Read Microsoft Word - d050025 text version

« » 7.100302­ " "

2005

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2

629.12.03.(075.8) : . « » 7.100302 « » / . .. . - : - , 2005. ­ 38 . '95, -III/1 - III/2. , 9 23 2005 . : .., . ., . .

- .

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3

.............................. ................................................................. 1., ............................................... 2. .......... 2.1. .... 2.2. ............................................. 2.3. ....................... 2.4. .................................................... 2.5. .......................... 2.6. .... 2.7. ................................................................. 3. ..................................................... 4. ........................ 5. ................. 6. , ...................................................... .......................................... 4 4 5 10 10 13

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5

, , , - ­ . , . . , , . 1. , 20-25 %. , , . , , , , , , , . , 10-13 %, -- 12-15 % [1, 7]. , 800 1 . , ( 42 /), 0,5 1 .

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6

, , 80 / (2,7 1 ). , , , 0,6 1,0 1 [3]. , , . 0,185 /(), ( 60 -1) 0,162 /() [8]. 13...16 % , , , . [3]. 2 %. , , 2...3 %. . , , , ;

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7

, , . , , , , , , . . . , , . , , . (, ), , , , . [19]. ( ) :

m

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:

B y

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H,

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9

. , , , , : B = q geNeQ./Q. k , (6) q -- , , Q., Q. -- , , , , /. : Gmax = 24 q ge Ne Q. /q , (7) q - , 1 , /: q = [r + mcp (t2 ­ t1)] ; (8) r - , /; m - , , , ; - , /(·); t2 , t1 - , °C; - , . . . [16] , , , . , , . , , , . , , -

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10

. : B = (P g ­ P g )t , (9) P , P - , ; g , g - , /(·); , - ; t - , , [3]. - , , , . . . , . 2. 2.1. : = g Rv/ , (10) g - ; R - ; v - ; - ; , , - , . , -

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11

, , . , , , 0,65...0,95 . ( , , ) , , . , , . - . . , . 1 , [3]

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12

1 - - - . . . | . . 70 %. , [8,15]. , . , 0,25...0,5 % . . . 1,25 2 , 35...50 %. . -

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, . [8]. , , . -- -- -- -- . . [12]. , , , , . , , , , . , , . , . 5...15 %, [8]. - . ­ , , . , , , .

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, . , . 60% . , , , [6,8]. 2.2. . , , . , , , , . [18]. 2.3. , , , , , . , , , , , , , , , . -

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15

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16

. , , [11,13]. , , , . «» [3]. 2.4. , . , 70...75 %, [3]. , , . , . , . , . . , , . - ( ), , , .

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17

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18

, . , , . = f() . , , :

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(12) ki - ; i - i- () ; Ni - . , 6 18/22, 250 , 3,4 . , . [3]. , , , , , 1,5...2 %. , . , , . . , , -

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19

, . , . , , (, ), - . , . [18]. 2.5. -- . , , . q. . q2. 2 q2 q3 . , 1,2...1,25. 1,5...1,8 2 . , . 3, - 4...6 % [3].

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20

2 - q2 q

3 - q2 , 2 1, . -

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21

[3]. 2.6. , , = D (x ­ )/(QP k) , (13) QP k-- 1 . , . 4 1 .

4 - [3]. , 10 ° 1 1,2 1,44 . , , 130 °. , [3].

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22

2.7. : , , , , . , , , ; , , , . 5 q2 t. , , [10].

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23

, , . , SO3 H2SO4, , . [18]. . , , . . , , , . , , , . . , , , , . , , 0,233 /(), 1 2,5 150...200 ° 400 ° . , , . , , -

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, , , . - , , [4]. - , 1 % 14...18 0. , 0,55 / 350 440 ° ( ) 6 %, 259 . . [18]. . , , , , , . , . , , , , , [3]. 3. : , , , , -

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25

, . , . , , , ; ; ; -- [3, 9, 13]. , , 30 42 %. , , . , 30...37 %, 40 % . . - , [9]. , , , , . , , , . , , , , . -

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26

, . , - . . , , , . : ( , ), . , , , . 1 [3, 9]. . . , [13]. . VX , , «»,

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. VX - . , , . 350...450 ° , . 1,4 / (5000 /), [3]. 30...60 200 . , . . , 15 / , . . [10]. , . 4. , , , . , ( ..), , [3, 6, 20]. , - , . -

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28

, . , , . , , , . , , . , , , , , , . , , . , ( ) , . . , . . , , , [3]. . [3, 16, 18]. , .

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5. . . , , , . , , , . , , . . , , [2, 5, 17]. 1...1,5 %, 3 % . . , . , , . , , . , . , . -. : , -

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, , , , . 80 % . - , , . , . , , - , . , (), [17]. , : - ; - , . , , , , . . , , - , , , , . , , . , , . , .

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31

- [19]. . - . ­ , . , , . , , ­ . : ­ . , .. . , , . ­ , . ­ . , [5,17]. , , . . , «» - , . . -

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32

. . . , - , [13, 17]. , , , . , , , 10...20 % 2...3 %. . , , [5, 18]. . , . , [18]. , . , - . -

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. , 10 % . 3...4 % . - ( , ) . , 5 % . [3, 19]. - , , , - . 6. , , . , . . , . , , , [3]. , , , , , - , , , . -

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34

, , , . , , . , , . , . . , . - . , , , . , , , , . , , . , , [

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35

( ) cypca. . , . , , . , | ( ) , , , . , | , . , , , , , , . () , , . , , , , , , . , , , - . , , . , , ,

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36

, , . . . , , , , . , , , , () . . , , , . . , - . , - . , , . , , () , , . [3], , , , | .

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37

, , , , . , , , () , . , , , . , . , , . , , , . , . . . , , , . . . . -

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38

. , , , , , . , , , , , , - , 2...5 %, [3]. 1. . . /.. , .. . - .: , 1972. - 296 . 2. . . /.. , .. - .: , 1978. - 152 . 3. .. /.. . ­ .: , 1986. - 176 . 4. . . / .. , .. . - .: , 1973. - 304 . 5. .. /.. , .. , .. . - .: , 1988. - 80 . 6. .. /.. . - .: , 1982. - 160 . 7. . . /.. . - , 1983. - 2. - . 19-25. 8. .. /.. . - .: , 1987.- 223 . 9. . . /.. . - .: , 1983. - 232 . 10. .. /.. , .. . - .: , 1989. - 95 . 11. . . / .. ,

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.. . - , 1980. - 2.- . 43-415. 12. .. / .. . - .: , 1974.- 200 . 13. .. / .. , .. . - .: , 1984. ­ 20 . 14. .. - / .. . - , 1981. 10.- . 39 - 41. 15. .. /.. . - .: , 1979. - 76 . 16. .. /.. . - .: , 1973. - 254 . 17. .. /.. , .. . - .: , 1983. - 231 . 18. / .. , .. , .. , .. . - .: , 1987. - 480 . 19. .. - /.. . - .: , 1978. - 136 . 20. : . / . . , .. , .. . ­ .: , 1996. ­ 432 .

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