Read Scripted_Routines.pdf text version

Scripted Routines for Students With Voice-Output Devices: Using Rehearsed Dialogues Based on Intentional Communication Levels

By Anne Simonsen School District #36 ­ Surrey, B.C.

Page 2

SECTION A:

1. LEVELS OF INTENTIONAL COMMUNICATION 2. CHOICE-MAKING WITH THIS LEVEL SYSTEM 1. HOW TO CREATE `SCRIPTED' DAILY ROUTINES INVOLVING ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING 2. HOW TO CREATE `SCRIPTED' WORK ACTIVITIES INVOLVING GOALS FROM COGNITIVE, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR, GROSS MOTOR OR OTHER AREAS (NONCOMMUNICATION AREAS) IN I.E.P.

Page 22 SECTION B:

1 USING THIS HANDOUT 1. Read through the handout. Use the information to determine your student's Level of Intentional Communication. Consider which level generates appropriate goals for him / her to work on. 2. Collect the handout information referring to suitable choice-making activities and scripted routines for your students. You may wish to make an additional copy of the handout, so that you can pull or tab the applicable Level pages. Create a blank "scripting" form so you can script a number of different activities for the student. Remember that the scripts should reflect the Level the student is working on.

3.

If your student is at

Refer to "Levels" pages ( )*

Check pages on choice-making

Check rehearsed dialogue `scripts' at these levels Activities for `Work' of daily living activities re: I.E.P. goals --36, 37 38, 39 40 41, 42

Level I Level II Level IIIA Level IIIB Level IV

2 (3), 4, 5 (6), 7 (8), 9 (10), 11, 12 (13), (14), 15, 16

--18 19 20 21

--(26), 27 (28), 29, 30 (31), 32 33

* ( ) indicates preliminary or transition behaviours

2 SECTION A1: LEVEL 1 Often multiply-handicapped students are functioning in Level 1 when they come to school. LEVEL 1 ­ PREINTENTIONAL Child does not realize that what he does has an effect on the behaviour of other people. Description 1. 2. 3. 4. Child may actively explore environment Does not direct vocalizations or actions to others Does not expect a response to his/her actions Receptive Language ­ no evidence that child understands what is communicated to him Examples of Behaviours 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. May examine and manipulate objects ­ may manipulate in stereotypic way (one way without variations) Attends to objects and sounds May be silent or may make sounds (vocalize) May be echolalic, but does not expect a response May or may not respond to speech of others LEVELS OF INTENTIONAL COMMUNICATION*

*Adapted from "Assessment and Intervention of Communicative Problems in Children with Autism" by Barry Prizant Developed for Hanen-Geneva Centre Program for Children with Autism, 1986

3 LEVEL II ­ SUBTLE SIGNALS Our first efforts should be to help the student move into Level II. This is when switch-operated voice output communication devices such as the Big Mack and the VoicePal Plus with Scanning are introduced. We build use of the devices into the signals we encourage the student to direct in order to make something happen (see #1 in Level II below). These signals may originate with the student, or an adult may select signals that the student could be encouraged to make. These signals may be so subtle that they are only recognizable to very familiar adults, and relate only to the immediate situation (see #2 and #3 in Level II below). · For example: A subtle signal may be the opening of a usually closed hand, to indicate that the student wants another turn to activate a `roller' that makes music play. When the adult observes the subtle signal, she would say `More? More!' and record the second `more' as she said it. The adult would then help the student hand-overhand to activate the switch to imitate the adults `more', then to activate the music with the roller. This builds device use into the beginning of production of meaningful verbal repetition or echolalia (see #8 in Level II below). `More' protects the students' self-interests.

4 LEVEL II ­ EARLY INTENTIONAL ­ SUBTLE SIGNALS Child begins to realize that his actions have an effect on others in the environment. Description 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Child begins to direct actions/signals to others and expects something specific to happen Child's signals/actions relate to the here-and-now and may be understood only by his caregivers Child may repeat signal/action until he gets the response he wants Child may become frustrated if he does not get the response he expects Receptive language ­ child may understand single words only in the context of daily routines at the time they are happening, eg. understands "pajamas" when in bedroom after bath time and parent is standing next to child's bed.

Examples of Behaviours 6. 7. 8. May move adult's hand to perform specific action related to what the child wants, eg. pushes hand to open fridge door Looks from adult to desire object Echolalia may be used meaningfully along with actions described above, eg. Child says "Want an apple, David?" when pushing parent's hand toward apple. Parent has just asked "Want an apple, David?" Words, phrases or sentences are usually repeated with exact same words heard, and are used as a `yes-answer' to confirm that the child wants to May move adult physically to perform specific action, eg. pushes adult to participate. make him leave the room May vocalize at the same time as performing the above actions May use eye contact when requesting, especially if s/he is becoming frustrated.

9. 10. 11.

5 When providing recorded messages for the student to use to imitate what the adult is saying, we must remember what the student is interested in communicating about. At this early level (II), messages should provide opportunities for the student to express the following: I (A) Self-maintaining strategies* Referring to physical and/or psychological needs: 1. Possible attention-seeking messages ­ · `Oh-oh!' · `Yoo-hoo!' · `You!' · `Teacher!' (or a name) · `Look!' Possible indications of discomfort ­ · `Ow!' · `Owy!' · `Hurt' Possible protests/refusals ­ · `No!' (plus head-shaking) Possible requests for food/drink ­ · `Eat!' · `Drink!' (plus hand-to-mouth sign approximation).

2.

3.

4.

(B)

Possible messages to protect self and self-interests ­ · `All gone!' · `Finished!' (plus `finished' sign approximation) · `More!' (plus sign approximation).

*Categories (I. Self-maintaining, II. Directing, III. Reporting on Present and Past Experiences) extracted and adapted from `Talking and Learning: A Guide to Fostering Communication Skills in Nursery and Infant Schools' by Joan Tough.

6 LEVEL IIIA ­ RECOGNIZABLE SIGNALS In Level IIIA we develop use of the devices to encourage production first of words that the adult records as she speaks them to the student, then later of previouslyrecorded words that the student does not get to hear first ­ as recognizable signals (not subtle ones) to affect the behaviour of others ­ coupled with other recognizable signals such as: eye-contact, eye-pointing, facial expression, gesturing, and vocalized imitations ­ within the context of ritualized, `scripted' daily routines (see #2 in Level IIIA below). Within each routine the steps should be done in exactly the same order each time, and the same simple words should be used to explain what is happening each time ­ as a result, the student learns to predict what is going to happen next in each routine. The simple words that are used in each routine create a repetitive vocabulary that the student learns first to imitate, then to use spontaneously.* Because these words are so expected and familiar to adults and students alike, the adult is able to develop an understanding of what the student is saying, even when his or her speech is unintelligible to an unfamiliar adult. Many of the students produce mostly vowel sounds ­ they are often very limited in their ability to produce consonant sounds. However, the number of syllables and the intonation in their verbal imitations (see #8 in Level IIIA below) allows the familiar adult to develop `an ear' for what the students are actually saying. In addition to the devices encouraging the imitation of different intonation patterns (mentioned above), they also encourage the use of verbal repetitions (echolalic imitations) for a variety of functions: eg. confirming, protesting, refusing or requesting (see #10 in Level IIIA below). *spontaneously = student-initiated (adult does not provide a model for students to imitate)

7 LEVEL IIIA ­ INTENTIONAL ­ NONVERBAL ­ RECOGNIZABLE SIGNALS Child is beginning to use specific gestures, vocalizations in specific contexts. Description 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Child is definitely aware of communication as a way of affecting the behaviours of others Child begins to use recognizable gestures, vocalizations, printing and eye contact to affect the behaviour of others in a specific way Child's ways of communicating are able to be understood by people other than caregivers Child will become frustrated and will persevere if his communication does not achieve the desired effect Receptive language ­ child begins to show understanding of some simple

phrases in context of daily routines where the object(s) under discussion are present "Sit on the potty" (in the bathroom). "Put on your boots" (child has just put on coat and is at front door ready to go to school). May also understand a few common object labels in a variety of different situations, eg. cookie, car. Examples of Behaviours 6. 7. 8. 9. Child uses signals/actions consistently to express what he wants to communicate Signals/actions may include gestures, giving, showing, pantomime, pointing and eye contact or combinations of these Vocalizations may have intonation patterns used by speakers of that particular language Some consistent sounds/syllables function as words, although they may or may not sound like the conventional word. These "p-words" (proto-words) are used meaningfully, but only in specific situations, eg. "ba" may mean "Give me echolalic, she/heis eating. sentences or phrases exactly as If child is that" when child still uses heard but uses them for a variety of reasons, eg. to confirm, request, protest, refuse, ask permission, in specific situations.

10.

8 · An example for encouraging imitation of intonation: The student activated the switch to say `Good Morning Teacher', which had been previously recorded with exaggerated intonation. When the student imitated the pre-recorded words with his own voice, he imitated the exaggerated intonation as well. (Attention-seeking). · An example for encouraging verbal repetitions (imitations) for a variety of functions: After the student washed his hands, he looked at a cloth towel hanging beside him, then immediately gestured toward the paper towel dispenser near him. The adult said `Want towel? Want paper towel!', and recorded the second phrase as she said it. The student was prompted to activate the device ­ and his recorded, imitated words functioned as a request (directing the student's own action).

9 Recorded messages provided at this level (IIIA), should provide opportunities for the student to continue to express what was listed previously for Level II, but in phrases: I (A) Self-maintaining strategies Referring to physical and/or psychological needs: 1. Possible Level IIIA attention-seeking messages ­ · `You-Teacher!' (or a name) · `Teacher come!' (or a name) · `Yoo-hoo teacher!' Possible Level IIIA indications of discomfort ­ · `Owy teacher!' · `Student's name hurt!' Possible Level IIIA protests/refusals ­ · `No (go) ___________ !' Possible Level IIIA requests for food/drink ­ · `Eat lunch!' · `Student's name drink!'

2.

3.

4.

(B)

Possible Level IIIA messages protecting self, and self-interests: · `Water all gone!' · `Standing finished!' · `More music!'

As well, in Level IIIA the student should have opportunities to express the following in recorded phrases: II (A) Directing strategies Possible messages that monitor the student's own actions (what the student is already doing) · `Play music' Possible messages that direct the student's actions (what the student wants to do): · `Go walk' · `Student's name walk' · `Student's name wants walk'

(B)

10 LEVEL IIIB ­ BEGINNING OF WORDS/GESTURES In Level IIIB we develop use of the devices to encourage consistent production of previously recorded words as `partners' with the consistent production of spoken words (or word approximations) by the student in a variety of situations ­ perhaps `across' or `outside' daily routines ­ (see #2 and #6 in Level IIIB below) as the student begins to: -use single words or short phrases spontaneously -change the form of the other people's sentences when imitating (see #9 in Level IIIB below). · An example for encouraging consistent use of spoken and previously recorded words: As a student entered the main hallway she heard the teacher's voice. The student said, `Good Morning Teacher' with her own voice, then activated her switch to repeat `Good Morning' (previously recorded on the device) ­ to request/direct the teacher to respond. · An example for encouraging the student to change the form of other people's sentences: A student activated a device to have it say `Time to sing Good Morning' (previously recorded words). Then she used her own voice to say `Teacher, time to sing' ­ to request/direct the teacher to sing.

11 LEVEL IIIB ­ INTENTIONAL ­ BEGINNING OF WORDS/SIGNS Child begins to use gestures and vocalizations in a variety of different situations and begins to use words/signs. Description 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Child is able to use gestures and "p-words" in a variety of situations Child begins to use words/signs consistently in a variety of situations Words/signs are conventional and, therefore, understood by others Some words/signs may be used in ways specific to that particular child, e.g. "bye" may mean "I want to go out". Child still uses mainly gestures, pointing, vocalizations and eye gaze to communicate and may combine these with words/signs Receptive language ­ child is beginning to understand single words and some short sentences without objects/people under discussion being present. Examples of Behaviours 7. 8. Child has about 5-10 words/signs which he uses to make something specific happen Words/signs are beginning to be used "flexibly", e.g. "cookie" now refers to different cookies in different situations, not only in cookie jar in child's kitchen. Children who are echolalic begin to use single words (as described above) and/or begin to change the form of other people's sentences when echoing, e.g. parent says "Lets go for a walk outside" child says "Go walk outside"

9.

12 Recorded messages provided at Level IIIB should provide opportunities for the students to continue to express what was listed as `II Directing strategies' for Level IIIA but in more complex phrases. II (A) Possible Level IIIB messages that monitor student's own actions: · `students' name play music' Possible Level IIIB messages that direct the student's own actions: · `student's name go walk' · `student's name want walk'

(B)

As well, in Level IIIB the student should have opportunities to express the following directing strategy in recorded phrases: (C) Possible Level IIIB messages that direct the actions of others: · `more go' (request involving action by another) · `name of other go' (request involving action by another) · `name of other, student's name go'.

13 Level IV FORMAL LANGUAGE (may be words, signs, other augmentative communication systems)

In Level IV we develop use of devices to encourage: -production of previously recorded words in partnership with spoken words A. to express feelings, needs, wants (see #1 in Level IV below) through requests, protests, refusals, declarations, comments B. to respond to and initiate interactions with less familiar others C. to 1. tell (declare, comment) about events, or give information about things not present or events that may have happened in the past (see #3 in level IV below) 2. respond to and ask questions about `present' things or `current' events firstly; later about things not present or happened in the past -understanding and production of sentences showing some ability to use grammar, pronouns in spoken and recorded utterances (see #2 in level IV below)

14 · An example for encouraging use of previously recorded and spoken words to express a `want': One student stopped playing music on the computer. Nicole called out quite loudly "Mavan!!" and then activated a prerecorded message with her switch which said "Play more music Mavan" (to request / direct Mavan to play more music). · An example for using recorded words and spoken words to respond and initiate interactions: Nicole was activating music on the computer. When it stopped I asked Mavan "Mavan what can you tell Nicole?" Mavan responded with his own voice and said "Play more music, Nicole!" I recorded his phrase on his Big Mac. Then he activated the phrase several times to get Nicole to play music again ­ to `direct' Nicole. · An example for using spoken or recorded words to relate to things not present (or past events): I asked "is Mary here?" Mavan responded with his voice to say "No, Mary home" (she was absent). I recorded his phrase "Mary home" on the Big Mac, and he activated it several times while we continued to talk and sing about Mary being at home (to comment on a component of the scene). · An example for using spoken or recorded words to show ability to use grammar in sentences: Nicole was activating music on the computer. Her classmate Sonam had a device which said "Play more music, Nicole", which she activated so often that she was irritating everyone! I heard Nicole express her irritation in a loud vocalization. I said to Nicole "Tell Sonam I am playing computer music!" I then recorded "I am playing computer music!!" on Nicole's device. Before Nicole had a chance to do anything more, Sonam again activated "Play more music Nicole." Nicole's response was to use her own voice to say "I am playing computer music" and then she immediately activated her device to say the same thing. This protected her own self-interests and directed her own and another's action.

15 LEVEL IV ­ INTENTIONAL ­ VERBAL/SIGN LANGUAGE Child uses language (words/signs) expressively and receptively as his/her main means of communication. Description 1. 2. Child uses language (words/signs) most of the time when communicating Expressive language contains sentences showing some ability to use grammar, e.g. "I am making a train" (underlined words show use of grammar). Some sentences may be more complex, e.g. "I don't want to go when it's dark". to talk about events or give information about things Child uses language that are not present or may have happened in the past Receptive language ­ child understands most sentences about familiar events or topics that are not too abstract. Has trouble understanding subtle meanings, e.g. idioms "He's out to lunch"; sarcasm "I feel great ­ I can't keep my eyes open" (after a poor night's sleep). Examples of Behaviours 5. 6. Child initiates and responds to interaction using words/signs Child's messages are mainly made up himself, but may be echolalic at times, particularly when s/he does not understand or when s/he is rehearsing a message Child's main problem is in using language appropriately in different social situations and in being able to appreciate all the information the listener needs to know in order to understand and maintain the conversation

3. 4.

7.

16 Recorded messages at Level IV should provide opportunities for the student to continue to express certain `Directing Strategies' listed for Level IIIB, but in more complex, sentence-like utterances: II(B) Possible Level IV messages that direct the student's own actions: · `I want go walk' II(C) Possible Level IV messages that direct the actions of others: · `Teacher sing song' · `Teacher, I go walk' · `You go walk' As well, in Level IV the student should have opportunities to express the following in recorded messages (in sentence-like utterances):

III A.

Reporting on experiences Possible Level IV messages about things that are present and/or events happening currently: 1. Labeling the components of the scene/declarations · `Mary's here' · `Tom's eating' · `I'm waiting for Elaine' Referring to incidents/declarations · `Johanne go drink coffee' Referring to the sequence of events · `Eat now ­ go walk later' Referring to details/attributes · `Pants wet' · `Pants are wet'

2.

3.

4.

17 SECTION A2: CHOICE MAKING WITH THIS LEVEL SYSTEM: Choice-making can be introduced firstly when a student is becoming familiar enough with a particular daily routine that she can predict what should happen next and what should be said next in that routine (see page 6 re: Level IIIA ­ Recognizable Signals ­ see second paragraph). So, as the student moves from Level II into Level IIIA, choices as to what could happen next in a routine can be presented ­ but the choice should reflect the appropriate `Use of Communication' strategies for the level that the student has been functioning in ­ in this case Level II (see page 5). It is important to remember that if the choices presented are at a level that a student has not yet reached, it is unlikely that the student will Note: choices should be provided initially with 2 Big Macks ­ later, with auditory be able to make successful choices. scanning using a personal speaker attached to a VoicePal Plus or Alphatalker (activated by 1 switch).

18 For Level II the strategies that would be part of choice-making are: · Self-maintaining strategies 1. Referring to physical and psychological needs 2. Protecting self and self-interests For example: A. "Walk" or "No!"? ­ referring to the student's physical / psychological needs / well-being B. "More" or "Finished (swing)"? ­ protecting the student's self-interests ­ when on the swing.

19 When the student is working in Level IIIA ­ choices as to what should happen next in ritualized daily routines should reflect the appropriate `Use of Communication' strategies for Level IIIA (see page 9) which can be part of choice-making: 1. Self-maintaining strategies 1. referring to physical and psychological needs 2. protecting self and self-interests 2. Directing Strategies 1.2. directing the student's own actions For example: A. "Ramneek walk" or "Ramneek no walk"? referring to the student's physical / psychological needs/ well being. B. "More water" or "Water all gone, finished"? ­ protecting the student's self-interests when washing her hands. C. "Play music" or "Play noises"? ­ directing the student's own actions in choosing an activity, not an object

20 When the student is working in Level IIIB ­ choices as to what should happen next in ritualized daily routines should reflect the appropriate "Use of Communication" strategies for Level IIIB (see page 12) which can be a part of choice-making: II Directing Strategies 2. directing the student's own actions and 3. directing the actions of others For example: A. "Nathanial go walk" or "Nathanial eat snack"? ­ directing the student's own action in choosing an activity B. "Ready go walk" or "No go walk"? ­ directing the student's own action / protecting the student's self-interests C. "Sonam, play (the) music" or "Sonam, play noises"? ­ directing the action of another person

21 When the student is working on goals in Level IV ­ choices as to what should happen next in daily routines should reflect the appropriate "Use of Communication" strategies for Level IV (see page 18), which are initially II Directing strategies 2. directing the student's own actions 3. directing the actions of others III Reporting on experiences strategies 1. labelling / making declarations about the components of the scene 2. referring to incidents 3. referring to sequences of events 4. referring to details / attributes For example: A. "I want to go for a walk" or "Don't want walk"? ­ directing the student's own actions. B. "Want the ball" or "I want the bells" directing own actions. C. "You sing Old MacDonald" or "Sing B-I-N-G-O"? directing the actions of another. D. "Mary's at school" or "Mary's at home"? ­ labelling the components of the scene / making a declaration about the scene. E. "Elaine's here" or "Elaine's at home"? ­ making a declaration about the scene F. "Kids jumping" or "Kids singing"? referring to incidents G. "Time (to) swing" or "Time eat lunch"? ­ referring to the sequence of events. H. "My hair's dry" or "Hair's wet"? ­ referring to details / attributes.

22 SEQUENCE OF HOW TO CREATE `SCRIPTED' DAILY ROUTINES

First, a daily schedule of the students activities is made up. For example:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 10:45 11:00 11:30 11:45 12:15 12:30 1:00 1:15 1:45 2:15 2:30

Bus arrives, toileting Circle activities (small group) Full inclusion in large primary class Recess ­ outside Toileting Switch activities ­ computer or tape recorder or switchoperated toys Get ready for lunch Eat lunch Outside Quiet time a) listen to taped music (small group) b) choose / sing familiar songs Toileting Physical activities ­ eg. using walker Full inclusion in large primary class Toileting, get ready for bus Bus leaves

23 Within each of these scheduled times there are activities of daily living as well as work tasks. (`Work' tasks would involve either socialization, cognitive, perceptual motor or gross motor goals from the student's I.E.P.) The activities of daily living could be as follows:

a) Getting off / on the bus / going to / from class b) Coat off/on c) Shoes or boots off/on d) Mitts, hat, etc. off/on e) Hanging up coat / getting coat f) Putting other clothing away / getting them g) Going to/from toilet h) Toileting i) Going to/from specific activities, locations, classrooms j) Washing hands before/after eating k) Getting food, utensils l) Eating m) Cleaning up/ending activity n) Getting materials o) Using materials p) Putting materials q) Transitions between activities r) Choosing an activity

24 Here are examples of scheduled activities from the daily schedule above:

#6 ­ SWITCH ACTIVITIES Daily living tasks development a) transition from previous activity b) choosing a task c) getting to right location d) accessing right materials, equipment e) ending the activity f) putting things away g) transition to next activity `Work' tasks (from cognitive area of IEP) a) hitting single switch to appropriately activate cause and effect computer program

Switch activities present both kinds of tasks ­ daily living and `work'. Toileting below presents daily living tasks only. #11 ­ TOILETING

DAILY LIVING TASKS ONLY a) b) c) d) e) f) need for toileting (schedule time or by request) transition from previous activity getting to/on toilet getting off toilet / `finished' washing hands transition to next activity

25 Additional examples are as follows:

#9 ­ OUTSIDE (AFTER LUNCH IS FINISHED) Daily living tasks IEP) a) transition from previous activity b) getting ready ­ coat on, etc. c) going out (eg. go down the hall, open door, etc.) d) choosing activity, area e) coming in f) coat off, hung up, etc. g) transition to next activity `Work' tasks (from socialization area of a) Student attempts to communicate with words when peers speak to him.

#12 ­ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ­ USING WALKER DAILY LIVING TASKS IEP) a) transition from previous activity b) getting to walker c) getting into walker d) ending use of walker e) transition to next task `WORK' TASKS (from gross motor area of a) student walks a certain distance independently using walker

26 Use of switch-operated communication devices (e.g. Big Mack and/or Voice Pal Plus) may be introduced most easily with the tasks of daily living. These devices may be introduced within `work' activities at a later date, or may be introduced simultaneously.

Now here is an example of how to `script' the daily routine for:

#7 GETTING READY FOR LUNCH

INVOLVING ­ DAILY LIVING TASKS ONLY a) transition from previous activity b) c) d) e) f) getting materials (e.g. sponge, towel) washing hands drying hands putting material away transition to next activity

The first sample is for students who are working in Level II ­ that is, where the imitation of the adult's words serves as a signal from the student to the adult, which the student produces to cause something to happen (imitation through use of a Big Mack).

27

SAMPLE 1 [LEVEL II] PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says `Singing finished' `Wash hands' [Adult records underlined words as says them] þ `Water on' `Get sponge' `Wash hands' `Sponge away' `Water all gone' `Get towel' `Dry hands' `Towel all gone' `Time student eat' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in response adults prompt. Action toor Says Activates switch þ `Wash [hands]' Both go to sink þ `Water [on]' þ `[Get] sponge' þ `Wash [hands]' þ `[Sponge] away' þ `All gone' þ `[Get] towel' þ `Dry [hands]' þ `All gone' þ `Student eat' Confirms `Water on' Adult turns water on Confirms `Get sponge' Adult helps student get sponge Confirms `Wash hands' Adult helps student wash hands with sponge Confirms `Sponge away' Adult helps student put sponge away Confirms `Water all gone' Adult turns water off Confirms `Get towel' Adult helps student get paper towel Confirms `Dry hands' Adult helps student dry hands Confirms `Towel all gone' Adult helps student put towel in garbage Confirms `student eat' RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says Adult confirms `Wash hands'

28 The second sample is for students who are moving from Level II into Level IIIA, where imitation of the adult's words serves a variety of functions: e.g. confirming, requesting, protesting or refusing (as previously stated on page 6) - imitation through a communication device (Big Mack, Voice Pal Plus).

The confirming and requesting functions are probably the easiest to orchestrate.

Note #1: Inter-active style (using a limited number of words) used in `scripted' activities is outlined in `It Takes Two to Talk ­ A Hanen Early Language Parent Guidebook' by Ayala Manolson.

29

SAMPLE 2 [LEVEL IIIA] PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. (Adult records underlined or words as student says them.) Action Says Confirming function [Requesting] Requesting [Requesting] Requesting Requesting Confirming Requesting `Singing finished now - time wash hands' `What do first?' `Water on?' `What we get?' `Get sponge?' `Wash hands?' `Sponge all gone' `What do [with] water?' Spontaneous þ STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in response adults prompt. Action toor Says Activates switch þ `Wash hands!' Both go to sink Looks at faucet þ `Water on?' Looks at sponge on counter þ `Get sponge?' þ `Wash hands?' þ `All gone' `All gone' Confirms `Water on' Adult turns water on Confirms `get sponge' Adult gives sponge to student Confirms `wash hands' Adult helps student wash hands with sponge Confirms `all gone' as puts sponge away Confirms `all gone ­ water all gone' as turns it off Confirms `get towel' Adult gives towel to student Confirms `dry hands' Adult helps student dry hands RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says Adult confirms `wash hands'

[Requesting] Requesting Requesting [Requesting]

`What we get?' `Get towel?' `Dry hands?' `Where towel go?'

Looks at paper towel dispenser þ `Get towel?' þ `Dry hands?' Looks at garbage can

30

SAMPLE 2 [LEVEL IIIA] continued ... PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action Requesting Confirming or Says `Go garbage?' `Time student eat!' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in response adults prompt. Action toor Says þ `Go garbage?' þ `student eat' RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says Confirms `go garbage' Adult helps student drop towel in can Confirms `Time student eat now!'

However, it is important that opportunities for protest and/or refusal are also provided through imitation. These opportunities can be provided by `following the student's lead' as follows (with a communication device). EXAMPLE: [Refusing] `What do first?' Student does not look at faucet Continues to look elsewhere in refusal. þ `No water!' Confirms `No water'

Taps on faucet `No water?' Refusing function `No water!' At this point the adult waits a while and then tries again with `Water on?' EXAMPLE: [Protesting] `Wash hands?' Protesting function `No wash? No wash!' At this point the adult waits a while and then tries again with: `Wash hands?'

Student indicates protest by behaviour þ `No wash!'

31 The third sample is for students who are familiar enough with the steps/rehearsed dialogue within the routine ­ that is, moving from Level IIIA into Level IIIB ­ that they should be given opportunities/time to speak the familiar/rehearsed phrases spontaneously (without having the adult say or `model' each phrase first ­ as previously mentioned on page 10) ­ through use of a communication device with pre-recorded messages (on a voice Pal Plus, Alphatalker) ­ either accessing each message directly on a Voice Pal Plus, or through auditory scanning as `choice-making' ­ using a single switch.

32 SAMPLE 3 [LEVEL IIIB] PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says `Singing finished now' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in response to adults prompt. Action or Says Activates switch with pre-recorded message þ `Time wash hands' `What [we] do first?' þ `Water on' RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says Confirms: `Time wash hands' Both go to sink Confirms `Water on' Turns water on `What we get?' þ `Get sponge' Confirms `Get sponge' Gets the sponge `What [we] do now?' þ `Wash hands?' Confirms `Wash hands' Washes hands with sponge `What do [with] sponge?' `What do [with] water?' `What we get?' `What we do?' `Where towel go?' `What time is it?' þ `[Sponge] all gone?' þ `All gone?' þ `Get towel?' þ `Dry hands?' þ `Go garbage' þ `Time [to] eat!' Confirms `Sponge all gone, finished' as puts it away Confirms `Water all gone' as turns it off Confirms `Get towel' as gets it Confirms `Dry hands' as does so Confirms `Go garbage' as towel drops in can Confirms `Time to eat!'

33 The fourth sample is for students who are moving into Level IV (continuing with spontaneous use of pre-recorded phrases/sentences) ­ Voice Pal Plus, Alphatalker, again accessing messages directly or through auditory scanning. SAMPLE 4 [LEVEL IV] PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. ACTION or SAYS STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in response to Action or Says adults prompt. Activates switch with pre-recorded message þ `Time wash hands' [or `wash my hands?'] þ `Get the sponge' or [`Get it'] þ `Turn the water on' [or `turn it on'] þ `Wash [my] hands' þ `Get towel' [or `Get it'] þ `Dry [my] hands' þ `[I] want to eat now!' When the student at Level IV is able to handle auditory scanning with a Voice Pal Plus, an Alphatalker is an excellent next step. It can be programmed in auditory scanning to provide 4 (or 8) individual messages about 4 to 8 different topics of conversation called `themes' ­ that is, 4 to 8 different `scripts' can be available to the student. RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says Adult confirms `Singing finished now. What time is it?' `Yah, time to wash hands'

Sponge is reached for Both go to sink Water is turned on Hands are washed with sponge Sponge is put away Paper towel is reached for Hands are dried Paper towel is put in garbage can

34 SECTION B2: HOW TO CREATE SCRIPTED `WORK' ACTIVITIES (INVOLVING GOALS FROM STUDENTS' IEP IN SOCIALIZATION, COGNITIVE, PERCEPTUAL ­ MOTOR OR GROSS MOTOR AREAS)

It is important to remember that communication is part of everything we do. Therefore, it is essential that the student be encouraged to communicate (using communication devices) during every activity that he/she is involved in, as any child would do. For a student in Level II/IIIA, the adult records as they go along so the student can imitate the adult's spoken model. If the student is in Level IIIB/IV, previously recorded messages should be ready for the student. However, these previously recorded messages should at least initially be the familiar words and phrases that the student was encouraged to imitate while in Level IIIA.

35 As stated in Section B1, `work' tasks involve I.E.P. goals in non-communication areas: social, cognitive, perceptual motor, gross motor, etc. For example, here are scheduled activities from the `daily schedule' found at the beginning of Section B1: #6 Switch activities (involves `work' tasks from cognitive development area of I.E.P.). (a) hitting single switch to appropriately activate cause and effect computer program. Outside (involves `work' tasks from socialization are of I.E.P.). (a) attempting to communicate with words when peers speak to her. Physical activity using walker (involves `work' tasks from gross motor area of I.E.P.). (a) walking specified distance independently using walker. Time in large primary class (involves `work' tasks from social, perceptual ­ motor and cognitive development area of I.E.P.). (a) listening quietly as teacher reads a story to class. (b) using pegs.... (c) turning pages in thick-page book as a buddy reads a story to her.

#9

#12

#3

36 Here is an example of scripted `work' activities promoting the goals for activity #3, mentioned immediately above. (#3, `Time in large primary class' .... I.E.P. goals a, b, c...) For goals `turning pages ...' and `using pegs,' work on these two goals occurs between: Daily Living tasks (see page 31) ­ (c) gathering materials in primary class, and (d) putting materials away. Again, the first sample is for students who are working in Level II ­ imitation as `signalling' to make something happen (use of Big Mack).

37 SAMPLE 1 [LEVEL II] PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says `Time read book!' `Call Peer, Peer!' Peer: `Want to read the book?' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in response adults prompt. Action toor Says Activates switch þ `Read [book]' þ `Peer' þ `Read [book]' þ `Turn [page]' RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. What happens! Says Action or Starts the process þ Adult confirms `Read book' Peer comes Peer reads Student to help to turn page

Peer reads first page and says `Turn the page' CONTINUE THIS READ/TURN ACTIVITY UNTIL: Peer: Peer: `Book finished' `Good-bye!' `Time for pegs!' `Peg in?'

þ `[Book] finished' þ `Good-bye' þ `Pegs!' þ `[Peg] in'

Book goes away Peer leaves Get pegs Adult confirms `Time for pegs' Adult confirms `Peg in' Student is encouraged to put peg in a hole

CONTINUE THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL ALL PEGS ARE `IN' `Time pegs away' þ `[Pegs] away' Starts the progress þ Adult confirms: `Time pegs away' Student is encouraged to remove a peg

CONTINUE THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL ALL PEGS ARE `AWAY' `Pegs all gone!' þ `All gone' Pegs go away þ Adult confirms `Pegs all gone ­ finished'

38

SAMPLE 2 [LEVEL IIIA] The second sample is for students moving into Level IIIA ­ imitation for a variety of purposes: confirmation, request, refusal, protest [Big Mack, Voice Pal Plus] PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says Confirming `Time read book' Requesting `Call peer - peer!' Requesting Peer `Want to read the book?' Peer reads first page and says `Turn the page' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in Action or Says response to adults prompt. Activates switch þ `Time read book' þ `Peer, Peer!' þ `Read the book?' Student is helped to turn the page. RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says

CONTINUE THIS READ/TURN ACTIVITY UNTIL: Requesting Peer `The book's finished' Peer `Good-bye student' Refusing ­ adult works an opportunity for this into the activity when appropriate* `Time for pegs!' `No pegs?' þ `Good-bye' [Spontaneous!] þ `Good-bye' Slight hesitation to respond þ `No pegs!' Adult confirms `No pegs!' þ `We will wait a while and I will ask you again' (or some other similar comment) Adult confirms `Time for pegs' Adult confirms `Peg in' Student is encouraged to put peg in a hole

Requesting Confirming

`Time [for] pegs?' `Peg in'

þ `Time pegs' þ `Peg in'

39 Continued ...

40

SAMPLE 2 [LEVEL IIIA] continued... The second sample is for students moving into Level IIIA ­ imitation for a variety of purposes: confirmation, request, refusal, protest [Big Mack, Voice Pal Plus] PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says CONTINUE UNTIL: Confirming `Time pegs away?' þ `Pegs away!!' Adult confirms `Time pegs away!' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in Action or Says response to adults prompt. RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says

Student is encouraged to remove a peg. CONTINUE THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL þ Student slows down in removing pegs so the adult attempts hand-over-hand assistance ­ student's behavior indicates that she is not happy with this ­ her behavior is a PROTEST! þ `No help!'

Protesting*

`No help student?'

Adult confirms

`Adult no help student'

At this point either: 2. the student will decide to continue removing pegs herself. If so, eventually: Confirming `Pegs all gone!' þ `Pegs all gone!' Adult confirms `Peg all gone ­ finished!'

3. the student will refuse to remove any more pegs, if so: þ `Later pegs away-time for substitute a short preferred activity now!' CARRY OUT THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL IT IS COMPLETED. THEN RE-INTRODUCE PUTTING `ALL' PEGS AWAY. þ `short preferred activity'

41

SAMPLE 3 [LEVEL IIIB] The third sample is for students working in Level IIIB ­ spontaneous phrases [Voice Pal Plus, AlphaTalker] pre-recorded ­ accessed directly or through auditory scanning. PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says Adult waits expectantly with a book STUDENT RESPONSE RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says Adult confirms "Time, read book.'

Peer

What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in Action or Says response to adults prompt. Activates switch þ `Time read books' `Peer! Peer!' `Want to read the book?' þ `Want to read!' Student tries to turn page [maybe with help] Student tries to turn page. þ `Good-bye!'

Peer reads first page and says: `Turn the page' Peer reads next page and waits expectantly CONTINUE THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL: Peer reads last page and closes the book and may say: `The book's finished!' `Good-bye student!' Adult reaches for and waits expectantly with pegs/board

þ `Time for pegs' Student reaches for peg and says þ `Peg in?' Student is encouraged to put peg in hole.

Adult confirms Adult confirms

`Time for pegs!' `Peg in student'

CONTINUE THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL ALL PEGS ARE `IN' Continued ...

42

SAMPLE 3 [LEVEL IIIB] continued... The third sample is for students working in Level IIIB ­ spontaneous phrases [Voice Pal Plus, AlphaTalker] pre-recorded ­ accessed directly or through auditory scanning. PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says `Time pegs away!' `Want to wait?' `OK, I'll ask you again in a minute!' A couple of minutes later, try: `Now, time pegs away?' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in Action or Says response to adults prompt. þ `No ­ no away!' þ `Want to wait!' RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says

þ `Pegs away!'

Adult confirms `Pegs away' plus `All gone'

CONTINUE THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL ALL PEGS ARE `AWAY'.

43

SAMPLE 4 [LEVEL IV] The fourth sample is for students who are working in Level IV ­ spontaneous formal language [Voice Pal Plus, AlphaTalker] pre-recorded ­ accessing messages directly or through auditory scanning. PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says Adult waits STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in Action or Says response to adults prompt. Activates switch þ `I want to read a book' Student it encouraged to get book þ `The book's big!' Student looks at peer þ `I want to read a book' Peer reads a page[s] then asks a simple question like: a) `Who's that?' þ b) `What's _____ doing?' þ c) `Where's _____ going?' þ d) `Where's _____?' þ Peer waits CONTINUE THIS ACTIVITY UNTIL: Continued ... Student answers the question: Peer: RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says Adult confirms: `Yah ­ get the book student' `Yes ­ the book is big!' `I will read the book to you now, student'

a) `That's _____' b) `_____ [verb] ing' c) `_____ going _____' d) `_____ in the car' Student tries to turn page.

44

SAMPLE 4 [LEVEL IV] continued... The fourth sample is for students who are working in Level IV ­ spontaneous formal language [Voice Pal Plus, AlphaTalker] pre-recorded ­ accessing messages directly or through auditory scanning. PROMPT What adult does and/or says to stimulate the student to respond. Action or Says Peer allows student to answer the last question, then, closes the book. Peer `Good-bye student' STUDENT RESPONSE What student does and/or says [with own voice] or with communication device in response to Action or Says adults prompt. þ `The book's finished now' þ `Good-bye' þ `Time to put pegs in the holes' Student tries to get pegs Student puts some pegs in holes, then stops þ `No ­ don't want it!' `Yes, get the pegs, student' RESULT What happens as a result of what student does and/or says. Action or Says

Adult waits expectantly

`Put the pegs in the holes, student' `Put all the pegs in the holes' `OK ­ you wait, I'll ask you again later' A couple of minutes later, try: `Time to put all the pegs in now?' `OK let's put the pegs away'

þ `Time to put pegs in the holes' þ `Time to put pegs away' Student helps adult put pegs away.

Student puts rest of pegs in holes

45

46 When the student is in Level IV, the previously recorded, spontaneous responses provided should be of a fairly complex nature: eg: `I want (to) read (a) book.' `Get the pegs.' `The pegs are all in.' `Yeah, time pegs away.' `The pegs are all gone.' Sometimes, that student might respond to a question: · · Buddy's question ­ "What book do you want to read?' Student's response ­ `I want (read) Gingerbread Boy.'

or ask a question: · · Student question ­ `Where pegs go?' Adults' response ­ `in container.'

Information

47 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

1016340