prisons. (On february 12th, 1987, the european Council of Ministers made recommendation No. R (87) 3 "The european Rules of Imprisonment"). The questions regarding the custody of arrested persons, the suspended sentence, and the regime of keeping prisoners serving a heavy sentence are presently looked into more often. Various punishment alternatives without imprisonment are being considered both on the political level of the eU and the national level of a state. The system of re-socialization of the convicted and the people released after serving the sentence is not perfect in Lithuania. Separate aspects of the problem under discussion are analyzed by representatives of legal (law) studies (Michailovic, 2001; Kiskis, 2001; Uscila, 2003; Dermontas, 2005 ir kt.), and social education (Ruskus, 2002; Kvieskien, 2005, Kuginyt-Arlauskien, 2006 ir kt.). However, there is not enough scientific research done in order to determine the expectations of the convicted regarding their re-socialization. Besides, as far as the socially isolated group of people is concerned, the solutions of positive social integration have not been disclosed (found) so far (Zin., 2004, Nr. 169-6223). The problem in question is the process of convicts' re-socialization. The aim of the article, thus, is to make an attempt to determine the educational expectations of convicts' re-socialization, inspired by social communication. The research object of the problem under discussion is the expectations of re-socialization of the convicted. The research was conducted on the initiative of the project of the equal programme "The Crossroads: coalition for the reinforcement of competitive possibili56

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ties in labour market", supported by the Republic of Lithuania and partially by the european social fund of the eU. The research is based on the data collected from 113 persons (males) serving the sentence in Lukisks investigation solitary confinement cell-prison who have less than a year of sentence left to serve (Zaleskien ir kt., 2006). Re-socialization. The purpose of the system of prevention is to regulate the negative impact of social environment, various level criminal (criminogenic) processes and phenomena that stipulate situations of the violation of rights and occurrences of personality deformations. Social deviations and disadaptation are the result of unfit social development ­ socio-pathology, influenced by a variety of negative environmental factors, up-bringing, and psycho-biological peculiarities (, 1993). forms of impertinent behaviour related with violation of rules and criminality result from unfit social development. Means of re-socialization are attributed to the late prevention of crime and are applied to those who have committed one or more crimes (Jatkevicius, 2003). They are also applicable to the convicts who have served the whole or part of the sentence and were released, and to those who are in need of re-socialization and reintegration back into the community and society. This particular link of prevention ­ re-socialization ­ is conditionally called by the term of post-criminal justice, since, in fact, it is not regulated in penal laws or in laws of punishment administration that are ascribed to criminal justice. The means of re-socialization begin to be applied as soon as a person is formally deprived of connection with criminal justice. Then, the means of prevention of violent crimes attributed to criminal justice and regulated by the penal law norms and norms of penal process and punishment administration, are, in fact, no longer applicable to such a person. I. Michailovic (2001) states that re-socialization should be regarded as education, and its objective is socialization.

Scheme 1. The process of re-socialization

The essence of re-socialization is the quantitative changes, the consequence of which is the approval of norms and cultural values. The process of re-socialization is necessary when the socialization of an individual took place some time ago but

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later weakened owing to the crime committed, or when at a certain moment in life an individual failed to achieve the necessary level of socialization due to various circumstances. Re-socialization (see scheme 1) is a stage that follows desocialization and has to do with the teaching and learning of new values, norms, roles and rules of behaviour. Thus, the socialization stage (the process of realization of cultural norms and social roles) is the first to be passed through. Later, owing to unfavourable circumstances and the time spend in prison, an individual comes to be desocialized (i.e. he/she falls out of former values, norms, roles, and rules of behaviour). finally, he/she is in urgent need of re-socialization (, 1998). In the process of analysis of the occurrences of re-socialization among juvenile delinquents, researchers (Merkys, Juodraitis, Ruskus et al, 2002: 29­31) emphasize the holisticality of the processes of re-socialization and development as an alternative mission for penal institutions that practise punishment and isolation. Similarly to education (development), re-socialization is considered to be a multilevel purposeful process, partially managed by competent specialists (teachers, managers and the like). R. Kalendra (2006), who analyses pre-conditions of continual education and learning of persons sentenced to imprisonment in Lithuania, adds to the above-mentioned notion and argues that re-socialization is a method of permanent learning and development that makes the process of return to normal life of freedom more effective. Similarly, G. Liaudinskien (2005), while analysing the obstacles to re-socialization of juvenile offenders, regards re-socialization as a complex integral process with the contents of a multilevel programme. A. Juodaityt (2002) notices a similar parallel between socialization and re-socialization. Analyzing the phenomenon of socialization, the author distinguishes between primary and secondary socialization. The process of the former usually takes place at an early period of a person's life, i.e. in childhood. The support of social facts by the present ­ specialization in the professional sphere by acquiring appropriate skills of social communication and necessary knowledge ­ is ascribed to the secondary socialization, which, according to the author (Juodaityt, 2002, 50­51), equals to resocialization. Re-socialization is the secondary socialization of adults that is based on the transformation of knowledge, values, norms, ideals, statuses, roles, and skills and the acquisition of new ones. Re-socialization is most vividly observed when a person finds oneself in a new situation (e.g. in prison, in a criminal gang, in a psychiatric asylum, or, on the contrary, back in freedom). Besides, it should be noted that the necessity for re-socializational alternatives to the punishment of imprisonment as means of prevention is grounded by the research of imprisonment institutions (Vileikien, Gecnien, 1999). It is evident that about 50 per cent of people commit a crime again and return to prison. One of the major reasons for such recidivism is the loss of professional and social skills. 58

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Another circumstance that stipulates recidivism is pointed out by S. Kuklianskas (1995) who claims that the mechanism of re-socialization contains such shortcomings as the discontinuance of the process, the absence of positive conditions for returning into labour market, the passivity of non-governmental organizations, the shortage of specialists' professionalism and so forth. The innovative re-socialization includes a wide network of various institutions that work with people of social risk. The functioning of the positive network is inseparable from the development of the necessary competences and improvement of professional skills of workers of justice, social services and penal institutions. The above-mentioned programme (Zin., 2004, Nr. 23-709) anticipates ,,to improve the network infrastructure of organizations that provide the convicted and the released from imprisonment with services of social rehabilitation and reintegration back into the society, and to develop their abilities to provide these services". The internal system of the process of re-socialization consists of various specialists in cooperation with an under-age person, his/her (their) parents and social network. G. Liaudinskien (2005) has foreseen five basic specialities necessary in the sphere of re-socialization: teachers, social workers (social teachers ­ aut.), psychologists, lawyers and police officers, who represent socio-educational institutions and institutions of law and order. It would be of use to mention that a successful re-socialization of persons from the social risk group depends on the competences of the above-mentioned specialists. Seeking the positive re-socialization of the convicted, it is important not only to improve the professional skills of the personnel and develop the necessary competences, but also to pay attention to the expectations of a convict him-/herself. In the dictionary of the present-day Lithuanian (1993: 374) the word "lkestis" (anticipation) has two meanings: "waiting" and "hope". The notion of "waiting" is described in the psychological sense as a system of hopes and expectations that includes social cooperation and sanctions among group members and comes into light when an individual expects from other group members a certain model of behaviour that corresponds with their roles, while other group members accordingly anticipate an analogical correspondence of the behaviour and social role of that particular individual (The Dictionary of Psychology, 1993, 69). Thus, the appropriately performed role, as far as the qualifications and competences are concerned, of a penal institution worker is capable of motivating a criminal to change the model of behaviour that is unacceptable in for the society in a positive direction. Tolman's theory (Adair, 2006, 146) proves that. It claims that anticipation can influence the intensity of a person's motivation if it results in the achievement of the aim which could be, in this case, a successful re-socialization of the convicted. It means that the effectiveness of the process of re-socialization in penal institutions can be determined by the mutual relationships between the workers and the convicted based on motivational encouragement. ThereRe-SOCIALIZATION Of CONVICTS

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fore, the programmes/projects of re-socialization meant for convicts will be justified if they correspond with the expectations of the persons in question. Summarizing the ideas of the above-mentioned authors, re-socialization could be regarded as a purposeful holistic process necessary for the achievement of a positive return into society in the light of complex help and socio-educational means. Social communication and the educational expectations of the convicted. The organization of the research was based on several pre-conditions: 1) persons who lose part of their original social and professional skills after a long period of time spent in prison due to their criminal activity; 2) Lithuania lacks concrete information about the need of the lacking skills and abilities of people who have less than a year of sentence left in the preparation for the integration back into society. Besides, it is known that part of the convicted, having been isolated from society for some time, tend not to show interest in the search for employment after the release, or are simply devoid of the social communication skills typical of free citizens and are incapable of adequate communicate with their relatives, friends and employer. On the basis of the theoretical pre-conditions mentioned above, an anonymous survey in the form of a questionnaire was conducted among 113 persons serving their sentence in the Lukisks investigation solitary confinement cell-prison (i.e. among those who have less than a year before the release). By means of the survey, an attempt has been made to disclose not only the lacking needs of the convicted, but also the skills, abilities, and learning motivation they presently possess, i.e. all that makes impact on the process of re-socialization. The questionnaire consisted of four blocks of questions. The questions in the first block had to do with a respondent's general social/demographical data, i.e. age, nationality, education, nature of the crimes committed and so forth. The second block questions sought to collect information about the satisfaction of the need of a convict's social communication and his/her peculiarities of communication with the family, friends, workers of the institution, etc. Questions about the present and future professional tendencies were presented in the third block. The last block was meant to find out the learning motivation. The majority (41,6 %) of the respondents that took part in the survey were persons aged between 18 and 24 who generally, according to the results, get imprisoned with the first conviction. Besides, in comparison to other age groups, a higher frequency of conviction (three and more) is characteristic of the representatives of this group, as showed 15% of respondents. The smallest part of the respondents (4,4 %) were people aged over 60. While analyzing the education of the convicted, it has appeared that most of the respondents (41,6 %) have a secondary education, a little less than that (32,7 %) have a basic education, 17,7 % ­ a primary education, and only 2,7 % have a higher education. It should be noted that the first conviction was generally marked by people with 60

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a secondary (19 %), basic (16%) and primary (13 %) education. People with a higher education (3 %) get involved into criminal acts extremely rarely. Analyzing the future plans of the convicted, it was noticed that the majority of respondents (about 70 %) are planning their future while staying in the imprisonment institution. There is a possible tendency that the people mentioned-above are planning to act in a positive direction after the release (see diagram 1).

1,8 29,1 43,4 Have considered everything Considered a little Did not think about it Did not answ er 25,7

Diagram 1. Evaluation of plans for the future life (%)

The stepping stone, while evaluating the plans for the near future of the respondents, is education and its impact on the realisation of future projections, as well as on their improvement (see table 1).

Table 1 The impact of the acquired education on the projection of the future (N 113) Plans for the future To purTo To acTo join do not To set chase To education comquire a To find a sucknow or up a accom- make a plete profes- a job cessful did not business moda- family studies sion business answer tion Primary 5 0 3 5 basic Secondary 6 3 5 3 6 college Higher

on the basis of the data of the conducted research, it is evident that younger convicts are more motivated in the professional sense as compared to the convicted from other

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age groups. 13 % of the respondents of younger age are determined to complete studies, and 12 % are planning to find a job. However, only 6 % express a wish to acquire a profession. attention should be paid to the fact that the group of younger convicts ( %) is unaware of what they might do after the release more often than the others. Such distribution of results serves to distinguish the latter group of people who are in urgent and significant need of specialists' help. The latter could monitor the programmes of successful re-socialization and mediate in its realization. However, it should be noted that the majority of the convicted who took part in the survey do not perceive clearly enough the possible help on the specialists' side (see scheme 2). While evaluating the urgency of the need for social work, a necessity arises to analyse additionally the current professional competence of social workers, and to improve their professional skills on the plane of specific activity.

15 40

Big Sm all The help w ill not be needed I do not know

36 9

Scheme 2. The future need for social help (%)

The relationships between the convicted and their families were investigated in the course of the research as a separate aspect of social communication. The analysis of the results revealed that people who, with the prevailing positive mutual relationships, have been raised in their biological families are characterized by higher initiative, and have much more resolution in comparison to all the rest respondents of the research. People raised in such families (37,2 %) tend to find a job, or complete studies (19,5 %), thus proving that they are aware of the importance of work and studies for a successful re-socialization in the society. The style of family upbringing is directly related to co-operational aspects of the relationships (see scheme 3). Thus, it has been noticed that support of the family (parents, sisters, brothers, spouses, and children) is becoming a significant aspect or even a determinant (decisive point) while the convicted are planning their future. in this way, a successful integration into the life of the society is determined. 6

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50 40 30 20 10 0 Can freely socialise Can ask for help Do not com m unicate Autoritarian Dem ocratic Tutorage institution

Scheme 3. the impact of the position of family upbringing on social communication (%)

It should be noted that the analysis of convicts' communicational relations with former friends has shown that half (50,4 %) of the surveyed people often keep in touch with their friends and close people who are outside prison. However, part of them (12,4 %) do not communicate with close relatives and former friends at all, and 10,6 % of the convicted did not answer these questions. It allows us to state that the latter experience psycho-social discomfort and they need specialists' help. in order to reveal the professional expectations of the convicted, life plans of the respondents were analysed (see scheme 4). It appeared that 43,3 % of the respondents have weighted all the pros and cons, 25,7 % - have foreseen their life in a more general sense, 18, 6 % ­ have no ides what activity they will take up after the release, 10,6 % of the respondents havenot thought about that at all, and 1,8 % ­ did not answer. The majority, which consists of about 70 % of the people surveyed, are planning their lives already in prison. It is of importance to point out that such distribution of the results allows us to expect an optimistic prognosis, for the above-mentioned persons are planning to act purposefully after the release, and a rational projection, as it is anticipated, will decrease the risk of their returning back to criminal activities.

Have weighed all the pros and cons

10,6 18,6

1,8 43,3

Have foreseen their life in a general sense Do not know Did not think about that Did not answer

25,7

Scheme 4. Evaluation of plans for life (%)

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The research data allows us to state that after the release the majority of the respondents (60,2 %) are planning to earn a living legally. This makes it possible to assume that such a choice will not allow them to find themselves in places of imprisonment again. Legal and illegal ways of earning money were marked by 14,2 % of the surveyed, and 3,5 % ­ chose illegal methods. Thus, we may assume that one third of the released will return to the risk group of criminals. While analyzing educational needs, possible educational perspectives were asked about. The answers of the respondents were very different ­ beginning with a goal to complete studies and acquire a profession, and up to the goal to study foreign languages. for the creation of the most appropriate conditions for the realization of the above-mentioned needs and the choice of purposeful and effective educational strategies require, wishes of the convicted with regard to the forms and ways of learning are very important (learning in groups ­ 16 %, individual learning ­ 14 %, heuristic leaning ­ 8 %, a syllabus of one's own ­ 6 %, and the like). A deeper analysis of the wishes can serve to make the formation of re-socializational strategies more effective.

conclusions

­ The comparatively large number of cases of recidivism and return into prison in Lithuania, young people included, emphasises the necessity to make a model of the system of re-socialization for people serving the sentence and for those who have just been released, paying attention to the positive experience of other countries, that would prepare the people in question for joining the labour market, and to seek these discriminated groups to become an equally competitive labour force and guarantee a life of full value in freedom. ­ The research results show that the people whose education is lower than secondary commit the most of the crimes. The people who have a college or a higher education violate the laws much rarely. ­ The research helped to determine that the convicted who have been raised in the families of their biological parents, show a higher tendency to maintain warm mutual relationships with the parents than those who grew up in a nonbiological family. ­ The majority of convicts have evident educational needs and a vaision of how to satisfy them. ­ As far as can be seen from the survey results, most convicts are planning their future while staying in prison (70 %). 6

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6. Nukentjusij asmen ir socialins rizikos grupi socialins apsaugos politika. Is: Socialinis pranesimas 2004. Vilnius: Socialins apsaugos ir darbo ministerija, 2005. 194 [146] p. iSSn 8-30. 27. Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybs nutarimas. ,,Dl Nuteistj ir asmen, paleist is laisvs atmimo viet, socialins adaptacijos 2004­2007 met programos patvirtinimo". (Zin., 00, nr. 3-09), Vilnius: LR Vyriausybs portalas [interaktyvus]. Vilnius: 2004 m. vasario 9 d. Nr. 143, [zirta 2006-10-20]. Prieiga per internet: <http:// www.vyriausybe.lt/teises_aktai/files/2004/02/2231.doc>. 8. Psichologijos zodynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedij leidykla, 1993. 368 [69] p. iSbn 5-89950-06-6 29. ADAIR, John eric. 100 patarim vadovui. 208 [146] p. ISBN 9955-24-068-7. 30. BAUMAN, Zygmunt. Globalization: the Human Consequences. New york: Columbia university Press, 998, p. 36. iSbn 0-3-8-. 31. MATHIeSeN T. Prison on Trial: a Critical Assessment. london, 990. 32. .. . , 1993. 33. .. C . : , 2002. 256 [162] c. ISBN 5-7139-0271-4. 34. , . . . : , 1998, 381 c. ISBN 5-88687-038-5: 9.00.

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Romas prakapas ­ Associate professor of Mykolas Romeris University educational Activity Department; Sphere of scientific interests: Deviantion, Prevention, Penitention, Pedagogical ethics; Monitoring; address: Ateities str. 20, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lithuania, e-mail: [email protected] Renata Katinait ­ Master of Social Sciences (education), asisstant of the Department of Social Pedagogy, Social Communication Institute, Vilnius Pedagogical University; Sphere of scientific interests: Convict Social Reintegration, Penitention; address: Student str. 39, LT08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected]

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OpERATIONAL MODEL OF A SOCIAL-pEDAGOGIC TEAM IN COMpREhENSIVE SChOOL

annotation. Problems of children and youth living in the society which has been currently facing the consequences of globalisation processes, become more and more acute and complex, therefore the competence and efforts of one professional are insufficient for consideration of these problems. This implies that assistance to pupils should also be of a complex nature and include efforts of the entire school community, various specialists and social partners and be directed towards implementation of a common assistance strategy. With a view of the above each educational institution shall understand the tools and ways for mobilising the energy and capacities of members of an organisation so as to achieve the key goal ­ to ensure teaching and learning conditions providing for an opportunity to acquire relevant competences and skills for problem solving and decision-making. Consequently, social-pedagogic assistance shall not be separated from a team work. education documents emphasise provision of a social-pedagogic assistance by a team and highlight the team work competence of specialists and educators, providing social-pedagogic assistance; however, there is no procedure on how a social-pedagogic assistance team should be constructed and operating in comprehensive school in order to satisfy social-pedagogic assistance needs of pupils. Key words: social-pedagogic assistance team, operational model of a social-pedagogic assistance team in comprehensive school.

Justification of a scientific problem. Problems of children and youth of society which is currently facing the consequences of globalisation processes, become more and more acute and complex; therefore the competence and efforts of one professional are insufficient for consideration of these problems. This means, that assistance to pupils should also be of a complex nature and include efforts of the entire school community, various specialists and social partners, directed towards implementation of a common assistance strategy. With a view of the above each educational institution shall understand the tools and ways for mobilising the energy and capacities of members of an organisation so as to achieve the key goal ­ to ensure teaching and learning conditions providing for an opportunity to acquire relevant competences and skills to solve problems and make decisions. Consequently, social-pedagogic assistance shall not be separated from a team work. education documents emphasise provision of a social-pedagogic assistance by a team and emphasises the team work competence of specialists and educators, providing social-pedagogic assistance; however, there is no procedure on how a socialpedagogic assistance team should be constructed and operating in comprehensive school in order to satisfy social-pedagogic assistance needs of pupils. 68

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Objective: to design a hypothetic operational model of a social-assistance team in comprehensive school, corresponding to social-pedagogic assistance needs of pupils. Research object. Social pedagogic assistance in comprehensive school. Construction of an operational model of a social-pedagogic assistance team. ,,Dictionary of International Words" (Vaitkevicit, 2001, pg.645) defines model as an example, according to which a vehicle, organisation, industrial undertaking etc. can operate. Some scientists indicate that model is an imaginary or practically realised system, which, while reflecting a research object, provides new information to us on this object (Krichevskij, Dubovskaja, 2001, pg.56). It can be stated that model is a conditional image of a research object, characterising an ideal situation. Consequently, a SPAT operational model could be defined as a conditional system for management of an assistance process. Scientists classify team models according to different criteria: the number of institutions involved in a team, responsibility of team members, target group of a team, the leader and operational characteristics. While constructing the operational SPAT model, a school was referred to as an open system, the key characteristics of which (as an organisation) are predetermined by external environment; internal needs and capacities of a school; resources, interface of school community groups; key values of a specific school; philosophy, mission, common objectives, strategy and common structure of pedagogic system, content, organisation and technologies (Targamadz, 1999, pg. 22­47; Dobranskien, 2002, pg. 70, Dalin, Rolf, Kleekamp, 1999, pg. 14­161). While establishing the operational SPAT model the reference was made to: ) social work models: communication model, designed for work with a family so as to achieve better family communication, when a worker is considered as a designer of communication (Satir, 1976); ecological, directed towards the encouragement of group operations, organisational structures, social network and physical environment (Germain, Gitteman, 1980); community development model, designed for the development of community capacities and integration, when problems are solved together with the community and are directed towards the research and projects during the process (Cox, erlick, Rothman, Tropman, 1987); mediation model, directed towards the interaction of an individual with environment (Shulman, 1999); social planning model, based on community organisation (Cox, erlick, Rothman, Tropman, 1987); task model, applied when providing short-term assistance and considering problematic everyday life situations (Wiliam, Sanders, Horn, 1995). ) a model of the structure of variables influencing a group, providing specificity to an operational model of each organisation. 3) C. Lim, H. S. Adelman (1997), J. Dryfoos (1994), M. Kirst (1991), C. R. Uphold and M. V. Graham (1993) present a school team establishment model, consisting of

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two stages: selection of members, analysis of school situation and selection of team operations. During the first stage, selection of team members is executed (based on voluntarism): school specialists, administration and schools are being involved into a team work. Scientists highlight the necessity to also involve psychologists, consultants, school social workers, social pedagogues, medical staff, special education workers and representatives of administration into the team. During this stage the actual situation of a school is usually investigated, including identification of prevailing problems as well as capacities and resources of a community. During the second stage the sphere of operations of a team is usually selected. Scientists identify the following possible spheres of operations of school teams: consolidation of a class as a community, assistance to pupils and their families, assistance in case of crisis and crisis prevention, support during transitional period (adaptation), strengthening of co-operation with a family (Lim, Adelman, 1997; Dryfoos, 1995, pg. 147­172; Kirst, 1991, pg. 615­618; and Uphold, Graham ,1993, pg. 204­211). 4) D. fisher`s (1981, pg. 33) systematic model consisting of the following constituent parts: management of an organisation, team structure, control, communication between team members and organisation, and external environment; 5) levels of a model for provision of pedagogic-psychological assistance (Official Gazette, 2003, No. 74-3451), a model of health counselling services (<http://www. chronology.ndo.co.uk>, [referred to on 20 May 2006]), specifying the levels of assistance as well as team establishment terms. Research method ­ expert inquiry. The sample of expert assessment consisted of 20 experts, who submitted proposals on construction of the operational SPAT model. The procedure of expert inquiry was performed in the form of a structured interview. Stages of expert evaluation method consisted of the following elements: I. Expert selection procedure. Persons of four categories have been selected, in total ­ 20 experts: 5 experts working in the sphere of socialisation and child welfare and involved (since 2001) in the programme for introduction of positions of social pedagogues, elaboration of all relevant documents and regulatory enactments and related to provision of social-pedagogic assistance; 5 experts ­ lecturers of the lithuanian universities with a degree of a doctor of social sciences, integrating socialpedagogic assistance and specialist team subjects in the delivered theoretic courses; 5 experts ­ representatives of school administrations with no less than five years managerial work experience and having social-pedagogic assistance teams in their schools; 5 social pedagogues with no less than 5 years work history and managing operations of a social-pedagogic assistance team in their schools. II. Modelling of SPAT operations. During the structured interview experts submitted a hypothetic model of SPAT operations. Open questions during the interview included 0

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the following elements of a hypothetic model of SPAT operations: 1) operational levels of SPAT; 2) objective of a team; 3) team management; 4) team functions; 5) team norms; 6) composition of a team; 7) social partners. IV. Elaboration of a hypothetic model. A hypothetic operational SPAT model has been elaborated according to expert evaluations. During the outcome review, responses of experts theorists ( and expert types) and practitioners (3 and expert types) have been compared. Research outcomes. after the analysis of the content of the expert inquiry, 9 content categories have been identified including 46 sub-categories characterising key peculiarities of the operational SPAT model. After evaluation of the research data, the operational SPAT model of four inter-related levels could be constructed (Fig.1): ) management level consisting of inter-related components: school board, school director and objective of team; ) self-regulation level consisting of inter-related components: team tasks, norms and the outcome; 3) executors' level consisting of inter-related components: functions of team members and composition of team members; ) social partners' level consisting of representatives of different social institutions. Pursuant to management level operations enlisted by experts, the latter might be divided into four sub-categories: planning, informing, assistance and monitoring. The objective of planning is to establish a team, and anticipate operational trends and objectives. Informing involves education of a community on team operations. Assistance involves the search for various resources, recruitment of social partners and assurance of operations of a social-pedagogic assistance team. According to experts, elements of monitoring should include evaluation and analysis of SPaT operations with a view to assuring high quality of operations. It is worth while mentioning that experts preferred planning (indicated by half of experts (n=10). One third of experts (n=7) preferred informing. Both, experts practitioners and theoreticians highlighted the importance of planning at management. Informing was more relevant for experts theoreticians (n=10). Only one tenth of experts-practitioners highlighted this type of operations.

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Table 1 Outcomes of expert inquiry: categories and sub-categories no. Categories Sub-categories no. Categories Sub-categories 5. Norms Organisation of meetings . SPaT operational levels Management monitoring distribution of roles level research organisation 6. Composi- School specialists (6) tion Self-regulation assistance class tutors level director establishment of norms organisation of deputy director executors` level operations Social partco-operation Parents representative ners` level Objective Socialisation Pupils representative . Person responsible for nonassistance formal school activity Partnership . account- School board ability 3. elaborator of Team members Administration (reporting) director the objective Administration Working group School community School director council of teachers 8. account- School board . functions of co-ordinationa team management ability for the outAdministration counselling -ascomes sistance director resource recruitment ­ social pedagogic design Prevention activity School community correction council of teachers Place of Subordinate to school research organisation 9. a team administration and school Health care within a board Development of school independent life skills structure

Two qualitative sub-categories of self-regulation level could be distinguished in expert responses ­ assistance and establishment operational norms of a team. Assistance involves elaboration of the assistance plan, problem identification, selection of assistance forms and determination of their efficiency, as well as evaluation of efficiency

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of operations. The key objective is assurance of a complex assistance. A sub-category establishment of team operational norms is characterised by distribution of responsibilities. According to experts, it is very important to equally distribute responsibilities, adopt internal arrangements, motivate operations of team members and encourage them to work efficiently. at execution level, only one cub-category ­ organisation of operations ­ is relevant. experts characterised it as recruitment of a school assistance team, anticipation of persons responsible for separate operational spheres, initiation, organisation and implementation of different programmes and projects, establishment of assistance system, co-ordination of operations inside and outside a school, continuous evaluation and analysis of the situation and empowerment of community. More than a half of respondents (n=12) highlighted the role of SPAT as a founder of the assistance system, one third of experts (n=7) noted SPAT as a co-coordinator of social-pedagogic assistance. at co-operation level, co-operation cub-category might be distinguished in the answers of experts; its key characteristic is involvement of social partners into the team in accordance with the envisaged operational trends: co-operation in assuring efficient assistance; and co-ordination of operations in providing the above assistance. Thus, the key objective of this level is involvement and empowerment of social partners. When summarizing the results of the expert inquiry, the following conclusion can be made: operations of SPAT are planned, priority trends envisaged and society is informed at management level; operations of SPAT are designed at self-regulation level; organization of SPAT is specific to an execution level; whereas social partners are involved with a view to ensuring high quality of social-pedagogic assistance. during the investigation of the response of experts on the objective of socialpedagogic assistance, three sub-categories have been specified: socialization, assistance and partnership. One fifth of respondents (n=4) consider socialization of children a SPaT objective, the content of which comprises empowerment, education and harmony with environment and community. Half of experts relate the objective with assistance, which is understood as follows: the right to education, restoration of learning motivation, assistance to children to return into a comprehensive learning system, education of resistance to negative impact, assurance of efficient education and learning, and elaboration of preconditions for a positive civil maturity of a child. However, quite a big number of experts (n=16) have directly related the sub-category assistance to social, pedagogic and psychological assistance. in their answers they indicate consideration of social-pedagogic problems, restoration of social functions, organization and execution of intellectual, emotional, social and physical assistance to children and community. In view of the above, the conclusion can be made that respondents have identified different target groups, i.e. the beneficiaries of social-pedagogic assistance: according

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to more than a half of respondents (n=13), assistance should be provided only to a child, one seventh of experts highlight provision of assistance to a child and family (n=2), the same number of experts emphasize assistance to community and one sixth of respondents (n=3) do not specify any target group. The analysis of a provided question indicated that experts highlight different SPAT objectives. However the title of a team itself indicates that assistance is mostly directed to a child. It is realized by ensuring the right of a pupil to education, efficient learning conditions, positive child socialization and civil maturity conditions and provision of relevant assistance. after having executed the analysis of expert inquiry results, it was defined that socialization and assistance have been most frequently repeated in the concepts of SPAT of all experts. This means that the objective of a team is directed towards socialization and assistance. When comparing the results of experts theoreticians and practitioners, the conclusion can be made that while defining the objective, researchers specify assistance, meanwhile experts working in education institutions ­ socialization, assistance, prevention, micro-climate and recruitment of specialists. While formulating objectives, one third of experts (n=7) refer to General Provisions on Social-Pedagogic Assistance and the Law on education of the Republic of Lithuania, half of them (n=10) ­ to pedagogic experience, one expert ­ to school concept, socialization programme and one expert ­ to school statute. More than half of experts (n=12) highlight that the objective of a SPAT team should be in compliance with the documents regulating education and a child's welfare. experts also identify the following representatives of a school community responsible for elaboration of SPAT objectives: a team, administration, strategic planning working group and school director. More than half of experts (n=12) emphasise that the objective shall be elaborated by team members and afterwards it shall be co-ordinated with school administration and submitted for approval to school board. According to every eighth expert (n=2), team objectives shall be elaborated jointly by a team and administration One expert highlights that a working group on strategic planning shall be established for elaboration of objectives, and consist of 1­2 team members, aware of school objectives and capable of elaborating a common social-pedagogic assistance objective. Another expert emphasizes the importance of a school director, since the director is responsible (pursuant to general Provisions of Social-Pedagogic assistance) for provision of social-pedagogic assistance. While summing up the viewpoint of experts towards the elaboration of SPAT objectives, it can be stated that a team itself shall elaborate objectives, afterwards coordinates these with administration and submit for approval to a school board. With a view to specifying operational trends of SPAT, experts were asked: ,,What functions could be executed by a SPAT?". The answers reflect 18 functions specified by experts, which could further be grouped into 8 categories (annex ). all experts

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(n=20) highlight such team functions as co-ordination and management. Sixteen experts indicate counselling and provision of assistance containing the following content elements: assistance, recommendations and counselling. every fifth expert (n=4) highlight recruitment of resources and social-pedagogic design. These consist of the search for social partners in the community, establishment of the assistance network to a child and family, development and implementation of projects. Half of experts (n=10) emphasise preventive activity of SPAT, perceived as anticipation of negative phenomenon and behaviours and assistance so as to prevent these negative factors. Correctional function is highlighted by one fifth of experts (n=4). It comprises correction of behaviour and supervision of behavioural dynamics. The importance of a correctional function has been highlighted mostly by experts-managers (heads of school administration) and experts-teachers, who attribute education of social skills to this category. Another two expert categories do not specify the above function. One third of experts (n=7) highlight the research organisation, the content of which (according to one expert-lecturer) consists of research initiation and organisation, assessment of a child`s needs and quality of social services and evaluation of safety of educational environment. Other experts do not specify research content. One expert specifies the function of life skills, another ­ health care. When comparing the response of experts-theoreticians and experts-practitioners, significant differences have not been identified. Pursuant to the research results, the key norms of a team might be divided into 4 sub-categories: organisation of SPAT meetings, distribution of team roles, upgrading qualification skills and evaluation of operations. The sub-category organisation of meetings is characterised by regular meetings with a team, community and social partners as well as planning of meetings. According to the response of experts, it can be stated that SPAT meetings should be organised no less than twice per month. Meetings with the school board with a view to reporting on operational outcomes, should take place once per year. The experts do not indicate frequency of meetings with school community; however, referring to the organisation of school activity, a precondition can be made that these should take place 2­3 times per year (after each school term or once per half a year). The experts highlight that all social partners shall sit around the table once per year and discuss interaction of school and territorial community in solving social-pedagogic problems of children at school and in microsocium. The answers have also shown one of the possible operational norms of SPAT ­ division of roles and responsibilities among team members; however, this was not specified in detail. Several experts anticipate upgrading qualification skills with a view to improving the team work competences, however, they do not specify neither duration of qualification upgrading, nor its content. According to experts, it is necessary to evaluate team work once per month by defining the outcome achievement rate.

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When estimating frequencies of repetition of lexical semantic units, it became clear that more than a half of experts (n=13) mentioned regularity of meetings and accountability for the outcome, one fifth of experts (n=4) highlighted clear division of roles and responsibilities of team members. Consequently, the key operational team norms, predetermining efficiency of team operations are: regular meetings of team members with partners and school community; planned accounting for operational outcomes and objectives and clear division of roles of team members. When reviewing the attitudes of respondents on a possible composition of a team it turned out that all experts (n=20) included a social pedagogue, psychologist and class tutor into a team; nearly all experts (n=19) would like to see deputy director of a school in a team; more than half of experts (n=11) ­ a special pedagogue, a public health care specialist; less than a half of experts (n=8) ­ a speech therapist. Only few experts (n=2) would involve into a team parent and pupils' representatives and a person responsible for non-formal education. Consequently, the key team members are: specialists working at school, one administration representative and class tutors. Social partners are involved into the team work only pursuant to the nature of a problem. The State Child Rights Protection Service, police and pedagogic-psychological services have been identified as most instrumental partners. Half of experts (n=10) would involve local authorities into a team, more than one fourth of experts (n=6) ­ the church and primary health care centres. Only few experts (n=2) mentioned day, community or crisis centres as social partners. experts do not have a uniform attitude answer to question ,,who should team members report for the outcomes to?" Referring to frequencies of repetition of lexical semantic units by experts, most frequently mentioned concepts were school board and school administration. More than half of experts (n=8) stated that the team should report to a school board since it is a municipal institution operating on behalf of pupils and providing assistance to school administration in realisation of decisions. according to experts, school board shall provide proposals on operational priorities of a team and participate in elaborating its operational objectives; therefore a team should report to it for its operational outcomes. every fifth expert (n=4) said that a team should report to both, a school board and school administration, since director is responsible for school activity and provision of assistance to a child; whereas the board is an autonomous institution representing the interests of a child and community. One fifth of experts (n=4) consider that SPAT should report to school administration. According to them, administration should be aware of social-pedagogic problems and ways of their solving, since key problems are usually considered with the above administration. experts-practitioners, working as social pedagogues, have also highlighted reporting to school administration. Answers of theoreticians were diverse: 6

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some of them indicated reporting to school administration and school community, the others ­ to school director, the thirds ­ to school board, the fourths ­ to the board of teachers. Only one expert was of an opinion that team shall report exceptionally to school community. While comparing the response of experts-theoreticians and practitioners, a conclusion can be made that even half of experts highlight the reporting to school board, another half is inclined to report to school administration and community. With a view to specifying the place of a team in the school structure, experts were asked to specify the place of team in school. Three characteristics, providing for the best definition of a place of a team in the school structure can be identified: subordination of team, legalisation of operations and budget. according to half of experts, a SPaT should be subordinate to school administration and school board. They believe that SPaT should be a separate unit executing a function of social-pedagogic assistance. Half of experts do not indicate subordination of a team, but highlight its independence. According to them, this should be an independently operating team within a school structure. One fourth of experts highlight legalisation of a team in the school statute and structure. They say that this is an independently functioning institution, joining operations of administration specialists and teachers envisaged in the school provisions. According to one respondent, a team`s own budget could facilitate realisation of team functions.

conclusions

1. SPAT operations could be divided into 4 levels: management, self-regulation, execution and social partners. The key functions of 1st level ­ planning and informing; 2nd level ­ design of SPAT operations; 3rd level ­ organisational activity, the objective of which is directed towards the establishment of an efficient social-pedagogic assistance system; 4th level ­ empowerment of social partners. 2. Peculiarities of an operational team depend on the place of SPAT within a school structure. Pursuant to the response of experts, the conclusion could be made that SPAT is an independently operating team, legalised in the school statute and subordinate to school administration and school board. 3. Team objective is perceived as socialisation of a child and provision of assistance to a child. SPAT members shall elaborate team objectives, co-ordinate them with school administration and submit to school board for approval. 4. The key operational norms of a team, determining efficiency of a team, are: regular meetings, envisaged accountability for operational outcomes and objectives, and a clear division of roles of a team.

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5. Main members of a team ­ specialists working in a school, one representative of administration and several class tutors. Social partners are involved subject to the nature of a problem. 6. SPAT operational results are evaluated at two levels: team level, when team members evaluate their work themselves; and community level, when evaluation of team work is initiated by school administration and school board, as well as school community.

references

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Cox f. M., erlick J. L., Rothman J., Tropman J. e. 1987: Strategies of Community Organization, 4 th ed. Itasca, Illinois: f. e. Peacock. Dalin P., Rolf H. G., Kleekamp B. 1999: Mokyklos kultros kaita. Vilnius: Tyto alba. Dobranskien R. 2002: Mokyklos bendruomens vadyba: monografija. Klaipda: Klaipdos universiteto leidykla. Dryffos J. 1994: Full-service schools: A revolution in health and social services for children, youth, and families. San francisco: Jossey-Bass. Prieiga per internet: <http://proquest.com> [zirta 2006-01-15]. Kirst M. 1991: Improving children's services. Phi Delta Kappan, , 65­68. fisher D. 1981: Communication in Organizations. USA: West Publishing Company fisher (1981, p. 33). Germain C. B., Gitteman A. 1980: The Life Model of Social Work Practice. new york: Columbia University Press. Kricevski R. L., Dubovskaja e. M. 2001 ­ . . . . 2001: . : . Lim C., Adelman H.S. 1997: establishing school-based collaborative teams to coordinate resources: A case study. Social Work in Education, 19, 66-, prieiga per internet: http://www.leaonline.com/doi/pdf, [zirta 2006-05-12]. Pedagogins psichologins pagalbos teikimo modelis, Lietuvos Respublikos svietimo ir mokslo ministro 2003 m. birzelio 25 d. sakymas Nr. ISAK-897 ­ Valstybs zinios, 003-0-5, nr. -35. Satir V. 1976: Con- Joint family Therapy. CA: Palo Alto. Sveikatos konsultavimo tarnyb modelis prieiga per internet: http://www. leaonline.com/doi/pdf, [zirta 2006-05-12]. Targamadz V. 1999: Bendrojo lavinimo mokykla: mokini edukacinio stimuliavimo aspektas. Kaunas: Vaitkevicit V. 2001: Tarptautini zodzi zodynas. Vilnius: Zodynas. Uphold C. R., Graham M. V. 1999: Clinical Guidelines in Adult Health (2nd Edition). Gainesville, florida: Barmarrae Books. Pages 1­18. William L., Sanders S., Horn P. 1995: educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement as Indicators for the Assessment of educational Outcomes. ­ Education Policy

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analyses archives, vol. 3, no. 6, March 3. Prieiga per internet: <http://www.epaa. asu.edu/epaa/v3n6.html> [zirta 2006-04-09].

Figure 2. SPAT operational model (DPC ­ Dependency Prevention Centre, CRPS­ Child Rights Protection Service, NGO ­ non-governmental organisations, MHC ­ mental health centres, PPS ­ pedagogic psychological services, LA ­ local authority)

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Odeta Merfeldait ­ doctor of Social Sciences (education), Deputy of Vilnius Pedagogical University Social Communication Institute director; Sphere of scientific interest: Social education, Team Work, Social partnership; address: Student str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail: [email protected]

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KroniKa/chronicle

· 2007 m. spalio 24 d. Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Senato nutarimu (Nutarimo Nr. 8), SKI steigta Socialins sanglaudos katedra. Katedros vedja paskirta doc. dr. Vida Gudzinskien · 2007 m. gruodzio 19 d. Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Senatas nutar (Nutarimo Nr. 21), kad SKI direktor doc. dr. Giedr Kvieskien atitiko habilitacinei procedrai keliamus reikalavimus. Habilitacinei procedrai pateikta mokslini publikacij apzvalga tema Pozityvioji socializacija kaip ugdymo paradigma. · 2007/2008 pavasario semestre pagal LLL eRASMUS student main program SKI studijas pasirinko Raitis Zeps is Latvijos universiteto (Latvija), Zeynep Sevgi Devamli ir Ahmet Vargelen is Dumlupinar universiteto (Turkija). SKI studentai isvyko studijuoti kit sali aukstsias mokyklas: Dovil Busilait de'Quest katalikiskj universitet (Pranczija), Jurgita Kalesnikait Katho seminarij (Belgija), Simona Smaidzinait Bielefieldo universitet (Vokietija), magistrants Jrat Dasevicit ir Nadiezda Kiseliova Liepojos specialiosios pedagogikos akademij (Latvija). · 2008 m. sausio 28 d. ­ vasario 9 d. pagal LLL eRASMUS dstytoj main program SKI dstytojos doc. dr. Vilmant Aleksien ir dr. Audra Brazauskait skait paskaitas Rouhempton universitete (Didzioji Britanija). Paskait tema ­ Muzikos terapijos metod taikymas socialiniame darbe. · 2008 m. sausio 30 d. Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Senato nutarimu (Nutarimo Nr. 43), prie SKI steigtas Zini vadybos centras. Centro direktorius ­ prof. Renaldas Gudauskas. · 2008 m. vasario 22 d. vyko VPU vykdomo eSf projekto ,,Vaiko gerovs specialist, dirbanci su socialins atskirties vaikais, profesini ­ pedagogini kompetencij tobulinimo moduli sukrimas bei gyvendinimas" baigiamoji konferencija. Projekto vadov ­ SKI direktor prof. Giedr Kvieskien. · 2008 m. vasario 11­15 d. pagal LLL eRASMUS dstytoj main program Liepojos pedagogikos akademijos (Latvija) dstytojos dr. Rita Ukstina ir Mirza Paipare SKI studentams skait paskaitas. Paskait temos ­ Socialins pedagogikos didaktikos metodai ir j sveika su praktine veikla. · 2008 m. kovo 7 d. vyko Lietuvos demokratiskumo ugdymo kolegijos vykdomo eSf projekto ,,Pilietiskumo ir demokratini vertybi ugdymas taikant inovatyvius metodus" baigiamoji konferencija ,,Grozio ir Grio idj sklaida salies sociokultrinje erdvje". Projekto vadov ­ SKI dstytoja doc. dr. Vilmant Aleksien. · 2008 m. kovo 20 d. Lietuvos socialini pedagog asociacijos vykdomo eSf projekto ,,Vaik, iskrentanci is bendrojo lavinimo sistemos, skaiciaus mazini80

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mas, stiprinant prevencini grupi veikl ugdymo institucijose" baigiamosios konferencijos ,,Vaiko gerovs mokykla" metu pristatyti projekto rezultatai, pasidalinta gerja patirtimi. Projekto vadov ­ SKI dstytoja Auks Petruskevicit. 2008 m. kovo 22­29 d. SKI direktor prof. Giedr Kvieskien lanksi Indianos valstijoje (JAV). Vizito metu Indianos senate direktor susipazino su JAV svietimo politika, dalyvavo susitikimuose su valstybinmis, nevyriausybinmis ir privaciomis organizacijomis, veikianciomis svietimo, pilietins edukacijos, svietimo politikos ir lobizmo srityse. Blumingtono pradinje ir vidurinje mokyklose profesor ne tik stebjo, bet ir ved pilietinio ugdymo pamokas. Indianos universitete (Blumingtone) direktor susipazino su taikomais pilietinio ugdymo metodais bei naudojamais resursais, aptar tolesnes bendradarbiavimo galimybes su universiteto vadovybe. 2008 m. kovo 31 ­ balandzio 6 d. pagal LLL eRASMUS dstytoj main program SKI dstytojos doc. dr. Vida Gudzinskien ir doc. dr. Vilmant Aleksien skait paskaitas ir ved praktinius uzsimimus Liepojos pedagogikos akademijoje (Latvija). Paskait temos ­ emocins sveikatos stiprinimas, Gyvenimo gdzi ugdymas vairiais amziaus tarpsniais, Supervizija ir dziazas. Praktini uzsimim temos ­ Socialini gdzi ugdymas, Supervizija muzikos terapijoje. 2008 m. balandzio 4­10 d. pagal LLL eRASMUS dstytoj main program SKI dstytojos Violeta Suboc ir Rita Ilgnien skait paskaitas Latvijos universitete (Latvija). Paskait temos ­ edukologini tyrim metodologija, Andragogika. 2008 m. balandzio 8­12 d. SKI direktor prof. Giedr Kvieskien ir prof. habil. dr. Vilija Targamadz Ioaninos mieste (Graikija) dalyvavo tarptautinio projekto ,,New Modules of Activism in european Social Work" partneri susitikime. Susitikimo metu doktorantros modulio rengjai aptar moduli struktros ir turinio rengimo problemas, j sprendimo galimybes, virtualios mokymosi aplinkos krimo perspektyvas, doktorant mokymosi galimybes, tolimesnius darbus. 2008 m. balandzio 11­19 d. Latvijos universiteto (Latvija) dstytojos prof. Astrida Razeva ir Anita Berke skait paskaitas SKI studentams tema Socialin pedagogin veikla Latvijoje, Socialinis darbas su seima; Coimbros universiteto (Portugalija) profesor Helena da Silva Neves dos Santos Almeida skait paskaitas tema Socialinio pedagogo/darbuotojo vaidmuo stiprinant tarpkultrin socialin sanglaud, Socialinio darbo studijos Coimbros universitete. 2008 m. balandzio 12­19 d. SKI vyko kasmetin tarptautin konferencija ,,Socialinio pedagogo/darbuotojo vaidmuo stiprinant tarpkultrin socialin 8

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SocialiniS ugdymaS. 008. nr. 5(6)

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sanglaud". Renginyje dalyvavo nacionaliniai ir uzsienio partneriai is JAV (tarp j ir Indianos valstijos senator Viola Sentman Simpson), Danijos, Svedijos, Norvegijos, Portugalijos, Latvijos. Konferencijos tikslas - aptarti socialinio pedagogo/darbuotojo institucijos vaidmen bei funkcijas socialins sanglaudos stiprinimo procese. Konferencijos rezultatai: susitarta dl ateities bendradarbiavimo perspektyv (atlikti parengiamuosius darbus bendradarbiavimo sutarties tarp Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto ir Indianos universiteto pasirasymui); konferencijos metu skaityti pranesimai bus publikuojami SKI leidziamame moksliniame leidinyje ,,Socialinis ugdymas". 2008 m. balandzio 21­26 d. pagal LLL eRASMUS dstytoj main program SKI dstytojai doc. dr. Irena Zaleskien ir asist. Giedrius Budreika skait paskaitas Marijos Grzegorzewskos specialiosios pedagogikos akademijoje (Lenkija). Paskait tema ­ Svietimo vaidmuo stiprinant socialin sanglaud: lietuviskoji perspektyva. 2008 m. geguzs 6­12 d. pagal LLL eRASMUS dstytoj main program dr. Anne Hollows is Sheffield Hallam universiteto (Didzioji Britanija) SKI studentams skait paskaitas apie socialin darb ir pagalbos teikim vaikui ir seimai Didziojoje Britanijoje. 2008 m. geguzs 24­30 d. SKI direktor prof. Giedr Kvieskien Kasablankos ir Ifran miestuose (Marokas) dalyvavo tarptautinio projekto ,,Civitas" partneri susitikime. Susitikimo metu pasidalinta informacija apie projekto metu gyvendintas programas ir pasiektus rezultatus. Numatyta isplsti ,,Civitas" Tarptautin Program tinkl. 2008 m. geguzs 24 ­ birzelio 1 d. pagal LLL eRASMUS dstytoj main program SKI lektor Regina Ruibien skait paskaitas Coimbra universiteto (Portugalija) studentams apie vaiko glob bei socialines paslaugas vaikui ir seimai. 2008 m. geguzs 28 d. Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Senatas nutar (Nutarimo Nr. 95), kad SKI docent dr. Rita Aleknait-Bieliauskien atitiko habilitacinei procedrai keliamus reikalavimus. Habilitacinei procedrai pateikta mokslini publikacij apzvalga tema Asmenybs ugdymo muzikos menu paradigma: aktualus siandienos diskursas. 2008 m. birzelio 4­11 d. Liverpulyje (Didzioji Britanija) SKI dstytojos ir darbuotojos Giedr Misinien, Rita Ilgnien, Violeta Suboc, Jolita ZvirblytJakst, Renata Katinait, doktorant Angel Tamulevicit, magistrant Irina Petruk dalyvavo yOUTH programos projekto `The Big Hope' ­ Global youth Congress of faith pasauliniame jaunimo kongrese "The Big Hope". Liverpulyje vyks renginys apjung virs 600 jaunimo atstov, taking politik, dvasinink, visuomens veikj, svietimo, muzikos, verslo, medicinos ir kit srici atstov

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SocialiniS darbaS ir ugdymaS

is daugiau kaip 50 pasaulio valstybi. Kongreso metu buvo nagrinjamos jaunimo tarpe aktualios temos: svietimas, religija, socialins problemos, politiniai sprendimai ir kt. Lietuvos jaunimo delegacij susitikim pakviet Lietuvos ambasadorius Didziojoje Britanijoje Vygaudas Usackas. · 2008 m. birzelio 10­13 d. Briuselyje (Belgija) vyko europos Bendrij iniciatyvos eQUAL programos renginiai ,,Uzimtumo savait 2008". Konferencijos metu veik stend paroda, pristatanti europoje vykdomus europos Bendrij iniciatyvos eQUAL programos projektus. Renginiuose dalyvavo SKI dstytojos Renata Katinait ir Auks Petruskevicit. · 2008 m. birzelio 12­14 d. SKI lanksi dr. Danuta Uryga is Marijos Grzegorzewskos specialiosios pedagogikos akademijos (Lenkija). Vizito metu viesnia susitiko su SKI dstytojais, magistrantais ir doktorantais, lanksi SKI partneri staigose: Vilniaus kurcij ir neprigirdincij reabilitaciniame profesinio mokymo centre, Vilniaus vidurinje internatinje mokykloje ,,Lietuvi namai". Susitikim temos: bendradarbiavimo tendencijos, bendri tyrimai socialinje plotmje, pokyciai svietimo ir socialinje sistemose. · 2008 m. birzelio 30 d. SKI iniciatyva pasirasyta bendradarbiavimo sutartis tarp Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto ir Kaljim departamento prie LR teisingumo ministerijos. staigos ketina bendradarbiauti teisins, socialins ir mokslins veiklos srityse. Renata Katinait Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas Socialins komunikacijos institutas

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ISSN 1392-9569

SocialiniS ugdymaS. 008. nr. 5(6)

Nr. 5 (16) Redagavo Beatric Rastenyt Maketavo Laura BaRisien Virselio dailininkai Mingijus PiliBavicius, Tomas RazMuS sl 605. 23 sp. l. tir. 300 egz. uzsak. nr. 08-140 isleido vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, student g. 39, lt­08106 vilnius spausdino vPu leidykla, t. Sevcenkos g. 31, lt­03111 vilnius Kaina sutartin

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