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SERA Annual Conference

Royal George Hotel Perth, Scotland

22nd -24th November 2007

Dear Delegate, We are pleased to welcome you to our conference which once again is being held at the Royal George Hotel in Perth. The log fires are burning and the coffee is brewed as part of the warm welcome that Eddie and Lorna and their staff have always provided for us. All daytime conference proceedings and evening entertainment will take place in this hotel. We also have delegates staying at the nearby Queen's Hotel where they will take breakfast but all other meals for all delegates will be taken at the George. A map is enclosed in the programme for your reference. Registration commences at 9.00am onwards where you will be met by Lorna Barnsley, the Conference Secretary. Many of you will have been in contact with her over the last few months and she is one of the lynchpins of the whole conference. The conference will commence at 10.00am when Ian Menter, President of SERA, welcomes you all, followed by the first parallel sessions at 10.30am. This year we are pleased to be able to offer you yet again an excellent line-up of keynote speakers. Professor Richard Edwards who is Head of the Institute of Education at Stirling University writes and researches on the post-schooling sectors of education and he will be giving the Thursday keynote address. Our SERA lecture, sponsored by Dunedin Press, will be given on Friday by Professor Morwenna Griffiths from the University of Edinburgh where she holds the Chair in Classroom Learning in the School of Education. She brings with her diverse experience including previous work in the Primary schooling sector as well as research and teaching experience in the HE sector in both the UK and the University of Isfahan in Iran. Between them they will be bringing insights into the whole range of educational and not just schooling practice to our conference. Following on from the success of our previous themed programmes, the Saturday morning programme is on Management and Leadership in Education and Elizabeth Leo, Professor of Organisational Leadership and Learning from the University of Dundee, who has researched this field within both the HE context and as a research adviser to the Department for Education and Skills, will be giving our keynote address. This part of our conference provides an opportunity to not only hear about some of the latest research in the broad field of Educational Management and Leadership but to also engage in dialogue with practitioners and researchers. Saturday is also when the latest SERA network for newly emerging researchers is being launched and we warmly welcome its members. Finally, SERA is known for being a small but friendly conference which provides excellent networking opportunities and this year the social programme includes a Pub Quiz on Thursday evening and a traditional Scottish Ceilidh on Friday after the Conference dinner, where Gordon Kirk has agreed to be our after dinner speaker. Sue Mansfield Conference Convenor on behalf of the SERA Conference Committee, 2007

SERA Conference 2007

MAP OF PERTH CITY CENTRE.................................................................................................................... I PROGRAMME ....................................................................................................................................... III DEMOCRACY, CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION ................................................ VII PROFESSOR RICHARD EDWARDS ..................................................................................................IX EDUCATION ­ AN IMPOSSIBLE PRACTICE? ............................................................................................... IX PROFESSOR MORWENNA GRIFFITHS ............................................................................................ X WHAT KIND OF RESEARCH EVIDENCE SHOULD OUR LEADERS USE? .......................................................... X PROFESSOR ELIZABETH L LEO ......................................................................................................XI SCHOOL LEADERS AND THE FUTURE: TRANSFORMING MOTIVATION, LEARNING AND EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT ......................................................................................................................................... XI CURRICULUM THEORY AND PRACTICE ........................................................................................ 1 CURRICULUM FOR EXCELLENCE: FUTURE QUALIFICATION MODELS? ..................................................... 1 James McVittie and John Allan .......................................................................................................... 1 CRITICAL REALISM AND CURRICULUM CHANGE: UNDERSTANDING CONTEXTS OF CHANGE .................... 2 Mark Priestley .................................................................................................................................... 2 SAPERE AUDE! (DARE TO THINK FOR YOURSELF) THE DEMOCRATISATION OF TRUTH WITHIN RELIGIOUS, MORAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES..................................................................................................... 3 Graeme Nixon..................................................................................................................................... 3 THE LEONARDO EFFECT: FUSING SCIENCE AND ART EDUCATION AS A MODEL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIMARY CURRICULUM .................................................................................................................... 4 Deirdre Robson, Mary Flanagan, Ivor Hickey, and Paula Campbell ................................................ 4 COLLAPSING FALSE DICHOTOMIES: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THEORY AND PRACTICE IN COMMUNITY LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT TRAINING PROGRAMMES. ....................................................................... 5 John Bamber and Clara O'Shea......................................................................................................... 5 SPEAKING HABERMAS TO CURRICULUM: EPISTEMIC AUTHORITY IN A VOCATIONAL PROGRAMME .......... 6 John Bamber....................................................................................................................................... 6 SYMPOSIUM: ACTOR NETWORK THEORY, ASSOCIATIONS FOR LEARNING AND THE SCHOOL EXPERIENCE IN SCOTTISH TEACHERS FOR A NEW ERA ................................................................................................. 7 Paper 1: Actor Network Theory: a Theoretical Framework for Examining the School Experience .. 8 Paper 2: Communities for Practice, Associations for Learning and the Learning Project................ 9 Paper 3: Actor-Network Theory and the Beneficial School Experience........................................... 10 Paper 4: Network of meanings and practices in the primary classroom. The new placement as a means for uncovering assumptions................................................................................................... 11 COMPARING THE PROGRESS OF ETHNIC MINORITY SCHOOL PUPILS USING 5-14 LEVELS AS A MEASURE OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ............................................................................................................ 12 Stephen Sharp ................................................................................................................................... 12 TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TEXT MAPPING ................................................................................................ 13 Tom Conlon ...................................................................................................................................... 13 HEARING YOUNG CHILDREN'S VOICES: EXPLORING RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP THROUGH DRAMA AND STORYTELLING ....................................................................................................................................... 14 Linda-Jane Simpson ......................................................................................................................... 14 A WOLF IN SHEEP'S CLOTHING? THE IMPACT AND CHALLENGES OF DELIVERING A MAXIMAL APPROACH TOWARDS CITIZENSHIP AND ENTERPRISE EDUCATION IN SCOTTISH SCHOOLS .................... 15 Ross Deuchar.................................................................................................................................... 15 `IN PRIMARY, WE GOT TO CHOOSE THINGS, BUT EVERYTHING IS DECIDED FOR US HERE': A CASE STUDY OF PUPILS' EXPERIENCE OF DEMOCRATIC EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS ................................................................................................................................................ 17 Henry Maitles and Ross Deuchar..................................................................................................... 17 SYMPOSIUM: RESEARCH TO SUPPORT OF SCHOOLS OF AMBITION ­ THE FIRST YEAR ............................. 18 Paper 1: A double-edged sword?: support and evaluation in Schools of Ambition research .......... 20 Paper 2: Practitioner Research, school leadership and professional development ......................... 21 Paper 3: Practitioner Research and school development: Using surveys to inform school strategies .......................................................................................................................................................... 22

SERA Conference 2007

LEARNING, TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................23 ASSESSING EACH OTHER: EXPERIENCES & PERCEPTIONS OF BED STUDENTS ..........................................23 Jim Allan and Aileen Kennedy ..........................................................................................................23 PARTICIPATION FOR LEARNING? .............................................................................................................24 Andrea Priestley and Alison Ritchie .................................................................................................24 STUDENT PRIMARY TEACHERS' LEVELS OF MATHEMATICS COMPETENCE AND CONFIDENCE IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS: SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION AND NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS ....................................................................................................................................25 Sheila Henderson and Susan Rodrigues ...........................................................................................25 INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. AN EXPLORATION OF STUDENT AND STAFF PERSPECTIVES IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, SOCIAL WORK AND COMMUNITY EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF DUNDEE ...............................................................................................................................................................26 Terry Barber, Fiona Lavin and Brian Leslie.....................................................................................26 CONCEPT MAPPING: INTERESTING - BUT WHY BOTHER? .........................................................................27 Morag Findlay ..................................................................................................................................27 SCOTTISH SCREEN'S TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME ......................................................................28 George Head, Fraser McConnell and J. Eric Wilkinson ..................................................................28 PERCEPTIONS OF 21ST CENTURY INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION ............................................................29 Ashley Reid........................................................................................................................................29 A VISIT TO AUSCHWITZ - WHAT HAPPENED NEXT?................................................................................30 Paula Cowan.....................................................................................................................................30 THE SAME PUPILS BUT HAVE THEIR ATTITUDES CHANGED?:THE LONGER TERM IMPACT OF LEARNING ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST .........................................................................................................................31 Henry Maitles and Paula Cowan ......................................................................................................31 SYMPOSIUM: PERSPECTIVES ON CPD .....................................................................................................32 Paper 1: Policy-makers' perspectives on teachers' learning and CPD in Scotland.........................33 Paper 2: Teacher perspectives on CPD in Scotland .........................................................................34 Paper 3: Case studies of perceptions of CPD in schools and within subject areas ..........................35 SYMPOSIUM: EXTERNAL SUPPORT FOR INTERNAL ASSESSMENT .............................................................36 Paper 1: Teacher assessment, external assessment, and good assessment.......................................37 Paper 2: Using ICT and e-Assessment for Personalisation ..............................................................38 Paper 3: Sharing assessment standards - could do better? ..............................................................39 LESSONS HARD LEARNED: HOW PUPILS AND TEACHERS USE LAPTOPS FOR LEARNING .........................40 Fran Payne, Yvonne Bain, Norman Coutts, Margaret Gooday, Matt McGovern and Jenny Spratt .40 DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING. DESIGNING AN E-LEARNING SUPPORT PACKAGE FOR STUDENT TEACHERS .......................................................................................................41 John Lodge........................................................................................................................................41 ONE SIZE CAN FIT ALL! APPROACHES TO BLENDED LEARNING IN THE FIRST YEAR OF A BED DEGREE 42 Magnus Ross, Mary Welsh ................................................................................................................42 PRIMARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION SPECIALISTS STAKING TARGETED CLAIMS FOR CPD ............................43 Lawry Price.......................................................................................................................................43 SYMPOSIUM: THE EFFICACY OF METHODOLOGIES IN PREPARING STUDENTS FOR TESTS AND EXAMINATIONS ......................................................................................................................................44 Paper 1: Exam Preparation in NQ Courses at Scotland's Colleges: An Action Learning Approach ..........................................................................................................................................................45 Paper 2: Mode of presentation and student learning: does death by handout mean the end of the sentence?...........................................................................................................................................46 TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF THE INTENDED SCIENCE CURRICULUM......................................................47 Meyvant Thorolfsson.........................................................................................................................47 TEACHERS' KNOWLEDGE AND PRIMARY SCIENCE LESSONS .....................................................................48 Christine Fraser ................................................................................................................................48 TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH IN HONG KONG: IS ASSESSMENT A RELIABLE GUIDE? ....................49 Beatrice Lok ......................................................................................................................................49 BRIDGING ANALOGIES IN RESEARCH AND IN TEACHING ..........................................................................50 Kenneth MacMillan and Tom Bryce .................................................................................................50 "SPECIAL FEATURES": A DVD PILOT PROJECT TO DELIVER TRAINING TO AND BUILD PARTNERSHIPS WITH PLACEMENT SCHOOLS....................................................................................................................52 Raymond Soltysek..............................................................................................................................52

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SYMPOSIUM: CLOSING THE LOOP? FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION ........... 53 Paper 1: Formative Feedback: pressures, possibilities and perceptions ......................................... 54 Paper 2: Assessment, reflection and synthesis ­ applying Assessment is for Learning to Higher Education.......................................................................................................................................... 55 Paper 3: Factors influencing ITE students' engagement with AifL.................................................. 56 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION .................................................................................................................... 57 THE LIMITS OF TOLERATION IN MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION.............................................................. 57 Beth Dickson..................................................................................................................................... 57 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: TAIWAN AND SCOTLAND ................................................................................. 58 Jean Kane and Chu-Ting Ko ............................................................................................................ 58 CATHOLIC SCHOOLS IN SCOTLAND AND DIVISIVENESS .......................................................................... 59 Stephen McKinney ............................................................................................................................ 59 SYMPOSIUM: RESTORATIVE PRACTICES IN SCOTTISH SCHOOLS: THE NATIONAL PILOT AND ITS EVALUATION .......................................................................................................................................... 60 Paper 1: What are Restorative Practices and how did they feature in the pilot schools?................ 61 Paper 2: A Local Authority Perspective on Restorative Practices ................................................... 62 Paper 3: A School Perspective on Restorative Practices ................................................................. 63 Paper 4: Evaluating Restorative Practices: reflections on methods used ........................................ 64 SYMPOSIUM: DEVELOPING INCLUSIVE PRACTITIONERS: CHANGING THE CULTURE IN ITE AND BEYOND 65 Paper 1: The Inclusive Practice Project ­ teacher education for inclusive education..................... 66 Paper 2: Student teachers working together: a case study bridging the primary/secondary sector divide ................................................................................................................................................ 67 Paper 3: ITE Student attitudes toward inclusive practice ­ can one year really make a difference? .......................................................................................................................................................... 68 SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT AND TRANSITIONS............................................................................. 69 SCHOOL CULTURE: A CASE STUDY OF THE ROLE OF THE HEADTEACHER IN CREATING AND MANAGING CULTURE IN A PRIMARY SCHOOL IN ENGLAND ....................................................................................... 69 Natallia Yakavets.............................................................................................................................. 69 ASSESSING A PROCESS ............................................................................................................................ 70 Gordon Brown .................................................................................................................................. 70 A TRANSITIONAL CASE STUDY .............................................................................................................. 71 Stelfox K, Catts R.............................................................................................................................. 71 SWING THROUGH WITH SCIENCE: A PROJECT TO SUPPORT TRANSITION FROM PRIMARY TO SECONDARY SCHOOL THROUGH SCIENCE, REPORTING OUR FINDINGS ......................................................................... 72 Susan Burr and Frances Simpson..................................................................................................... 72 LESSONS FROM ICELAND ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF KNOWLEDGE ................................................... 73 Allyson Macdonald ........................................................................................................................... 73 THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF EDITH STEIN (1891 - 1942), 'LIFEPOWER', AND DECISION MAKING IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL .................................................................................................................................. 74 Archie Graham ................................................................................................................................. 74 CURRENT DEMOGRAPHICS IN THE SCHOOL TEACHING POPULATION IN SCOTLAND ................................. 75 Ian Matheson .................................................................................................................................... 75 THE ECOLOGY OF INNOVATION EDUCATION ........................................................................................... 76 Svanborg R Jónsdóttir and Allyson Macdonald ............................................................................... 76 SOCIAL JUSTICE................................................................................................................................... 77 REFUGEES INTO TEACHING IN SCOTLAND: INCREASING DIVERSITY IN THE TEACHING WORKFORCE ...... 77 Heather Davison, Geri Smyth, Louise Barrett, Rhona Hodgart, Ian Menter, and Edward Momo.. 77 CATCHING THEM YOUNG: SEX AND RELATIONSHIP EDUCATION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS .......................... 78 Jennifer Spratt .................................................................................................................................. 78 SYMPOSIUM: SCOTTISH INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS PROJECT (SISP) ......................................................... 79 Paper 1: The Scottish Independent Schools Project: An Overview .................................................. 80 Paper 2: The Scottish Independent Schools Project: A multiple capitals approach to studying elite schools .............................................................................................................................................. 81 Paper 3: Scottish Independent Schools: Their Characteristics and Capitals................................... 82 THE INCREASINGLY DIVERGENT EDUCATIONAL POLICIES OF SCOTLAND, ENGLAND AND WALES SINCE DEVOLUTION AND HOW THESE ARE REFLECTED IN THREE KEY POLICY DOCUMENTS. ............................. 83 Adela Baird and Janet Laugharne.................................................................................................... 83

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SCOTTISH WOMEN TEACHERS: ISSUES OF GENDER, NATION AND IDENTITY ............................................85 Ann MacDonald ................................................................................................................................85 THE TEACHING AND PRACTICE OF CITIZENSHIP (CIVIC) EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM: A CASE FOR ZIMBABWE .............................................................................................................................86 Aaron Sigauke ...................................................................................................................................86 RESEARCH METHODS AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER.............................................................87 KNOCK, KNOCK, KNOCKING AT THE GATEKEEPER'S DOOR (WITH APOLOGIES TO MR DYLAN)...............87 Neil Houston. Lecturer in Music Education.....................................................................................87 SYMPOSIUM: REFLEXIVE PRACTITIONER RESEARCH WITHIN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSES .88 Paper 1: Reflexive Practitioner Research as an Epistemological and Ontological Activity.............89 Paper 2: Biography of a Community Leader ....................................................................................90 Paper 3: Ethical Approaches Used by Youth Workers......................................................................91 Paper 4: Life Changes: A small-scale practitioner research project into issued-based youth work 92 PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE OF POLISH AND LITHUANIEN HISTORY TEACHERS ....................93 dr hab Ireneusz Kawecki...................................................................................................................93 INNOVATIVE PROFESSIONAL UPDATING IN FURTHER EDUCATION...........................................................94 John Hall and Kevin Lowden ............................................................................................................94 USING SYSTEMS THINKING AS A TEACHING AND LEARNING TOOL FOR OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION..........95 Shagufta Shafqat Chandi...................................................................................................................95 NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHING SCHEME IN HONG KONG: 'ACCIDENTAL TOURISTS' OR 'AGENTS OF CHANGE'?................................................................................................................................................96 Victor Forrester and Beatrice Lok ....................................................................................................96 SATURDAY MORNING.........................................................................................................................97 MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE IN SCHOOLS..................................................................97 Catherine O'Hara..............................................................................................................................97 THE USE OF DEMOCRACY AND LEADERSHIP IN PREVENTING BULLYING ..................................................99 Vanda Sigurgeirsdóttir......................................................................................................................99 LEADERSHIP IN SMALL SCOTTISH PRIMARY SCHOOLS: STILL A UNIQUE STYLE? ...................................100 Valerie Wilson.................................................................................................................................100

SERA Conference 2007

Map of Perth City Centre

Preferential arrangements for SERA delegates apply at this car park

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Programme

THURSDAY 22nd NOVEMBER 2007 0900 - 1030 1000 (Rooms and Strands) Registration Welcome by SERA President, Ian Menter. Main Lounge, Royal George Hotel. Curriculum Theory and Learning, Teaching and Learning, Teaching and Practice Assessment Assessment Ballroom 1030 - 1100 Curriculum For Excellence: Future Qualification Models? McVittie and Allan 1 Critical Realism And Curriculum Change... Priestley 2 Sapere Aude! (Dare To Think For Yourself)... Nixon 3 The Leonardo Effect: Fusing Science And Art Education... Robson, Flanagan, Hickey, Campbell 4 Lunch KEYNOTE Ballroom Richard Edwards, Professor of Education, University of Stirling: Education ­ an impossible practice? Sponsored by Dunedin Academic Press Boardroom Assessing Each Other... Kennedy, Allan 22 Participation For Learning? Priestley, Ritchie 23 Student Primary Teachers' Level Of Mathematics... Henderson, Rodrigues 24 School of Education, Social Work And Community Education... Barber, Lavin, Leslie 25 Morning Room Concept Mapping: Interesting ­ But Why Bother? Findlay 26 Scottish Screen's Teacher Education Programme Head, McConnell, Wilkinson 27 Perceptions Of 21st Century Initial Teacher Education Reid 28 Research Methods and Knowledge Transfer Knock,Knock,Knocking At The Gatekeeper's Door... Houston 86 The Limits Of Toleration In Multicultural Education Dickson 56 Inclusive Education: Taiwan And Scotland Kane, Ko 57 Catholic Schools In Scotland And Divisiveness McKinney 58 Inclusive Education MacGregor Room

1100 - 1130

1130 - 1200

1200 - 1230

1230 - 1330 1330 - 1415

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(Rooms and Strands)

Curriculum Theory and Practice Ballroom

THURSDAY 22nd NOVEMBER 2007 (Continued) Learning, Teaching and Curriculum Theory and Assessment Practice The Boardroom A Visit To Auschwitz ­ What Happened Next? Cowan 29 The Same Pupils But Have Attitudes Changed?... Maitles, Cowan 30 The Morning Room Comparing the Progress of Ethnic Minority School Pupils... Sharp 12 Towards Sustainable Text Mapping Conlon 13

School Improvement and Transitions MacGregor Room School Culture: A Case Study Of The Role Of Headteacher... Yakavets 68 Assessing A Process Brown 69

1415 - 1445

1445 - 1515

Collapsing False Dichotomies: Toward Integrating Theory and Practice... Bamber, O'Shea 5 Speaking Habermas to Curriculum: Epistemic Authority... Bamber 6 Afternoon Tea Curriculum Theory and Practice Ballroom

1515 - 1545 (Rooms and Strands)

Learning, Teaching and Assessment The Boardroom Symposium: Perspectives on CPD McKinney, Griffiths, Carrington, Kennedy, Welsh, Wilson, Reid, Christie, Fraser 31-34

Learning, Teaching and Assessment The Morning Room Symposium: External Support For Internal Assessment Van Krieken, Allan, Wood, Tierney 35-38

Inclusive Education MacGregor Room Symposium: Restorative Practices In Scottish Schools... Kane, Munn, Head, McCluskey, Weedon, Keighren, Reid, Lloyd 59-63

1545 - 1615 1615 -1645 1645 - 1715

Symposium: Actor Network Theory... Colucci-Gray, Gray, Nixon, Graham, Kirkpatrick, Dewhurst, MacDougall, Nicol, Robson, Bredder, Thompson 7-11 Dinner Pub Quiz

1745 1800 2000

SERA Reception - The Estelle Brisard Award will be presented at the Reception

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(Rooms and Strands)

Curriculum Theory and Practice Ballroom

FRIDAY 23rd NOVEMBER 2007 Learning, Teaching and Social Justice Assessment Morning Room The Boardroom Lessons Hard Learned: How Pupils and Teachers... Payne, Bain, Coutts, Gooday, McGovern, Spratt 39 Digital Photography For Teaching And Learning... Lodge 40 One Size Can Fit All! Approaches To Blended Learning... Ross, Welsh 41 Refugees Into Teaching In Scotland... Davison, Smyth, Barrett, Hodgart, Menter, Momo 76 Catching Them Young: Sex And Relationship... Spratt 77 Learning, Teaching and Assessment Primary Physical Education Specialists... Price 42 Social Justice The Morning Room

School Improvement and Transitions MacGregor Room A Transitional Case Study Stelfox, Catts 70

0900 - 0930

0930 - 1000

1000 - 1030

Hearing Young Childrens' Voices: Exploring Responsible Citizenship... Simpson 14 A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing? The Impact and Challenge of... Deuchar 15 `In Primary, We Got To Choose Things...' Maitles, Deuchar 17

Swing Through With Science: A Project To Support Transition... Burr, Simpson 71 Lessons From Iceland On The Transformation Of Knowledge Macdonald 72

1030 - 1100 (Rooms and Strands)

Coffee Curriculum Theory and Practice Ballroom

Learning, Teaching and Assessment The Boardroom Symposium: The Efficacy Of Methodoligies In Preparing Students For Tests... Morrison, Gillian, Morrison, Miller, Clayes, Smith 43-45

Inclusive Education The Library Developing Inclusive Practitioners... Cowan (E), Rouse, Florian, Bain, Clark, Kirkpatrick 64-67

Research Methods and Knowledge Transfer MacGregor Room

1100 - 1130 1130 - 1200 1200 - 1230

Symposium: Research to Support of Schools of Ambition... Menter, Griffiths, Hulme, Lowden, Devlin, Eliot, Hall, Livingston, Christie, Rimpilainen, Payne, Woods, McCurrach et al. 18-21

Symposium: Scottish Independent Schools Project (SISP) Baird, Munn, Benjamin, Lingard, Forbes, Weiner, Stelfox, Reising 78-81

Symposium: Reflexive Practitioner Research Within Professional Development Courses... Mansfield, Hastie, McMeeking, Thomson 87-91

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FRIDAY 23rd NOVEMBER 2007 (Continued) 1230 - 1330 (Rooms and Strands) Lunch Learning, Teaching and Assessment Ballroom 1330 - 1430 1430 - 1500 1500 - 1530 Learning, Teaching and Assessment The Boardroom Research Methods and Knowledge Transfer The Library Social Justice The Morning Room School Improvement and Transitions MacGregor Room

SERA Lecture - Ballroom Morwenna Griffiths, Chair of Classroom Learning, University of Edinburgh: What kind of research evidence should our leaders use? Afternoon Tea Teachers' Perceptions Of The Intended Science Curriculum Thorolfsson 46 Teachers' Knowledge And Primary Science Lessons Fraser 47 Teaching And Learning English In Hong Kong... Lok 48 Bridging Analogies In Research And In Teaching Macmillan, Bryce 49 Annual General Meeting. MacGregor Room. Conference Dinner with Presidential welcome and after dinner speaker: Gordon Kirk A SERA Honorary Life Membership will be presented at the dinner A Ceilidh will follow dinner "Special Features": A DVD Pilot Project... Soltysek 51 Pedagogical Content Knowledge Of Polish And Lithuanian Hostory Teachers Kawecki 92 Innovative Professional Updating In Further Education Hall, Lowden 93 Using Systems Thinkin As A Teaching And Learning Tool... Chandi 94 Native English Teaching Scheme In Honk Kong... Forrester, Lok 95 The Increasingly Divergent Educational Policies Of Scotland, England And Wales... Baird, Laugharne 82 Scottish Women Teachers: Issues of Gender... MacDonald 84 The Teaching And Practice Of Citizenship... Sigauke 85 The Phenomenology Of Edith Stein... Graham 73

1530 - 1600

1600 - 1630

Symposium: Closing The Loop? Formative Assessment In Initial Teacher Education Martin, Thomson, Florian, Freeman, Cowan 52-55

Current Demographics In The School Teaching Population... Matheson 74 The Ecology Of Innovative Education Jónsdóttir, MacDonald 75

1630 - 1700

1700 - 1800 1900

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Democracy, Culture and Leadership in Education

SATURDAY 24th NOVEMBER 2007 0900 - 0930 0930 - 1030 Registration & coffee Ballroom - Welcome from Lorna Hamilton, President of SERA Keynote: Professor Elizabeth Leo, Dean of School for Education, Social Work and Community Education, University of Dundee: School leaders and the future: Transforming motivation, learning and educational achievement Coffee Morning Room Management and Organisational Change in Schools O'Hara 96 Boardroom The Use of Democracy and Leadership in Preventing Bullying Sigurgeirsdóttir 98 McGregor Room Leadership in Small Scottish Primary Schools Wilson 99 12-1pm Emerging Researchers Network meeting

1030 ­ 10.50

1050 ­ 11.50

1150 - 1250 1250 - 1330 1330

Break out groups Dialogues between Communities of Practice: What can we/have we learnt from each other? Plenary Panel and discussion on: Leadership in Education: who needs it? Lunch

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Professor Richard Edwards

Education ­ an impossible practice?

Freud once wrote that education, life psychoanalysis, is an impossible profession. His argument was that this was because education could not mandate the future. Despite this, the challenges education has been asked to address over the years seems to have grown and grown. Productivity, competitiveness, and inclusion have all been laid at the doors of education. Globalising processes are producing yet more challenges ­ economic, political, cultural ­ raising important questions for what it means to be educated. This presentation will explore these issues and suggest that the ideologies of education obscure the mundane practices in which we are engaged, and that the more education is positioned as an answer to the challenges of living, the more impossible and (dis)locating its practice are. Biography Richard Edwards is Professor of Education and Head of the Institute of Education at the University of Stirling. He has written and researched extensively on adult education, further education, lifelong learning, postmodernism, poststructuralism and globalisation. His latest books are R. Usher and R. Edwards (2007) Lifelong Learning - Signs, Discourses, Practices, Springer and R. Edwards and R. Usher (2008) Globalisation and Pedagogy: Space, Place and Identity, London: Routledge.

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Professor Morwenna Griffiths

What kind of research evidence should our leaders use?

As educational researchers we hope to influence what goes on in education policy making at national or regional level and/or to influence school and classroom strategies and practices. To put it another way we are keen to contribute to evidence-based policies and evidence-based practices. But what kind of evidence should that be? What sort of knowledge is needed by leaders ­ whether they are policy wonks, head teachers, or classroom teachers? I will argue that context-specific, local, personal knowledge is indispensable for all leaders. I will make this argument using the examples of personal narrative research and action research. Biography Morwenna Griffiths is Professor of Classroom Learning in the School of Education at Edinburgh University. Her research interests are in social justice, philosophy, and the interaction of educational theory and practice, especially through action-research and self-study. She has previously taught in primary schools in Bristol, and at the University of Isfahan, Iran, at Christ Church College HE in Canterbury, and at Oxford Brookes, Nottingham and Nottingham Trent Universities. Her recent research has included both philosophical theorising and empirical investigation, related to social justice, public spaces, the nature of practice, feminisation and creativity. Her books include Action for Social Justice in Education: Fairly Different; Educational Research for Social Justice, and Feminisms and the Self; the Web of Identity.

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Professor Elizabeth L Leo

School leaders and the future: transforming motivation, learning and educational achievement

Context Pupils need to leave school with dreams for the future, high aspirations and goals for themselves and society. Schools are critical in developing young men and women who will contribute to active citizenship, community renewal and economic regeneration. The majority of our schools have talented leaders and teachers with the vision, energy and passion to create a sustainable future for their pupils and their communities. However, it is more difficult for school leaders serving disadvantaged communities to succeed, not only in improving learning and attainment, but in sustaining these. Contemporary research on human motivation and learning is enabling schools to understand better pupils' reasons for learning and in turn, how teachers can raise academic achievement. Aims The aims are: to promote research-led school communities that are able to make good use of research and evidence-based reforms to promote new ways of thinking about learners; to evaluate systematically new ideas and to interrogate and transform practice aimed at raising pupils' motivation, learning and attainment. A key objective is to focus on understanding better how schools serving disadvantaged communities succeed in managing the challenge of high achievement and excellence, and inclusion and equitable distribution of educational outcomes. Better understanding of the causes of and ways of dealing with underachievement in schools can come from better understanding of pupils' views of their own ability, competence and motivation to learn. Findings The presentation draws on findings from a number of empirical studies, and in particular from a recently completed longitudinal case study of a large urban secondary school serving a constituency ranked in the lowest third in the UK on multiple indices of poverty; one of England's new Academy schools. The findings illuminate the ways in which pupil motivation is understood and how lessons learned from research can be applied to the task of school and classroom level innovation and change. Professor Elizabeth L Leo MEd, PhD, DipPrimEd, DipRE, FRSA, FHEA Dean of School of Education, Social Work and Community Education College of Arts and Social Sciences University of Dundee Scotland UK Biography Elizabeth is Professor of Organizational Leadership and Learning and Dean of the School of Education, Social Work and Community Education, University of Dundee, Scotland. She has worked successfully with schools and local education authorities to promote research-led educational reform that inspires leadership for learning and in turn, promotes student motivation and achievement. Most recently her research has

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focused on England's new Academy schools' programme; the Academies are schools in high poverty, high disadvantage areas of the country. Elizabeth has held a range of academic and senior management posts in a number of UK Universities including the Institute of Education, University of London where she was Assistant Dean of Research and Associate Director of the International School Effectiveness and Improvement Centre. She was also seconded to Government in the Department for Education and Skills, London as the Senior Adviser for Research. She is currently developing innovative research methodologies involving co-disciplinary and co-professional research teams focusing on creating leadership for the professions.

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Curriculum Theory and Practice

Curriculum for Excellence: Future Qualification Models?

James McVittie and John Allan

Contact name: John Allan The Scottish Qualifications Authority, Optima, 58 Robertson Street Glasgow, G2 8DQ, 0845 213 5545, [email protected] Key Words: fractures, change, participants Participants' Voice: Qualifications at SCQF levels 4 and 5 - views from the classroom Launched by the Scottish Executive in November, 2004 Curriculum for Excellence is designed to provide a seamless education from 3 to 18 in Scotland. The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) is one of the four partner national organisations (1) involved in the Curriculum for Excellence programme of work. SQAs principal role is to lead work on qualifications and assessment; a key strand of the programme In this context, in the Autumn of 2006 and Spring of 2007, seminars and face to face interviews were held with practitioners and learners from secondary schools, further education colleges, and stakeholder group across Scotland, in order to seek their views on the possible shape of future qualifications Findings were grounded in the views of over 2500 participants - mangers, teachers, lecturers and learners - of qualifications at SCQF levels 4 and 5 (2), collected using a semi-structured interview approach, with around 300 focus groups drawn from a sample of over 70 secondary schools and 27 FE colleges, and a workshop approach with managers, teachers/lecturers and stakeholders, in 11 seminars. This was part of a larger and ongoing engagement strategy. This symposium provides an opportunity to discuss findings and for exploration of potential change to qualifications and assessment, linked to the principles for qualifications development and the 4 capacities. Footnote (1) The four partner organisations are SQA, the Scottish Executive, Learning and Teaching Scotland, and HMIe. (2) Ministers intend to retain Access, Higher and Advanced Higher as points of stability within the system.

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SERA Conference 2007

Critical Realism and Curriculum Change: understanding contexts of change

Mark Priestley

Institute of Education, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, 01786 466272, [email protected] Keywords: realism; morphogenesis; morphostasis Curriculum for Excellence is a sincere attempt to evaluate and reform Scotland's school curriculum. Experience suggests that curriculum change is a difficult undertaking, with historically low rates of success. The architects of Curriculum for Excellence have recognised such difficulties: they seek to involve practitioners in the design of the curriculum, and they have allowed long time scales for enactment. Nevertheless, the success of the curriculum, in its stated aims of developing responsible citizens, successful learners, effective contributors and confident individuals, remains a formidable challenge. Critical realist social theory suggests that social change (morphogenesis) and reproduction (morphostasis) occur through the medium of socio-cultural interaction, and that such interaction is subject to the influence of culture (i.e. ideas), structure (i.e. the emergent properties of relationships between individuals and groups) and human capabilities and reflexivity. Such theory provides a mechanism for understanding the contexts in which change occurs. This paper will draw upon critical realism and empirical research in schools to provide insights into the challenges faced by Curriculum for Excellence if it is to radically change schooling. It will examine how an understanding of the cultures and structures of schooling may facilitate the enactment of the new curriculum.

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Sapere aude! (dare to think for yourself) The democratisation of truth within Religious, Moral and Philosophical Studies

Graeme Nixon

University of Aberdeen, School of Education, MacRobert Buidling, King's College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 5UA Keywords: Democracy, RMPS, Secularisation The nature of the subject variously described as RE, RME and RMPS (to name a few incarnations) has changed radically over the last four decades. This paper seeks to examine possible reasons for the move to non-confessional, multi-religious and philosophical approaches, both set against the wider social climate and also as evidenced in survey data. Key documents in the development of RMPS will be referenced as well as current guidelines produced by a Curriculum for Excellence. Empirical data will also inform this discussion. This will be generated from two sources: 1. A pilot survey of RMPS departments in a particular local authority 2. A survey of academic philosophers on the emergence of Philosophy in Schools This paper will therefore examine the impetus to change RMPS in a 'post-modern' and 'post-structural' age and consider such changes as possible evidence that, in the context of RMPS, the Enlightenment project continues.

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The Leonardo Effect: Fusing Science and Art Education as a Model for Development of the Primary Curriculum

Deirdre Robson, Mary Flanagan, Ivor Hickey, and Paula Campbell

St Mary's University College, 191 Falls Road, Belfast BT12 6FE 02890268327678, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Keywords: Art, Science, Creativity We have developed a model for learning and teaching that fuses art and science, which we call synchronised integration. Children study a specific topic, in this case flight, using the investigative and developmental methods of artists and scientists without making any attempt to differentiate the two learning processes. This model far exceeds conventional cross-curricular approaches to teaching as the core of our approach is to stress commonalities between the two subjects and we encourage teachers to use joint learning outcomes/intentions, for art and science in the development of their teaching. To develop creativity further we have required teachers to employ a flexible approach in their planning, so that children's ideas and interests occupy a major role in determining the subject content of the programme. The programme has been run with approximately 1200 children between the ages of 810 years in 18 primary schools in Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales and the Republic of Ireland. Qualitative and quantitative data has been gathered from teachers, pupils, parents and school principals in the form of questionaires, diaries, interviews, photographs and pupils' work. The data is overwhelmingly positive. Our initial findings are that all primary teachers found the approach beneficial to pupil learning. And children's achievements often exceeded teachers' expectations. They highlighted a number of positives including increased pupil motivation, remarkable grasp of a wide range of important facts about several areas of science, increased skills of observation, advances in ability to plan and work co-operatively, development of designing skills, and the enhancement of questioning and literacy skills. The philosophy that we describe here is not specific to the two subjects of art and science, but is capable of being adapted to other combinations of subjects.

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SERA Conference 2007

Collapsing false dichotomies: towards integrating theory and practice in Community Learning and Development training programmes.

John Bamber and Clara O'Shea

Dept. of Community & Higher Education, Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ Tel.: (0131) 651 6229, Fax.: (0131) 651 6111, [email protected] Keywords: curriculum, integration, competence, practice, theory Drawing on research into Scottish work-based and part-time training programmes in Community Learning and Development (CLD) supported by the Scottish Community Learning and Development Work-Based and Part-Time Training Consortium, this paper will explore key issues in designing and delivering an integrated curriculum in one vocationally oriented subject area. An "integrated" approach means bringing together academic-workplace relations, teaching and learning processes and notions of competence. A major task is to work through the tensions for curriculum design created by professional and academic understandings of capability. The paper argues that differences between the two can be productively resolved in the concept of the critically competent practitioner. The paper will review the strengths and challenges of a range of approaches to curriculum design, examining a number of possibilities for interweaving taught and practical elements. It will suggest an idealised model of an integrative approach highlighting specific examples of good practice from across the CLD field, including HE, FE and community sectors. These instances will focus on the pivotal relationship between the training provider and the workplace. The implications of the different conceptions of this relationship will be discussed in terms of maximising the respective contributions of the training provider and the workplace in supporting learners. Instances of integrative approaches to teaching and learning activities will be considered in terms of enabling students to bring together the three strands of practice, programme content and professional development. In featuring new and innovative ideas for design and delivery, the paper signals the potential for curriculum development in CLD training.

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SERA Conference 2007

Speaking Habermas to Curriculum: epistemic authority in a vocational programme

John Bamber

Department of Higher and Community Education, School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, [email protected] Keywords: Habermas, discourse, competence The Habermasian concept of "epistemic authority" helps us to understand what is involved when students are fully engaged in constructing, as opposed to simply receiving, knowledge in HE. It occurs when participants take control over their learning and exercise responsibility for ensuring its development. The ways of thinking and practising in a subject area determine the particular nature of epistemic authority and the concept is discussed in relation to teaching non-traditional, undergraduate community education students. Successful learning in this instance can be defined as the ability to produce practice knowledge leading to the resolution of particular types of empirical-analytic or moral-practical problems. Practice knowledge in this sense connotes a critical, reflective and reflexive competence encompassing practical, intellectual and attitudinal capacities. It is suggested that this expansive notion of competence can be promoted by teaching and learning processes based on four principles: learning is an act of reciprocity, knowledge is constructed through redeeming claims, claims are provisionally vindicated in discourse and competence is a constructive achievement. The principles express the ideal of a discursive pedagogy in which there is a commitment to open communication and argumentative reasoning. Such a pedagogy challenges epistemological frameworks and modes of knowledgeproduction based on individualised conceptions of the learner, conventional understandings of the student-educator and crude theory-practice splits. The paper concludes by outlining some practices that would appear to be consistent with attempts to approximate the ideal conditions of a discursive pedagogy.

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SERA Conference 2007

Symposium: Actor Network Theory, Associations for Learning and The School Experience in Scottish Teachers for a New Era

Chair: Laura Colucci-Gray Aberdeen University, School of Education, 01224-274519 [email protected]

Discussant: To be confirmed. Possible suggestions: Philip Woods; Fran Payne This symposium reports and discusses the findings of the first two years of research and development of Scottish Teachers for a New Era, a collaborative model of Initial Teacher Education involving Aberdeen University and six local authorities in the NorthEast of Scotland, The Hunter foundation and the Scottish Executive Education Department. Through a model of partnership and collaboration, the project aims at developing new practices, by enhancing teachers' professional identity, supporting activities of inquiry, and enacting a culture of dialogue, collegiality and mentoring. In this vision, both theory and data are used as part of a collective research process, supporting and guiding participants in the enactment of and reflection on new practices. The first paper provides a description of theoretical framework underpinning our understanding of the process of change. Drawing on Complexity theory and Actor Network theory, the study of a new model of Initial Teacher Education is examined as a study of a change process, with emerging contradictions, potentialities and tensions. Qualitative and quantitative methods and multiple sampling sites are used to inform triangulation, intersubjectivity and dialogue between different methodological perspectives. Following from the theory, the second, third and fourth papers report on the empirical findings obtained from the research on students' placement experience. Data were collected in two different contexts - PGDE and B.Ed student placement - by means of in-depth observations, questionnaires and interviews. Analysis was focused on understanding the network of meanings created in the classroom between student teachers, pupils and classroom teachers. In addition, comparing the different contexts allowed for a discussion of different emerging issues related to power relationships, epistemology, curriculum and the identity of the new teacher.

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Paper 1: Actor Network Theory: a Theoretical Framework for Examining the School Experience

Donald Gray and Graham Nixon Aberdeen University, School of Education, [email protected]; [email protected] Keywords: actor-network theory, meaning-making This paper presents a theoretical framework drawing on actor-network theory to examine the emergence of a "learning project" as an association within a Community of Practice focusing on the student teachers' school placement experience. ActorNetwork Theory was developed by Bruno Latour and Michel Callon, two French Science and Technology Studies (STS) scholars and John Law a British sociologist. The essence of actor-network theory is the idea of relationships among elements in a network, both human and non-human (Latour, 1986). This paper draws on key ideas within actor-network theory to lay the foundations for the examination of an association which emerged within the School of Education of Aberdeen University. This association, or learning project, used actor-network theory as a lens for critical examination of the Postgraduate Primary school placement experience. This paper provides the necessary theoretical framework for understanding the study and presents the methodological rationale arising from this. CALLON, M. (1986) Some Elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay In Law, J. (Ed) (1986) Power, Action and Belief. A New Sociology of Knowledge? Sociological Review Monograph 32, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul LATOUR, B. (1986) The powers of association. In Law, J. (Ed) (1986) Power, Action and Belief. A New Sociology of Knowledge? Sociological Review Monograph 32, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul. LATOUR, B. (2005) Reassembling the social an introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford : Oxford University Press LAW, J. (1999) After ANT: complexity, naming and topology. In Law and Hassard (Eds) Actor Network Theory and After. Oxford, Blackwell/ The Sociological Review.

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Paper 2: Communities for Practice, Associations for Learning and the Learning Project

Archie Graham and Gillian Kirkpatrick Aberdeen University, School of Education; [email protected]; [email protected] Keywords: Communities of Practice; placement Drawing from Communities of Practice (Wenger, 2000; Wenger et al, 2002; Roberts, 2006) and Actor-Network Theory (Fountain, 1999; Latour, 2005) this paper presents an examination of the re-conceptualisation of a system of learning within the School of Education of Aberdeen University. Drawing from actor-network theory, the emergence of a specific learning project is examined as a case study in the building of a community of practice based on associations for learning. The case study in question focused on the experiences of PGDE Primary students' school experience. The paper will describe the learning project and provide an overview of the findings of the study. FOUNTAIN, R.M., (1999). Socio-scientific issues via actor-network theory. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(3), pp. 339-358. ROBERTS, J., (2006). Limits to Communities of Practice. Journal of Management Studies, 43(3),. WENGER, E., (2000). Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems. Organization Articles, 7(2), pp. 225-246. WENGER, E., MCDERMOTT, R. and SNYDER, W.M., (2002). Cultivating Communities of Practice. Boston, Massachusetts, Harvard Business School Press.

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Paper 3: Actor-Network Theory and the Beneficial School Experience

Yvonne Dewhurst, Lindsay MacDougall and Sandra Nicol Aberdeen University, School of Education; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] Keywords: school experience; learning; meanings This paper looks in detail at the findings from the learning project elaborated on in paper 2. Describing in detail the rationale behind the methodology and describing the data gathering process, the paper goes on to examine the findings from the study involving a cohort of PGDE Primary students on school experience. Using a webbased questionnaire and interviews, the study gathered data on the detailed interactions and experiences of students on school experience. Using actor-network theory as a lens the data is analysed to provide a picture of the relationships of students with both human and non-human `actants' and the actions resulting from those relationships. The data is also analysed with respect to the students' reported perspective of whether they felt this was a beneficial or non-beneficial experience. Comparison of the profiles from the two types of experiences is provided to raise questions and offer perspectives on the provision of school-based placements for ITE students and the role of schools and ITE institutions in this process.

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Paper 4: Network of meanings and practices in the primary classroom. The new placement as a means for uncovering assumptions.

Laura Colucci-Gray, Dean Robson, Charlene Bredder, Carole Thompson Aberdeen University, School of Education; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] Keywords: placement; primary teaching; relationships Through the investigation of students' placement, a new model of teacher education gets to the heart of how student teachers learn to become teachers. While the student teachers learn to take on the role of classroom teachers, a whole set of values, perceptions and beliefs is also enacted, which can be tapped into by means of in-depth observations. This paper presents the findings of a sustained cycle of classroom observations carried out during the STNE placement experience. Student teachers in pairs were assigned to a teacher-mentor in charge of guiding them in the investigations of pupils' learning and in the enactment of and reflection on classroom practices. A group of 25 students volunteers was followed through by the researchers as part of a longitudinal study. The researchers took on the role of participant observers gathering information about the classroom routine activities, the relationships between pupils and teachers, and the obstacles and opportunities for the mentoring of student teachers. Findings highlight relationships between a curriculum-centred approach to teaching and power relationships in the classroom. In contrast, a child-centred approach raises questions about teacher's expertise and authority and calls for a reflective and reflexive attitude towards teaching. Specific examples are given to illustrate student teachers' reflective attitudes, to cast light on contrasting perceptions of the child and the curriculum, and to point out the need to reflect on subject epistemology as a means to prepare student teachers for effective dialogical practice.

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SERA Conference 2007

Comparing the Progress of Ethnic Minority School Pupils Using 5-14 Levels as a Measure of Educational Attainment

Stephen Sharp

Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, [email protected], Tel: 0131 651 6343 Keywords: Assessment; educational progress; ethnic minorities. Tracking the educational progress of pupils of different ethnic groups is a priority for teachers, schools and educational authorities. This paper considers how this can be done when the only measure of educational attainment available is 5-14 levels, a very broad measure which takes on just five values which cover seven years of primary education. A model is developed in which the age at which each child was confirmed as having attained his/her current level is modeled as a function of level and ethnicity. The model applied to Reading, Writing and Mathematics data collected in Scotland shows that many of the comparisons between 'White - UK' pupils (who of course make up the majority of the sample) and pupils from other ethnic backgrounds are not statistically significant. However for the Reading data, pupils classified as 'Mixed' make better progress than the majority while those classified as 'Indian', 'Pakistani' or 'Black - African' make slower progress. For Writing, 'White - Other' pupils make better progress while those from 'Any Other Ethnic Group' make slower progress. For Mathematics, 'Chinese', 'Mixed' and 'White - Other' pupils make better progress than the majority but those classified as `Pakistani', `Black - African' and `Any other ethnic group' did less well. Other contexts in which the method presented here could be applied are outlined.

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SERA Conference 2007

Towards Sustainable text mapping

Tom Conlon

School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 8AQ ([email protected])

Keywords: literacy, text comprehension and summarisation, text mapping, new technology Development of literacy skills, including skills in learning from text, is a major goal for schools in all countries. Previous research has indicated that children's text comprehension and summarisation skills can be improved by techniques based on concept mapping. However, these techniques seem to be seldom deployed in normal classroom practice, partly we believe because they are too contrived, time-consuming, and/or complex to be sustainable. This paper reports the development of a new software-based technique which simplifies and supports the process of mapping a text. The rationale is to promote learners' motivation to adopt text mapping as a recurrent learning activity by increasing the coherence and enjoyment of the task and by enabling independent operation and formative assessment. The software runs on Windows and Macintosh computers and can accept any kind of text as source. We demonstrate the technology, present the results of an early-stage trial, outline the work that is needed to refine and evaluate the technique, and discuss theprospects for broader uptake.

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SERA Conference 2007

Hearing young children's voices: exploring responsible citizenship through drama and storytelling

Linda-Jane Simpson

Teaching Fellow, Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Chessel's Land, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, (0131) 336 3447, [email protected] Keywords: citizenship, roleplay, pre-school `Allow us to tell you what we are thinking or feeling... listen to us and hear what we say.' Right 13 U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (Unicef 2000) The respectful ideals, of listening, expressing, and responding, embodied in this basic entreaty are fundamental to the creation of responsible citizens. This presentation reports on an innovative study which is part of the `Citizenship and Democracy' project, School Management and Governance Network (AERS). This case study was undertaken in two contrasting nursery establishments with groups of pre-school children. The researcher carefully selected themed stories and used them with four groups of 35 year old children. Storylines were chosen because they portrayed a positive citizenship message and role model. Stories provided the opportunity for younger children to reflect on everyday, interactions and social scenarios. Here issues included sharing, being listened to, and understanding another person's point of view. Different groups of children explored the same story line, using different techniques: drama role play and the more traditional adult-led story telling technique. These sessions were video recorded. In addition to this, focus group interviews were undertaken with the staff in each nursery. Topics for discussion included staff views regarding the importance of education for citizenship in the early years and their assessment of children's responses to the two different activities. The staff were able to base these views on their observation of the children while they worked with the researcher, either in storytelling or drama role play. The paper focuses on findings from this small-scale study and compares two models of pedagogy for addressing education for citizenship in the early years.

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SERA Conference 2007

A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing? The Impact and Challenges of Delivering a Maximal Approach towards Citizenship and Enterprise Education in Scottish Schools

Ross Deuchar

University of Strathclyde, Faculty of Education, Southbrae Drive, Glasgow, G13 1PP e-mail: [email protected] Keywords: citizenship, enterprise, communitarianism In the early 21st Century, education for citizenship and democracy is firmly on the policy agenda in Britain and across many parts of the world. At the same time, there is an increasing interest in teaching pupils about new forms of entrepreneurship that encompass a need for ethical, social and environmental sensitivity. In spite of this, international research suggests that neo-liberal and neo-capitalist values continue to influence educational practice (Deuchar, 2007). In Scotland, recent political rhetoric suggest the need for citizenship and enterprise education to be focused on both individualistic and collectivist values and to encourage pupil consultation and autonomy (LTS, 2002; Scottish Executive, 2002; Curriculum Review Group, 2004). But, to what extent can this become a reality in a culture still dominated by the pressure of the `excellence' agenda? This paper argues that two key themes, communitarianism (Lawson, 2001; Loxley and Thomas, 2001; Deuchar, 2006; 2007) and values-based democratic participation (Holden and Clough, 1998), lie at the heart of a harmonised approach to citizenship and enterprise education. Case study evidence from Scottish schools will highlight good practice, where a `maximal' approach towards enterprise and citizenship education is guided by these principles (Osler and Starkey, 2002; Deuchar, 2007). The paper will examine the positive impact of these approaches on developing pupils' sense of community welfare, social tolerance, political literacy and general motivation towards school, but will also explore the barriers that prevent this practice from becoming more widespread. References Curriculum Review Group (2004) A Curriculum for Excellence. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Deuchar, R. (2006) Not only this, but also that! Translating the social and political motivations underpinning enterprise and citizenship education into Scottish schools, Cambridge Review of Education, 36 (4): 533-547. Deuchar, R. (2007) Citizenship, Enterprise and learning: harmonizing competing educational agendas. Stoke on Trent: Trentham. Holden, C. and Clough, N. (1998) The child carried on the back does not know the length of the road, in: C. Holden and N. Clough, Children as Citizens: Education for Participation. London: Jessica Kingsley Lawson, H. (2001) Active citizenship in schools and the community, Curriculum Journal, 12 (2): 163-178.

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Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTScotland) (2002) Education for citizenship in Scotland ­ A Paper for Discussion and Development. Dundee: LT Scotland. Loxley, A. and Thomas, G. (2001) Neo-conservatives, neo-Liberals, the new left and inclusion: stirring the pot, Cambridge Journal of Education, 31 (3): 291-301. Osler, A. and Starkey, H. (2002) Teacher Education and Human Rights. London: David Fulton. Scottish Executive (2002) Determined to Succeed. Edinburgh: SEED.

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SERA Conference 2007

`In primary, we got to choose things, but everything is decided for us here': a case study of pupils' experience of democratic educational practice in primary and secondary schools

Henry Maitles and Ross Deuchar

Henry Maitles (Dept of Curricular Studies University of Strathclyde); Ross Deuchar (Dept of Childhood and Primary Studies University of Strathclyde) Keywords: democracy, transition, citizenship The principles inherent within the education for citizenship agenda suggest that children need to be regarded as active, competent and vocal members of society and should be exposed to a democratic school ethos. Many schools have responded to these expectations by setting up pupil councils; however, evidence suggests that they only really work well if their agendas focus on genuine discussion and debate about serious educational issues and if they are placed at the centre of school-wide democratic practice. The paper raises questions about the extent to which Scottish pupils are exposed to a living model of democratic education, and the extent to which the rights and responsibilities they experience in Primary 7 are upheld following their transition to secondary school. It will: · · examine the whole school ethos of the education for citizenship proposals as they are unfolding in Scottish schools; focus on research data emerging from a longitudinal study of pupils' experience of the democratic process in schools during their transition from Primary 7Secondary 1; for this we have identified 5 primary schools with well-developed systems for consulting the pupil voice. We have carried out interviews with the pupils and the teachers. We have followed the pupils into secondary 1 and we are recording, again through interview, their experiences there. use this evidence from our diverse sample of primary schools to illustrate the way in which pupils are encouraged to participate in decision-making processes and engage in the discussion of contemporary social issues of their own interest both in the classroom and during pupil council meetings. measure this evidence against the education for citizenship recommendations. look at evidence of the way in which these same pupils' experiences of the democratic process evolves following their transition to secondary school.

·

· ·

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SERA Conference 2007

Symposium: Research to support of Schools of Ambition ­ the first year

Chair:

Ian Menter Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow, 11 Eldon Street, Glsagow, G3 6NH, 0141 330 3480, [email protected] Morwenna Griffiths Moray House School of Education, University o Edinburgh, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, 0131 651 6166

Discussant:

During 2004/05, the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) identified 21 `Schools of Ambition' (SoA). The stated intention of the programme is that SoAs will aim to stand out in their locality, and nationally, as innovators and leaders, providing ambition and opportunity for young people, setting an example to the whole community (SEED, 2004, 2006). Each school is receiving significant additional funding over a three-year period to implement proposals contained within a `Transformational Plan' submitted via their local authority in order to achieve this status. An integral part of this major national school improvement initiative was the provision of research support designed to enable each school to carry out its own assessment of the success of the implementation of the plan. Following a competitive tendering process, SEED commissioned a team of researchers from the Universities of Glasgow, Aberdeen and Strathclyde, to provide research support for these 21 schools and additional cohorts of schools to be identified subsequently. The research team sought to develop a model of collaborative research in which a core team of experienced research `mentors' supports the development of school-initiated action research across the Schools of Ambition network. The mentoring strategy is demand-led, responding to the range of foci expressed in schools' transformational plans. Integral to the support strategy is the streaming of feedback to schools in a sustained critical dialogue throughout the three year cycle of the project (Furlong et al, 2003; Campbell and Jacques, 2004; Foreman-Peck, 2005). The project is enhanced through the use of a Virtual Research Environment to create an electronic community of enquiry. This symposium reports on the experience of the first year of this work (September 2006-2007), during which a number of significant issues and some dilemmas have arisen, many of which concern practitioner research methodology. These include: · · · How to offer research support to schools with very varying experience of previous research activity and very different priorities for improvement How to balance face-to-face engagement with e-mentoring, given the wide geographical dispersal of the schools and the limited resource available. How to integrate practitioner-led school self-evaluation within national frameworks of accountability; negotiating the `performance culture' in secondary schools (Ball, 2003; Gleeson and Husbands, 2001; Gewirtz, 2002).

These are themes that may be picked up in any of the papers below and which the discussant will be asked to comment on.

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SERA Conference 2007 Paper 1: A double-edged sword?: support and evaluation in Schools of Ambition research

Moira Hulme, Kevin Lowden, Alison Devlin, Dely Eliot, Stuart Hall, Kay Livingston, Donald Christie, Sanna Rimpilainen, Fran Payne and Philip Woods all c/o Ian Menter Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow, 11 Eldon Street, Glasgow, G3 6NH, 0141 330 3480, [email protected] Keywords: Practitoner research; school improvement, professional development The biggest challenge of the work arises from the dual role of the research team. In addition to supporting the individual schools, the team is undertaking research activities for the purpose of providing an evaluation of the whole scheme for the Scottish Executive. This strand of activity has involved interviews with members of the leadership group with responsibility for project management in each SoA. Forty semistructured interviews were conducted between October-December 2006. The aims of the evaluation strategy are to: · · · · Explore and describe the processes of change implementation and adoption. Identify factors that enable or inhibit `transformation' Explore issues relating to the sustainability of improvement efforts Share the wider lessons learnt about the process and impact of school transformation with the education community, policy makers and other stakeholders.

There is considerable potential for the trust that has been developed and is necessary for the effective `critical friendship' that is essential for the successful achievement of the practitioner-led research strand, to be undermined by the need for the research team also to report to the body that is funding not only the research but the improvement initiative itself. The paper discusses the conceptual and practical challenges that this dilemma has given rise to, as well as the strategies and techniques that have been used to reduce the likelihood of this dilemma undermining the whole project, ethically or professionally.

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Paper 2: Practitioner Research, school leadership and professional development

Trisha McCurrach Wallace Hall Academy, Station Road, Thornhill, Dumfriesshire, DG3 5DS, Tel: 01848 330294, Email: [email protected]

Keywords: school improvement; practitioner research; school leadership This presentation outlines one school's attempt to set up a sustainable `teacher research group' to support self-evaluation activities undertaken through the Schools of Ambition programme. Examples will be given of how suitable research projects were identified within the school, including the recruitment of teachers to the project. Issues involved in promoting and sustaining teacher research in school will be explored. The presentation addresses the development required within the school to facilitate the work of the researchers and of the support strategies provided by Glasgow University and the Senior Management Team. Consideration is given to the contribution of teacher research to the professional development of participating teachers and to the furtherance of the priorities expressed in the School Improvement Plan.

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SERA Conference 2007 Paper 3: Practitioner Research and school development: Using surveys to inform school strategies

Margaret Ferguson Newbattle Community High School, 64 Easthouses Road, Dalkeith, EH22 4EW Tel:0131 6634191, Email: [email protected] Keywords: school improvement; practitioner research; surveys This presentation reports on an initiative to gain an overview of staff opinion concerning two strands of the school's Transformational Plan. Gaining accreditation from Investors in People was highlighted as a target in the Transformational Plan, as was the development of leadership skills for both staff and pupils. A questionnaire gathering both quantitative and qualitative data was issued to all staff (both teaching and support staff). The processing and analysis of the data was carried out by a combination of senior students and staff. It is hoped that issues highlighted from this questionnaire will be used to inform the new School Improvement Plan as well as future evaluation sessions centred on focus groups.

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Learning, Teaching and Assessment

Assessing each other: experiences & perceptions of BEd students

Jim Allan and Aileen Kennedy

Aileen Kennedy Department of Educational & Professional Studies University of Strathclyde, 76 Southbrae Drive, Glasgow, G13 1PP Tel: 0141 950 3356, Email: [email protected] Keywords: peer-assessment; teaching practice This paper reports on the second stage of a project introducing peer-assessment on placement in the fourth year of a BEd Primary programme. The project was borne out of both educational and practical considerations, and a commitment to help equip qualifying teachers with skills which are being seen as increasingly important in the teaching profession as a whole. Indeed, there is growing interest, both in Scotland and internationally, in a concept of teacher professionalism and development which promotes and values collaborative endeavour (Gale & Densmore, 2003; Sachs, 2003). The first stage of the project involved a small-scale pilot project with students undertaking distance placements. The data revealed a number of interesting issues relating to: student teachers' perceptions of the role of assessment in their own learning process; resulting changes in identity; and the need, or otherwise, for training in peer assessment techniques. The paper will begin with a review of this work before moving on to present data from a more extended roll-out the following year. In the second stage of the project all fourth year students were invited to take part, voluntarily, in peer assessment. Post-placement, all students were surveyed about their experiences, and a small number were interviewed. The results show a disappointing uptake, but reveal an interesting range of reasons as to why this was the case. The paper concludes by outlining how the data from these two phases will inform future course design in relation to peer-assessment. References: Gale, T. & Densmore, K. (2003). Engaging teachers: Towards a radical democratic agenda for schooling. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Sachs, J. (2003). The activist teaching profession. Buckingham: Open University.

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Participation for learning?

Andrea Priestley and Alison Ritchie

Save the Children, Prospect House, 5 Thistle Street, Edinburgh, EH2 1DF 0131 527 8200, [email protected] Keywords: Participation , Relationships, Leadership A Curriculum for Excellence encourages the teaching community to focus on the quality of the whole learning experience with an emphasis on participation: `Participation can be key to positive and effective learning experiences and to good, strong relationships amongst teachers and learners (SEED 2005). In our recent study in a number of Scottish schools, we explored a range of practices that enable participation amongst students and teachers and others. Untangling the many different understandings of `participation' revealed an interesting, diverse picture. The concept of pupil participation seems to have become increasingly understood in connection with citizenship and school councils. However from our findings*, we see the notion of participation is much more complex than this. Using the Ruddock and Fielding (2002) typology, we examine the benefits of participation and consultation at four levels: organisational; personal; pedagogic; and political. This paper explores the notion of participation within schools and the role leadership plays to enable it to happen. We pose the question: what happens to the learning environment when the school community is involved in decision making, their voices listened to and heard? We consider the change agents and how creative methods have been used to support school communities in embracing a shared vision. The real challenge is to achieve change that goes beyond the surface through reflection on deep-seated beliefs and values. *Findings: these are based on interviews, observations and focus group sessions with head teachers, teachers, and students at 8 schools across Scotland ­ 3 secondary, 3 Primary, a 3-16 school, a nursery and a special school in both urban and rural areas.

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Student primary teachers' levels of mathematics competence and confidence in teaching mathematics: Some implications for Initial Teacher Education and National Qualifications

Sheila Henderson and Susan Rodrigues

School of Education, Social Work and Community Education, University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD5 1NY, 01382 464295 Keywords: mathematics, competence, confidence The requirements of A Curriculum for Excellence suggest that teachers will have to revise the way they teach mathematics. This new approach will require teachers to take much less specific learning outcomes than is currently the case in the 5-14 mathematics document and make connections within mathematics and between the subject and other curricular areas. This requires a degree of competence and confidence in mathematics that may not currently be present. A study was carried out with 180 Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (Primary) students who completed an online survey and online mathematics competence test. The study went on to look at the same data gathered from 80 Bachelor of Education students. This paper will look at some of the processes used and share some of the findings.

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SERA Conference 2007

Interprofessional Education. An exploration of student and staff perspectives in the School of Education, Social Work and Community Education at the University of Dundee

Terry Barber, Fiona Lavin and Brian Leslie

Keywords: Interprofessional; Professions; Context; Personal Development Revised Abstract: This paper explores both the student and staff experience of two core modules delivered as part of the interprofessional/interdisciplinary year one learning and teaching for students in community education, teacher education and social work. The methodology involved distribution of a questionnaire to all students involved in the core modules, follow up focus groups with students, and a number of semi-structured interviews with teaching staff involved in the delivery of the core modules. The data analysed has produced numeric and narrative findings which are detailed and analysed in the completed paper. As a preface to the work there is an examination of what we mean by `interprofessional', drawing upon the modernisation agenda and notions of communities of practice. The paper argues that students experienced an initial disorientation which was exacerbated by complex subject areas not seen as relevant by the students. By contrast, the focus on human development and psychology in practice was seen to be useful by the student cohort. Both staff and students felt that environmental factors influenced the quality of teaching on these modules. In general, both staff and students rated the quality of teaching, assessment and staff support as relatively high although there was a consensus that more interactive, task orientated approaches were most effective. Finally, there was both a staff and student view to suggest that interprofessional education is perceived as being more useful at a later stage of the students training beyond year one..

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SERA Conference 2007

Concept Mapping: interesting - but why bother?

Morag Findlay

Department of Curricular Studies, Smith Building, 76 Southbrae Drive, Glasgow, G13 1PP, 0141 950 3406, [email protected] Keywords: ITE, concept mapping The paper looks at the use of mind mapping and concept mapping to help student teachers of physics to develop their understanding of teaching electrical concepts within a constructivist framework. The students were encourage to use these approaches in their own teaching. This approach sits well with the methods advocated within "A Curriculum for Excellence" and the "Assessment is for Learning" programme. As part of the ongoing work of trainee science teachers on an Initial Teacher Education course, the students were introduced to the use of mind mapping to organise their understanding of a topic two weeks into a thirty six week course. This was followed up with student teachers of physics who were introduced to concept mapping within the context of developing their understanding of teaching electrical concepts. The physics students produced a written group concept map and then used concept mapping software to produce a concept map on the topic of energy before studying the topic. This individual map was then revisited by the students after completing an energy workshop. The students were deeply engaged by the group concept mapping task. The found making the links between concepts challenging and worthwhile. Despite the value placed on the concept maps during the process of developing them, feedback from the students showed that they did not find the concept mapping sessions as useful as sessions which concentrated more on teaching particular topics. It is possible that the student teachers did not see the value of these techniques while on placement.

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SERA Conference 2007

Scottish Screen's Teacher Education Programme

George Head, Fraser McConnell and J. Eric Wilkinson

University of Glasgow, Faculty of Education, St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street, Glasgow G3 6NH. Tel 0141 330 3048 email: [email protected] Keywords: Teacher Education, Moving Image Education In 2005, Scottish Screen commissioned the research team to undertake an evaluation of Scottish Screen's Teacher Education Programme (TEP). The evaluation ran from September 2005 to September 2006. This paper provides an account of the work undertaken by the evaluation team, presents the findings and summarises the key issues. The Programme entailed film professionals working alongside education professionals in order to explore aspects of Moving Image Education (MIE) that might be taught, how such aspects might be taught and how visual literacy can become embedded in the curriculum in Scottish primary and secondary schools. Within the TEP, MIE was defined as exploring, analysing and creating media artefacts such as film, video and animation. A number of research questions were developed probing aspects of the teachers' own learning and understanding of MIE. These questions were designed to address the effectiveness or otherwise of the programme in the following areas: The impact of the TEP on Learning The impact of the TEP on Teaching The sustainabilty of any impact on learning and teaching Methodology For the evaluation a cross-sectional case study design was used. Four case studies were identified from those clusters of schools involved in the TEP. Each cluster consisted of a secondary school and its associated primary schools, with the exception of a cluster of special schools. Qualitative analysis of the data focused on the three themes identified above with a particular focus on teacher learning, their conceptualisation of MIE and their awareness of the pedagogical opportunities offered by the programme. From the results, it is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of this programme and also to extrapolate to teacher learning of new initiatives in general.

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SERA Conference 2007

Perceptions of 21st Century Initial Teacher Education

Ashley Reid

PGDE(S) Geography Course Co-ordinator, Department of Curricular Studies, University of Strathclyde, Jordanhill Campus, 76 Southbrae Drive, Glasgow, G13 1PP 0141 950 3399, [email protected] Keywords: Initial Teacher Education, Geography, Standards School education in post-devolution Scotland has changed considerably. In contrast, despite greater scrutiny, there is little evidence of change within Initial Teacher Education. The First Stage Review of ITE (2001) raised several questions with regard to the credibility of ITE staff and quality of campus based elements of ITE courses. The need for ITE providers to illustrate and promote best practice was also emphasised. An additional requirement from the review was to build upon the essential thread of CPD. `A Teaching Profession for the 21st Century: Agreement' (2001) yielded several critical comments from students, probationers and registered teachers about the quality of ITE they had received. The Second Stage Review highlighted that ITE is only "the initial phase in a continuum of teacher education" (Scottish Executive, 2005, p. 7). If we are to ensure that ITE prepares students for the challenges of a 21st Century school, the way teachers are trained and the extent to which they feel prepared to meet these challenges must be examined. This research is interested in assessing stakeholders' perceptions (probationers and mentors) of the value of the Geography university based element of the PGDE course in relation to their probationary year. This small-scale reflective case study employs mixed methods to analyse questionnaire and 2007 GTCS Interim Profile data gathered from 25 probationers and 19 mentors. It provides some interesting and relevant insights into key issues of relevance to ITE within Scotland. This paper will provide an overview of the research: conceptual framework, methodology and findings and examine the importance of these findings within the Scottish and wider ITE debate.

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SERA Conference 2007

A Visit to Auschwitz - What happened Next?

Paula Cowan

University of Paisely, University Campus Ayr, Beech Grove, Ayr KA8 0SR, 01292 886238 , [email protected] Keywords: holocaust, citizenship, community Since the introduction of UK Holocaust Memorial Day in 2001, Scotland has held its own annual national commemoration of this event*. With the support of the Scottish Executive, this has been organized by Scottish local authorities and involved working parties and steering committees being led by managers from the respective authority, councillors and leading individuals from the wider community. This `top-down' approach has ensured a broad range of views have been taken into account and promoted an inclusive approach. Fife Council's interest in Holocaust Memorial Day originated from secondary pupils who had returned from an educational trip to Auschwitz-Birkenau in November 2005. These pupils were committed to finding meaningful ways to pass on what they had learnt on that trip to the wider community. The result was an education programme entitled, `The Anne Frank + You Festival' that brought Education and Cultural and Community Services together and led to the hosting by Fife Council of the Scottish national Holocaust Memorial Day event in 2007. This study focuses on the impact that these young people made on their community. Interviews were carried out with secondary pupils to obtain information on their attitudes to the Holocaust and on communal involvement; and with key managers who supported them, to ascertain the success of this `bottom-up' approach. This paper will: · · · compare pupil awareness of the Holocaust and their participation in communal activities before and after their educational visit examine this `bottom-up' approach tentatively draw conclusions from this study

* Excepting 2003 when Edinburgh City Council hosted the UK national Holocaust Memorial Day.

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SERA Conference 2007

The same pupils but have their attitudes changed?:The longer term impact of learning about the Holocaust

Henry Maitles and Paula Cowan

Henry Maitles (University of Strathclyde); Paula Cowan (University of Paisley) Strand: Learning, Teaching and Assessment Research into the impact of learning about the Holocaust has tended to concentrate on the immediate or, at best, short term effects. Our longitudinal research (sponsored by SEED -- http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/09/06133626/0), presented to SERA in 2004 and 2005 followed a group of pupils from P7 into S1 to ascertain whether teaching the Holocaust, in the upper primary, either as part of a study on World War 2 or as a topic on its own, has an impact, both immediate and longer term, on pupils' citizenship values and attitudes, and particularly those values and attitudes relating to various minority or disadvantaged groups in Scotland. Further we were able to compare the values and attitudes of this group to pupils who had not learned about the Holocaust. We reported that there was evidence that our experimental group had maintained (at least in most categories) some of the more positive values vis a vis both their earlier attitudes and the other pupils. However, what might the longer term implications be? We are returning to the same pupils in the school (now in S4) between August and October 2007 to ascertain whether two years on there is evidence that the positive values have been maintained. We will deliver a questionnaire and it will be the analysis of this questionnaire which should throw further light on the longer term impact of their learning about the Holocaust. This conference presentation will report on these new findings.

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SERA Conference 2007

Symposium: Perspectives on CPD

Contact : Stephen McKinney, University of Glasgow, St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street Glasgow, G3 6NH. 0141 330 3051. [email protected] Professor Morwenna Griffiths, University of Edinburgh, The Moray House School of Education, Thomson's Land, Holyrood Rd, Edinburgh EH8 8AQ. [email protected]

Chair:

Discussant: Professor Bruce Carrington, University of Glasgow, St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street, Glasgow, G3 6NH. 0141 3761. [email protected] The Applied Educational Research Scheme (AERS) commenced in January 2005 and will extend over a four-year period. Within the scope of the overall aims, four major themes have been identified. This symposium is concerned with the theme of `the Learners, Learning and Teaching Network' (LLTN) and, specifically, will describe the progress of Project 2: Understanding teachers as learners in the context of continuing professional development. This project focuses on the nature of teachers' professional learning, the forms it can take and the extent to which teachers' professional learning needs and aspirations are met. After a systematic review of relevant literature and the construction of a set of appropriate research questions and of a triple lens interpretative framework, Project 2 has undertaken key informant interviews, teacher interviews, case studies and a large scale questionnaire. The first two papers will examine the methodology, findings and critical analysis of the key informant interview and the teacher interviews. The final paper will examine the initial findings of the case studies. The symposium comprises three papers: The findings of key informant interviews that were designed to generate an understanding of policy makers perspectives on teacher learning and CPD in Scotland. Teachers views on CPD in Scotland The examination of the methodology and initial findings of the case studies.

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Paper 1: Policy-makers' perspectives on teachers' learning and CPD in Scotland

Aileen Kennedy, Mary Welsh and Alastair Wilson Aileen Kennedy, Department of Educational & Professional Studies, University of Strathclyde, 76 Southbrae Drive, Glasgow, G13 1PP, 0141 950 3356, [email protected] Keywords: key informants, CPD This paper reports on the first phase of empirical work undertaken by the project team: interviews with 14 key informants. The purpose of the key informant interviews was to generate an overview of the views of different stakeholders in relation to the current CPD policy and practice, and this would inform subsequent phases, including interviews with teachers, case studies and a large-scale survey. However, given the nature of the data, it was deemed important to interrogate not just content, but also the context in which the data emerged. This paper therefore examines the relationship between the data produced in the interviews and the wider policy context in which interviewees operate. The design of this part of the empirical work drew heavily on literature related to elite interviewing. The interviews were semi-structured and were recorded, transcribed and shared on the virtual research environment to allow a collaborative process of theme generation to take place. The findings support the notion that policy-making is complex, and also serve to exemplify tensions between practice and discourse. For example, while most of the interviewees acknowledged explicitly that the social/relational aspect of learning is central to effective professional learning, they also tended to describe processes in formal, individualized ways. The paper reports more fully on such tensions and seeks to understand them through reference to relevant policy literature.

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SERA Conference 2007

Paper 2: Teacher perspectives on CPD in Scotland

Lesley Reid and Donald Christie Lesley Reid, Educational Studies, The Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Charteris Land, Holyrood Rd, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ [email protected] Keywords: Teacher's and CPD The key informant interviews reported in Paper 1 were followed by interviews of a small but diverse group of classroom practitioners. This phase of the project focused on a comparison of themes emerging from the two interview sets. The developing conceptual framework was used to aid the analysis of data for both interview sets and to inform the comparison of emerging themes. The semi-structured interviews of the teachers were based on a similar interview schedule as that used with the `elite' interviews to allow for the comparative analysis. In accordance with the philosophy of the AERS programme, all stages of the research process were conducted collaboratively. The discourse surrounding teachers' professional development does not always match what actually happens or is valued at practice level. This suggests that if social learning theory is to be used productively to support teachers' professional development, then this mismatch needs to be more openly acknowledged. Just as the key informant interviews generated interest in the tensions between practice and official discourse, so the practitioner interviews generated interest in the lack of congruence between the discourse teachers adopted and the CPD practices with which they engaged. The tensions and lack of congruence identified across the two interview sets are important since they will be used to inform the development of a `dialogic' questionnaire to be issued as part of a national survey by LLTN of teachers' views on their professional learning and CPD. It is anticipated that this dialogic questionnaire will be a step towards a more authentic and transparent discourse about teachers' professional development in Scotland.

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SERA Conference 2007

Paper 3: Case studies of perceptions of CPD in schools and within subject areas

Stephen McKinney and Christine Fraser Stephen McKinney, Department of Religious Education, University of Glasgow, St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street, Glasgow, G3 6NH, 0141 330 3051, [email protected] Keywords: CPD and case studies of teachers' perceptions Having examined the views of both key informants and teachers, this next phase of the research sought to apply the research questions in a more focused way in case studies. A number of schools linked to the AERS scheme were chosen as `school' case studies, to examine the perception of CPD among teachers and managers within particular school settings. This allowed a comparison between, for example, the perspectives of probationary teachers and more experienced teachers, such as Chartered teachers and a comparison between the perspectives of the teachers and the members of the senior management team. This focus on specific school sites also enabled a deeper analysis of the implications of school structures and power relationships that might affect these perceptions. A number of subject areas were also targeted to explore the perception of CPD within specific subject areas. Among the subject areas, Science Education and Religious Education, were examined in some depth. This paper will conclude by discussing the implications of the initial findings of these case studies, compare these findings to those from the key informant and teacher interviews and explain the ways in which this comparison has informed the construction and scope of the questionnaire.

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SERA Conference 2007

Symposium: External support for internal assessment

Chair:

Dr John Allan Scottish Qualifications Authority, Tel: 07899064453, [email protected]

Discussant: as above This SQA symposium will discuss some of the ways in which an external organisation such as the Scottish Qualifications Authority can contribute to Assessment for learning in the context of the Curriculum for Excellence.

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SERA Conference 2007

Paper 1: Teacher assessment, external assessment, and good assessment.

Rob van Krieken Scottish Qualifications Authority, tel. 07 810 181 802, email [email protected]

Keywords: Assessment, quality, teaching Rob van Krieken will discuss different types of assessment and the practical implications their purposes and uses have. In particular, he will identify what it means to produce good assessments, be it for learning, for progress or for certification. Assessment for learning sets high expectations for the production as well as for the use of assessments by focussing on individual learning processes and background knowledge. Producing these assessments will require considerable time, teaching experience and often psychological training as well. Assessments to monitor progress, for accountability, and for certification should not determine teaching, but they may still be required to some extent. Can they be replaced by summarising teacher assessments? If not, can changes in these types of assessment reduce unwanted preparation, is it the educational system using these assessments and their results that needs to be changed? External organisations such as SQA, but also publishers, cannot provide the day to day knowledge of indivuals' learning behaviour, but they can provide the organisation, funding and expertise necessary to produce assessments of complex abilities or complex systems, such as on-line assessment. Can they be of help and support teaching for learning actively, by producing good assessment material? The main issue in this presentation is to increase understanding that good assessment consists of the proper use of assessments just as much as the production of assessment material which is appropriate for specific situations.

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SERA Conference 2007

Paper 2: Using ICT and e-Assessment for Personalisation

Christine Wood Scottish Qualifications Authority, 01478 650467, [email protected] Keywords: personalisation, feedback, supporting assessment As the Scottish curriculum evolves to focus on the personalisation of learning, assessment systems must also change to place the learner at the heart of the assessment process. Personalisation in assessment requires a move towards more internal assessment and the continuous monitoring of the progress of individuals. Key educational initiatives aim to improve the attainment of children and young people in Scotland by ensuring they acquire confidence and skills and abilities relevant to the contemporary world. Also required are authentic assessment opportunities which will help improve their educational performance. Such initiatives emphasise the importance of learner participation, and quality feedback during formative assessment, to support self-regulated learning and improve future learning and attainment. E-testing, e-portfolios and Web 2.0 tools can facilitate teacher-student dialogue and the delivery of feedback to students. These technologies can provide the context for motivating and authentic formative and summative assessment. Centres and SQA can benefit from the use of assessment technologies for managing assessment, networking on assessment standards and judgements and enhancing quality assurance. Drawing on examples of ICT and e-assessment used for SQA qualifications, the discussion will focus on the extent to which these approaches can support personalisation in assessment.

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SERA Conference 2007

Paper 3: Sharing assessment standards - could do better?

Brendan Tierney Scottish Qualifications Authority, 0131-561 6926, [email protected] Keywords: marking transparency standards Many educators in Scotland will remember an era when the exam process was so shrouded in secrecy that it was impossible to view how a candidate's work was marked and even the names of the examiners were undisclosed lest they be contacted. SQA has travelled far from this position and now not only are the marking instructions published but the principal assessors openly explain the standards at workshops organised by SQA. This increased openness is further illustrated by the Understanding Standards website. As the name hints, on this site the SQA explain the standards applied in its qualifications to the teaching profession. In considerable detail and across a large number of subject areas, the marking of candidates' work is illustrated; indeed teachers can use website test their own marking against the national standards. From the same thinking came the SQA Academy website which delved further back into the rationale underlying our qualifications by considering not only subject areas but the assessment principles and practice which SQA follows in managing the assessment process. A further step in this journey has been to use the Academy site to invite the profession to give their views on how SQA will develop standards to meet the challenge of Curriculum for Excellence and the revised standards in Core Skills. This presentation looks back on the journey travelled by SQA in sharing and indeed constructing standards; explores how much further this process can go and considers the implications of assessment regimes where the standard is widely disseminated.

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SERA Conference 2007

Lessons Hard Learned: How Pupils and Teachers use Laptops for Learning

Fran Payne, Yvonne Bain, Norman Coutts, Margaret Gooday, Matt McGovern and Jenny Spratt

Fran Payne, School of Education, University of Aberdeen, MacRobert Building, King's College, Aberdeen, AB24 5UA 01224 274659 [email protected] Keywords: ICT, mobile technologies, learning and teaching The Highland Future Schools Project, supported by the SEED Future Learning and Teaching (FLaT) Programme enabled two newly built secondary schools (remote and semi-remote) to provide a personal laptop for teachers in both schools, and for pupils in one of the schools. The project also aimed to use ICT to raise achievement of school pupils and enhance school links with the wider community. The SEED funded evaluation of the project was undertaken between May 2005 and September 2006. The evaluation aims were to identify the project's impact on: the use of ICT in developing and delivering greater learning and teaching opportunities for teachers, pupils and adult learners; attainment, achievement, attendance, motivation, school ethos, the learning and teaching environment; and in improving home-school and community links. Relevant research questions were devised to answer the evaluation aims. Data were gathered by the following methods: teacher questionnaires and interviews; pupil questionnaires and interviews in small focus groups, local authority personnel and Headteacher interviews; and classroom observations. The data were analysed in terms of similarities and differences in the curricular areas and for the different stakeholders. The findings support other studies (BECTA 2004; Simpson & Payne 2004). The teachers were enthusiastic in their use of ICT for administration purposes and it aided their efficiency. However, the level of ICT use for teaching purposes varied. Teachers highlighted the potential of laptop/tablet PCs for pupils and the opportunity to create independent autonomous learners, but the use of ICT in classrooms was largely determined by the teachers. For the pupils there was enhanced motivation, engagement with learning and raised level of ICT skills. However, having to carry the machine around all day was seen as a disadvantage. Technical difficulties, for example the unreliability of the school systems, hampered the implementation of the project aims, but even with the technical difficulties satisfactorily resolved, the schools and some staff needed support to assist them in developing and embedding ICT into the curriculum. We make recommendations for each group of stakeholders involved, which could serve as useful guidelines for the successful use of laptop/tablet PCs in schools. References BECTA (2004) What the research says about portable ICT devices in teaching and learning. 2nd edition http://www.becta.org.uk/research Simpson, M. & Payne F. (2004) Evaluation of Personalised Laptop Provision in Schools. Insight 14. SEED, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh.

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SERA Conference 2007

Digital Photography for Teaching and Learning. Designing an E-learning Support Package For Student Teachers

John Lodge

Froebel College, Roehampton University, Roehampton Lane, London SW15 5PJ Tel. 0208 392 3583, [email protected] Keywords: teacher education, digital photography, multimedia, e-learning INTRODUCTION The introduction of multimedia into national curricula over a decade ago and the more recent deployment of interactive whiteboards into classrooms have created a need for teachers to be multimedia literate. A key component of multimedia literacy is the ability to create and use images effectively to promote learning. This presentation describes a small-scale research project which developed and trialled an e-learning unit to help student teachers develop their knowledge and skills in capturing, editing and using photographs for teaching and learning purposes. METHODS The package was evaluated in three stages. First through critical feedback from university colleagues with expertise in the use of photography and education; next, by means of face-to-face evaluations with individual students; finally, by analysis of questionnaires issued to a sample of the student cohort taking a Year 3 undergraduate ICT module. In designing the learning materials, guidelines were sought from the literature, e.g. Rowntree (1994) on the preparation of learning materials; Clark & Mayer (2003) on multimedia e-learning; and Carroll (1998) for instructional approaches appropriate to learning ICT. FINDINGS This presentation will report on: how the e-learning unit was developed and trialled; the nature of students' photographic practice in completing a short multimedia learning task after having worked through the e-learning unit beforehand. Research indicators for the photographic output will include the choice of photographs used in the multimedia task; the technical quality of the photographs; the compositional quality of the photographs; the relationship of the photographs to any other media on the screen, e.g. text. REFERENCES Carroll, J (1998) Minimalism Beyond the Nurnberg Funnel, Boston: MIT Press Clark, R & Mayer, R (2003) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, San Francisco: Pfeiffer Rowntree, D (1994) Preparing Materials for Open, Distance and Flexible Learning, London: Kogan Page

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SERA Conference 2007

One Size Can Fit All! Approaches to Blended Learning in the First Year of a BEd Degree

Magnus Ross, Mary Welsh

Department of Educational and Professional Studies, University of Strathclyde, Tel: 0141 950 3548, Email: [email protected] Keywords: Assessment, blended learning This development session offers an insight into the challenges and opportunities faced by members of an action research team, which implemented a completely new approach to the formation of reflective, self-regulated learners in the first year of a BEd Degree. The approach involved a complete redesign of the first year module, "Learners and Learning", run by the Department of Educational and Professional Studies of the University of Strathclyde. Students were supported in the acquisition of complementary skills of reflection and self-regulation ­ skills which are characteristic of effective classroom practitioners and lifelong learners. The process was underpinned by a programme of increasingly more difficult learning activities which were evaluated by the students themselves, using peer and self assessment strategies, supported by tutors. The medium used for these activities was the Pebblepad e-portfolio system which allowed for the creation of online learning communities operating under the principles of social and communal constructivism. A mixed method approach supported the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data was gathered by means of separate focus group meetings, carried out by external evaluators appointed by the SFC-funded Re-Engineering Assessment Practice in Higher Education (REAP) project. The views of both staff and students were sought. Further qualitative data was amassed through responses to open questions on two questionnaires, issued separately, by REAP evaluators and by the project research team. Qualitative data, analysed by the project team, was subjected to initial content analysis and subsequent coding using NVivo. Quantitative data was gathered by means of two questionnaires, issued separately to students, by REAP evaluators and by the research team. Data gathered from the research team questionnaire was analysed using SPSS. Final exam results were also analysed thus and findings indicate that the students have engaged more fully with course materials, and with each other, resulting in significant social, professional and cognitive gains.

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SERA Conference 2007

Primary physical education specialists staking targeted claims for CPD

Lawry Price

Assistant Dean ­ Learning & Teaching, School of Education, Roehampton University Froebel College, Roehampton Lane, London SW15 5PJ, Tel: 0208-392-3495, Email:[email protected] Keywords: Continuing Professional Development; CEPD (Career Entry and Development Profile); ITT (Initial teacher Training); NQT (Newly Qualified Teacher); PE (Physical Education); QTS (Qualified teacher Standards) At a time when professional bodies are staking legitimate claims for a minimum hourly requirement for physical education in Initial Teacher Training (CCPR, 2005), this research focuses on the final year of training, and specifically on the outcomes of a final teaching practice, for a sample of undegraduate primary physical education specialists (n=6). These students have been tracked throughout their training and are able to report and reflect critically on their experiences in teaching physical education (Pickup & Price, 2004) and have now reached a point in their training where they stake claims for continuing professional development into first post. These students have successfully achieved Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) and are ready for the next stage of their personal teacher development. By means of a review of professional practice files, a review of responses to a set questionnaire, and the outcomes of follow up individualised interviews, the identification of specific ongoing professional training needs into Newly Qualified Teacher year (recorded in Career Entry Development Profiles) have been mapped accurately for each individual concerned. The results reflect predicted outcomes reported at an earlier research stage (Price, 2006), notably shortfalls of experience in training and the differences that inevitably exist depenedent on what school context teaching practice happens in. More pertinently the importance of plugging these gaps at as early a point as possible in fledgling careers, alongside the conflicting pressures of what it means to be a primary school teacher, means that the opportunities to take advantage of further training is essential provision and consistent with entitlement principles that exist for career development. Significantly the need to ensure mentor support is informed, and is in place, in order to give appropriate and timely advice becomes an absolute necessity within this process. This will ensure that Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) of the type described here will begin their careers with the key mechanisms in place to become, in time, the physical education leaders our primary schools, and the children within, them deserve. References CCPR (2005) CCPR hosts Physical Education summit (Press Release, 25 January 2005). Available from: http://www.ccpr.org.uk/anitem.cfm?AnnID=212. Pickup, I & Price, L. (2004) The Development of a Rationale for teaching Primary PE tracking trainee teachers' perceptions of the subject via use of Log/Journals, BAALPE Bulletin of PE, 40 (2) : 201-237 Pickup, I. & Price, L. (2004) Primary PE Subject Specialism ­ from ITE to CPD, Conference paper presented at SERA, Perth 2004 Price, L. (2006) Exploiting knowledge and experience - teaching Primary Physical Education, Conference paper presented at SERA (Perth, Scotland), November 2006

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SERA Conference 2007

Symposium: The Efficacy of Methodologies in Preparing Students for Tests and Examinations

Chair:

Dr Andrew J Morrison Further Education Regional Research Network (East) Assistant Principal, Elmwood College, Cupar, Fife Email: [email protected] Tel: 01334 658875 Anne Gillian Research Manager, Adam Smith College, Kirkcaldy [email protected] 01592 207903

Discussant:

This symposium reports on the outcome of two research projects carried out in colleges in Scotland. The symposium is presented by practitioners who have been actively involved in the processes which have led to the outcomes of the interventions. In both papers there is a theme of ensuring the student is effectively prepared for testing and examination The first paper examines how student success in examinations is directly influenced by the effectiveness of the exam preparation arrangements. A range of different approaches were applied and evaluated The second paper provides a linkage by looking at how student test results were affected by the method of presentation of the revision materials. The revision materials ranged from audio files unformatted learning materials in a script format and handouts (formatted text). Nowadays when there is a move towards accessing audio materials on-line this work highlights the need to provide alternative methods.

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SERA Conference 2007 Paper 1: Exam Preparation in NQ Courses at Scotland's Colleges: An Action Learning Approach

Marie Morrison and Mitch Miller Marie Morrison Lead Specialist - Qualifications/Achievement Scottish Further Education Unit, Argyll Court, Castle Business Park, Stirling, FK9 4TY, [email protected] Mitch Miller Researcher 2/2 92 Craigpark Drive, Dennnistoun, GLASGOW, G31 2NT [email protected]

Keywords: Exam preperation; Learning experience; Learning environment Now in its third year, the SEED-funded NQ research programme undertaken by SFEU into National Qualifications has demonstrated the importance of effective exam preparation in securing a successful, and valuable learning experience for students at Further Education colleges.Although over 50% of courses offer preparation for the final exam, researchers found that FE students lacked basic exam skills, and, that the preparation offered by colleges was frequently inappropriate. Many lecturers expressed a desire for `more focused exam and prelim preparation.' This third phase utilizes Action Learning approaches to establish best practice and test various exam preparation methodologies, by stimulating and harnessing creative approaches by lecturers and monitoring their efficacy in a `live' learning environment. Lecturers in Psychology, English, Childcare, Maths, and Sociology were recruited in two FE colleges over June and July 2006 for a series of closely monitored interventions. Each project introduced a range of different approaches to selected groups of FE students on externally assessed NQ courses at Intermediate 1, Intermediate 2 or Higher level. Student reactions were tested and recorded, the effectiveness of techniques compared, and results monitored through a number of `soft' and `hard' indicators aimed at identifying the most successful approaches. Practitioners were supported by SFEU staff throughout the academic year through periodic visits to their college. The findings have been analysed in a report to be published May/June 2007.

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Paper 2: Mode of presentation and student learning: does death by handout mean the end of the sentence?

Emma Clayes and Kyle Smith Emma Clayes (Faculty of Care and Social Sciences) Telephone: 01738 877646 Email: [email protected] Dr. Kyle Smith (Academic Services) Telephone: 01738 877467 Email: [email protected]

Keywords: Mode of presentation; Podcasts; learning materials; Cognition We were asked to prepare materials for Higher Psychology and Higher English. Students were offered revision podcasts on Memory, Stress and Research Skills for Psychology and, for English, Macbeth, Close Reading and Exam Preparation. To support the podcasts, available on the Perth College website, both a transcript (an unformatted script of what we said) of each podcast and a summary of each podcast in handout form were also made available. Having created these materials for the students it seemed an interesting opportunity to evaluate their quality. We have repeated our initial findings with subsequent testing. Interestingly, test scores from the podcasts fell between script and handout scores. This suggests audio files may not be the panacea for educational issues they are sometimes considered. Also, there was a clear difference in test scores from students using unformatted learning materials in a script format compared to students using handouts (formatted text). Interestingly, the quality and length of answers was superior for students using the unformatted text. The results from our studies suggested that handouts may affect student learning in 2 ways: 1) 2) Prevent students from actively organising material on their own May prime the students so that their written output resembles the formatted style of handouts

Practioners need to be aware of the impact various modes of presentations have on cognition in order to provide optimum conditions for students to develop their academic potential - even if this means we need to sometimes give them denser materials

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Teachers' Perceptions of the Intended Science Curriculum

Meyvant Thorolfsson

Address: Iceland University of Education v/Stakkahlid, 105 Reykjavik, Iceland. Telephone +354 5634831 E-mail: [email protected] Keywords: Science curriculum, intended curriculum, implemented curriculum Two positions have influenced curriculum development in science for a long time. On the one hand there is the call for discipline-based curriculum focusing on concepts, principles and the transmission of knowledge. On the other hand there is a call for a socially relevant curriculum placing an emphasis on real-life experiences, cultural context and students constructing their own knowledge. Judging from present developments of curricula both of these views seem to prevail and furthermore both seem to be supported to a certain extent in recent international surveys (PISA and TIMSS) and standardized tests. Obliged to meet both of these positions teachers are bound to work under strain and the pressure for coverage must be a threat to the quality of learning (Atkin and Black 2003). Research shows that teachers try to organize the content and pedagogical principles into a form that they consider meaningful for them and their students, generating a device Gudmundsdottir (1991) called "the curriculum story". In a study on science education in Iceland, Intentions and Reality, the gap between the intended curriculum and the implemented curriculum is being studied. Among other elements teachers perceptions of the intended curriculum are examined and how teachers tend to modify and shape their "curriculum stories" to meet rationales like the ones referred to above. According to preliminary results it takes a considerable deal of effort by the teacher to meet these positions when organizing the learning process. References: Atkin, J. M. and P. Black (2003). Inside science education reform : a history of curricular and policy change. New York, Teachers College Press. Gudmundsdottir, S. 1991. Story-maker, story-teller: Narrative structures in curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies 23 (3): 207-218.

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Teachers' knowledge and primary science lessons

Christine Fraser

School of Education, University of Aberdeen, MacRobert Building, King Street, Aberdeen AB24 5UA Keywords: continuing professional development, science, teachers' knowledge Abstract: This paper explores the acquisition, accession and use of teachers' knowledge to support the teaching of science in primary classrooms. As an aid to understanding, teachers' knowledge has been categorised into several types (Shulman, 1986). Three of these types have featured prominently in researching science teaching; namely subject, pedagogical and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). However, pedagogical context knowledge is an important consideration in the complex interactions that comprise teaching (Barnett and Hodson, 2001). Continuing professional development (CPD) frequently concentrates on developing the first three types of knowledge. Greater understanding of the range of knowledge that teachers have at their disposal during teaching; how they acquire it; how, when and why they access and use it is an important step towards designing CPD that takes account of pedagogical context knowledge. Video stimulated reflective dialogue (Powell 2005) was used to elicit two teachers' perceptions of their knowledge, its acquisition, and its contribution to personal classroom practice in teaching science to primary school pupils. Preliminary analysis suggests that these teachers supplemented their personal science knowledge pragmatically and for short-term use. It confirmed their use of pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical context knowledge and identified limited use of PCK (Mulholland and Wallace, 2005). These findings may have implications for supporting and developing primary teacher expertise in science through CPD. References Barnett, J. and Hodson, D. ( 2001) Pedagogical context knowledge: Toward a fuller understanding of what good science teachers know. Science Education, 85, 426-453. Mulholland, J. and Wallace, J. (2005) Growing the tree of teacher knowledge: Ten years of learning to teach primary science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 42(7), 767-790. Powell, E. (2005) Conceptualising and facilitating active learning: teachers' videostimulated reflective dialogues. Reflective Practice, 6(3), pp. 407-418. Shulman, L.S.(1986). Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 535-560.

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Teaching and learning English in Hong Kong: Is assessment a reliable guide?

Beatrice Lok

PhD Candidate, Faculty of Education, Cambridge University, Cambridge [email protected] Keywords: Teaching, Second Language Learning Motivation, Assessment Motivational studies (e.g. Rodriguez, 2004) have implied a strong positive correlation between motivation to learn and academic achievement to account for achieving and unachieving students. In Hong Kong, students are commonly described as examoriented English learners with their motivation (or otherwise) to learn English commonly attributed to being assessment-driven . This presentation seeks to re-investigate the notion of assessment and its impact on teaching and learning English as a second language from the perspective of students' beliefs. Thirteen focus Hong Kong secondary school students from two classrooms were studied during an entire academic year (2005-6). Data, collected from diary studies, interviews and classroom observation were examined by content and discourse analysis. Reported findings indicate first, that student's motivation to learn depends less on how well they do in a test and more on their engagement with their learning community. Second, that assessment remains an abstract term, which represents only a limited classification meaning to these students' sense of self-competence. The implications of these findings will be discussed, including questioning Hong Kong misperceptions that most underachieved students are considered hopeless cases and teachers are powerless 'mechanics' servicing an assessment based curriculum. It argues that although teaching and learning is shaped and restrained by assessment, teacher-student relationship is a key centralising factor in the successful implementation of empowering classroom pedagogies. Student's motivation to learn can be mediated through a supportive and accessible classroom environment.

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Bridging analogies in research and in teaching

Kenneth MacMillan and Tom Bryce

University of Strathclyde [email protected] 0141.950.3332 [email protected] 0141.950.3536 Keywords: Conceptual difficulties, bridging analogies, reasoning and understanding. In common with other subject specialists, Physics teachers often appeal to students' prior knowledge through the use of analogies; these can help to make the complex and abstract seem more straightforward. Bridging analogies constitute a series of related thinking steps that take the learner from a rather distantly related, but easily understood, everyday base analogy to the target situation, via a series of intermediate analogies. This paper will describe the rationale for and design of several such sequences and outline their benefits as research tools, notably how they reveal pupils' thinking, possible misconceptions and troublesome inconsistencies in their reasoning. Our research involved the use of sequences that have been specifically designed to help pupils to understand important ideas in upper school Physics which cause conceptual difficulties for many pupils (action-reaction forces; momentum; kinetic energy). One sequence has been the subject of a published article (Bryce and MacMillan, 2005), while the others are the topic of ongoing research. The current research is a qualitative, grounded theory study consisting of in-depth, `think-aloud', semi-structured interviews which utilise two sequences with Higher Physics pupils from several schools. The recorded interviews have been transcribed and analysed for evidence of alternative conceptions and conceptual change (together with factors that affect it), using open and axial coding. Initial findings from this current research will be presented and related to the literature on conceptual change. Potential uses of bridging analogies in a classroom context to improve scientific reasoning and understanding will be considered and contrasted with existing practice. Research evidence is accumulating (see Gray, 2005) which suggests that many Physics teachers regularly use a transmissive (non-constructivist) pedagogy with an emphasis on rote learning of facts and rules along with repetitious, recipe-driven numerical exercises. However this approach does not help pupils to actually understand the Physics, in the way that `guided analogical reasoning' does (cf. Bryce and MacMillan, 2005; also Brown & Clement, 1989; Brown, 1994). Examples of pupils using the bridging sequences as a tool to gain greater understanding through sustained, guided thinking will be discussed. Brown, D.E. and Clement, J. (1989) Overcoming misconceptions via analogical reasoning: abstract transfer versus explanatory model construction. Instructional Science, 18, 237 ­ 261. Brown, D.E. (1994) Facilitating conceptual change using analogies and explanatory models. International Journal of Science Education, 16, 2, 201 ­ 214. Bryce, T.G.K. and MacMillan, K. (2005) Encouraging conceptual change: The use of bridging analogies in the teaching of action-reaction forces and the `at rest' condition in Physics. International Journal of Science Education, 27.6, 737-763.

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Gray, D. (2005) A Curriculum for Excellence Review of Research Literature. Science Education. Available at http://www.acurriculumforexcellencescotland.gov.uk/images/Science_tcm4-252175.pdf

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"Special Features": a DVD pilot project to deliver training to and build partnerships with placement schools.

Raymond Soltysek

Department of Curricular Studies,University of Strathclyde, 76 Southbrae Drive, Glasgow, G13 1PP, Tel: 0141 9503920, e-mail:[email protected] Keywords: Partnerships, ITE, Secondary

SEED's ambitious goal to increase teacher numbers in English in order to reduce class sizes in S1 and S2 and meet demographic issues in teacher recruitment has seen entrants to Secondary English at The University of Strathclyde double since 2003 to a total of 165 in session 2006-7. This has major implications for ITE delivery in the establishment and for training needs in schools. With many new schools which have had no previous experience of students now in the placement programme, student feedback in 2006 suggested the training requirements in schools were significant. Given the impracticality of arranging on-campus or on-site delivery, the decision was made to pilot a DVD-ROM of resources which would be sent out to schools taking English students, containing presentations from ITE staff on various areas of course content and skills. In November 2006, the DVD was piloted to over 100 schools. Feedback from departments has been encouraging, and the scheme will be formalised next session. This presentation will describe the development process from initial concerns through student feedback questionnaires, the production of the DVD itself and the pilot evaluation process. The future of partnerships between the University English section and departments of English in secondary schools will be anticipated.

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SERA Conference 2007

Symposium: Closing the loop? Formative Assessment in Initial Teacher Education

Chair: Dr. Carole Thomson School of Education, MacRobert Building, King's College, Aberdeen, AB245UA, Tel no: (44) 1224 274642, Email: [email protected]

Discussant: Professor Lani Florian School of Education, MacRobert Building, King's College, Aberdeen, AB245UA, Tel no: (44) 1224 274522, Email: [email protected]

In this symposium the use of formative assessment is explored as a means of developing creative ways to challenge how student teachers think about models of assessment (Calderhead & Robson, 1991). The first paper looks at some of the pressures, possibilities and perceptions of formative feedback and challenges some of the underlying assumptions about what constitutes `formative assessment' within a computer mediated environment. In the second paper a way of working that underpins the learning, teaching and assessing of a first year undergraduate course is examined through the lens of the Assessment is for Learning (AifL) initiative. The third paper reviews key experiences identified by student teachers as facilitating or inhibiting their ability to implement and evaluate AiFL strategies in schools. As part of the ongoing reform of Teacher Education at the University of Aberdeen all three papers consider the impact on Initial Teacher Education (ITE). References: Calderhead, J. and Robson, M., (1991). Images of Teaching: student teachers' early conceptions of classroom practice. Teaching and Teacher Education. 7(1),1-8.

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Paper 1: Formative Feedback: pressures, possibilities and perceptions

Helen Martin School of Education, MacRobert Building, King' College, Aberdeen AB24 5UA Tel: (44) 1224 274769, Email: [email protected] Keywords: formative assessment, formative feedback, e-assessment. With recent developments in Scottish schools there has been a significant change in philosophy in terms of learning and teaching with greater emphasis on how individuals learn which may have important implications for how assessment is designed. However, if we accept the need to align assessment with learning and teaching then there is a need to shift the emphasis from a convergent towards a divergent constructivist model (Torrance & Pryor, 1998; Roos & Hamilton, 2005) where the focus is the process of assessment as learning rather than on procedures and products of assessment. The increasing numbers and diversity of students entering Higher Education can lead to an acute pressure on resources (Sadler, 1998) and is forcing a critical and creative re-evaluation of how we respond to learner's needs. Whilst there is general agreement that the most effective way to support learners is one to one and face to face the reduced student contact, increase in student numbers and other demands make it impracticable to provide students with this type of support. As a result of these conflicting pressures the use of formative assessment within a computer mediated environment was explored as a means of responding to student's needs. In this paper the pressures, perceptions and possibilities of `formative feedback' will be discussed drawing on empirical data from Supporting Learners in Mathematics (SLIM): a small scale exploratory study involving BEd year 1 students at the University of Aberdeen from January to May 2005. Data were gathered from an online questionnaire and five online 'study sessions'. References: Roos, B. and Hamilton, D., (2005). Formative Assessment: a cybernetic viewpoint. Assessment in Education, 12(1), 7-20. Sadler, D. R., (1998). Formative Assessment: revisiting the territory. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 77-84. Torrance, H. and Pryor, J., (1998). Investigating Formative Assessment: Teaching, learning and assessment in the classroom. Buckingham: OUP.

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Paper 2: Assessment, reflection and synthesis ­ applying Assessment is for Learning to Higher Education

Mhairi Freeman School of Education, MacRobert Building, King' College, Aberdeen AB24 5UA Tel: (44) 1224 274672, Email: [email protected] Keywords: formative assessment, Higher Education, research-led development The importance of meaningful assessment that actively contributes to learning is reflected in practice in Scottish schools through the Assessment is for Learning (AifL) initiative. In our BEd programme, we seek to reflect the key features of assessment as, for and of learning as part of research-informed course developments. This paper focuses on a small-scale evaluative case study involving Year 1 BEd students undertaking a `Learning How to Learn' course during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 academic years. Data were gathered from students' assignments, evaluations forms and through focus groups. From data gathered in 2005/2006, it was clear that if ways of working within the course did not facilitate students' development as autonomous, reflective learners then we were not providing adequate scope for them to become active investigators and collegiate professionals. Initial data suggested that our ways of working with students through tutor-directed learning, tutorials and lectures could be built upon to capitalise on good practice and adapted to address areas for development. The focus of this study was to examine the changes and developments of this course through the lens of AifL and consider how we can support students' learning through their active engagement with peer and self assessment, understanding of criteria, reflection and goal setting and learning conversations. This paper considers three main elements in the process of research-informed development: the impetus for change, the changes that were made to the course and the impact on students. Can the key features of AifL be reflected in an HE course that focuses on learning how to learn, and What impact have changes had on students' perceptions of their learning experiences and their attainment? To conclude, the paper explores how we might investigate student's ability to synthesise these experiences and apply them in other environments.

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Paper 3: Factors influencing ITE students' engagement with AifL

Elaine Cowan School of Education, MacRobert Building, King' College, Aberdeen AB24 5UA Tel: (44) 1224 274620, Email: [email protected]

Keywords: formative assessment, ITE students, barriers, facilitating factors Assessment is for Learning (AifL) has been a major Scottish initiative for teachers and learners since 2002, drawing on the principles of the Assessment Reform Group in England. Teacher involvement and implementation in the AifL initiative has been evaluated (Condie et al., 2005). Since 2003, students studying on ITE Programmes at Scottish universities have also been introduced to and encouraged to participate in this initiative. Previous research has shown increased uptake of AifL in their practice by succeeding groups of students (Cowan, 2005; Reid 2006). This paper examines factors perceived by students on several ITE programmes as favouring or inhibiting their implementation of AifL on placements and the likelihood of continued implementation into the induction year. Data is drawn from students' assignments and from annual cohort surveys. Students' engagement with AifL is discussed in relation to Spillane's (1999) model of "zones of enactment" and Wenger's (1998) analysis of learning and the development of professional identity. References: Condie, R., Livingston, K. and Seagraves, L. (2005). Evaluation of the assessment is for learning programme: final report. Glasgow: Quality in Education Centre, University of Strathclyde Cowan, E. M. (2005) Assessment is for learning: experiences of two student cohorts. Assessment is for Learning Newsletter No. 7 (Autumn), p.8-9. Dundee: LT Scotland Reid, L. (2006). Formative assessment: the student teacher experience. Assessment is for Learning Newsletter No. 9 (Autumn), pp 4-5. Dundee: LT Scotland. Spillane, J.P. (1999). External reform initiatives and teachers' efforts to reconstruct their practice: the mediating role of teachers' zones of enactment. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31 (2), pp. 143-175. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Inclusive Education

The Limits of Toleration in Multicultural Education

Beth Dickson

Department of Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street, Glasgow, G3 6NH Tel.0141-330-2546, [email protected] Keywords: diversity, intercultural identities This small-scale pilot study considers issues of multiple-identity, diversity and intercultural education which is defined as teaching `dialogue among cultures... promoting...a transcultural perspective, that is creating the conditions for interpenetration among cultures, enriching them without denying the specific cultural identities' (Baraldi 2006). A number of countries now express the achievement of intercultural outcomes as a key purpose of schooling. The Australian concept of `engagement with difference' (Lingard et al 2003) is useful to consider alongside Scottish intercultural studies because it covers varieties of identity within Australia as well as between Australia and other countries. Methodologically the study is committed to the importance of `pupil voice'. That `pupil voice is not given enough consideration in this area' is identified by the UK Department of Education and Skills report Diversity and Citizenship: A Review as a `crucial factors' which hinders education for diversity. This study focuses on the attitudes of a small group of S6 pupils to `Scottish' identity. Some of these pupils are ethnically Scots while others are second generation members of immigrant families. They come from a central belt secondary school experienced in teaching ethnic minority pupils alongside Scots. By analysing a set of pupil essays, it is possible to grasp some of the human realities involved in the processes of identity-negotiation when adolescent identity formation occurs in a context which may include conflicting attitudes to multiple identities. It will be argued that the profundity of these issues for social cohesion is such that awareness of their consequences for education must become a key feature of teacher education curricula.

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Inclusive Education: Taiwan and Scotland

Jean Kane and Chu-Ting Ko

Jean Kane Department of Educational Studies, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G6 3NH, Phone: 0141 330 3047, e-mail: [email protected] Chu-Ting Ko Taipei Municipal University of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C., Email: [email protected] Keywords: ASN/SEN, inclusion, policy Taiwan performs well in international comparisons of pupil atainment, particularly in mathematics. This paper links those high standards of attainment to provision for pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in Taiwan and considers if and how school inclusion is reconciled with the drive to raise standards. China, and Taiwan in particular, have had special schools since the nineteenth century and special schools still form part of 'multi-track' special educational provision there. In common with US and UK education systems, the trend since the 1970s has been towards 'mainstreaming' of pupils with SEN and there are two types of mainstream placement: special classes at all grades and 'resource room' support in ordinary classes.This paper will draw upon a range of data gathered during a study visit to Taiwan and including interviews with SEN professionals and academics, observation in Taiwan schools and analysis of policy documentation. The paper will discuss Taiwanese policy and provision for pupils with SEN and this framework will be compared and contrasted with the framework created by recent additional support needs legislation in Scotland. The paper will then probe notions of inclusion in education policy in Taiwan and will relate these understandings to a wider political and economic context. Finally, the paper will consider if Taiwan's simultaneous pursuit of inclusion and high levels of attainment in the school system has significance for Scotland and the implementation of a new and inclusive curriculum framework.

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Catholic Schools in Scotland and Divisiveness

Stephen McKinney

Department of Religious Education, University of Glasgow, St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street, Glasgow, G3 6NH, 0141 330 3051, [email protected] Keywords: Catholic schools, Scotland Faith shcools in Britain have been the object of close academic scrutiny and debate over the last five years. A number of recent studies have identified and examined some of the emergent themes: eg 'faith-based schools and social cohesion' and 'faith based schools and indoctrination' (Gardner et al, 2005, Parker­Jenkins et al, 2005, McKinney, 2006). The discussion concerning faith schooling and social cohesion incorprates a number of related themes that includes the divisiveness of faith schooling, though this discussion is focussed primarily on England and Wales (Pring, 2005, McLaughlin and Halstead, 2005, Parker- Jenkins et al, 2005). This paper proposes to examine the question of the divisiveness of faith schooling within the Scottish context ­ a discussion dominated by Catholic schooling, ultimately the only major form of faith schooling in Scotland. The paper reports on a significant strand of a wider research project that examined the continued existence of Catholic schools in Scotland. The research methodology consisted of Review of Literature, and Expert Interviews with Key Informants from educational, philosophical, sociological and ecclesiastical backgrounds. The paper, drawing on a conceptual framework constructed from wider and more localised concepts and understandings of divisiveness, examines the issue of divisiveness within the historical, contemporary and future existence of Catholic schools in Scotland. This paper concludes by reflecting on the deeper and more nuanced understanding of the nature of this issue, within the Scottish context, that emerged from the research.

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SERA Conference 2007

Symposium: Restorative Practices in Scottish Schools: the national pilot and its evaluation

Chair: Professor Pamela Munn Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 AQ, Phone: 0131 650 1000, e-mail: [email protected]

Discussant: Dr George Head Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow, St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street, G3 6NH, Phone: 0141 330 3048, e-mail: [email protected]

In 2004 the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) established a national pilot of restorative practices involving 3 LAs across Scotland. The LAs worked with SEED in a national forum to share and disseminate more widely developing practice. In parallel with the pilot project, SEED commissioned a team from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow to evaluate the initiative. The scope of the evaluation had been decided in relation to funding available and so each of the three LAs was asked to nominate six schools from the total number of schools participating. Eighteen schools would work with the evaluation team throughout the two years of the project. The range of schools included 10 secondaries, 7 primaries and one special school, and was drawn from urban, suburban and rural settings, including schools serving areas of severe poverty as well as of relative prosperity. The schools had different histories in terms of their approaches to managing discipline and utilising approaches which could be described as restorative. The evaluation ran from September 2004 to September 2006. This symposium offers the perspectives of one of the pilot local authorities, one of the pilot schools and of the evaulation team.

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SERA Conference 2007 Paper 1: What are Restorative Practices and how did they feature in the pilot schools?

Gillean McCluskey and Elisabet Weedon Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, Phone 0131 651 6170, E-Mail: Elisabet. [email protected] Keywords: Restorative Practices, schools, findings Restorative Practices in schools developed out of growing interest in the success of restorative justice in work with 'victims' and 'offenders' around the world. Schools in the UK looking for solutions to concerns about indiscipline and disaffection and violence have been enthused by its basic premise: the need to restore good relationships when there has been conflict or harm; and to develop school ethos, policy and procedures that reduce the possibility of such conflict and harm. It seems to be an approach that acknowledges that schooling is a complex task, with increasingly wider demands on schools in a diverse and changing world where teachers' work can often be challenging and stressful. This paper will discuss and explore what the pilot schools meant by restorative practices; review the findings from the large staff and pupil surveys; and use these to contextualise the findings from interviews with key staff and with individual and group interviews with pupils at all stages of schooling.

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Paper 2: A Local Authority Perspective on Restorative Practices

Ken Keighren e-mail: [email protected], Phone: 01592 414752 Keywords: school readiness, pilot, implementation This paper focuses on Local Authority involvement in the pilot and its evaluation. In the RPs pilot, no national template imposed a standard pattern of implementation; each LA was encouraged to design its own pilot as appropriate to local circumstances.Indeed, even the term used to denote restorative practices varied between LAs. It was anticipated that the project might develop differently in the three LAs but it was envisaged that diversity in the approaches adopted might be helpful in representing restorative practices to other LAs and schools across the country. Local Authorities nominated pilot schools for various reasons, including schools' state of preparedness to implement RPs. The overall approach of one LA is discussed here with particular attention to the notion of 'readiness' for RPs. The processes used by the LA in evaluating school readiness are described and commented upon in the light of experience of the pilot and its evaluation. Data gathered in the six pilot schools during the evaluation included large pupil and teacher surveys and inteviews with key stakeholders in each school. These data enabled the local authority to consider the 'readiness' of schools in relation to its own initial criteria for selecting schools to participate in the RPs pilot.

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Paper 3: A School Perspective on Restorative Practices

Marie Reid Our Lady's High School, Cumbernauld, Phone: 01236 721612 Keywords: implementation, ethos, restorative Very different tacks were open to pilot schools in the implementation of RPs and all of them might be termed restorative. This paper will consider the approach taken by one school and will relate experience of piloting RPs to factors such as organisational structures, ethos and the nature of leadership, as well as to existing approaches to discipline/behaviour management. A range of data (pupil and teacher surveys, interviews with key stakeholders and reports of classroom observation) was gathered by the evaluation team working in the school and these were made available to the school in an ongoing way as the pilot proceeded. Although formal processes such as conferencing were used in schools, RPs were not confined to such specific applications. Pilot schools demonstrated RPs as existing on a continuum from informal to formal, and conveyed that, although a formal restorative practice such as a conference might have a dramatic impact, the informal practices such as daily interactions between teacher and pupil could have a cumulative effect. RPs offered a permeating approach to increasing empathy within the school and/or classroom community and to building a more positive ethos. This paper will address one school's overall experience of the pilot and its evaluation.

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SERA Conference 2007 Paper 4: Evaluating Restorative Practices: reflections on methods used

Gwynedd Lloyd and Jean Kane Gwynedd Lloyd: Moray House Institute of Education, University of Edinburgh, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 AQ, Phone: 0131 650 1000 e-mail: [email protected] Jean Kane: Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow, St Andrew's Building, 11 Eldon Street, G3 6NH, Phone: 0141 330 3047, e-mail: [email protected] Keywords: evaluation, methodology, collaborative The design of the evaluation broke new ground in a number of ways in offering high levels of participation to those involved in the pilot and in providing formative data throughout the pilot. The broad aim of the pilot and its evaluation was to learn more about how restorative approaches could be developed in school settings. An extensive review of the international literature was undertaken. The evaluation team then negotiated with the pilot steering group, LAs and schools a range of methods through which to evaluate the aims and outcomes specified for the pilot projects as these developed in the different LAs and schools. The evaluation team worked with staff in LAs and schools to clarify the nature and goals of a collaborative evaluation, in which participants, as well as researchers, played a critical part. The evaluation process in each school was then tailored to ensure that account was taken of different aspirations for RPs in each school. The collaborative evaluation involved close contact with the 18 schools over the two-year period of the pilot and the development of a highly constructive 'feedback loop' with senior school managers and LA key personnel, which informed and shaped the findings. This paper considers the formative and collaborative nature of the RPs evaluation.

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Symposium: Developing Inclusive Practitioners: changing the culture in ITE and beyond

Chair:

Professor Martyn Rouse School of Education University of Aberdeen MacRobert Building, Kings College, ABERDEEN AB24 5UA 01224 27 4851, E mail: [email protected] Gwynedd.Lloyd The Moray House School of Education, The University of Edinburgh, Old Moray House, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh EH8 8AQ 0131 6516445, E mail [email protected]

Discussant:

At the University of Aberdeen the current primary and secondary PGDE have been developed to create a single combined programme across the two sectors. The impetus for this has been the Inclusive Practice Project which is developing a model for the one year teacher education to enable newly qualified teachers support the learning of all children in their classes more effectively. Teacher educators, students, teachers and partner professionals from local authorities are working together to share ideas and experiences relevant to engaging students in positive inclusive classroom practice and in relevant action research to develop positive approaches to learning and teaching to meet the needs of all children. This model involves an innovative collaborative approach to professional working across the primary/secondary sectors. Data from a variety of methods and sources has been collected to inform the process of change for this development during the pilot stage. These three presentations focus on major aspects of the educational shift that has already taken place in developing this new PGDE programme. The first paper sets the developments in context and reviews the plans for the Inclusive Practice project within wider research both nationally and internationally. The second examines how the two cohorts of PGDE graduating teachers collaborated in their learning during this pilot stage and related developments for the newly combined PGDE programme. The third examines PGDE student perceptions toward teaching, learning and inclusion and how these changed and developed during the pilot.

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Paper 1: The Inclusive Practice Project ­ teacher education for inclusive education

Lani Florian and Martyn Rouse School of Education, University of Aberdeen MacRobert Building, Kings College ABERDEEN AB24 5UA 01224 27 4851 E mail [email protected] [email protected] Keywords: Inclusive Practice, teacher education It has been argued that future progress in addressing the dilemmas of access and equity in education requires changes in thinking about provision and practice. Proponents of inclusive education suggest that current assumptions, systems and procedures in schooling must be replaced by new ways of thinking and working. The central problem facing those who wish to develop more inclusive practice is to articulate and to demonstrate the so-called `new ways of thinking and working' that are called for by educational reformers. This paper identifies three key areas of research and development work that underpin the Inclusive Practice Project at the University of Aberdeen School of Education. It goes on to describe how these areas of work are being addressed within the reform of the PGDE to ensure issues of inclusion are fully addressed within the core of the programme and reflected in the expectations of student teacher performance.

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Paper 2: Student teachers working together: a case study bridging the primary/secondary sector divide

Yvonne C Bain, Elizabeth Clark, Gillian H. Kirkpatrickand Elaine M. Cowan School of Education, University of Aberdeen MacRobert Building, Kings College ABERDEEN AB24 5UA 01224 274548 Email [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], Keywords: Collaboration, cross sector, teacher education Strand: Inclusion A major aspect of the PGDE programme development was to encourage a shared understanding of inclusion through collaborative activities. From the very start of the programmes, student attitudes and perceptions about learners were challenged. The pilot year (2006/07) offered only limited opportunities for genuine collaboration. This was addressed in the redesign of the PGDE programme so that cross-sector collaboration and a focus on inclusion were embedded into the core of the programme. Data gathered provides insight into beginning teachers' views of collaborative learning and inclusion across the sectors at this stage. Further insight is gained into the relevance of course inputs as perceived by the student teachers.

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Paper 3: ITE Student attitudes toward inclusive practice ­ can one year really make a difference?

Elaine M. Cowan, Yvonne C. Bain, Elizabeth Clark & Gillian H. Kirkpatrick School of Education, University of Aberdeen, MacRobert Building Kings College, ABERDEEN AB24 5UA 01224 274620 E mail [email protected],[email protected], [email protected], [email protected], Keywords: Surveys, student attitudes, teacher's role Incoming ITE students attitudes towards appropriate methods for teaching and learning are often based on their own previous learning experiences (Calderhead & Robson, 1991). Information from the selection and interviewing process for PGDE applicants for both the primary and secondary PGDE indicated that some students had prior experiences supporting pupils in learning in schools or specific knowledge and skills related to inclusive practice. To set a baseline for the inclusive practice PGDE, an extensive survey on incoming students' attitudes and perceptions on learning, teaching, inclusion and the role of the teacher was conducted early in the induction week. Student attitudes were reviewed during the programme through course evaluation processes, student assignments and an exit survey. The main findings of these surveys are reviewed and some implications for the students' development of inclusive practice are discussed. References Calderhead, J. and Robson, M. (1991). Images of teaching: student teachers' early conceptions of classroom practice. Teacher and Teacher Education, 7 (1), pp. 1­8

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School Improvement and Transitions

School Culture: A case study of the role of the headteacher in creating and managing culture in a primary school in England

Natallia Yakavets

(Postgraduate Research Student), The Open University, UK, CREET-LLEG Research Group, Tel:+44 1908 652767 [email protected] Keywords: culture, head teacher, trust A considerable amount of literature has been published on school improvement that has recognised the significance of school culture as a factor in successful school improvement strategy. The role of the headteacher as a promoter of school culture and mediator of policy pressures in the school is widely regarded as central. This paper presents the results of a pilot project aimed at investigating the role of the headteacher in the process of creating and managing culture in a primary school in England. This study also examined the external (government policy initiatives) and internal (values, beliefs of staff) processes which influence the school culture. The project employed a case study approach and the main method of data collection was a semi-structured interview. The case study approach was selected because it would provide an in-depth understanding of the issues relating to school culture and the role of the headteacher and would give interpretations and perceptions of participants. Within the case study school were interviewed: the headteacher, the deputy headteacher, two teachers and the chair of governing body. The study identified that issues of shared values, beliefs and the development of trust and a sense of community appear to be key elements of a positive school culture and the headteacher plays a major role in creating this. Furthermore, within the current educational environment in England the headteacher of the case study school has adapted an "enhanced line management" role and a "defence" role to be able to strike a balance between external pressures and a school's internal culture.

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Assessing a process

Gordon Brown

SQA, The Optima, 58 Robertson Street, Glasgow, G2 8DQ 0845 213 5395, [email protected] Keywords: Assessment, skills The Scottish Survey of Achievement (SSA) replaced the Assessment of Achievement Programme (AAP) in 2005. Both the SSA (and previously the AAP) provide the Executive with an annual snapshot of levels of attainment of Scottish pupils at P3, P5, P7 and S2. Currently surveys cover English language (2005), social subjects (enquiry skills) (2006), science (2007) and mathematics (2008). The core skills of literacy, numeracy, ICT, problem solving and working with others will also be assessed each year in these subject contexts. A variety of different assessment techniques are used, such as paper and pencil tests, interviews, discussions, practical tasks, etc. The nature of what is being assessed also varies, between, for example, knowledge and understanding, and the ability to carry out a process. This paper looks at methods of assessing processes, issues involved in such methods, and compares data obtained from assessing the same process in two different ways: Social Subjects Enquiry Skills as assessed in SSA 2006 through written booklets and as a practical activity.

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A Transitional Case Study

Stelfox K, Catts R

Kevin Stelfox University of Aberdeen, School of Education, Aberdeen, [email protected] Ralph Catts University of Stirling, Institute of Education, Stirling, [email protected] Keywords: Transitions, Social Capital, Methodology The Aberdeen pilot study was a one year case study of one Primary 7 class through the transition to secondary school and beyond until the end of S1. The research team adopted an exploratory case study approach. The main aim was to develop an understanding of transition within a "relational context" viewed through a social capital lens. During the first stage of the research the main method of data collection was through mapping the young people´s and the teacher's social networks. This took the form of a classroom activity that explored concepts such as family, friendship, trust and community with the young people. The second part of the activity was a mapping exercise that focused on individual young people´s networks in relation to school, family and community. Thirdly, interviews were conducted with selected young people from the P7 class and staff from the school. The second stage of the pilot study followed the cohort into S1 and involved remapping the cohort´s social networks and follow up interviews. This paper explores some of the emerging themes in relation to the case study and whether the concept of social capital contributes to our understanding of the transition from primary to secondary school.

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Swing through with Science: a project to support transition from primary to secondary school through science, reporting our findings

Susan Burr and Frances Simpson

Dr Susan Burr; Lecturer in Science Education,Smith Building University of Strathclyde Southbrae Drive, Glasgow G13 1PP [email protected] 0131 950 3426 Mrs Frances Simpson, Lecturer in Environmental Studies, University of Paisley Keywords: science, transition, CPD For a number of years there has been considerable concern about the transition of pupils from primary to secondary school. It has been noted that in science in particular there is a `loss of momentum' from P7 to S2. This problem has been attributed to insufficient account being taken of pupils previous learning and attainment. We have developed a set of materials that pupils will take with them to secondary school and will support progression in science . Our `science passport' consists of a booklet containing a range of formative assessment type activities. It has been adapted to support the different schemes of work within the cluster schools taking part in the project. Each cluster therefore has an individual passport to fit in with their scheme of work. During the session 2006/7 the passport has been used in P7 classrooms in our project schools in a variety of ways to give a summary of the learning that has taken place. Our paper will report on P7 pupil attitudes to science after using the passport and compare them with their attitudes at the start of P7. We will also take a close look at staff perceptions after engaging in the project including their confidence in teaching science and their attitudes towards CPD in science. We have used questionnaires with both pupils and staff . Teachers and a small sample of pupils have also been interviewed.

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Lessons from Iceland on the transformation of knowledge

Allyson Macdonald

Iceland University of Education, +354 861 6733, [email protected] Keywords: Assessment, transformation, knowledge Assessment as a tool in the transformation of knowledge emerged as a theme in a brief historical review of the relationship between education and culture on the one hand and evaluation and success on the other in Iceland. It was based upon textual analysis and interviews with 17 year old students and professionals who attended school during the period 1955-1995. Another theme concerned use value and exchange value of education. The theoretical framework draws upon the recontextualisation of knowledge (Bernstein 1996, 2000) and contradictions within and between activity systems (Engeström 1987). Legal definitions indicate that schools should function as open systems providing an opportunity for assessment to be considered not only as an activity to promote learning but also as a task through which the school maintains a relationship with its environment (Hoy and Miskel, 2005 ) An early educationist in Iceland wrote about education as a process of receiving, transforming and giving (reciprocating) (Guðmundur Finnbogason 1903/1995). Later another educationist in Iceland suggested that in the process of knowledge being transformed into a school subject, knowledge often becomes alienated (Wolfgang Edelstein, 1988). It will be argued that democratic education for a sustainable future calls for new views of assessment, especially at transition points. Schools can use teacher expertise to take on the task of serving society's needs. Assessment should become a 'shared object' between the activity systems of the school and society. This shared object could facilitate the recontextualisation of knowledge reducing alienation and strengthening the relationship between use value and exchange value of education.

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The Phenomenology of Edith Stein (1891 - 1942), 'Lifepower', and Decision Making in the Primary School

Archie Graham

School of Education, MacRobert Building, University of Aberdeen, King's College, Aberdeen, AB24 5UA, Tel: 01224 274556, Email: [email protected]

Keywords: Decision making; Phenomenology; Edith Stein Abstract. Why is it the case that some children will work on a task which they enjoy beyond the point of exhaustion whereas others, because they cannot for one reason or another perceive the meaning, become easily exhausted and disengage? Edith Stein would explain this phenomenon through her notion of "lifepower". "Lifepower" for Stein is something which is being constantly replenished by outside sources without these sources themselves becoming diminished. Thus "lifepower" is a cycle of replenishment. We give meaning to actions and things through "lifepower" but we gain "lifepower" from meaningful actions and things. This is an extraordinary insight and goes some way to explaining many phenomena which occur in the area of human existence. This paper will draw from the work of Edith Stein (1891 ­ 1942) in order to propose a conceptual tool to support decision making in relation to the implementation of change within the context of the primary school. In the first instance a brief history of Stein's development as a philosopher and as a teacher will be provided to contextualise her thinking and to demonstrate the relevance of her work to education. Next an overview of Stein's phenomenological works on how we relate to one another and her notion of "lifepower" will be presented and linked to the development of the child and the view of the primary school as a community. Finally, it will be argued that Stein's description of "lifepower" provides those responsible for implementing change within the primary school with a powerful lens through which to support decision making.

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Current demographics in the school teaching population in Scotland

Ian Matheson Educational Planning and Research Officer, GTC Scotland General Teaching Council for Scotland, Clerwood House, 96 Clermiston Drive, Edinburgh EH12 6UT Tel: 0131 314 6070 Email: [email protected] Keywords: demography, teaching, planning Before appointment to teach in a state school in Scotland, the aspiring teacher must register with the General Teaching Council for Scotland. The register represents, therefore, a comprehensive list of all those entitled to be employed as teachers. The Council produces annually a statistical digest which summarises data from the register. A longitudinal study of these digests offers insights into the demographics within the profession, tracing the changing age and gender balances in primary and secondary teaching. Analysis of this data, used in conjunction with the Scottish Executive's annual census of teachers, enables the identification of issues that affect the future planning of the teacher workforce. This in turn informs decisions on the allocation of places on initial teacher education programmes. These include information on likely future retirement patterns among teachers, current recruitment patterns and the altering gender balance, all of which are issues that will require to be addressed in the near future. In terms of recruitment patterns, a further source of data is the Employment Survey of participants in the Teacher Induction Scheme, which provides evidence on the employment outcomes for new fully registered teachers by October following completion of their induction. The paper will outline the demographic patterns suggested by comparing the last three annual statistical digests and identify areas of interest in workforce planning. The paper will pose questions for potential future research such as the implications of the changing age balance in the teaching population on teacher effectiveness in the classroom.

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The ecology of innovation education

Svanborg R Jónsdóttir and Allyson Macdonald

Stóri-Núpur 801 Selfoss, Iceland, 00354 4866018/ 00354 8981566 [email protected] and [email protected]

Keywords: Innovation education, chaos and control, human ecology This article examines personal and environmental factors that influence the implementation of innovation education, a subject area introduced into the Icelandic national curriculum in 1999. Data were collected through participant observations of lessons and semi-structured interviews with six Icelandic teachers in three schools. Bronfenbrenner´s ecological model is used to analyse teachers' views and experiences of innovation education. Ecological theory regards human abilities and their realization to be dependent on interactions between individual activities and the cultural and social context within which they take place. The environment is seen as a set of nested structures, centred on the individual embedded in concentric systems. The microsystem, within which the individual functions, is surrounded by the mesosystem (e.g. school culture) which is encircled by the exosystem (features which affect the culture generally but not teachers particularly) and finally by the macrosystem (e.g. the national curriculum). The theory is useful when looking for interactions between systems, such as between the individual and the microsystem or between the macroystem and the exosystem. The extent to which interactions facilitate or hinder innovation education in schools and classrooms is considered. Personal and professional values influence the way in which innovation education is being taught. Interactions between the microsystem and other systems within the ecological environment were detected. Teacher values regarding creativity and an ability to construct a learning environment balanced between chaos and control seem to be beneficial for innovation education. The approach of the teachers towards innovation education depends to some degree on the social and institutional context of their teaching activity.

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Social Justice

Refugees Into Teaching in Scotland: increasing diversity in the teaching workforce

Heather Davison, Geri Smyth, Louise Barrett, Rhona Hodgart, Ian Menter, and Edward Momo

Heather Davison, University of Strathclyde, Jordanhill Campus, C119/120 Crawfurd Building, 76 Southbrae Drive, Glasgow G13 1PP, Tel: 0141 950 3341, [email protected] Keywords: Diversity, Culture, Research Methodology This paper reports on the development of the Refugees Into Teaching in Scotland (RITeS) Research Project funded by the West Forum, that has emerged from a partnership of organisations in the West of Scotland, RITeS is seeking to support experienced teachers among the refugee and asylum seeker population in Scotland to register with the General Teaching Council and to enter employment in Scottish schools. While focussing especially on the Scottish situation, reference will also be made to the wider international context, in relation to issues of diversity, changing world demographics, widening access into the teaching profession and the integration of refugee professionals. The paper will then outline the key objectives of RITeS research project which include further engaging with this specialist group of refugees in Scotland to enhance understanding and inform issues regarding the range of experiences and expertise while identifying key differences in educational systems, curricula and pedagogies both from country of origin and since arrival in Scotland. This work will then present and discuss a demographic profile extracted from the RITeS Project database, illuminating the ethnic, linguistic, social and educational diversity of this population and the process of integration into the teaching profession in Scotland. In conclusion the multi-method strategy to be employed will be outlined including an ongoing analysis of the RITeS database establishing a demographic profile of this specialist group, an extensive literature search and review identifying themes involved in the process of integration of refugee and asylum seeker professionals into further education and professional training; a semi structured, one to one interview process with a minimum of 20 RITeS teachers and fieldwork involving participant observation with a range of RITeS teachers at different stages in their teaching careers within Scottish schools.

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Catching them young: Sex and relationship education in primary schools

Jennifer Spratt

The Rowan Group, School of Education, MacRobert Building, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3QY Keywords: Sex and Relationship Education, Primary school The enduring links between social exclusion and poor sexual health are well established. Young women in the most deprived wards in Scotland are three times more likely to become teenage mothers than their affluent counterparts. Early parenthood in turn limits education and employment prospects. Scottish policy responses to the perceived decline in the sexual health of young people have focused on the role of the school, in partnership with other agencies, in educating and reducing `risky' sexual behaviour. Funded by NHS Health Scotland, this study sought to map and appraise current sex and relationships programmes (SREP) in Scotland in the light of the international evidence base. A mixed methods approach was used, starting with a review of reviews to identify key features of successful delivery of SREP within the school and community context. Secondly, a national mapping and appraisal exercise was undertaken to gain a comprehensive knowledge about current SREP provision in Scotland. This involved interviews with representatives of key national bodies, a questionnaire survey of all secondary schools, and intensive interview-based case studies of six secondary schools and their associated feeder primary schools. Finally, a synthesis of these strands identified a number of issues salient to the Scottish setting. One key finding in the literature was the importance of targeting SREPs at children and young people before the onset of sexual activity. Based on findings from the case studies, this paper examines the range of approaches to SREP taken by primary schools and their NHS partners. It explores some of the tensions inherent in widening the focus to place greater emphasis on the upper stages of primary school. Implications for policy and practice will be highlighted.

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Symposium: Scottish Independent Schools Project (SISP)

Chair: Dr Adela Baird AERS, The University of Edinburgh, Moray House School of Education, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, +44(0)131 651 4188, [email protected] Pamela Munn OBE Professor of Curriculum Research, The University of Edinburgh, The Moray House School of Education, Simon Laurie House, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, tel:0131 651 6008: fax:0131 651 6688 email: [email protected]

Discussant:

This symposium includes three papers. Paper One, compiled by the whole team, provides an overview of the project and identifies some challenges encountered in setting it up and gaining access to the selected schools. An important aim of the project is to examine the experiences of pupils, staff, parents and ex-pupils in selected independent schools in Scotland from a multiple capitals approach. These multiple capitals and their relevance to SISP, in particular, and social capital, in general, are outlined in Paper 2 by Shereen Benjamin and Bob Lingard. This paper offers a theoretical underpinning to the study and sets the scene for the implementation of the project. The first data collection activity of SISP has been an examination of promotional materials from all independent schools in Scotland. Paper 3, by Joan Forbes and Gaby Weiner, picks up on two aspects of this analysis: first, it provides an overview of the main characteristics of Scottish independent schools and then goes on to examine the websites of the case study schools using discourse analysis techniques. It highlights the significance of a range of capitals in the construction of these websites; such as, for example, narrative, gender and national capitals. The authors will highlight the importance of recognising the stories these websites portray.

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Paper 1: The Scottish Independent Schools Project: An Overview

Lingard, R., Baird, A., Benjamin, S., Forbes, J., Owen, D., Stelfox, K. and Weiner, G. Presented by Forbes, J., Stelfox, K., Weiner, G. Contact Professor Gaby Weiner Centre for Educational Sociology Moray House School of Education The University of Edinburgh 07914 600 129 [email protected] or [email protected] Keywords: independent schooling, social capital, access SISP is a small-scale research project funded by the Schools and Social Capital Network of the Scottish Applied Educational Research Scheme. The project involves a study of school documents, architecture and space and includes analyses of survey, focus group and interview data. The team also intends to examine the role of independent schools in the popular imagination by considering relevant literature and possibly interviewing some authors. This paper gives an overview of the project and identifies some challenges met in gaining access to the selected schools.

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Paper 2: The Scottish Independent Schools Project: A multiple capitals approach to studying elite schools

Shereen Benjamin and Bob Lingard Presented by Gaby Weiner and Adela Baird Dr Shereen Benjamin Moray House School of Education The University of Edinburgh EH8 8AQ +44(0)1331 651 6147 [email protected] Professor Bob Lingard Andrew Bell Professor of Education Moray House School of Education The University of Edinburgh Holyrood Road Edinburgh EH8 8AQ 0131 6516357 [email protected]"[email protected] Keywords: Bourdieu, multiple capitals, independent schooling The Scottish Independent Schools Project (SISP) sits within the Schools and Social Capital Network of AERS. Why, then, are we adopting a multiple capitals approach, rather than focussing solely on social capital? The answer lies largely in our reading of `social capital': following Bourdieu, we are interested in the way elite independent schools enhance their pupils' social capital so as to reproduce existing privileges and inequalities. Where other theorists, notably Coleman and Putnam, have approached the notion of social capital as essentially a force for good within contemporary societies, Bourdieu sees the workings of social and other capitals as part of a complex field of power, in which certain individuals and groups are enabled to accumulate a disproportionate share of resources at the expense of others. Therefore, where some of the projects within the Schools and Social Capital Network are interested in how schools might help overcome disadvantage, SISP looks at schools and the production and reproduction of advantage. Given the complex and increasingly globalised context of Scottish schooling, we suggest that it is necessary to extend Bourdieu's original formulation of the intersection of economic, social and cultural capitals. The notion of emotional capital (Adkins, 2004; Reay, 2004) enables a gendered analysis of the intersection of capitals, whilst the notion of national capital (Hage, 1998; Bourdieu 2003) draws attention to the role of the nation in recognising and legitimating cultural capital and enabling its accumulation, and in mediating global effects. Narrative capital (Watts, 2007) highlights the importance of having a good story and having the means and capacity to have that story taken seriously: we suggest that this can be a useful way to analyse the self-narratives produced by school promotional material and told to their imagined audiences. Linked to all of these, a cosmopolitan capital can help us to consider the possibilities and constraints offered by a globalising context to the dis/location of Scottish independent schools and their pupils, and to their distinctive use of spaces and places in the negotiation and reproduction of privilege.

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Paper 3: Scottish Independent Schools: Their Characteristics and Capitals

Joan Forbes and Gaby Weiner

Dr Joan Forbes University of Aberdeen, King's College, Aberdeen 01224 274512 [email protected] Professor Gaby Weiner Centre for Educational Sociology Moray House School of Education The University of Stirling 07914 600 129 [email protected] Keywords: social capital, networks, norms This paper will present the outcomes of a two-part sub study of the Scottish Independent School Project (SISP). The first part provides an overview of the main characteristics of Scottish independent schools (e.g. location, structure, fees, scholarships, exam results, post-school destination) as represented by the Scottish Council of Independent Schools (SCIS), with the main aim of distinguishing and categorizing the different orientations of schools in the sector. The second is a discourse-based analysis of the schools' website texts which explores how the language used manifests the schools' identifications and self-positionings. The dominant discourses are identified and analysed in order to show how schools discursively construct themselves and their `assumptive worlds' (Ball's term, cited in Gale, 2003, 166). The analysis sets out to explore what these schools take for granted in their words and language, and accept, do and promote to potential parents and pupils as `normal' practices. The analytic of social capital (see, for example, Bourdieu in Ball, 2004) and, following Bourdieu, other capitals (e.g. cultural, national) will be used to examine the discourses accepted, appropriated and deployed by the schools and to explore the effects of such identifications in advancing the interests of different social groupings. Ball, S. J. (2004) The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Sociology of Education. London: RoutledgeFalmer. Gale, K. (2003) Creative pedagogies of resistance in post compulsory (teacher) education. In J. Satterthwaite, E. Atkinson & K. Gale (Eds), Discourse, Power, Resistance: Challenging the Rhetoric of Contemporary Education, pp165-174. Stokeon-Trent: Trentham.

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The increasingly divergent educational policies of Scotland, England and Wales since devolution and how these are reflected in three key policy documents.

Adela Baird and Janet Laugharne

Dr Adela Baird, Senior Research and Knowledge Transfer Fellow, Applied Educational Research Scheme, Old Moray House, University of Edinburgh, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh EH8 8AQ, [email protected] Dr Janet Laugharne, Director of Research, University of Wales Institute Cardiff (UWIC) Cyncoed Road Cardiff CF23 6XD, [email protected] Keywords: policy discourse, critical literacy, national monologues This paper uses three key policy documents in the UK to highlight the increasing divergence in the educational policies of Scotland, England and Wales since devolution. These are: · · Ambitious, Excellent Schools: Our Agenda for Action (2004) Learning Country 2: Delivering the Promise (2006)

· Higher Standards Better Schools for All: More Choice for Parents and Pupils (2005) The research focuses on an the examination of the policy discourses through close textual analysis, using tools from the critical literacy field as in Hyatt (2005), Luke (2004), Fairclough (2001), Jewett and Kress ( 2003) and Street (2003). We analyse at the micro level of words and a macro-level evaluation of the orientation features of each text is undertaken. We also study the visual images used. This multi-layered approach offers a reading of policy texts with the potential for valuable alternative interpretations. Although there are commonalties across the countries, the differences are telling. In the English document, there is a balanced use of positive and negative value words while the Scottish one makes little use of negative value words. The English document reflects greater acknowledgment of cultural diversity and international dimensions. While the Welsh and Scottish ones pay little heed to these terms. Compared to the other two documents, the Welsh one shows a marked concern with nationhood. Each country seems very concerned with its own preoccupations as our literacy analysis of these key policy documents largely reveals national monologues. We suggest that more `national conversations' (QCA 2005) need to take place. 251 words References: Fairclough, N. (2nd ed) ( 2001) Language and Power Pearson Education, Harlow Hyatt, D. (2005) A Critical Literacy frame for UK Secondary Education contexts, English in Education, Hyatt, D. (2005), Spring 2005, vol. 39, no. 1, pp 43-59 Jewitt, C., & Kress, G. (2003) (Eds). Multimodal literacy, New York: Peter Lang

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Luke, A. (2004) Two takes on the critical, In B. Norton & K. Toohey (Eds.), Critical pedagogy and language learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Street, B. (2003) What's "new" in New Literacy Studies? Critical approaches to literacy in theory and practice, Current Issues in Comparative Education, Vol. 5(2) pp 77-91 QCA (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) (2005) English 21: Playback. London: QCA.

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Scottish Women Teachers: issues of gender, nation and identity

Ann MacDonald

Room 3.5b, Charteris Land, Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, 0131 651 6430 [email protected] Keywords: teachers, gender, identities This research seeks to enquire into the processes and discourses through which the Scottish Primary teacher is constructed and the ways in which the individual teacher constructs her social self and negotiates her identities within a feminised profession, with particular reference to her gendered and her national identities. This paper explores contested understandings of `feminisation', `feminism' and `Scottishness' in the lived experience of participants. At a time when upheavals in the management and delivery of public services across Europe and beyond is resulting in a `restructuring' of teaching as work , this study offers an intimate exploration of how women teachers in Scotland make sense of educational change. The core method of data collection used is Life History method ­ using biographical data drawn from lengthy conversational interviews with 6 women as a basis for qualitative enquiry. This narrative method investigates how the self-consciousness of teachers is utilised to produce their self-formation. It combines the personal and the professional in keeping with the concept of multiple realities and multiple identities. The data-gathering and analysis for this research is on-going and therefore it is not yet possible to offer firm conclusions. However, the emerging narratives encapsulate some of the ways in which the lived experience of primary teaching in Scotland is shaped by power relations based on gender, and on gendered constructs of national identity. Further, the accounts portray ways in which teachers as women strive to construct coherent identities despite on-going dissonances between what they believe and value, and what their work entails in practice.

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The Teaching and Practice of Citizenship (Civic) Education in the School Curriculum: A Case for Zimbabwe

Aaron Sigauke

PhD Research Student, School of Education, MacRobert Building, King's College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 5UA, Tel: 01224 274520 E-mail: [email protected] Keywords: citizenship, citizenship/civic education, Zimbabwe Presidential Commission

Citizenship/civic education in Zimbabwe is being offered at the secondary school level for the first time as from 2007. This is a follow up to findings of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into Education and Training (1999) which recommended that "as a matter of urgency citizenship education should be compulsorily taught and be a statutory subject in the entire school curriculum in the country" (p.354). Information gathered during the Commission's hearings noted a prevalence of problems related to young people. This subject is however, only now being introduced about eight years after the above recommendations. This paper discusses research conducted in Zimbabwe prior to the introduction of a discrete subject of citizenship. That research aimed at establishing the Government's standpoint on the definition of, and its aims for introducing this subject. Secondly, the research aimed at exploring the extent to which students are currently knowledgeable of, their attitudes towards and participation levels in citizenship matters. Thirdly, it explored the extent to which teachers, as implementers of the programme, have been and are prepared to take the programme forward. A mixed method approach was adopted in the collection and analysis of data from secondary school students, and teachers who taught subjects in which citizenship issues were covered. Collected data is presently at the analysis stage. However, preliminary indications are that there is a divergence of views on some issues investigated. For instance, results from the analysis of the student data contradict with the Commission view that students have little knowledge of and negative attitudes towards citizenship issues. Topics suggested for inclusion in the discrete citizenship education syllabus are covered in a number of subjects that already being taught. Teachers believe that citizenship education can be taught as an integrated rather than as a discrete subject. Both teachers and students are hesitant to have political issues as part of what they teach/ learn in citizenship education. Final conclusions and recommendations will be made when the full record of analysed data is available.

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Research Methods and Knowledge Transfer

Knock, knock, knocking at the Gatekeeper's door (with apologies to Mr Dylan)

Neil Houston. Lecturer in Music Education

The Moray House School of Education. The University of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, Tel: 0131-651-6007. E-mail: [email protected] Keywords: gatekeeper, resistance, accommodation This paper, based on the recent experience of a new researcher, reflects on issues surrounding access to key participants in school-based research. The paper tells the story of a research proposal that asked the question: " To what extent has the operational and professional status of the Specialist Teacher of Primary Music been affected by the recent pay and conditions agreement?" (Mc.Crone. 2000). This was and remains a highly relevant issue for both schools and Local Authority Education Departments as the recommendations of the Mc.Crone agreement have been implemented as policy in all school sectors in Scotland over the last six years. These changes and other initiatives linked to the agreement re-asserted teacher professional identity and their position at the heart of the teaching and learning in our schools. It may be, however, that the new conditions have not been fair to all. The project focussed on Specialist teachers, Head teachers and one Quality Assurance Officer from a Local Education Department. Questionnaire and audiorecorded group interviews were components of the research design. The timeframe was constructed so as to be neither disruptive nor onerous. The method incorporated an element of member checking to ensure that the authenticity of the emerging themes could be clarified, verified and developed at each stage of the process. Yet when permission to undertake this research was requested from a Local Authority, it was refused. Not only that, but it was refused in such terms that further approaches were ruled out. In such circumstances, what does a researcher do?

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Symposium: Reflexive Practitioner Research within Professional Development Courses

Chair : Sue Mansfield (Lecturer) School of Education, Social Work and Community Education, University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN, 01382 348148 email: [email protected]

Discussant: as above Keywords: Practitioner Research, Reflexivity, Auto/biography, Evidence-based Practice. The Department of Community Education in the School of Education, Social Work and Community Education at the University of Dundee offers professionally qualifying courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate level as well as post-qualifying professional development opportunities through its BA and MSc courses in Professional Development. A central feature of all these is the emphasis on the development of reflexive practitioner research as a way of promoting evidenced based best practice. This symposium, as well as engaging in an exploration of the underlying methodology of the research training provided within those courses also features the research projects conducted by three practitioners as part of their work-based studies on such courses. In their different ways they examine the impact that biography has on the choices exercised by both the researchers and the researched, explore the nature of reflexivity in practitioner research and the impact that the reflexive thinking engendered by this approach to research has had on their ongoing practice.

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Paper 1: Reflexive Practitioner Research as an Epistemological and Ontological Activity

Sue Mansfield Lecturer, School of Education, Social Work and Community Education, University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN Tel: 44 (0)1382 381489, [email protected] Workbased students in the Dept of Community Education at the University of Dundee not only form a community of practice themselves who play a key role in shaping and designing their own learning experience but as part of their courses they are required to carry out a small scale research project which is located within a community of practice drawn from their workplace and using a reflexive methodology and with the purpose of developing better practice within that workplace. They tend to come to us believing that they must write themselves out of their inquiries, to subjugate the personal and subjective to the need to be impersonal and objective. However, within action research paradigms the self is central to the research process and as practitioners researching their own workplace they are both the researcher and what is being researched. Our first priority, therefore, is to enable them to recognise that their research is not only an epistemological activity but also an ontological one. To this end, we work with them to regain their trust in their own senses, surface their tacit understandings and to explore alternative viewpoints on those things they have previously taken for granted. This short, introductory paper explores the underlying conceptual and philosophical foundations of the research method teaching, highlights the paradoxes, contradictions and dilemmas these practitioners face and sets the scene for their individual presentations where they set out the purposes of their individual research projects, their principal findings and how the projects have impacted on their professional practice.

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Paper 2: Biography of a Community Leader

Angela Hastie Community Worker, Dundee City Council, Communities Department, Arthurstone Library, Arthurstone Terrace, Dundee, Tel:01382 438 889 [email protected]

Keywords: Biography, Lifestory Research, Values Purpose My inquiry focussed community leadership and community involvement. I wanted to unfold the influences, motivations and experiences behind their involvement in regeneration partnership structures, and investigate if a person's biography or life-story plays a part in the choice to participate. Methodology A post-modernist/feminist methodology was selected as a qualitative approach where I could probe deeply and focus on the relationship/process. I asked my respondent to write her own biography and I used my own as a probe to deepen the conversation. I selected one respondent as a spotlight on one life rather than generalise. I found that this empowered the respondent and placed us on an equal footing. Findings We shared similarities in our biographies and on this occasion it did play a part in the choice to participate, particularly family values, childhood experiences and the relationships that influenced the respondent's life. Do we attract the same type of biographies/values and if so, can we use the findings to find other ways to involve different people? Effects on Practice The methodology used allowed me to deepen the relationship that I had with the respondent in a way that would benefit the relationship and my practice. It was an illuminating conversation with a volunteer that I would rarely have time to do at work even though it is an important one. Completing this one life story made me realise that a much larger study on this subject would be of great benefit to practitioners, participants and the wider profession.

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Paper 3: Ethical Approaches Used by Youth Workers

Graeme McMeekin Lecturer in Youth Work with Applied Theology, International Christian College, 110 St. James Rd, Glasgow, G4 0PS, Tel: 0141 552 4040, [email protected]

Keywords: Ethics. Values, Faith, Reflexivity Purpose The ethical decision-making process is complex and the decision-maker is not always consciously aware of it. This paper seeks to highlight some of the issues involved, to relate them to the context of youth work, in order to analyse their influence on practice and to enable youth workers to become more aware of their own ethical decisionmaking process. Methodology The research was qualitative, based on semi-structured interviews to allow an in-depth analysis and in order for the participants not to be influenced by other participants' views. Interviews were conducted with participants who would define themselves as either: youth workers who would not declare themselves as having an active faith; and youth workers who would declare themselves as having an active Christian faith. Findings The findings suggest that all the participants used broadly the same methodology in the decision-making process. In general they did not use any one approach exclusively but rather used a mixture of deontological and teleological approaches. However, it is clear that the former is dominant throughout, suggesting that in the midst of the ethical decision-making process, the youth worker as moral agent is not only concerned about what the morally right action is in the context but also how they perceive themselves in relation to their identity and their values. Effects on Practice This research commenced with a reflexive process in which I questioned aspects of my own identity in attempting to understand the process of my own ethical decisionmaking. I have found through my research that although faith and the wider cultural context may play some part in influencing the values drawn on, it does not necessarily alter the process used. Despite my initial assumptions, the approaches used by participants were similar to each other and to mine despite the different faith contexts. However the implication for me is the need to become more self-aware about my decision-making and how the situations that I am involved in result in particular decisions.

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Paper 4: Life Changes: A small-scale practitioner research project into issued-based youth work

Gail Thomson Project Worker, Xplore, Mitchell Street Centre, Mitchell Street, Dundee, DD1 2LJ, Tel: 01382 435865, [email protected]

Keywords: Issue-based Youth Work, Lifestory Research, Transitions Purpose This paper is an exploration into what effects issue-based youth work has on the personal development and social inclusion of young people. By drawing on case studies, the inquiry focuses on the process of two young people's voluntary involvement with my agency, from the initial engagement with their project workers, through to a point in their lives where their regular issue-focused contact meetings were concluded. Methodology To achieve this, a series of in depth one-to-one interviews were conducted to investigate the perceptions of the two young people in focus, their teachers and their parents, two years on from their first involvement with the agency. I chose this approach to practitioner research to allow the enhanced stories of two young people to be told. Findings In doing so, the data collected describes two different journeys through a series of life changes, which have provided a rich insight into how this style of person-centred youth work impacts on the lives of the participants.. Effects on Practice Having the opportunity to work alongside these respondents to uncover and discuss such a range of personal experiences has been a valuable learning experience for me. As an issue-based practitioner, it has inspired me to develop my practice by reflecting and questioning how I engage and support the young people with whom I work.

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SERA Conference 2007

Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Polish and Lithuanien History Teachers

dr hab Ireneusz Kawecki

ul. Slomczynskiego 2 ap.37, 31-234 Cracow, Poland, e-mail: [email protected], mobile phone - +48 0601 94 5824 Keywords: teacher's pedagogical content knowledge, content, learning This study is grounded in the theoretical framework of the Knowledge Base for Teaching model, proposed by Shulman [1987]. Shulman [1986] has presented the concept of "pedagogical content knowledge" within a classification of subject areas of teachers' professional knowledge. It includes: "content knowledge", "curricular knowledge" (knowledge on teaching resources and the curriculum), "pedagogical knowledge" (knowledge which is not related to the subject), and "pedagogical content knowledge (knowledge regarding the didactic preparation of the subject matter) [Bromme, 1995: 208]. Although subject matter knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge constitute central aspect of the knowledge necessary for teaching, teachers also hold more particular knowledge ­ pedagogical content knowledge. My research focuses on the description of one aspect of knowledge included in the model ­ pedagogical content knowledge. In the study I analyses the components of pedagogical content knowledge, that which relates to knowledge about the learners and learning processes. The focuses of the research were:ing t teachers ­ their ways of lesson conduct, presentation of content, use of form presentation, etc. - content ­ degree of difficulty, level of abstraction, etc. - lesson process ­ atmosphere in the class, discipline, order and work organization in the class, cohesiveness of the class, rivalry. In the research I used two qualitative methods of research ­ open interview and observation.(with video camera recording). During the interviews I asked on teachers beliefs about what is history, on their perception of the pupils ability and possibilities, on used of knowledge about pupils for organization of lessons and forms of presentation of content knowledge, the roles of pupils in the lesssons, etc. I asked 12 teachers (3 Polish & 9 Lithuanian) who were willing to talk about their work in history classrooms. Video recording I used as method of triangulation and supplement of data received from interviews. I recorded lessons of six teachers (3 Polish and 3 Lithuanian). -

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Innovative professional updating in Further Education

John Hall and Kevin Lowden

Dr John C Hall, Research Officer The SCRE Centre, Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow, Telephone: 0141 330 3496, Email: [email protected] Keywords: Continual Professional Development, Further Education Knowledge transfer Much previous and existing CPD in Further Education has concentrated on pedagogical and managerial topics while the provision of technical/subject updating has largely been overlooked (SFEU 2004). Partly in response to the HMI report (SFEFC 2005), the Scottish Funding Council funded four pilot projects in 2006 to encourage FE staff to undertake professional updating. In June 2006, the SCRE Centre at Glasgow University was commissioned to evaluate the initiative and this study was completed in April 2007. The evaluation adopted a multi-method approach, including surveys of particpants and college co-ordinators, supplemented by interviews, focus groups and analysis of participants' own CPD reports and other relevant documentation. This paper will report the main findings from the evaluation to assess the impact of the programme on the professional skills and motivation of teaching and non-teaching staff as well as insights on the wider benefits for students, the colleges in general and the training hosts/providers. The advanatages and disadvantages of the different models will also be discussed. References SFEU (2004) The Identification of Key Staff Development Needs in Scotland's Colleges. Scottish Further Education Unit, Stirling. SFEFC (2004)Standards and quality in Scottish Further Education: Quality Framework For Scottish FE Colleges (www.hmie.gov.uk/about_us/inspections/documents/sfefc_framework.doc)

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Using Systems Thinking as a Teaching and Learning tool for of Biology Education

Shagufta Shafqat Chandi

Faculty of Education, Department of Curricular Studies, University of Strathclyde, Email: [email protected], Mobile Number: 07910574117 Keywords: systems thinking, biology, education Generally, science is considered a difficult subject to understand by students. In spite of holding the essential components to develop deep understanding in a particular topic of biology, students' understanding often remains relatively shallow. Presently, pedagogy is usually blamed for shallow learning. However the difficulties of learning sciences, particularly biology, are related to the nature of science itself, the method by which it is traditionally taught and the learners' biological attributes and attitudes. However, for research purposes, the only factor which could be manipulated to try and increase student understanding is the teaching practice. The present exploratory study used systems thinking as a teaching and learning tool in biology. Four systems thinking based teaching and learning units in a selected area of biology (phenomenon of transposition) were developed. The units were presented by the researcher to 1st year biology undergradute students in Scotland and Pakistan. The units were presented as self-study learning material in Scotland but were taught to students in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to explore how the students percieved these units and to identify in what ways they found them beneficial to their learning. Likert scale questionnires and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection instruments. Results show that students found these units helpful in various ways in their learning and thus suggest the use of systems thinking in education, particularly in biology, may aid student understanding of biological concepts. Furthermore, the study has teased out many issues related to systems thinking which will open up further research in biology education.

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Native English Teaching Scheme in Hong Kong: 'accidental tourists' or 'agents of change'?

Victor Forrester and Beatrice Lok

Department of Education Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, [email protected] Faculty of Education, Cambridge University, Cambridge, [email protected] Key words: Exploratory workshop; community-of-practice; Hong Kong Hong Kong Governments's Native English Teaching Scheme currently places expatriate native-speaking English teachers (NETs) into every Government school. The deployment ratio is daunting ­ one NET for every 40 classes (total n= 1,600 pupils). Equally daunting are the job expectations: `NETs are required to teach English as a second language to Chinese students and assist in teaching and curriculum development.' (Education and Manpower Bureau, 2006) These expectations place NETs as `agents of change' ­ with a triple responsibility consisting of classroom teaching; assisting the professional development of local Chinese teachers of English; developing the current English language curriculum. However given, amongst other features, their daunting deployment ratio, many NETs feel less like `agents of change' and more like `accidental tourists'. Relatively little research has examined specifically how diverse (here native and nonnative English speaking) teachers construct and exercise complementary roles for cultivating good practice within their school community. Addressing this research-gap we report a current exploratory research (2006) of potential elements that contribute to successful NET integration. Justification and limitations of our adopted research methodology ­ an exploratory workshop - will be discussed. An empirical analysis of our research data highlights issues of support, constraint and classroom teacherautonomy. The authors argue a case for the theoretical framework of community-ofpractice as useful in understanding and facilitating the professional interface between diverse teachers ­ here between NET and local teachers in Hong Kong.

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Saturday Morning

Management and organisational change in schools

Catherine O'Hara

34 Gamekeepers Road, Kinnesswood, Kinross, KY13 9JR Tel: home:01592840421 work: 01382464428 Keywords: Leadership, Management, Change Over the last decade new models of governance and management have developed within Scottish schools, driven by a number of policy initiatives including the McCrone Agreement (2001), The Standards in Scottish Schools Act, SEED(2000) and the quality assurance agenda focusing on school self improvement through quality indicators and frequent school inspection by HMIE. Since devolution there has been a raft of new policies in Scottish Education that have impacted on the way that schools are managed and run This has provided the impetus for a variety of innovations in schools such as devolved management, development planning, more accountability and transparency and greater market awareness and community involvement. More recently, there has been an emphasis on the pivotal role of leadership in schools, where the focus is on a more distributed style of leadership with a movement away from formal hierarchical structures. This study addresses how change is being implemented in schools post McCrone, but also recognises the impact of how wider agendas are affecting the management and governance of schools and how professionals are making sense of their roles as a result of these initiatives. Case Studies were carried out in five local authorities across Scotland. Data was analysed in terms of identifying and overviewing the emoerging themes of Leadership, Collegiality and Professionalism. A team approach to the coding and analyis of interviews was adopted. Preliminary analysis of structured interviews of a cross-section of teachers, managers and support staff in a local authority primary and secondary school reveals that competing policy agendas are impacting on the day to day reality of teachers and that teachers' conceptualization of issues such as leadership, collegiality and professionalism are not as clear cut as the rhetoric would suggest.

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SERA Conference 2007

The use of democracy and leadership in preventing bullying

Vanda Sigurgeirsdóttir

Assistant Professor, Leisure Activities, Iceland University of Education, Stakkahlíd, 105, Reykjavík, Iceland. Tel. + 354 8955555, e-mail: [email protected] Keywords: Leadership, democracy, bullying Abstract: In spring 2003 I did a quantitative study with teachers in Iceland. The purpose of the study was to explore self-reported levels of education and training of teachers about bullying, the teachers attitudes towards the issue and how they manage to deal with bullying situations. The rate of bullying incidents in schools has raised questions about how well prepared teachers feel they are in preventing and dealing with bullying. Questionnaires were sent to 20 elementary schools which had 742 teachers employed. The schools are located in different regions of Iceland, both in rural and urban areas. In october 2002 4697 teachers were working in elementary schools in Iceland. The day my assistants went to the schools 659 teachers where present, of which 523 answered, the return rate therefore 79,4% (if all 742 teachers are included the return rate is 70,5%). The questionnaire includes 42 questions, both open and closed form. First the teachers answered questions about their teacher education, school locations, school size, class size and gender. After that they answered 32 questions about bullying. The data of the closed form questions, which are the ones I will report this time, were entered into SPSS and were analyzed to yield frequencies and percentages. Also used was the Chi-square test of statistical significiance with 95% confidence limits. The results show that the teachers feel they are lacking in knowledge and training about bullying. They believe bullying is a serious problem in schools and that they are the primary party responsible for preventing and dealing with it. However, the teachers manage only to detect part of the bullying incidents that take place in elementery schools. Many of the participants reported being anxious and insecure when confronted with bullying situation and felt ill prepared to handle these incidents adequately. Also, the teachers report that they need more education about how to handle bullying situations, keeping discipline in their class-room, interview techniques, parent-teacher communication and about bullying prevention programs. The results will be discussed and questions about the state of teachers education in regards to bullying addressed. Also, and most importanly, it will be discussed how teachers can use good leadership skills and democracy to prevent bullying, leading to social justice and school improvement.

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SERA Conference 2007

Leadership in small Scottish primary schools: Still a unique style?

Valerie Wilson

SCRE Centre, University of Glasgow Keywords: Leadership, Teaching-headteachers, Small schools Introduction Scotland has a large number of small primary schools. They form the majority of primary schools in ten education authorities. This paper reports the findings from a follow-up study to research conducted ten years ago (Wilson & McPake, 1998). It focuses on headteachers of very small schools, ie those with pupil rolls of 50 or less. It was funded by the Scottish Executive Education Department. Aims of the research The overarching aim of the research is to revisit a sample of the small schools that participated in the large scale study undertaken by SCRE in 1996-1998 to acertain the leadership styles developed by headteachers of small schools in the intervening years. Methods The following research methods were utilised: · A search of electronic databases for relevant literature. · Case studies of nine primary schools in three education authorities. · A postal survey of 100 small schools with pupils rolls of 50 or less in ten education authorities. These data were analysed using SPSS. Main findings Most small school headteachers are still teaching headteachers who must undertake the complex dual role of teaching a composite class and leading a whole school, with few other teaching colleagues and little support. Their philosophy, based upon the primacy of learning and teaching, is still evident, as is their reliance on a contingent leadership style. Discussion Issues related to the obstacles faced by teaching headteachers and the support available to them will be raised.

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