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Vocal Ornamentation in Verdi: The Phonographic Evidence Will Crutchfield 19th-Century Music, Vol. 7, No. 1. (Summer, 1983), pp. 3-54.

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Vocal Ornamentation in Verdi: the Phonographic Evidence

WILL CRUTCHFIELD

The gap between the introduction of the necessary technology around 1500 and the actual invention of the phonograph in 1877 was followed by a few tantalizing decades of delay. Liszt, Wagner, Clara Schumann, and Jenny Lind went to their graves unrecorded before comprehensive documentation of the foremost international artists got underway around 1903-05. Still, early recorded sound offers a wealth of information about the composers and performers of the late nineteenth century. It has remained a problematic body of evidence, though, more alluded to than investigated. No doubt this is attributable in part to the limitations of acoustical recording.' These could at times discourage or even prevent artists from reproducing the musical characteristics of their live performances, and the primi19th-CenturyMusicVIII1 (Summer 1983).0by the Regents of the University of California.

tive sound inevitably establishes a faintly comic ambience for the unacclimated modern listener. One must learn not only to listen through surface noise and to imagine the upper frequencies uncaught by the recording horn, but also to concentrate on the music-making in the face of much that by standards we have since come to take for granted sounds haphazard, rough, and inexpert. (Once concentration is achieved, one comes to realize that by other standards we have forgotten to expect, the old performers were expert where we are haphazard and rough.) There is also the simple problem that, especially at first blush, we may not like what we find on the old discs. Our mind's ear can effect between written accounts and modern prefer'A perceptive and highly readable discussion of the problem is found in the introduction to J. B. Steane's The Grand Tra&tion: Seventy Years of Singing on Record (London, 19741, pp. 4-12.

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ences a compromise which recordings disallow. The phonograph offers a constant challenge to the belief that authentic practices, especially those traceable to composers or their associates, are the surest guide for modern executants. Few, to cite one example from among many, would wish to hear Bartok played in the lefthand-before-the-right style which seems to have been so automatic with the composer that he did not shed it even for his own fonvardlooking music. In The New Grove, Howard Mayer Brown suggests that Verdian opera may present a similar case. "It seems likely," he writes, "that vocal performance in both lieder and opera was a good deal more mannered then than now"; and later, "With the evidence of early recordings to go on, it would be relatively simple for modern performers to give 'authentic' renderings of Verdi's operatic roles . . . and yet this is rarely, if ever, done because the performances would more likely be censured for their lack of taste than praised for their a u t h e n t i ~ i t y . " ~ Poor taste did crop up from time to time, and I havenot skewed the argument by suppressing it in the transcriptions which follow. But it was not the rule. The style preserved on the old discs is in large part recommendable as an enriching, corrective influence on modern performance. Italian opera's vocal language retained a vocabulary of ornamentation longer and more consistently than is often understood, and the language as a whole presented at that time a variety of intriguing possibilities for a body of music which most of us know, so to speak, only in modern translation.

beyond the scope of the catalogue, have come to light since its compilation, or were made by the same artists after its cut-off date. "Ideally, while engaged in such a task as this," wrote the chronicler of singing, John Steane, at the outset of his much larger one, "one should hear everything, dismiss nothing, and compare everything with at least something else. It is a great relief to know that this cannot be done." I can only echo this, adding, as Steane does: "Readers will no doubt understand that much more has been heard than is noted here."4 The information presented here is drawn from a survey of just over 1,200early Verdi rec0rdings.j These include what I take to be nearly all the significant ones, though some outstanding examplepro or contra my arguments is probably to be found on a disc I have passed over, not had access to, or never heard of. From this material, 207 musical examples (from 142 recordings by 74 singers) are presented in transcription. In general, I have drawn on Italian singers, and concentrated on those whose debuts took place before 1900. I have omitted all but a few examples from the specialized world of the "coloratura" soprano. Variants which persist in modem performances (extra high notes, mostly) have been documented representatively rather than comprehensively.

convenient source is Kutsch and Riemens, Unvergangllche Stimmen: Sangerlexicon, 2nd rev. edn. (Bern, 1975). The considerably shorter first rev. edn. (1966)is translated into English by Harry Earl Jones as A Concise Biographical Dictionary of Singers (Philadelphia, 1969). Fuller accounts of many are contained in the liner notes to various reissues of their records, and in Michael Scott's The Record of Singing to 1914 (New York, 1977). For convenient chronological placing of the artists whose performances are transcribed here, table 1 gives (where known) dates of birth, debut and death, with whatever information is available for the singers not listed in these reference works. 4Steane, p. 2. jRoughly a sixth of these, including most of the more important ones, have been reissued on long playing records at one time or another (see table 2 for a listing of reissues available at the time of writing). For the rest, I am greatly indebted to the Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division of the Library of Congress, and especially to the Collection of Historical Sound Recordings at Yale University. The Yale archive, assembled for the most part by Laurence Witten, is almost certainly the most extensive repository in institutional hands of recordings by nineteenth-century singers. This collection has made it possible to survey the evidence widely and in depth, and thus to confirm the conclusions reached by study of the reissued material. I owe special thanks to Tulin Duda and to the curator, Rlchard Warren, for help wlth this project.

Artists and repertoire. Roberto Bauer's Historical Records 1898-1 908/9 lists 1,633 recordings of Verdi by 469 singem3Hundreds more lay

IThe N e w Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th edn., ed. Stanley Sadle [London, 19801, XIV, 390. 3Bauer's N e w Catalogue of Historical Records 1898-1 908/9 (London, 1947)lists all the lateral cut classical vocal recordings known to him at the time of its compilation. Cylinders and records pressed from master cylinders ("vertical cut") were excluded; these are listed by Victor Girard and Harold M. Barnes in Vertical Cut Cylinders and Discs [London, 1964).Biographical information on these singers is in some cases plentiful, but in most, scarce. The principal and most

The artists have been surveyed exclusively in Verdi, although their recordings of Donizetti and Bellini have more to tell of Verdian than of earlier practice. Indeed the discs of the more progressive performers tell of a practice that is already postVerdian. Verdi composed most of his operas before even the earliest of these singers was born. Although he heard and worked with several of them in his last years, they represent Italian singing as it was well after his influence had made itself felt, in a period of rapid change during which other influences (Toscanini's, Mascagni's, Caruso's, Wagner's) came to the fore. That change had been taking place during the pre-recording period is certain as well: one need hardly look farther than Chorley's account of FraschiniI6 whose singing he found quite unpleasantly bombastic in 1847, but on whom he looked back ("Alas!") as a comparatively moderate Italian tenor as early as 1862. This study, then, documents in large part the displacement of the Italian style Verdi knew during most of his career. The old discs also reflect turn-of-the-century appreciation of the Verdi canon, which means that much we would like to hear went unrecorded. The operas best served (that is, whose principal solos were extensively recorded by a wide variety of artists) were Aida, I1 Trovatore, La Traviata, and Rigoletto. Fair representation was achieved in Otello, Un Ballo in maschera, and (alone among the early works) Ernani. The attitude towards La Forza del destino in those days may be gleaned from the "program note" which backed the famous Caruso-Scotti duet of 1906:

This duet, together with the tenor solo in Caruso's list, are about the only numbers which remain of Verdi's opera of La Forza del Destino, which was never a great success, its story being doleful and so crowded with horrors that not even the beautiful music could atone for the gloomy plot.'

include "Pace, pace"). But of Simon Boccanegra, Don Carlos, Les Vkpres siciliennes, and especially the earlier operas-those in which ornamentation plays a more central role and in which there is such renewed interest today--only an occasional snippet was recorded. The Verdian "full-stop" cadenza. Virtually all Verdi's cantabile arias up through Forza conclude with a brief, static tonic-dominant coda, a fermata over the V7 chord or a rest following it, and an unaccompanied vocal c a d e n ~ e Verdi .~ came to view this convention, though, as one that opera could afford to use more sparingly, if not to discard altogether. In the later works, the functions of the cadenza are increasingly integrated into a more controlled, continuous musical fabric (as in "0 patria mia" and "Tu che le ~anita").~ Verdi's full-scale cadenzas are generally composed of three basic functional units: A, the note(s)appearing directly over the V7chord, B, a florid melisma or declamatory sequence, and C , a brief peroration resolving to the final tonic.1° A simply defines the dominant-seventh function of the cadenza. It may be a short group of notes circling the dominant or outlining the

"Although Verdi eventually emancipated himself from the obligatory cadenza, he still seems to have felt that at the end of a cantabile he had to arrive at the tonic and linger there a while. Interestingly, though, while the earlier arias wind down with a tonicldominant alternation, the later ones tu /"Celeste Aida," "0 che in seno agl'angeli," "0 ma chere compagne") tend to rest on the tonic alone. Could this have patria mia," been a safety measure? In "Pace, pace" and "0 Verdi allowed the final cadences to resemble ever so slightly those of the old cavatinas-and in each case at least one celebrated soprano took the hint (probablyunintended, but see also note 55)and sang a cadenza. This could never have been tried in "Celeste Alda": the signal is never sent.

9Since the present essay is concerned principally with Ital-

ian singing, it seems most convenient to refer to the French operas and excerpts from them by the familiar Italian titles. Acoustic recordings by French singers of excerpts from Don Carlos, Les Vepres siciliennes, and [erusalem exist, although not in great number, and are worth study. 1°The "a due" cadenzas of duets were often of greater length, with two or more roulade-phrases for the B sectioni possibly these give a suggestion of the dimensions to which solo elaboration, impractical in duet, would typically have extended the cantabile cadenza in Verdi's time. On early recordings one occasionally finds them shortened [for example in the De LuciaIHuguet duets from Rigoletto and Traviata [G&T 054084 and 054081, 19061).The peroration (C)is sometimes elaborated [asin exs. 9-10, whlch conclude an elaborate "a due" cadenza sung, in these cases, at full length).

?FkTCHFIE verdi

Ornamentation

The anonymous author overstates it a bit, since in Italy a decent amount of Forza was done (and "Tetrazzini's list" for Victor soon came to

6Henry F. Chorley, Thirty Years'Musical Recollections, ed.

Ernest Newman (London, 19261, pp. 19C-91.

'Victor 89001 (1906).

CENTURY MUSIC

]'ha re

.

.

.

.

.

-

.

-

-

.

-

.

.

so per

me

Example i: "I1 mio sangue, la vita darel," from Luisa Miller

ml-se -re-re, ah!

mi-se-re - r e d'un po-ve-ro cor!

Example ii: "Ma dall'arido stelo divulsa," from Un Ballo in maschera

ma, ma, se-al-fin tl tro-vo-an-cor, tl tro-vojn-cor, Dio m'e-sau-di, Diom'e-sau - dil

Example iii: "Di provenza il mar," from La Traviata

chord (often colored by a flattened ninth); its function can be filled by the last few notes of the final phrase of coda, or (in florid cadenzas especially) by a single sustained note from which B emerges. (The A section, generally written directly over the dominant chord, is often sung after the chord is played.) The choice between a florid or a declamatory B creates two contrasting classes of cadenza. In the florid form, B is nearly always designed to be sung on one breath. The melisma is sometimes a simple scale pattern, but more often the figuration is quite inventive and attractive. The syllabic B is set to the final linejs)of the cantabile's text, which have invariably been heard several times already and are often given twice or more within the cadenza. Pitches are allocated one per syllable, though occasionally there will be slurred pairs of notes, or a gruppetto or other ornament on one of the syllables. Sopranos are nearly always given melismatic cadenzas. The male characters can be assigned either, with the syllabic form slightly more common in tenor arias than in those for the lower voices. It is not true that Verdi inclined more to the declamatory formula as time went on. He would often

drop cadenzas altogether, but of the four in Ballo, all three full-length ones are florid, as is that of Carlo in Forza. C, almost always divided from B by a breath, is brief and functional. lust occasionally it is a single sustained dominant (when a florid B has ended on the submediant); more often there are three or more notes, usually with a syllable on each, resolving to the tonic by one of several formulas. This pattern is flexible and frequently modified, most often by extending one or more of the three sections. Another modified type, found mostly in the early operas and in the male roles, might be called the "nominal" cadenza: B is omitted, and occasionally the A and C functions are elided into a single phrase. The nominal form employs a restricted range; otherwise, the cadenza generally revisits the highest pitch required in the aria proper. (If that highest pitch is given in an ossia, it may not be required in the cadenza: see "D'amor sull'ali rosee" and "I1 balen.") Syllabic cadenzas rarely dip below the middle of the range, but roulades frequently extend to or beyond the lowest pitch otherwise sung.

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

y

e so-lojn c i e l , e so-lyjnc~elpre-de der-ti l a m o r - t v -

par - ra,

-

la

mor - te3. me par

ra!

Example iv: "Ah, si, ben mio," from I1 Trovatore

k'

spa-man, qua-si spa-rlan per me.

Example v: "Dal pih remoto esilio," from 1 due Foscari

11 no - me mio fa - ro

Example vi: "Oh, de'verd'anni miei," from Ernani

The cadenza in performance [exs. 1-64). The solo cavatina was the most obvious and enduring locus of soloistic discretion in nineteenthcentury opera, the point at which even Berlioz could say to singers "the composer is at your feet" (adding "we would be in bad grace to wish it othenvise").ll This was still true during the first phase of Verdi's career, and it was true particularly of the closing cadence. Part I1 of the younger Garcia's Traite complet de l'art du chant,12 with its copious and elaborate examples, was brought out in 1847; two years later, as Verdi was completing t h e fifteenth of his twenty-seven operas, Mme Cinti-Damoreau produced her Methode de chant,13 which is of special interest partly because so many compos-

"Revue er Gazette musicale IV j1837), 95ff., quoted in

Caswell [seefn. 13).

I2Manuel Garcia [the younger), Traite complet du l'art de

chant, part 11, trans. and ed. Donald V. Paschke (New York,

1975).

I3SeeAustin Caswell, "Mme. Cinti-Damoreau and the Em-

bellishment of Italian Opera i n Paris: 1820-1845," [ournal

of the American Musicological Society 27(1975),459-92.

ers for whose works her changements were intended put their signatures to the compendium as members of the Paris Conservatoire's Committee on Musical Studies. The notebooks of the Marchisio sisters, preserved in the Pierpont Morgan Library and partially published in Ricci's Variazioni, Cadenze, Tradizioni, vol. I, l4 are similar in style and include several examples from Trovatore as well as from the earlier operas in which they sang together during the 1860s and '70s. These, and numerous scattered examples of cadenzas attributed to various other singers of the day, confirm that what we hear on early recordings does not by any means represent some latter-day flowering of soloistic liberty, but rather a stage in its diminution. What might be found surprising is just how gradual that diminution was. The post-Verdian singer's choice and composition of cadenzas was governed by three sometimes conflicting influences: the traditional

14Luigi Ricci, Variazioni, cadenze, tradizioni per canto, 2 vols. [Milan, 1937).

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concept of the cadenza as a locus for extended so10 expression; progressive, modernizing values, in light of which florid vocalism and (to a lesser extent) the cadenza itself came increasingly to be seen as irrelevant;15 and modification of compass to suit the performer's range. The first of these three principles is reflected in the all but universal assumption that nominal cadenzas were meant for elaboration (exs.24, 15-18, 57-59, 63). Full-length ones were often extended as well. The three-part functional division, though usually still present as an underlying framework, was no longer obligatory. Example 2 shows a nominal cadenza amplified simply by extending A and C rather than adding an independent B section, and in the elaborated full cadenzas the additions are often such as to obscure the sectional distinctions. A formula frequently employed, though, was to sing A as written, to continue either with Verdi's B or a typical B-gesture, and then to expand the pattern with another melisma, a syllabic sequence, or a free combination of the two.16 Here the principal opportunity for soloistic liberty comes at C, or in the gap between B and C (exs. 1, 5, 6, 18, 31, 32, 35-41, 43-45, 47, 49, 57 and 60, as well as several others in which the elaboration of the ending is less pronounced). Example 5 is typical: the roulade (BJis filled out with further figuration, and C is considerably extended. Nevertheless, the cadenza as a whole follows closely the outline of Verdi's own. Example 6, used in the same aria, bears some trace of that outline as well, but is essentially a replacement rather than a variant. The growing preference for declamatory sing-

'jIt is only recently that "fidelity to the composer's score" has begun to challenge this as a guiding principle for performance choices in Italian opera. Serafin and Toni's Stile, tradizioni e convenzioni del melodramma italiano del settecento e dell'ottocento (Milan, 1958) routinely recommends cuts to keep the drama moving for modem audiences, extra high notes to add excitement, and the omission of cadenzas "troppo florido. " 16Wehave some evidence of this procedure as observed during Verdi's early career. The cadenza of Fenena's prayer "puntata per la Zecchini" gives a two-octave descent from high C /the A and B functions joined, or simply an elaborate A?); n another hand, a further melisma is sketched in under i Verdi's typically simple C phrase. See David Lawton and David Rosen, "Verdi's non-definitive revisions: the early operas," in Atti del IIP congress0 internazionale di studi verdiani (Parma, 19741, pp. 189-237.

ing is felt in several ways. In the process of augmentation just described, syllabic sequences are often introduced to complement roulade (exs. 1,6, 7, 12, 18,25,40-43,45,56, among others; Verdi does this in revising the florid Trovatore cadenzas for Le Trouvere). The melisma itself can be reduced, especially in the male roles (exs.32,34,39,41,42,46, 60, 61) or replaced entirely by a declamatory B (exs. 13, 14, 19,23, 24, 33,54,55,62).In some cases, the pitch sequence of Verdi's melisma would be adopted for all or part of the syllabic cadenza (exs. 11, 14, 19, 61, 62). At other times, and more often as the years passed, singers lacking agility (or doubting the artistic worth of coloratura) would simply omit a florid B (constructing a suitable A phrase if the original had been tied to the melisma), thus making a nominal cadenza of what had been a full-length one (exs. 8,20,26,30).Similar reduction of Verdi's syllabic cadenzas is for all intents and purposes non-existent. l 7 The altered cadenzas often require more text than Verb's. In these cases the words in the original may be reiterated, or the singer may reach farther back into the text, following the example of Verdi's own longer syllabic cadenzas.18 Modification of range occurs in cadenzas of all types. Where Verdi does not match the cadenza's compass to that of the aria, the discrepancy is sometimes eliminated by artists whose voices more nearly suit the aria, especially where the cadenza goes a crucial step higher (exs. 27, 28, 52, 53, 55). But the opposite case is more frequently encountered: the cadenza matches the aria, but is adjusted to give scope to an upward extension otherwise unprovided for (exs. 4, 12, 13, 15-18, 21, 22, 29, 35, 37-39, 4345,47-50, 58, 59, 63, 64). Top notes are almost

"It is just perhaps significant that the single example found-a very strange little version of Rigoletto's "Miei signori" (Col. 1767)with spurious prelude and postlude and melody instruments doubling the vocal line-is sung by Alberto de Bassini, who resisted his colleagues' syllabic cadenzas in Ballo, Trovatore, and Sonnambula. 181tis interesting to note that varying the text when it reappears in the cadenza did not seem to sit well with some singers. Where Verdi alters it in Luisa Miller for the sake of preserving a rhythmic figure, both Giuseppe Anselmi (Fono 62166) and Fernando de Lucia (ex.22) contradict him; de Lucia, however, was ready enough to alter the text to arrange for his preferred vowel ("e") on the high notes.

always added where the printed cadenza fails to revisit the aria's highest note; further ones are sometimes inserted even when the cadenza already satisfies both the compass of the aria and the singer's range. As can be seen from the examples, this extension of range often takes place in the course of the typical expansion of C . A 5 to 1 final resolution for C (ascending or descending) occurs a good deal more often in the variants than in Verdi's originals; the juxtaposition of the major and minor sixth degree of t h e scale, common enough in Verdi's cadenzas, is also more prominent in the substitutes. While the leading tone of the key is almost never used by Verdi as the cadenza's top note, it is fairly popular in the interpolated ones. There is often a breath before the penultimate note; if the conclusion is 3-21, or occasionally 4-3- or 6-5-1, a "Rubini"19 cadence (reiteration of the antepenultimate note) may be employed (exs. 9, 13, 33, 55), and frequently a two-syllable word on the antepenultimate pitch will be sung with a prolonged weak syllable in imitation of the "Rubini" cadence (exs.6, 8, 11, 42, 50, 57, 59). Today, when certain variant cadenzas have become standard and are regularly heard in identical form from singer after singer, the diversity of approach on the early records may come as a surprise. There were certain stock patterns-and one can see the fixed "traditional" cadenzas beginning to gel in some cases-but variety was still the rule.

companiment. These are seen as points for possible elaboration-not, as far as I am aware, with the kind of extended cadenza that would have served for a "full-stop," but occasionally with a brilliant flourish of some length (exs. 65, 67,68).Much more often it is merely a matter of adding a top note or ornament to the final line (exs. 66, 69-77).

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

Arias without "full-stop" (exs. 65-77). The full stop for cadenza and the brief, harmonically static coda introducing it are the most consistent features by which the cantabile aria is distinguished from other solo forms in Verdi. Ballate, canzoni, and romanze end without them.I0 At or shortly before the final cadence, though, will often be found a fermata, an ad libitum marking of some kind, or a suspension of the acI9This cadential ornament, named after its popularizer Giovanni Battista Rubini (1794-1854), is one of the most common and enduring ornamental traditions of Italian opera, persisting even into the period of Puccini. It is found notated by Donizetti, Rossini, and many other composers, but not, as far as I am aware, by Verdi-in almost every one of whose operas it was nevertheless routinely introduced. ZOExceptions occasionally come in cases like Medora's "Non sole tetre immagine," where a strophic romanza fills

Ornamentation of internal cadences (exs. 78-133). A major concern of late nineteenthcentury Italian practice was the heightening, through rubato, dynamics, phrasing, and ornamentation, of harmonic "corners." In a typical cantabile, the accompaniment is suspended and/or an ad libitum indication of some kind appears at one or more internal cadences, and many of t h e m have ornamentation in the printed scores as well. Whether or not they are so marked, early recorded singers consistently apply to them at least a rallentando, and often ornamentation (or elaboration of existing ornamentation) as well. Spots likeliest to be so treated are the last cadence before an excursion into a new key (exs. 79, 80, 92, 93, 95, 106, 107, 113, 120-22, 124, 125, 127, 131), the return to the home key2' (or, in the minor-major format, the approach to the major) (exs. 81, 85, 86, 89, 99, 130), and the end of the last principal melodic period (before the "filler" coda, or before a ritornello leading to a repeat and thence to the coda) (exs. 83, 84, 88, 90, 94, 108, 111, 112, 116, 118, 123, 126, 132). Opening solos of duets or ensembles and first stanzas of strophic pieces are often closed with light ornamentation along these lines (exs. 87, 98, 100, 101, 103-05, 109, 110, 115, 117, 133). Such solos, as well as the shorter aria forms, often receive internal-cadence embellishment as well (exs.85, 86, 96, 97, 102, 114, 124, 125, 128, 129),although not as consistently as do the fullscale cantabiles. Ornaments for these cadences were generally simple: a gruppetto (exs. 82, 83, 85, 91, 92, 95the traditional cavatina function (i.e., entrance-aria); presumably the fermata at the end of Luisa Miller's similarly situated "Lo vidi e il primo palpito" would have been so amplified in performance. Z1h case the ad libitum moment may come on the last

this cadence of the old key, or after it, acting as a dominant sev-

enth bridge, or both.

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CENTURY MUSIC

97, 99, 102, 103, 110-16), passing tones (ex. 79), "Rubini" cadence (exs. 82, 88, 119, 121, 122, 127), syllabic reiteration (exs. 78, 90, 100, 101), or sometimes just a simple acciaccatura (exs. 80, 86, 106, 107, 117, 122, 128-33). If the score already has an embellishment, a few notes might be added to fill it out (exs. 78, 81, 87,89, 93,120-22, 128).This is all in contrast to the extended roulades inserted at such points during the careers of Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, and young Verdi. A holdover from that earlier practice survives in recordings of Oscar's "Saper vorreste" by Luisa Tetrazzini and Selma Kurz, both of whom sing full-scale cadenzas at internal fermatasz2

Melodic variants (exs. 134-72). In addition to these cadence-oriented ornaments, there are other occasional variations, notably including interpolated high notes. Trends are more difficult to identify here, but a few practices are consistent enough to warrant mention. A typical Verdian melodic approach to the I$ chord is frequently altered either by interposition of the supertonic (exs. 134, 147, 154, 167)or by substituting the mediant for the second melodic tonic (exs. 135, 144).Exact repetition of a phrase can elicit an added top note or an extra bit of figuration (exs. 136, 145, 150-53, 155, 157, 160-62, 166). Acciaccature were added freely for decoration or emphasis (exs. 137, 148, 156, 159, 163, 165, 169, 170, among others), and there was apparent consensus that these (whether written out or inserted) were two-pitch ornaments, beginning on the principal note. The only exception comes when the note with acciaccatura is immediately preceded by the scalic note below. In that case, the acciaccatura may begin either on the principal note as described, or on the note below, or in the modern single-pitch fashion (the note of melodic approach substituting, apparently, for the first note of the ornament). Examples crop up more or less wherever one looks, including the Otello records of both Tamagno and Maurel (exs. 171, 172). This convention makes a significant difference in some very familiar passages (seeespecially ex. 163)!

22G&T053222 (19081 and 43738 [1906),among other versions by each.

Verdi used a rising two-note embellishment ("slide," in English terminology)with some frequency (see, for example, "Abbietta zingara," the Rigoletto quartet, and Posa's romance). This decoration turns up on records occasionally jexs. 120, 140, 142, 146), but only with the tenor Fernando de Lucia (who uses it also in Puccini and Mascagni) does it seem to have been a basic stylistic device. A certain amount of freedom was exercised in substituting one written ornament for another and in the exact interpretation of Verdi's ornament signs (exs. 140, 141, 149, 159, 168, 176). One embellishment conspicuous by its absence from all this is the trill. For Garcia in 1847 the trill was still taken for granted as part of any singer's technical equipment: his discussion centers on details of approach and resolution. By the early twentieth century, most Italian sopranos could still trill, although they rarely introduced the device except as a leading-tone cadenza ending. Very few of the Italian male singers, however, seem to have been able to trill at all." In striking contrast, it is difficult to think of an extensively recorded Frenchman who does not trill, and a fair number of Germans, Englishmen, and others give evidence that this ability was lost sooner in Italy than elsewhere.

Strophic variation and the problem of the cabaletta (exs. 173-83). Strophic forms are open to the variety of soloistic liberty likeliest to find at least theoretical acceptance today. In particular, most musicians will concede that the second statement of a cabaletta may be embellished. The phonographic evidence on this question, however, is extremely sparse, and as far as it goes it suggests that the convention had limited currency by the beginning of the new century.

WAsfar as I a m aware, there are only four to be heard on acoustic recordings: bass Francesco Navarrini /in Rossini's "Pro peccatis," Fono 620241, baritone Eugenio Giraldoni [the first Scarpia, in "Per me giunto," GeiT 52404),and the tenors Anselmi /"Unlaura amorosa," Fono 62393) and Caruso [not an outstandingly good one in Handel's Largo, Vic 88617; none where they are marked in "Ah, si, ben mio," Vic 88121). De Lucia, although he does not trlll, shows an awareness of the lack: in two recordings (the famous "Pieta signore" of disputed authorship [Phono M 18791 and "Ah, si, ben mio" [ex. 108]),he employs a quick, measured alternation between leading tone and tonic which corresponds to Garcia's description of the "slow trill."

The cabaletta was held in such contempt by critics and reformers in the latter half of the old one that Verdi, who did much to weed it out, found himself more than once in the position of defending its occasional validity. The extent to which the progressives' view prevailed during the early recording era is suggested by the list of De Lucia's operatic recordxZ4among these are at least twelve solos for which there exist cabalettas-only one of which he recorded. The familiar practice of omitting dramatically nonessential cabalettas (e.g., Leonora's "Tu vedrai" and the Duke's "Possente amor") was well-established by the period of acoustic recording. Even the collections of extended excerpts from a single opera (on inexpensive labels, using little-known singers), which included every conceivable snippet, omitted these cabalettas. The reduction of others to a single stanza prevailed as well, and not solely as a concession to sidelength (as it might arguably have been when a cabaletta was squeezed onto the same side as its cantabile).Several records of cabalettas without cantabiles (e.g., Giacomelli's "Tutto sprezzo," Cigada's "Vieni meco," and Ruffo's "Per me ora fatale") contain a good deal of indifferently sung chorus music rather than the second stanza. In the few examples of an uncut cabaletta by an Italian of this period (Ciaparelli in "Di tale amor," Battistini in La Favorita or I Puritani, a few versions of "Sempre libera" and "Per me ora fatale," and a very few of "Di quella pira"), there is generally little or no embellishment (except of course in the "coloratura" repertoire-a separate case, and not in this instance involving Verdi). Violetta's "gioir" sequence (but not the air itself) is sometimes varied in repeat; just possibly the decorations in Battistini's one-verse "Vieni meco" (partially shown in ex. 173) would have been reserved for a repeat in stage performances. But when "Di quella pira" is given complete the celebrated interpolation is just as likely to appear in both verses.25In gen-

eral, the testimony of the gramophone is that by 1900 this tradition was dormant. Though the paucity of recordings discourages generalization about other aspects of ornamentation in the cabaletta, a few points are worth noting. Rallentando or ornament is sometimes used to heighten demarcation of sections (exs. 173, 177, 187, 195).26 fermata before thepiu The mosso ritornello or coda is a possible site for a cadenza (exs. 174, 175).The very last cadence generally involves the highest note on which compass and tonality can agree-a tradition which has proved hardy enough to render extensive transcriptions superfluous-and often an additional imposed rallentando (exs. 182, 183). Some "coloratura" sopranos will occasionally halt the action at the very end for a brief cadenza (e.g., Galli-Curci or Pacini in "Sempre libera"; Tetrazzini in "Di tale amor"). There remain the other strophic arias: ballate, canzoni, and full-scale cantabiles like "Ah, fors'? l ~ i " ~ ' "Quando le sere a1 placido." and Here too the evidence is spotty, although at least one aria survives in a version that suggests extensive elaboration of the repeat: "Tacea la notte," sung in 1906 by Lillian Nordica. As it happens, this record is one of the most convincingphonographic links to the more distant past. Trovatore was the first opera Nordica heard (with Euphrosyne Parepa-Rosa, Boston, 1868); "Tacea" was the first aria she sang in public (1874) and also the one with which, shortly afterward, she impressed the great Teresa Tietjens (1831-77)) who may have coached her in it. Certainly she studied it with Appolonia Bertucca, who was at that time attached to Tietjens's touring company, and who years later dis-

vcrd~ Or"amentation

FieTCHF

14Acomplete list is in fact not yet available. I am grateful to Michael Henstock of the University of Nottlngham for documentation of the late Phonotype recordings of this singer. 25This much-debated high C is often, and plausibly, defended as a second-strophe embellishment. It is equally possible, however, to see it as a variation of a musical repeat Internal to the strophe.

16Theornamentation of "corro a morir" in ex. 177 also oc-

curs at "la spegnero," just before the shlh to minor. Acciacca-

turas and trills are occasionally found at analogous points in

such cabalettas as "Sempre libera" ("il pensier," just before

the tenor interrupts) and "Di tale amor" (at "inebrio"].

27"Ah, fors'e lui" was probably not thought of as strophic by

the turn of the century-although Lilli Lehmann's one-

stanza recordings (Odeon 50353 and 80003)use not the first

but the usually-cut second verse. It is also interesting to

note that while Giuseppe Kaschmann's record of "Carlo,

che e il sol" contains (like all later Italian performances un-

til recent years) only the first stanza, the singer forgets him-

self at one point and sings two lines from the second (see ex.

128)-an easy slip to make, but only if he was accustomed to

both.

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

cussed with Nordica "how Tietjens had phrased the cavatina, how Parepa-Rosa had embellished it, and many other interesting details."28 The frequent attribution of Nordica's variants to Tietjens thus emerges as one of the more plausible claims for phonographic preservation of a pre-phonographic style. It is also worth noting that Nordica, in a letter to the critic Hermann Klein, singled out this aria, and in particular this first part of it, as the most satisfactory of her generally disappointing records.29 The variations (exs. 178, 179) are sung in the first stanza, the second being omitted in favor of a similarly truncated cabaletta on the same side. I think it a safe conjecture that the ornamentation was normally intended for the repeat, where it is unusually appropriate to the images of the text. Nothing this systematic, though, seems to have been widespread at the time. "Questa o quella" is usually given an extra chuckle and a bit of a cadenza the second time through; De Lucia goes farther in his delightful record (exs. 96, 138, 140),but almost all of his abbellimenti appear in the first verse as well! Caruso has an extra turn in the repeat of "La donna," Anselmi an added ~b in "Quando le sere," and Battistini a Gb in what would presumably have been the second verse of "Di provenza"-but all of these are interpolations of a sort found just as readily where no repeat exists, and even more readily where a line or phrase is repeated within a single movement.

workable repertoire of singers who found them difficult as written. It is striking testimony to the influence of Verdi's operas on the training and development of Italian voices that the puntature heard on early recordings are almost without exception designed to keep singers out of their lower registers. The most prominent practitioner of this was the baritone Battistini, whose range during his recording career (begun at age 46) seems never to have extended past low Bh, and who often sounds as though he is in difficulty on C and DL. But many other baritones followed his example in raising the low A of "Eri tu" an octave, and there are similar examples in the tenor, mezzo, soprano, and even bass repertoires (exs. 186,187, 192, 195, 196; not shown are the simple octave transpositions which occasionally appear). Simplification of fioratura was almost universal practice in I1 Barbiere di Siviglia, the single work of Rossini still in the basic repertoire by the turn of the century. The procedure was sometimes applied to Verdi as well (exs. 184, 188, 189, 191, 193);so, occasionally, was the removal of what apparently seemed excessive textual reiteration (exs. 185, 190, 194).

Facilitations (exs. 184-96). The other changes occasionally found in the melodic line are more practical than decorative. Puntature (alterations of the vocal line so that it can be sung by a voice of different range but with the original accompaniment) were standard practice in Italian opera for most of the nineteenth century. Verdi was often criticized for uncomfortably high vocal writing, and he made or approved adjustments on several occasions to bring high roles into the

281ra Glackens, Yankee Diva: Lillian Nordica and the Golden Days of Opera (NewYork, 1963),pp. 26-29, 146. 29Letter of 15 May 1908 to Klein, quoted in William R. Moran, "Recordings and Lillian Nordica" (pub.as an appendix to Glackens, pp. 283-300).

Recitative (exs. 197-207). We know that omaments and roulades were commonly introduced by singers into the recitatives of primo ottocento operas. In his early and middle-period operas, Verdi himself wrote a great deal of fioratura into the recitatives of cavatinas for soprano. As far as I am aware, recordings give no example of extensive embellishment along these lines where the score does not indicate it, but singers will occasionally add a tum of acciaccatura (exs.201,203). At the very end of most recitatives, Verdi left soloists somewhat more to their own devices. The conclusion is usually a sustained dominant on two syllables, with an octave drop if the tessitura is congenial (or if the sentiments justify extremes of range), or in the same octave with minor-inflected decoration of neighboring tones. In the early years of the century, there was a clear assumption that one expression of this formula might be substituted at will for another-usually a more for a less complex one (exs. 197-200). The conventions surrounding use of appoggiaturas in recitative remained pretty well in force. Verdi generally wrote them out, and sing-

ers would often add them where he did not (exs. 202,204-07).

A brief and loose chronological segregation of the singers lends clarity to the proliferation of practices grouped here as "ornamental." It is easy enough to form the impression that a few singers, most of all the pair Battistini and De Lucia, practiced an anachronistic approach to ornamentation, harking back to the outmoded values of Bellini's or even Rossini's era. The view is clouded, though, by the fact that no other internationally celebrated Italian singer of their generation left nearly so extensive a phonographic legacy as they did. Because of their prolific recording activity and unusually long-lasting vocal health, Battistini and De Lucia can seem to be atypical members of Caruso's generation. In fact, they are representative members of an earlier one. Battistini (b. 1856) made his Rome debut when Caruso was five. Compared to other baritones whose recordings competed with his in the early catalogues (e.g.,Stracciari, b. 1875; De Luca, b. 1876; Ruffo, b. 1877; Amato, b. 1878)) he seems very much the idiosyncratic, old-fashioned stylist. But the few, little known, and sometimes unsatisfying discs made by his elders and closer contemporaries draw a picture into which he fits more comfortably. Alberto De Bassini (b. 1847) prefers florid cadenzas for arias in which every later Italian uses declamation (exs. 34, 52, 53); Giuseppe Kaschmann (b. 1850)is fleet in the written fioratura, lingering and decorative in his internal cadences (exs. 90, 128);Francesco D'Andrade (b. 1859)pleads with a bold flourish as Rigoletto (ex. 145);and Antonio Magini-Coletti (b. 1855)is perhaps superior in roulade to Battistini himself. De Bassini, Kaschmann and D'Andrade recorded few Verdi excerpts: nine, three, and one, respectively, as far as available sources indicate, compared to Battistini's twenty-one. (Magini-Coletti made twenty-four, but mostly from the late, less ornamental operas.30)More prolific were Ancona (b.

1860),Scotti (b. 1866),Bonini (b. 1865)and Corradetti (b. 18661, all of whom point ahead to a less florid, less delicate manner. With the group born in the 1870s, even though some of them preserve certain of Battistini's technical abilities, we are clearly in a new stylistic period. At the simplest level, the shift is from a highly nuanced style, with some remaining link to the age of florid vocalism, to a more straightforward, louder one with only incidental interest in coloratura. (A broader study would document changes-though not always parallel ones-in rubato, phrasing and articulation, treatment of rests and slurs, concept of portamento, and other matters.31)Of course, shifts in musical style are neither sudden nor uniform. The tenor Giuseppe Anselmi (b. 1876) harks back, in his approach to ornamentation at least, to De Lucia (b. 1860))while any number of tenors born in between, including Caruso (b. 1873)) seem more straightforward and modern. It is also true that female singers (especially the sopranos) maintained variety in 'lc~lorat~ra" their cadenzas considerably longer than did the men. (Nofemale Verdians of Battistini's generation left sufficient recordings for us to be able to say whether they were more various yet in

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

30Thesefigures do not count multiple recordings of the same excerpt, or the many Verdi arias De Bassini is listed as hav-

ing recorded on cylinders for the almost legendary catalogue of Gianni Bettini. A very few of these have recently come to light (Iago's Credo and part of the Aida Nile Scene are reissued on Mark 56 826);further discoveries in this area can be expected to yield information of great interest. 3'0mamentation is only one, and usually not the most important, of many ways i n which early Verdian performances differed from those to which we are accustomed. Tempo choices, phrasing and articulation, approach to rubato and dynamics, and certain aspects of vocal technique all reflect assumptions which differ from those held, and largely taken for granted, today. Still, because ornamentation involves changing "the notes," one encounters opposition to it on principle from many musicians who are willing to consider the other elements at least up to a point as legitimately within the province of taste. Most will be convinced of the inconsistency of such a view by playing side by side the recordings of Alfredo's "De' miei bollenti spiriti" by Fernando de Lucia (who takes 2 minutes 34 seconds over it and sings pianissimo for perhaps half the aria) and Jan Peerce under Toscanini (1'35' and quite loud all the way through).De Lucia's recording also has one unwritten gruppetto and an extra high note i n the cadenza which Peerce could have adopted without appreciably changing the character and impact of his performance; if, though continuing to stick to "the notes," he had adopted instead De Lucia's broader and gentler approach, the difference would have been vast.

13

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

those years, as would seem likely.) Still, the trend is clear. Modern, progressive influences had been around for some time, gradually gaining ground.32 What the records suggest is that by the 1 8 9 0 ~ ~ had achieved such dominance they that a young singer starting out in those years was no longer likely to see the old-fashioned values as a plausible alternative. These younger artists, in other words, were updating the earlier works in light of the performance values established by the later ones. But the older generation seems rarely to have clung to anachronistic procedures when faced with progressive music. Their approach accords with the chronology of the operas themselves: more ornamentation in the earlier, more florid operas; much less in the later ones (and for all intents and purposes none in Otello and Falstaff).This says much about the sensitivity of Italian singers to the style of the work at hand. In a score as late as Forza, they would (given a "full-stop"] make up their own cadenzas. But as early as Trovatore, faced with forward-looking experiments in music-drama like Azucenafs racconto, they would refrain from any extraneous addition. In the final Shakespeare operas, ornamentation appears only at the stock cadence of "Ora e per sempre" and in Maurel's "concert ending" for his encores of "Quand'ero paggio. " The upshot is that as long as Verdi sent the traditional signals, the older artists responded in the traditional way, and that when he ceased to do so, the artists understood and followed his new lead. This was their attitude toward later composers as well: Puccini rarely sends the traditional cadence-signals, but where he does (as in "Recondita armonia" or "Donna non vidi mai"), recordings show that a fair number of singers thought ornamentation an appropriate response. Many of the older tenors decorated Turiddu's music with additional gruppetti in the siciliana or leading into the reprise of the brindisi (at the final cadence of which young Caruso sings a flourish up to top C).

. A

Performance practice and composer's intent. What in fact were Verdi's own opinions on embellishment? There appears to be little evidence of them, but that scarcity is itself informative. Unless, against all expectation and likelihood, soloistic liberty was more extensive in the early twentieth century than in the middle of the nineteenth, Verdi heard the kind of ornamentation Battistini and De Lucia practiced, or more, as a matter of course. He was quick to voice his views on matters of performance that concerned him: he objects strenuously to cuts, substitutions and (eventually] transpositions-and most of all to routine, under-prepared, or weakly cast performances. But in his hundreds of published letters there is very little about ornamentation. Occasionally there are more or less specific objections. His diatribe against the "massacred" aid^^^ in Rome includes the complaint that "not only was the romanza ["Celeste Aida" or "0 patria mia"] transposed, but several measures in it were changed." These changes may have represented further (or compensatory) adjustment of tessitura, or the provision of more convenient breathing places for Nicolini (no longer young]-or they may have been ornamentation of some kind. Ornamentation of some kind was also probably behind his comment on Maria Malibran: "sometimes marvelous, but sometimes in bad taste,"34 and his distrust of Sophie Cruvelli as one of "these caricatures of Malibran who have only her oddities without any of her g e n i ~ s . " ~ " Certainly Jenny Lind's embellishment seemed excessive to Verdi's protege Emmanuele Muzio (who nevertheless thought Lind "a marvelous artist in every sense of the word"]: "She has an incomparable agility-indeed she is apt to show off her technique in fiorature and gruppetti and trills, the sort of thing which people liked in the

32Thesoprano Clara Novello, for instance, reports (and endorses) simplification of roulade by Giorgio Ronconi (Verdi's first Nabucco) in the early 1840s. See MackenzieGrieve, Clara Novello (London, 19551, p. 121.

33Letterof 25 March 1875 to Giulio Ricordi, transl. in Hans Busch, Verdi's Aida: The History of an Opera i n Letters and Documents (Minneapolis, 1978),p. 380. 34Letterof 27 December 1877 to Opprandino Arrivabene, in Verdi intimo: Carteggio di Verdi con il Conte Opprandino Arrivabene (1861-18861, ed. Annibale Alberti (Verona, 19311, p. 205.

35Letter to Brenna of 5 October 1850, in G. Morazzeni,

Verdi: Lettere inedite (Milan, 19291, pp. 31-32; quoted I

n Budden I, 482.

last century, but not in 1847."36 This certainly squares with the image of a Verdi who was "content to hear simply and exactly what is ~ r i t t e n . " ~ ' face value, it supports the apAt proach of such conductors as Abbado and Muti: no variants, no interpolations, no cuts. But nothing can be taken at face value when description of performance practice is in question. If Jenny Lind truly approximated the fashion "people liked in the last century" (Angelica Catalani's fashion, for instance), then a comment on her overgracing in Verdi has little or no relevance for a De Lucia. Even if Lind did no more than is preserved in the tasteful renditions transcribed toward the end of her career (longafter its dazzling operatic phase), then she was much more decorative than the singers of the early recorded era.38By contrast, Verdi might very possibly have thought Battistini's ornaments simple and legitimate inflective devices, like accents or crescendos, well within the bounds of "simply and exactly what is written." It is also possible that he would have made a distinction between the earlier operas and the later ones: the "simply and exactly" letter dates from 1871, the year of Aida, and it mentions Forza. The traditional harmonic and melodic signals for embellishment, obscure to us but obviously clear to the singers, must have been for Verdi part of "what is written." Among the many anecdotes and reports of Verdi's dealings with his interpreters there is much to suggest a willingness to recognize soloistic prerogative. Although he came to insist on absolute authority for a "single controlling intelligence," he never seemed to envisage the exercise of this power to suppress all departures from the printed page. Throughout his career he was ready to make, or to let others make, puntature in parts whose range did not suit that of the singer engaged for them.3yAt the height of his

- -

fame he demanded and got unprecedented authority for the premiere of Don Carlos, yet was flexible enough to expend considerable effort on adapting the role of Eboli for the voice, higher than anticipated, of its first interpreter. He even provided a cadenza (which he did not publish) for "0 don fatal," and later approved modifications, and suggested more, when a mezzosoprano did eventually sing it.40When conductorial authority along modern lines began to be asserted in Italy, Verdi wrote:

If things are as you say, it is better to return to the modest conductors of earlier times. . . . When I began scandalizing the musical world with my sins, there was the calamity of the prima donnas' "rondos"; today there is the tyranny of the conductors! Bad, bad! But the first is the lesser evil!!41

FkzTCHFIE Verdi

ornamentation

Nor did Verdi always condemn intentional alterations for expressive purposes, the famous denunciation of "creators" notwithstanding. Ricci reports that in Don Carlo he allowed baritone Antonio Cotogni to sing a phrase written pianissimo at top volume "as if exploding" with emotion. (Cotogni also introduced variant cadenzas as rod rig^.^^) Maurel is supposed to have won Verdi's approval for a striking rhythmic change in Rigoletto: "You have done something psychological, Maurel. When Rigoletto was written, our singers had nothing-well, psychological in them."43 The baritone Alexander Sved

36Letter to Antonio Barezzi of 16 june 1847, in L. A. Garibaldi, Giuseppe Verdi nelle lettere di Ernrnanuele Muzio ad Antonio Barezzi (Milan, 19341, pp. 325-27; quoted in BuddenI, 317. 37Letterof 11 April 1871 to Giulio Ricordi; trans. in Busch, p. 150. %ee Otto Goldschmidt's appendix to W. S. Rockstro, Ienny Llnd (New York, 1894). 39Verdi readily proposed a puntatura as an alternative to transposing "Celeste Aida," and told Ricordi in 1881 he

would be happy to remove Fiesco's high notes as long as he could get a bass with a good low F. 40SeeAndrew Porter, "A note on Princess Eboli," Musical Times 113 (19721, 750; and Frank V. DeBellis and Federico Ghisi, "Alcune lettere inedite sul Don Carlos dal carteggio Verdi-Mazzucato," in Atti del II" congress0 internazionale di studi verdiani (Parma, 1971),pp. 531-41. 41Verdi Giulio Ricordi, 18 March 1899, in Franco Abbiati, to Giuseppe Verdi, vol. IV (Milan, 19591, p. 367. The particular conductor in question was Arturo Toscanini. 4 2 R i ~ 1 ,i 11.

~ , 1 43Algemon St. John-Brenon, "Giuseppe Verdi," Musical

Quarterly 2 (19161, 1 3 M 2 . This account (p. 139)is compli-

cated by the fact that it is almost impossible to imagine an

alteration of the sort described ("an effective change in the

rhythm," without "changing a word or a note") in the first

phrase of the cabaletta "Si, vendetta." Furthermore, the au-

thor asserts that Maurel's alteration "is now traditional;"

no alteration of this particular spot has come to light.

Maurel's unusually slow tempo for the passage was the sub-

ject of some debate on the occasion of his Roman perform-

ances of 1883 (see Verdi intimo, pp. 301-02): could this be

what is meant?

19T~

MUSIC

claimed, on Tullio Serafin's authority, that Verdi had sanctioned replacement of the florid "Alla vita" cadenza with a syllabic according to the tenor Giovanni Martinelli, Toscanini said that the composer had not objected i to interpolated B ~ Sn Manrico's serenade and aria (see exs. 70, 153).45 Another anecdote, recounted by Martinelli among others, has the composer approving the celebrated high Cs of "Di quella pira" with the caveat that "they had better be good." A surer indication of Verdi's attitude is found in his behavior when next he came to write for the apparent perpetrator of the crime, Enrico Tamberlik. The occasion was the premiere of Forza at St. Petersburg, and for Tamberlik Verdi composed another martial C-major cabaletta with chorus, this time writing in the high C himself. Furthermore, when he came to prepare the score for publication and other performances, he did exactly the practical thing so often condemned as an enormity in Trovatore: he transposed the cabaletta into ~ b not because the , muses had urged another key sequence on him, but because "nobody will be able to sing what was written for Tamberlik."46So much for "Di quella pira"! The ghost of Verdi, insofar as we can perceive him, frowns disapproval not on the vainglorious tenor but on the officious purist who stands between him and the desired effect of his cabaletta. Interesting light on the "simply and exactly" question is shed by the composer's radically stringent proposal in 1847 of a contract forbidding "any insertions, any mutilations, any lowering or raising of keys, in short, any alteration which requires the smallest change i n the orchestra part."47 T h e clause i n ( m y ) italics prompts a number of observations. First, Verdi did not always feel so strongly about this: both Abigaille's cabaletta in Nabucco and Alfredo's in Traviata contain alternate vocal readings that would create ugly clashes unless the dou-

bling~ were revised to match. More to the point is the implication that even at his most inflexible Verdi could accept changes which did not require orchestral adjustment. The kind of ornamentation we have been discussing, with few exceptions, does not. Indeed Verdi's instrumentation seems at times to provide for it explicitly. Very often, especially in the early operas, orchestral doubling of the voice is suddenly removed at the last member of a florid sequence, as the line moves toward its cadence. From among many examples one might cite the descent from top A in Abigaille's cantabile, the scales that close each stanza of "Sempre liberalU and the fioratura which follows the syncopated top notes in the coda of the same aria. Surely elaboration was anticipated. Even after half a century of reform it was still common in the Traviata aria (exs. 180, 181);a similar and similarly treated passage occurs in Ernani (exs. 83, 84).48 We also know that Verdi was perfectly ready to write "senza le solite appoggiature" when he wanted blunt phrase-endings in recitative for special effect. Given the prevalence of the convention we have been detailing, he could hardly have hesitated, had h e wished, to emulate Beethoven's "non si fa una cadenza." And on at least one occasion he did so: Budden describes a score of Macbeth in which Verdi wrote at the beginning of the murder duet "Gli artisti sono pregati di non fare l e solite ~ a d e n z e . " ~ ~ Budden takes this to be a safety precaution ("No cadences are in fact written; but Verdi wanted to make sure"), but here is another case where familiarity with period practice suggests a different interpretation. The prohibition of appoggiaturas also strikes Budden as over-cautious, but it was not: as we have seen, singers were still quite ready to add unwritten appoggiaturas if the line in question seemed to want them. Verdi's instruction was practical and necessary pre-

44Seeaccompanying booklet to Metropolitan Opera's reissue of their 1943 Ballo broadcast with Sved. 45Martinelli, "Singing Verdi," Musical America, March 1963,pp. 1&15,4< 46Letterto Tito Ricordi of April 1863, in Abbiati 11, 732. 47Letterof 20 May 1847 to Giulio Ricordi (Icopialettere, pp. 37-40].

48Sembrich'svariant in this example may be seen as a facilitation-that is, a way of getting around the low ~b-but whatever its origin, the result is clearly used in an ornamental way. This is confirmed by the records (e.g., Selma Kurz's, Grammophon 053354; and Rosa Raisa's, Vocalion 70039) where the BL is sung with no trouble the first time, and Sembrich's variant or one like it employed as a repeat decoration. 49BuddenI, 506fn.

A

A

a-gl'im

- pe -

ti-

d'a-mo~

le veux,

leveuxta mort,

le

v r u x - ta

mort

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

Example vii: from I Lombard

Example viii: from Ierusalemsl

cisely because the appoggiaturas, like the cadenzas, were "usual." In the dramatic and novel Macbeth duet, he wished to suspend a convention which usually obtained, and which he usually saw no pressing reason to oppose. It is the exception that proves the rule. It is thus hard to imagine that Verdi opposed the ornamentation of internal cadences. It is even less likely that elaborations and/or substitutions at the final cadenza dsturbed him. He must have heard them constantly, but although he came to invite them less and less, there is no evidence that he found them inappropriate where he had done so. (Theargument could be raised that some of the substitutes transcribed here are dull and trivial, but that is another matter.) Finally, in the early arias which end with "nominal" cadenzas, the fermata or a d libitum indication clearly signifies not the stretch of tempo most performers take it to mean today, but that a cadenza of the singer's devising was expected. It went without saying: that conclusion is inescapable when one considers the arietta "L'abandonee," composed in the early years of Verdi's career for Giuseppina Strepponi. It is the merest display piece: arpeggio, staccato, "qualche trillo, qualche scala ascendente credendo di imitare l ' u s i g n ~ o l o . "Strepponi and ~~ everyone else would have concluded it with a cadenza in the spirit of the piece. Yet over the final V7chord Verdi writes a four-note cadential commonplace, and above this he instructs not "cadenza a d lib." but simply "a piacere." Why would Verdi write out a cadenza for some arias and leave others with a nominal cadence? Unfamiliarity with the particular performer's style? Confidence in it? Haste? The

singer's status? (It seems to have been a special token of respect for a composer to give a prima donna tailor-made cadenzas or ornaments. Donizetti and Rossini did it constantly; Verdi did it at least for Gueymard and just possibly also for Patti. Perhaps he felt it was an obligatory courtesy for the sopranos of his premieres, while the men could be left to shift for themselves if need be.) One possibility, that for some reason Verdi felt the arias in question should end without cadenzas, can be ruled out. In I Lombardi, the first-act bass cantabile is left to end "nominally." But in [erusalem (where the piece appears transposed a tone lower), an impressive cadenza is written to fill the gap (exs. vii-viii). Recorded singers known to Verdi. All the foregoing is consistent with what we can glean from recordings by singers whose paths crossed the composer's. Of the singers cited in this article, seven worked with Verdi on roles they sang in premieres:j2 Tamagno (Otello, Don Carlo 11884 version], Adorno in Boccanegra 11881 version]; exs. 70, 75, 105, 171, 176, 177)) Maurel (Iago in Otello, Falstaff, Boccanegra 11881 version]; exs. 77, 172)) Navarrini (Lodovico in Otello, Grand Inquisitor in Don Carlo 11884 version]; exs. 73, 118, 204), Pini-Corsi (Ford in Falstaff; exs. 196, 205)) De Reszke (Fiesco in Boccanegra 11881 version]; ex. 1l ) , Garbin (Fenton in Falstaff; exs. 156, 157), and Arimondi (Pistol in Falstaff; exs. 119, 202). Several others are widely said to have been admired

51Thetext of the cadenza is shown here as Verdi first wrote it. Later, perhaps advised that the word "veux" was no good for a high note, he scribbled in the autograph an incomplete replacement which the published score resolves unconvincingly. Thanks are due to Martin Chusid and the American Institute of Verdi Studies for permission to consult the Institute's microfilms of this and other autographs. 52Thefirst four made records from the operas (and the first two from the actual roles) they sang with Verdi. De Reszke's aria is from Ernani; it was his performance in an Ernani revival that apparently persuaded Verdi to accept him for Boccanegra [see Budden 11,267).

50Verdi'sdescription of the sort of salon/display-piece he did not like to write (letter of 1871 to Opprandino Arrivabene, Copialettere p. 620). The arietta itself is reprinted in Frank Walker, " 'L'abandonee,' a forgotten song," Bollettino quadrimestrale dell'istituto d studi verdiani 1 (1960),no. 2, pp. 785-89 and 1069-76.

I ~ T H

CENTURY MUSIC

by him, among them Battistini (numerous examples throughout], Nordica (exs. 27, 109, 178, 179) and Bellincioni (exs. 43, 111, 158, 160).In the case of Bellincioni, who was the first Santuzza and Fedora, the opera in which she impressed Verdi is both known and represented in her slender legacy for the gramophone: Traviata. This recording is highly typical of the style observed in the earliest generation of Verdians-frequent and pronounced rubato, phrasing and articulation based on generous portamento, ornamentation of a melodic repeat and of an internal cadence, and an extended cadenza at the end. Of course, the performance on the record is not the one Verdi heard, and Verdi did not give his views on her ornamentation. On the other hand, it is most unlikely that he heard her sing less decoratively: it was after the performance and before the record that she "broke away from every outmoded tradition of the lyric stage, abandoning [herlself to recitar cantando."j3 His praise would seem to indicate at the least that he found in her style no blemish so marked as to be disqualifying (which could also be said of the artists engaged for the premieres). The singer for whom Verdi's admiration is most persuasively documented, excluded until now because her few records include none of his music, is Adelina Patti, "Queen of Song" for some forty years throughout t h e civilized world. She is particularly important because she is the only singer recorded to any significant extent who belongs to the operatic world of Verdi's middle period. Patti sang Rigoletto, Trovatore, and Traviata in the world's great musical centers within a decade of their composition. Traviata is one of the operas in which Verdi's admiration for her-keen, deep, and longlasting-is documented. As with Bellincioni, we do not know his thoughts on the minutiae of her ornamentation. But he praises in her-in implied contrast to the more extravagantly florid Malibran-"the purest style of singing."54 To Giulio Ricordi he writes of her "marvelous execution" without a qualifying expression of

j3Gemma Bellincioni, lo ed il paloscenico (Milan, 1920), quoted in J. B. Richards, "Gemma Bellincioni," Record Collector 16, nos. 9-10 (January 19661, 199-219. j4Letter of 27 December 1877 to Arrivabene, in Alberti, p. 205.

regret over the uses to which it was put-and since he saw her in Rigoletto, Sonnambula, and Barbiere, it is certain that he heard her most elaborate flights of fancy.j5 In the same letter, he specifically singles out her "Ah, fors'k lui" as "an incomparable performance." Over fifteen years later, at the time of her last operatic appearances, the composer came once again to hear Patti's Violetta and to voice his admiration. "It appears he said to Bevignani that my phrasing was too touching for words and that I sang divinely," the diva wrote to Hermann Klein in 1893.j6 All this lends particular interest to the surviving scraps of information about her ornamentation, especially in this role. From H. Sutherland Edwards we learn that "In Mme. Patti's Violetta there is always something new to be observed, [including]new ornamentation in the cadences of the principal airs."j7 Klein reports that she ended the cabaletta with the long (unwritten) leading-tone trill heard in the records of Melba, Lilli Lehmann, and others (ex. 182).j8An interpolation made by the German soprano Margarethe Siems (the first Marschallin) has been included here (ex. 200) mainly because Ricci attributes a similar one to Patti.j9 But the best documentation of Patti's style is found in the pair of Bellini arias she recorded in

j5Letter of 5 October 1877 to Giulio Ricordi, in Busch, pp.

406-08. See also p. 410, fn. 3, for discussion of a cadenza to

"Opatria mia" sung by Patti in New York ( 1883),which (the

management claimed on Patti's behalf] was written by

Verdi expressly for her. The idea is not as preposterous as it

may seem when one realizes that Verdi apparently wrote a

cadenza for "0don fatal" without intending it as a part of

the published score.

j6Patti's letter of 20 January 1893 to Hermann Klein, in

Klein, The Reign of Patti (New York, 1920),p. 313. Against

this must be set the unenthusiastic account of Patti's late

Traviata performances left by Verdi's protege Emmanuele

Muzio (Carteggi Verdiani IV, ed. A. Luzio [Rome, 19471, p.

2231. Interestingly, Muzio notes that "the cadenza [of 'Ah,

fors'e lui'] was good and simple: it was little applauded, be-

cause the public expected a tour de force." Apparently it was

all right by Verdi's most enthusiastic supporter for Patti to

have her own Traviata cadenza; obviously it was normal for

the public to expect her to have one (of a different sort). Mu-

zio makes special mention of the fact that she sang only one

verse of "Addio del passato"; some sopranos must still have

been singing both in 1886.

j7H. Sutherland Edwards, The Prima Donna: Her History

and Surroundings from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth

Century, vol. I1 (London, 1888),p. 120.

j8Klein, p. 287.

j9Ricci, I, 83.

1906. These take careful listening: few voices are still functional after fifty years of hard public useI6Oand other aging singers have shown more skill than she at disguising the inevitable weaknesses. (Patti, after all, could not listen to herself as her successors have been able to do.) Still, much remains, and what we hear in "Ah, non credea mirarti" and "Casta diva" is entirely consistent with the style of the earliest Verdian singers we have discussed: full-scale elaboration of a strophic repeat, ornaments of various kinds, especially at major internal cadences, and a highly inflected vocal line with trills, portamenti, and generous rubato. Clearly, it is possible to say with confidence that Verdi could hear the kind of singing documented here without feeling that any transgression worthy of note had occurred.

The idea of the composer and his score as the only legitimate authorities in matters of interpretation has been around for many years. It has been increasingly accepted both in theory and (with some time-lag and misunderstanding) in practice. Yet it ought not to be given uncritical endorsement as one of music's absolutes: an opera can never be a completed product in the sense that a painting or a novel is. The performance is an ever-changing ingredient, and the performer's creative role is essential to the vitality of the re-creative process on which the art-form depends. It is essential, too, in its capacity to nourish and stimulate the compositional art it serves. In this sense, a composer is not strictly the sole author of his music. La Traviata is not only by Verdi, but by the institution of Italian opera, by the conventions and traditions of Italian singing. These inspired Verdi, and contributed much to his music, not only in form but in substance. They have a claim on the conscientious performer's attention complementary to the composer's own. The no-cuts-and-come-scritto

MPatti's career actually began at the age of seven with extensive child-prodigy tours of the United States; her operatic debut came at the age of sixteen. In that first season she sang sixteen leading roles in New York, and at eighteen began her reign at Covent Garden, where Verdi first heard her. When she made her Bellini recordings (G&T03082 and 03084) she had been before the public for fifty-six years.

approach favored in some quarters begs important questions to an unacceptable degree, and the phonographic evidence can aid attempts to address them. For instance, to take an example outside the category of embellishment, few who have heard the old discs will disagree that we tolerate an unjustifiable neglect of piano singing nowadays. Certainly, at least in the early operas, the nominal cadenzas require elaboration, and singers who wish to grace the major internal cadences should be encouraged to do so. The twonote realization of the acciaccatura ought at least to be tried. No singer should be barred from roles like Leonora, Azucena, Henri, or Stankar for lack of the odd extreme note. This is not to say that period practice, as represented on records, should be adopted uncritically. Although many departures from the written notation are purposeful and artistic, there is occasional evidence too of the sloppiness and exhibitionism that prompted reform. Nor are all the purposeful changes well judged: the smoothing-out seen in exs. 185, 190, and 194, for instance, erases one of the most typical fingerprints of Verdi's highly charged youthful style. And while the added appoggiaturas in exs. 2 0 4 4 7 make little difference one way or the other, the one in ex. 202 surely betrays a failure of perception. On several other issues (updating of florid cadenzas, interpretation of rests and slurs, interpolations in the later operas, and so on),it is best to take an equivocal stance. But that is all to the good, since it implies experimentation, variety, and choice: an antidote to the growing, depressing tendency for musical interpretations to resemble one another. Cabalettas can be sung and ornamented in one performance and omitted in favor of verism at another. One production can be staged to discourage mid-scene applause and another to rekindle the electric interaction between stage and audience that was such a vital part of Verdi's operatic life. One Violetta can evoke the forward-looking psychological penetration of her scena and another the elemental thrill of the vocal/musical traditions out of which it sprang. Verdi's richness is revealed most fully by the capacity of these operas to bear and respond to the most various, creative and strong interpretations, to yield unguessed secrets to successive generations of interpreters.

19

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi

Ornamentation

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

T h e rub comes w h e n certain kinds of interpretations, certain ways of approaching t h e execu-

tant's task, c o m e t o have s u c h dominance t h a t

other valid perspectives are obscured. It is i n just

such cases t h a t w e c a n usefully follow Verdi's

m a x i m : "torniamo all'antico: sara un pro-

gress~."C . S . Lewis p u t i t well i n advising stu-

dents of theology t o spend m o r e time, o n t h e

whole, w i t h old books t h a n w i t h new:

Musical E

A Note on t h e Musical Examples. The obvious problem of transcribing recorded performances is how, and in how much detail, to notate what one hears. Rhythmic subdivisions within an a d l i b i t u m passage can be perceived in various ways. Many important aspects of dynamic shading, accentuation and rubato can be indicated only approximately. At times unclear execution or a burst of surface noise can throw even the sequence of pitches into question. For the present examples I have taken my cues where possible from Verdi's own notational and instructional conventions and have not tried to specify the subtler dynamic and rhythmic nuances. Dynamics have in fact not been indicated at all unless contrasts of volume are used for particular effect within the passage transcribed. Nor have fermatas, accents, crescendos and the like been written over every note that could arguably bear them, although when the devices that might call for such markings have seemed to m e particularly prominent, the markings have been used. Portamento, when clearly audible at normal playing speed, is indicated by a slur mark; the slur is therefore n o t used in its conventional function of joining notes which share a syllable. No attempt has been made to distinguish between slight and pronounced portamento ( a t resolutions to the tonic in particular the voice will almost always settle firmly on the pitch of arrival before reaching the beat or beginning the syllable on which it stands].No attempt has been made to specify exactly how long a final note is held over the tonic strum of postlude. For convenience, examples are given in original keys even when they may have been sung in transposition. * Readers will understand that

"'Uma fatale" from Forza is shown in its pre-revision key of

Not, of course, that there is any magic about the past. People were no cleverer then than they are now; they made as many mistakes as we. But not the s a m e mistakes. They will not flatter us in the errors we are already committing; and their own errors, being now open and palpable, will not ,I;CT~ endanger us.61 g!, - ,.,.q A#

'jlC. S. Lewis, introduction to a translation of St. Athanasius's Incarnation (New York, 1946).

F major, which seems for some reason to have remained

standard in Italy for some time (several recordings appear to play at that speed, and Ricci gives his cadenzas for the aria in F). Some scores of the revised opera print the cantabile in F and the cabaletta in E, but Battistini (whoincludes the transitional recitative) sings both in the same key. Recordings contribute a drop here and there to our knowledge of the status of Verdi's revised scores in the early twentieth century. Don Carlo's "10 la vidi," for instance, was recorded both from the four-act and five-act versions; more surprisingly, Giovanni Gravina's 1902 "I1 lacerato spirito" (G&T 52367) follows the 1857 rather than the 1881 Boccanegra score.

all of these things could be notated in various ways, and that nothing is claimed for my solutions except that they will be found plausible by those who have access to the records and convenient by those who do not. The examples are grouped according to the division of topics in the discussion section; obviously some items are relevant under more than one topic, and in somes cases there is some question as to which category is the appropriate one. (Is ex. 180 an ornament or a facilitation? Should ex.143 be interpreted as a melodic variant or the embellishment of an internal cadence?)Each example (or group of examples, in the case of multiple variants) is preceded by Verdi's notation of the passage (asfound in the Ricordi piano-vocal scores). Attribution is by artist's last name only; further details are provided in the tables. Many of the embellishments shown are shared by artists other than the ones to whose records I have ascribed them here; it is impractical to attempt a listing of these. Comprehensiveness would be impossible (ex. 157 is shared in one form or another not only by the singers shown in exs. 16Cb62, but by Arnoldson, Arral, Barrientos, Bori [Edison], Brambilla, Chalia, Ciaparelli, Garden, Huguet, Naval, Nezhdanova, Pacini, Sembrich, Siems, Zenatello, and no doubt dozens of others as well); so would a confident declaration that any of the more idiosyncratic variants is unique. (Several of them certainly seem to be, but ex. 65 turns out to be shared by the tenor Oxilia!) In the case of these shared variants it has also proved impossible to develop a satisfactory, consistent policy for deciding what singer to name. Should an ornament be cited from its earliest known appearance on records, or from the earliest singer to have employed it, or from the artist most closely associated with the role, or with Verdi, or with a prephonographic Verdian interpreter. . . and so on. All these considerations have influenced choices at one point or another, but in the final analysis there has been no system, and consequently little if anything should be inferred from the relative prominence of this singer or that in the transcriptions. In several of the "full-stop" cadenzas, the A section (unvaried]is not shown.

Final Cadenzas ("Full-Stop")

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

Nabucco: "Dio di giuda" (complete cadenza shown)

Ernani: "Emani involami" (complete cadenza shown)

a-do-rar

-

-

-

ti

o

-

gnorsa-pro

..,.I_

~

~

~

-

-

-

Ex. 1: Stracciari

d

- den que &an-trLa

Ae

a - do - rar

-

-

ti

o

-

gnor a

-

do-rar-ti

Ex. 5: Sembrich

a-do-rar - t h - g n o r sa - pro

un'e

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

den dide-li -zia,

Ernani: "Come rugiada" (complete cadenza shown)

a

h

,

que gl'an

- tri

a

me

Ex. 6: Caligaris

Ud'af-fan

-

no i o m o - ri

-

ro

U

Ex. 2: De Lucia

A

.n'e

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

den

que - gl'an

io- mo-rl-roper te,-

.

.

per te, per teio mo-ri - ro

Ex. 3: Caffetto

Ex. 7 : Talexis

h

u - n'e-(ah)

den que-gl'an-tri a

me

Ex. 4: Scampini

Ex. 8: Gabbi

d'af-fan

-

no, d'af-fan-no,

d'af-fan-nomo-ri - ro

u-n'e - den di de-li - zia

ah si, que-gl'an-tri a

me

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

Ernani: "Da quel di" (C shown)

Ex. 12: Chaliapin

m

an.co

-

.

-

-

.

.

.

-

.

.

rail cor,

'

del

tuo

re a n - c o - rajlxor, an-co -rajl cor

Ex. 9: Corsi / Battistini Ex. 13: Lanzoni

m i do-ve-van gl'an--1-me-no d e l tuo re

far

dl-

ge - lo

an-co

-

-

ra

1 1

cor

Ex. 10: Boninsegna / Cigada

d

e

l tuo re

Ernani: "Lo vedremo" (complete solo cadenza shown)

[A is begun in the interjected lines of another character1

Ernani: "Infelice, e tu credevi" (complete cadenza shown)

sce-gli, al-tro scam

-

po

no,

an-co

-

-

-

--

.

.

.

ra

an-co-rajl cor no, no, no, non v'e

Ex. 11: De Reszke Ex. 14: Battistini

mido-ve-vanglian-nial-me-no

fardi sce-gli, al-tro scam-po, al-tro scam-popiu non v'e, ah no,

ge-lo-

co-rajl cor,

far & ge-lo an-co-ra il

cor

no al-tro scam-po piunon v'e

Emani: "0 de'verd'anni miei" [complete cadenza shown)

a piacere

-

I d u e Foscari: "Questa dunque 6 l'iniquo mercede" (B and C shown1

Verdi Ornamentation

WILL CRUTCHFIELD

il no - m e mio fa - ro

Ex. 15: Battistini

lpresto)

no

-

-

.

-

.

-

-

. me mio, .

Ex. 19: Corradetti

deh, ren-de

-

te,ren-de - te il fi - glioa me,

Ex. 16: Kaschmann

e vin - ci - tor- de' se

-

co - li

il

no - me-

Ex. 20: Bonini

mi

-

o,

il no

-

memio fa - ro

Ah,- si, ren-de-te, ren-de-tellfi-glio a

me

I d u e Foscari: "0 vecchio cor" (complete cadenza shown)

Macbeth: "Pieta, ris~etto.onore" (complete cadenza shown']

A

P c lrgatc

pian

-

g~,-pian

-

gipur tu sol-la be-stem-m~ajlhi las-so la ne

-

nia,

Ex. 17: Corradetti

C h Ji"

f

j?%eer*

,

I

br

!

, ,

P

7

-

- I U - -

-5 7 G

I

-

, -

F

plan

-

gi,-pian-gi,

pian

-

gi-

pur tu

Ex. 18: Amato

Ex. 21: Battistini

A

lpresto)

pian

.

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

g~,

pian

-

gl,

sollabe-stem-mia_ahilas-solane

-

-

-

-

pian

-

gi

pur

tu

nia, lane-nia tua

sa

-

ra

19TH

CENTURY

MUSIC

Luisa Miller: "Quando le sere a1 placido" ( B and C shown)

Ex. 25: Caruso

in s u o - n m - g e - li-co

"t'a-mo" dl-ce - a

"

ahmi tra-di - a, mi tra-di

-

-

'

a

'

r

no, non in-vi-dl6per-

te

Ex. 22: De Lucia

Ex. 26: Constantino

e .

in suo-no-an-ge-li-co "a-mo te so-lo" ah mi tra-di-a-ahi-

non ~n-vi-dio per

te

"

me, ahi-me, tu mi-tra-di

-

a

Trovatore: "Tacea la notte"

(complete cadenza shown)

Rigoletto: "Parmi veder le lagrime" ( B and C shown)

dolclss

[ter-) ra

un _ clel- sem - bro

Ex. 27: Nordica

ah! non- in-vi-dioper te

Ex. 23: Albani

le sfe - r u - m - g e - l i ,

le sfe-ru-gbn-ge-li,

sem

-

bro

Ex. 28: Chelotti

Li

no, no, no, non in-vi-dlo per

te (terra un) ciel la t e r - r u n ciel sem - bro

Ex. 24: Anselmi

n

I====-

Ex. 29: Ciaparelli

[terra un)

ciel

ah

si,

non in-vi-die- p

e

r te

24

Ex. 30: Burzio

Ex. 34: De Bassini

A

WILL

Verdi Ornamentation

CRUTCHFIELD

[un) ciel, un ciel sem-bro

la- ter - r w r i e l sem - bro

l

a del mio cor (sic)la tem-pe-sta del mio-cor

Ex. 31: Mazzoleni

Trovatore: "Ah, si, ben mio" (B and C shown)

un ciel

sem

-

bro

e so-1Qincielpre-ce - der-ti lamor-tea me-

Trovatore: "I1 balen del suo sorriso" (complete cadenza shown)

p

a

-- ra, r

la

mor - te-axme par - ra

Ex. 35: Albani

e so-lojn cielpre-ce-der-ti la mor-te-a m e

m A

-

la tgm-pe-sta del

mio cor

par-ra,

la mor-te, lamor-tegme par

-

ra

Ex. 32: Campanari

Ex. 36: Biel

n

sper-dajl so-le d'un suo s p a r - do

l

a tem-pe -

e so-1Qin ciel preder-ti la mor-teg m

7

e par-ra,

sta, la tem-pe-sta del mio cor

la mor - te,

la mor-te a m e p a r - ra

Ex. 33: Corradetti

Ex. 37: Signorini

sperdGlso-led'unsuo sguardo la tern-pe-stadelmioco-re,

e so-1Qin cielre-ce-der-tilamor-teg m e p a r - r a ,

la tern-pe - sta-

del-mio cor

u

la mor - te,

lamor-teg m e par - ra

25

CENTURY MUSIC

Ex. 38: Caruso

Ex. 41: Raisa

h

e so-lojn cielpre-ce - der-ti

lamor-te-a me-

par-ra

la

mor - te-ame,

a me par - rh

-

ah,-=>

non dir - gli le pe - ne, le pe -

Ex. 39: Gilion

ne del e s o - l ~ i n c i e l p r e - c e- der mio _ cor

-

ti l a m o r - t me~

Ex. 42: Corsi

- par-ra,

la mor-te,

lamor-te-amepar - ra

-

Ah,-

si,-

le- pe -ne,

ah,

Trovatore: "D'amor sull'ali rosee" (complete cadenza shown)

. ,

del co-re, ah, si, le pe-ne

del

COI

Traviata: "Ah, fors'e lui" (complete cadenza shown)

-

-

.

-

.

.

-

ne

del

cor

ah!

de - 11-zia-a1 cor

Ex. 40: Tetrazzini

h

Ex. 43: Bellincioni

cor,

ah si, le pe - ne del cor,

ah -

Ex. 44: Sembrich

del

cor

ah

c r o c w de-11

Ex. 49: Brambilla

zia-a1 cor, cro

-

ce-ede-li

-

zia a1 cor

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

Ex. 45: Tetrazzini

a 1 cor

Traviata: "De' miei bollenti spiriti" (complete cadenza shown)

- - -

si,

cro-tee de-li

-

zia, d e - l i - z i ~ l c o re, -

...im-me-mo-re

io vi-vo qua-sfin ciel, - ah si, io vi

-

cro-cce de-li -zia

a

1

cor

vo q u a - s ~ cie - lo, n

io vi-vo qua - s u n ciel

Ex. 50: De Lucia Ex. 46: Melba

...im-me-mo-re

io- vi - vojnciel, in cie

-

lo,

io vi-vQin cie-lo, ah, in ciel a1 cor

Traviata: "Di provenza il mar" (complete cadenza shown)

Ex. 47: Pacini

ma,

ma, _swl-finti t r o - v w - c o r ,ti tro-vun-cor

dF - li-zia-a1 cor, - de-li - zia-al-

cor

Ex. 51: Battistin] Ex. 48: Huguet

ma, - se_al-finti tro-vo-an-cor, ti tro-vo-an-cor

d

a1

cor

Dio m'e sau-di, ah! Dio m'esau

-

di

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

Ballo: "Alla vita che t'arride" (complete cadenza shown)

Ballo: "Ma dall'arido stelo divulsa" (B and C shown)

o-v'ela

pa

-

tria

ah!

col suo splen-di-d~av-ve - nir

mi-se-re-re-d'unpo-ve-ro cor

Ex. 52: De Bassini

. .

Ex. 56: Burzio

o-v'e la pa-tria

Ah!

Ah

Si-gnor-m'a

- i

-

ta-

-

col suo splen-di-do-av-ve - nir

"

Si -gnor-

pie-ti

&

me, -

ah, pie-ti si - gnor

Ex. 53: De Bassini

Ballo: "Ma se m'e forza perderti" (complete cadenza shown)

A

f

," A

.

PP

o-v'e la pa-tria

Ah!

Q. col suo splen-di-do-av-ve - nir

l'ul-ti

-

ma- o-radelno-str~a-mor se fos-se l'ul-ti-made1

-

no-stro-a-mor

Ex. 54: Battistini Ex. 57: Caruso

o-v'e la pa-tria col suo splen-di-d~av-ve-nix? Coln

l'ul-ti - ma, l'ul-ti-ma o-radelno-stro-a-mor co-me se fos-se

suo splen-di-doav - ve - nir

I'ul-ti-ma o-ra del no-strw-mo-re, b-rad'el no-stro a - mor

.

.

Ex. 55: Scotti

.

Ex. 58: Gilion

rn

o-v'e la pa-tria, o-v'C la pa-tria col suo splen-di-do-av

-

l'ul-ti - ma- o-ra del no-str~a-mor se fos-se l'ul - ti-ma

ve-nix,

col suo splen - di - do-

av - ve - nir

"

o

-

radel no -stro a

-

mor

28

Ex. 59: Vignas

Forza: "Pace, pace" (complete cadenza shown)

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

l'ul - t i - ma

o-ra del no-stro_a-mor

se fos-se l'ul-ti -

in-vanla

pa - ce que-st'al - main-van spe - rar

mad'elno-stroa - mor

Ex. 63: Tetrazzini *

Forza: "Urna fatale" (B and C shown)

in-vanla pa - ce que-st'al -

-

ma

-

mi- con - ci - to, in-van spe - rar

Ex. 60: Battistini

(presto]

2 con-ci - to -

di -sper-sa va

-

dajlmal-

'Before this is dismissed as an anomalous intrusion of "coloratura" practice, it should be noted that Tetrazzini sang Forza during the early career /not as a coloratura specialist) which brought her name to Verdi's attention, and that the German dramatic soprano Gertrude Kappel sang a somewhat similar cadenza in her 1924 recording of the aria (Grammophon66 100).

pensie-ro che-al-l'at-to-

in - de-gnomicon-ci

-

to

Don Carlo: "Per me giunto" (complete cadenza shown)

Ex. 61: Magini-Coletti

h

mor - raper te

7

mi-con-ci-to

ch-1-l'at

-

t a n - de

-

-

-

Ex. 64: Giraldoni m

gno

mi con-ci-to

ilpen - sier mor - raper te

Ex. 62: Bellantoni

con-ci-to

ah, an - cor

CENTURY MUSIC

Final cadences without "full-stop"

Rigoletto: "Questa o quella"

Rigoletto: "La donna e mobile"

con forza

[bel-) ta-

se

mi-

pun - ge-

e

di - pen - sier

Ex. 67: Bonci

-

-

u-na qual-che be1 - ta e di pen - sier

Ex. 65: De Lucia

Ex. 68: Caruso

-ErJ

f

e

di-

pen - sier

-

Ex. 69: Caruso

u-na qual-che be1 - ta

(Presto1

Ex. 66: Caruso

Jbel-) ta,

ah si,

se-

mi-

* /,

"

- + _ / - - * N - Trovntore: "Deserto sulla terra" .

F

--

pun - ge

u -na qual-che be1 - t i

Ex. 70: Tamagno

mag-gioril

tro

-

-

-

va - tor

Ballo: "Di' t u s e fedele"

Otello: "Ora e per s e m p r e addio"

-

nel-l'a - ni-me

no - strenon en - tra ter - ror

-

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

e que - stojl fin

Ex. 71: Albani

Ex. 75: T a m a g n o

nel-l'a - ni

-

me no-stre nonen - tra ter - ror

e que - stojl fin

Ex. 76: D e Negri

Ballo: "Saper vorreste"

la la la la

la

tra

la

Ex. 72: Tetrazzini

m

Falstaff: "Quand'ero paggio"

>

va-go leg - ge-rogen-ti - le, gen - ti - le, Don Carlo: "Dormiro sol" Ex. 77: M a u r e l * a-morper me non ha va-goleg - ge-ro gen-ti-le,gen - t l - le, Ex. 73: Navarrini

gen

-

t~- le

gen - ti - le

a-morper me__

non ha

'Maurel sings the aria thrice through /aswas his habit in the opera house as well!).The ending is as in the score the first time, and as transcribed here thereafter [and the third goround is in French].

Ex. 74: Luppi

m

a-mor per me _ non ha

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

Internal cadences

Nabucco: "Tu sul labbro" Ernani: "Emani involami"

leg - ge sor

-

-

-

-

ge - ra

-

sa

-

ran-

que - gl'an-tri a me

Ex. 78: De Angelis

Ex. 82: Wedekind

leg

-

ge s o r - g e - r a , latualeg-ge- sorge - ra

Ernani: "Emani involami" Ernani: "Come rugiada a1 cespite"

u

n

E

-

-

-

den

d'a - mor-chemi be - o

'

Y.

Ex. 83: Sembrich

Ex. 79: De Lucia

u n E

.

-

-

- den

d'a - m o r che-

m i be - o

Ernani: "Emani involami"

Ex. 80: Caffetto

que

-

-

gl'an - tri - a-

me

Ex. 84: Sembrich

(saran)

- que

-

gl'an- tria m e

Emani: "Come rugiada a1 cespite"

Ernani: "Da quel di"

2

Ah! gio-ia-e vi-ta

Ex. 81: De Lucia

>

Ex. 85: Battistin]

PP r

hi

-

-

-

me!

32

Ex. 86: Parvis

+ ,'$ I

Ah," . a

Ernani: "0 de'verd'anni miei"

a :r

8 -

r.. ,

i

-

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

gio

-

i e vi

ta

il no-me mi

-

o fa - ro

Ex. 90: Kaschmann

Ernani: "Da quel di"

il no-me mi - o, il no-me mio fa - ro

del

tuo re

Ernani: "0 sommo Carlo" Ex. 87: Battistini

A

F

e?:dA-

I

'

' * ,

4

! P

,

*?*tl

, -

del

tuo re

del - le tue

ge

-

-

-

stej-mi

-

ta - tor

Ex. 91: Battistini

rn

V

V

Ernani: "Lo vedremo"

del-le tue ges

-

te i

-

mi

-

ta - tor

no, no, non v'e

I due Foscari: " 0 vecchio corn

Ex. 88: Battistini

A >

I'a-vel t'a-vra, l'a-vel t'a - vra

Ex. 92: Amato

nono, non v'e

l'a-vel

t'a-vra, l'a

-

vel

t'a

-

vra

Ernani: "0 de'verd'anni miei"

-

Macbeth: "Pieta, rispetto, onore"

tro

-

A1 piu su-bli-me

no-

Ex. 89: Ancona

Ex. 93: Battistini

h

A1 piusu-bli-me

tro

-

-

no

Rigoletto: " E il sol dell'anima"

lane-nia tu-a sa - ra

sa

-

ro per te

Ex. 94: Battistini

Ex. 98: De Lucia

lane-niatua-

sa

-

ra

s

a

-

-

-

-

ro-

per

te

Luisa Miller: "Quando le sere a1 placido" Rigoletto: "Parmi veder le lagrime"

Ex. 95: De Lucia Ex. 99: De Lucia

in-na-mo

-

ra

-

to c a - r a fan-ciul

-

la-a - ma-ta

Rigoletto: "Questa o quella"

c o 0 -

w

de-gl'a-man - ti

le

sma -

rile-

de - rl - do

Rigoletto: "Tutte le feste a1 tempio"

Tr--,

Ex. 96: De Lucia

==- D

/l'an)

-

-

sla-piu cru - del

U

de-gl'a-man-ti le

sma - ni - e

de

-

ri-do-

Ex. 100: Boronat

Ex. 97: Anselmi

le sma

(

a

h

) si

;el-l'gn-siapiu

c;u - del

de-gl'a - man - ti

a ternno

-

-

nie

Ex. 101: Barrientos

u

de

-

-

ri

-

do-

-

(l'an)

-

sia,

nel-l'an-sla piu-

cru- del

Rigoletto: "La donna e mobile"

Trovatore: "I1 balen del suo sorriso"

-

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verd~ Ornamentation

e

di

pen

-

sie~

nuo-vojnfon - de-a me-co - rag - gio

Ex. 102: Caruso

Ex. 106: Pawis

fi

e

d

i

pen

-

sier

nuo-vo_infon-de-

in me-

co - rag

-

gio

Ex. 107: Corradetti Rigoletto: "Bella figlia dell'amore"

nuo-vdn-fon - de a mecor - rag

-

gio

Ex. 103: Caruso Trovatore: "Ah, si, ben mio"

d

pe-ne, lemie pe-ne-con

- so - lar

la mor - te a me par

-

ra

Trovatore: "Tacea la notte"

Ex. 108: De Lucia

-

PP

un

tro-va-tor-

can - to la mor te a me

Ex. 104: Chelotti

un tro-va-tor- can - to

Trovatore: "Deserto sulla terra"

tutta

Trovatore: "Miserere"

h

dim.

un cor a1 tro-va - tor

Tcada) - ver-

fred

-

do-

sa - ra

Ex. 105: Tamagno

Ex. 109: Nordica

un co - re-. tro - va - tor

-(cads)

-

ver-

gia-

fred - do sa - ra

19TH

Traviata: "Un di, felice"

Traviata: "Pura siccome un angelo"

CENTURY MUSIC

de-11-zia-a1 cor lie - ti, -lie-ti ne ren

-

de

-

va

Ex. 110: Zenatello

Ex. 114: Battistini

de

-

-

li

-

zia-a1 cor

lie

-

ti, - lie - ti n

e ren - de

-

va

Traviata: "Pura siccome un angelo" Traviata: "Ah, fors'e lui"

non vo-gliallvo-stro cor, no, de-li-zia-a1 cor no

Ex. 115: Battistini Ex. 111: Bellincioni

_=_

non-vo-gliajlvo he

-

-

strocor,

ah,

no

li

-

zia-a1 cor

Ex. 112: Tetrazzini

-

Traviata: "Di provenza il mar"

de

-

li - zia-a1 cor

ppp

rail.

,p*

"

dio m'e-sau - dl

Ex. 116: Battistini

Traviata: "De' miei bollenti spiriti"

stent.

-sor

-

n

PPP

diom'e-sau

-

di

"

col pla-ci - do

ri-so del-l'a-&or, del-l'a - mor

Ex. 113: De Lucia

col pla-ci-do

sor - ri-sodel-l'a-mor, del-l'a

-

mor

36

Ex. 121: Scotti

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

del - l'a-mi - co tuo pri

-

mo-

la

fe

Ex. 117: De Lucia

Ex. 122: Sammarco

del-l'a-mi-co tuo prl - mo l a fe

S i m o n Boccanegra: "11 lacerato spirito"

con espress.

re-sa-a1 ful-gor de-gl'an-ge-li, pre-ga, Ma-ria, per me

Ballo: "Eri tu"

Ex. 1 18: Navarrini

per

-

du

-

te! o spe-ran - z

e d'a-mor

re-sa-a1 ful-gor de-gl'an-ge-li, pre-ga, Ma-ria, -per

me

E ~ 123: ~ ~ ~ t i ~ t i ~ i ,

S i m o n Boccanegra: "11 lacerato spirito"

per-du

- te, o s p e - r a n - z e d'a

-

-

-

mor

pre-ga per m e

Ex. 119: Arimondi (at repeat)

Ballo: "Saper vorreste"

V

pre-ga-

per me

no1

ra - pi - ra

gra - do2

be1

-

ta

Ex. 124: Tetrazzini

Ballo: "Eri tun

no1 ra - pi - ra gra - d o s be1

-

del-l'a-mi-co tuo p r ~- mo la

fe

ta

Ex. 120: Battistini

Ex. 125: Trentini

del - l'a-m - co tuo p n

-

mo-

la

fe

no1

ra

-

pl - ra

gra

-

d

o

2 be1 - ta

CENTURY MUSIC

Forza: "Urna fatale"

Don Carlo: "Per me giunto"

gno m i - con

-

cl

-

to

la

-

gri

-

mar,

la - gri-mar- co-siL per - che

Ex. 126: Battistini Ex. 130: Battistini

in-de

-

-

-

gno m i

con-ci - to

la

-

gri

-

mar, la - gri-mar-

co - si-

per - che

Forza: "Pace, pace"

_ = -

Aida: "Celeste Aida"

Ex. 127: Boninsegna

pa-cemio Di

-

tu di mia vi-ta sei lo splen - dor

Ex. 131: De Lucia

A

o

"

Don Carlo: "Carlo, che e sol"

tu dl mia vi-ta sei lo - splen - dor

Aida: "Celeste Aida"

PPPP

Ex. 128: Kaschmann

3 3

vi-cl-no21 sol

sa - ria pih de

-

gno in-ver nol-

so-

Ex. 132: Caruso

Don Carlo: "Carlo, che e sol"

f

sa ra

vi

-

ci - no-a1 sol

[ri-) ve - da, -se tor-ne - ra, se tor-ne-ra, sal-vo-

Aida: "Morir, si pura e bella"

Ex. 129: Kaschmann

, se tor - ne - ra, setor-ne-ra,

trop-po sei be1

-

la

1

-

ve - d

a

Ex. 133: Del Papa

sal-vo-

sa

-

ra

trop-posei be1

-

la

38

19T~

Rigoletto: "Caro nome"

CENTURY MUSIC

ca

-

Rigoletto: "Parmi veder le lagrime"

c

r : +-,,

ro no

I

I

7 '

-

m e tuo-

sa

-

ra

"

---

: .,

a .

-

, e

:P ,-

le sfe - re-a-gl'an-ge-li

Ex. 144: De Lucia Ex. 141: Brambilla

3

ca-ro

no

- me t

u

o

sa

-

-

ra

Rigoletto: "Cortigiani, vil razza"

Rigoletto: " E il sol dell'anima"

ri-da - te-a m e la

fi - glia

(Verdi's repeat)

--

Ex. 142: De Lucia Ex. 145: D'Andrade (at repeat)

E

-, a e £ ~$52 lr --

ri-da

te a m

e la

fi

-

glia

Rigoletto: "Parmi veder le lagrime"

Rigoletto: "La donna e mobile"

e dipen - sie - ro

Ex. 143: De Lucia

Ex. 146: De Lucia

e dipen

-

sie-ro

Trovatore: "Di geloso amor"

Trovatore: "I1 balen del suo sorriso"

(At "la tempesta," the score gives an oppure choice between an unembellished and an embellished musical repeat of the phrase "nuova infonde a m e coraggio.")

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ch~mentatlon

"

un ac - cen-to pro-fe - ri - sti

Ex. 147: Pacini, C

laun ac - cen-to pro - fe - ri - st1 tem - pe-sta del- mlocor

Ex. 150: De Bassini Trovatore: "Stride la vampa"

l a tem

pe - s t a del----

mi - o, del mio- cor

Ex. 151: Pacini, C Ex. 148: Bruno

l la te-tra fiam - m a 2

-

a tem - pe - sta

delmio cor

Trovatore: "I1 balen del suo sorriso" Trovatore: "I1 balen del suo sorriso"

d'un s u o sguar-do le fa-vel - lunmio fa - vo -re

Ex. 149: De Bassini

Ex. 152: Corradetti (at repeat)

d'un

suo

sguar-do

le

fa - vel

-

lunmio

fa

-

vo - re

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

Trovatore: "Ah, si, ben mio"

_ = = . . .

-

Traviata: "Un di, felice" (melodic repeat)

- .del - l'u-ni - ver - so

u

e

so-lojn cielpre - ce-der-ti

Ex. 153: Gilion (at repeat)

Ex. 157: Garbin

Ilt.

d

e

so

-

lojn ciel-pre

- ce-der

-

ti

del

-

l'u

-

ni - ver

-

so

Trovatore: "Miserere" Traviata: "Ah, fors'e lui"

"

de'suoico-lo-rLoc - cul - ti, de'suoico-lo-riioc - cul - ti

Ex. 154: Mieli (at repeat) Ex. 158: Bellincioni

de'suoi co-lo-riLoc

-

cul-ti,-

desuol co-o-rl oc

Trovatore: "Miserere"

"

dl

te, _ dl - te

scor - dar-ml

cul-ti

Ex. 155: Talexis (at repeat)

Ex. 159: Pacini

h , ,

.

-

di te,_ di- t e scordar-mi

etc

desuolco-lo-rwc - cul

-

ti

Traviata: "Un di, felice"

Traviata: "Ah, fors'e lui" (melodic repeat)'

Ex. 156: Garbin

Ex. 160: Bellincioni

d

Y quel-l'a - mor-che-e

-

pal-pl-to

'

del

-

l'u

-

ni - ver

-

so

42

Ex. 161: Melba

Traviata: "Di provenza il mar"

con iorzc

-

WILL CRUTCHFIELD

'

del

-

I'u - nl - ver - so

Dlo m'e sau-di, Dio m'e sau-dj

Ex. 162: Huguet

Ex. 165: Magini-Coletti

Dio m'e sua-di,

Dlo m'e sau-di

'The ornament shown in exs. 16&62 probably dates from

very early in the opera's performing history. It is shown as an oppure in the first French piano-vocal score 1 Violetta, op-

era en quatre actes, m u s i q u e de G. Verdi [Paris: Benois, c

18641).

Ballo: "Alla vita che t'arride"

te per - du

-

to, te per-du-to-o-v'e la

pa

-

tria

Ex. 166: Battistini (at repeat)

Traviata: "Di provenza il mar"

dolce

--,.,"

,.

f * , f

,

r

8

T

- **

ff

, ? f

L

-

te per - du - to, te per-du-to-o-v'ella pa Dl pro - ven-zajl mar, 11suol, chl dal cortl can-cel-lo

-

tria

Ex. 163: Battistini

Ballo: "Alla vita che t'arride"

I

ah, te per - du - to

Dl pro

-

ven - z a 1 mar,_ 1 suol, chi dal

1

Ex. 167: Battistini

cor- ti can-cel-lo ah, t e per - du-to

Traviata: "Di provenza il mar"

Forza: "0 tu che in seno"

dolce

soc-cor

-

-

-

-

ri

-

mi

Ex. 164: Battistini

n

Ex. 168: De Lucia

sejn me spe-me non fal-li

soc-cor

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 1

ml

19T~

Aida: "Celeste Aida"

CENTURY MUSIC

le dol-ci brez-ze del pa - trio suol

Otello: "Esultate"

Ex. 169: Anselmi

Ex. 171: Tamagno

"

le d o l - c ~ e -bbrez-zodel pa - trio suol (sic)

-

lo vin-se l'u

-

ra - ga - no

Aida: "Celeste Aida"

J

z ?

Otello: "Era la notte"

er-ger-tm tro-no

l'in-ti-mojn - can - to

Ex. 170: Bonci

Ex. 172: Maurel

er - ger - t b n tro-no

l'in-ti-mojn - can-to

Cabaletta and strophic embellishments

Ernani: "Vieni meco" Ernani: "Vieni meco"

in - trec-ciar

ti

vo' la

vi - ta

vie - ni

che- te - 11 -

Ex. 174: Battistini Ex. 173: Battistini

- 11 - ce,

IDICS~OI

..

che- fe ah,chefe-11

-

-

-

in-trec-ciar ti

vo'

l

a

vi

-

ta,- vie-ni

n

J

A d ! *

e n -

ce

fa

-

ra

EX.

175: Corradetti

n ,

..

Trovatore: "Tacea la notte"

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

the-

fe - li - ce

che-

fe - li

-

Ce-

(2. qua1d'uom che pre-ga-Id - di

-

o)

Ex. 178: Nordica

rall.

10

'Corradetti, singing without Battistini's full complement of assisting soloists and chorus, jumps here to the soprano melody of the coda here rather than resolving his own lme.

e

bel-lainciel s e - r e

-

-

-

-

no

Trovatore: "Tacea la notte"

Trovatore: "Di quella pira"

Ex. 176: Tamagno

Ex. 179: Nordica

mo-stra-va

lie

-

-

-

-

to e pie-na

Trovatore: "Di quella pira" Traviata: "Semvre libera"

-

(vo-) lax, ah!- ah!-

ah'- ah!

Ex. 177: Tamagno

o te-co-a1 - me

-

no

cox-ro-a_ mo - rir

19T~

CENTURY MUSIC

Ex. 180: Melba

Traviata: "Sempre libera"

Ex. 182: Melba

h

iluneal

Ex. 181: Galvanv

Ex. 183: Boronat

a tempo A

Facilitations

Nabucco: "Anch'io dischiuso un giorno"

Ex. 185: De Lucia

d'af-fan

-

-

-

-

-

no-

10-

mo-rl - ro

Ex. 184: De Frate

Ilt.

Ernani: "Emani involami"

6

d ~ m allarg.

[in) tor

-

-

-

no que

-

-

gl'an

-

tri- a-

me

Ernani: "Come rugiada a1 cespite"

Ex. 186: Ciaparelli

allarg.

Ernani: "Emani involami"

Ernani: " 0 de'verd'anni miei"

A

WILL CRUTCHFIELD

Verdi Ornamentation

A h ! v o - lag

tem - po- epres - to

Ex. 190: Casini

Ex. 187: Sembrich Due Foscari: " 0 vecchio cor"

Ex. 191: Bonini

Ernani: "Da quel di"

con iorza

un

f i - -

glio

COT, no,

no, - non- puo - te i m

-

por - re

Luisa Miller: "Quando le sere a1 placido"

Ex. 188: Corsi

tra

-

di

-

a,

ah, mi tra-di

-

a

cor, no,-

n o , no,- non-puo-te i m - por

-

re

Ex. 192: De Lucia

Ernani: " 0 de'verd'anni miei"

tra

-

dl - a,

ah, mitra-di

-

a

Traviata: "Sempre libera"

Ex. 189: Campanari

6

Ex. 193: Melba

*

cre

r 2 i - de -

*

i

19TH

CENTURY MUSIC

Ballo: "Alla vita che t'arride"

Forza: "Toh, toh, poffare il mondo"

sue

vit

-

ti-me, sue vit-ti-me2 col - pir

E la ra

-

gion?

la ra - gion?

Propec-ca - ta

Ex. 194: De Bassini

ve-stra, pel vo-strl pec - ca-ti

sue

vit

-

ti - me2-col

-

pi1

Forza: "Egli e salvo"

Ex. 196: Pini-Corsi

di tuo pa-dre tife'il vol-to ros - sLg-giar

Ex. 195: Battistini

m -

E la ra

-

glon?

E la ra - gion?

Propec-ca-ta

di tuo pa-dre ti fe'il vol-to ros-seg-giar

ve-stra, peivo-stripec - ca-ti

Reci tatives

Macbeth: "Pieta, rispetto, onore"

Ex. 199: Caruso

i n - a - r i - di

-

ta

Ex. 197: Battistini

i

n

-

a ri

-

di

-

ta

A

f--. -

allegro

Rigoletto: "Parmi veder le lagrime"

-

del

vi - ver

mi

-

-

-

-

-

-

o

Ex. 200: Siems

-

Ex. 198: De Lucia

-

d e n i c h mich weih

-

-

-

-

-

te

'Verdi's autograph contains a t least o n e and perhaps t w o canceled melismas, rising t o Bt, a t this point.

Traviata: "Sempre libera"

Forza: "Scena della finestra"

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

U

di vo - lut-ta- ne' [vortici)

Quel san - t'uo-mo? ... ilmo-ti-vo?

r

r

Ex. 201: Huguet Ex. 205: Pini-Corsi

"

di vo-lut-ta-gio-[ir)

[sic)

f

P

Quel san - t'uo-mo? eh ... ilmo-ti-vo?

Simon Boccanegra: "I1 lacerato spirito"

A te l'e-stre-mo-ad - di-o

Forza: "Egli e salvo"

Ex. 202: Arimondi

nul-la-eine dis-se

A te l'e-stre-mo-ad - dl-o

'

Simon Boccanegra: "I1 lacerato spirito"

Ex. 206: Battistini

ra - pi -ta-a

le - i

la ver -gi - nal co - ro - na

nul-la-e ne dis-se

Ex.203: Navarrini

ra - pi- ta-a

le - i

la

ver-gi -nal

co - ro - na

Forza: "Egli e salvo" Ballo: "Eri tu"

Don Al-va-rojjlfe - ri-to!

nel suo fra-gi-le pet-to

Ex. 204: Battistini

*: ;

4 ,

I

Ex. 207: Battistini

!

/

;!

I

:' :!

I

-

3

7

-

I

* :

nel suo fra-gi-le pet-to

DonAl-va-rojjlfe

-

ri-to!

CENTURY

MUSlC

BIOGRAPHICAL DATA ON ARTISTS* Dates: " Abbreviations: Birth-Debut in a major role-Death

KR = Entry in Kutsch & Riemens (1975 edn.; see fn. 3).

S =Entry in Scott, The Record o f Singing (seefn. 3 ) .

G6 =Entry in The N e w Grove.

Albani, Carlo (1872-?-?). Leading Italian tenor. KR. Amato, Pasquale (1878-190&1942). World-famous Italian baritone. KR, S. G6. Ancona, Mario (1860-1889-1931). World-famous Italian baritone. KK, S, G6. Anselmi, Giuseppe ( 1 8 7 6 1 8 9 6 1 9 2 9 ) . World-famous Italian tenor. KR, S, G6. Arimondi, Vittorio (1861-1883-1928). Leading Italian bass. KR. Barrientos, Maria (1884-1898-1946). World-famous Spanish coloratura soprano. KR, S. Battistini, Mattia (18561878-1928). World-famous Italian baritone. KR, S, G6. Bellantoni, Giuseppe (?-?-?). Minor Italian baritone. Wagnerian roles at La Scala pre-World War I; a few impressive Fonotipia recordings 1909-14. Bellincioni, Gemma (1864-1879-1950). Leading Italian soprano. KR, S, G6. Biel, Julian (187&?-?). Career details scarce (a few Scala appearances, including Manrico). Recorded for G&T in 1903 (Milan). Bonci, Alessandro (1870-18961940).World-famous Italian tenor. KR, S, G6. Bonini, Francesco Maria (1865-18961930). Leading Italian baritone. KR. Boninsegna, Celestina (1877-1892 [as a student]; 1897-1947). Leading Italian soprano. KR, S, G6. Boronat, Olimpia (1867-1885 or 18861934).Leading Italian soprano. KR, S, G6. Brambilla, Linda (1859 or 1869-1890 or earlier-1933). Italian soprano. KR. Burzio, Eugenia (1872-1903[?]-1922). Leading Italian soprano. KR, S. Caffetto, Carlo (1870-?-1910). Italian tenor. Career details untraced. Early "budget-label" recording artist. Caligaris, Rosa (?-?-?). Italian soprano. Appearances at La Scala (incl. Trovatore) during Toscanini's first directorate. Several records for G&T, Pathe. Campanari, Giuseppe ( 1855-?-I 927).Leading Italian baritone. KR. Caruso, Enrico (1873-1 894-1 921).World-famous Italian tenor. KR, S, G6. Casini, Lelio (1863-1887-1910). Italian baritone. Career details scarce. Successful teacher (of Titta Ruffo, among others). Chaliapin, Feodor (1873-1893 or earlier-1938). World-famous Russian bass. KR, S, G6. Chelotti, Teresa (1861-1-1927). Italian soprano. Career details scarce. Shared title role in first complete recording of Aida (1907). Ciaparelli, Gina (1881-?-1936). Italian soprano (later records under the name of Gina Viafora). KR. Cigada, Francesco (1878-190&1966). Leading Italian baritone. KR. Constantino, Florencio (1869-1892-1920). Leading Spanish tenor. KR. Corradetti, Ferruccio (18661892-1939). Italian baritone. KR. Corsi, Emilia (1869-1886 or 1887-1927). Italian soprano. Largely provincial career; one season at La Scala. Member of famous singing family (cousin of Antonio Pini-Corsi).Many recordings for G&T and Odeon. D'Andrade, Francesco (1859-1882-1921). Leading Portuguese baritone. KR, S. De Angelis, Nazzareno (1881-1903-1962). Leading Italian bass. KR, G6. De Bassini, Alberto (1847-1870 [as tenor]-?). Italian baritone. KR. De Frate, Ines (1854-?-1924). Italian soprano. S. Del Papa, Dante (1854-?-1923). Italian tenor. Career details untraced. Recorded (inNew York) for Bettini, 18981900. De Lucia, Fernando (1860-1885-1925). World-famous Italian tenor. KR, S, G6. De Reszke, Edouard (1853-18761917). World-famous Polish bass. KR, S, G6. Di Negri, Giovanni (185&1878-1925). Leading Italian tenor. KR, S. Escalais, Leon (1859-1883-1941). Leading French tenor. KR, S. Gabbi, Leonilda (1863-1882-1919). Italian soprano. Sister of the slightly more prominent soprano Adalgisa Gabbi (b. 1857),who replaced Romilda Pantaleoni in early Otello revivals. She made a few records as "Signora Gabbi" and several under her married name (Leonilda Paini).The former group is listed in Bauer as "probably" by Adalgisa, but close comparison of the arias appearing in both groups leaves little question that only Leonilda made records. Galvany, Maria (1878-1899-1941). Leading Spanish soprano. KR, S. Garbin, Edoardo (1865-1 89 1-1924). Leading Italian tenor. KR, S.

Gilion, Mario (1870-1902(?)-1914).Italian (orFranco-Italian?) enor. Career principally Italian, with some Eastt em European seasons, but recorded in French and Italian for Fonotipia, 1 9 0 6 1 4 . Giraldoni, Eugenio (1871-1891-1924). Leading Italian baritone. KR, S. Huguet, Josephina (1871-1 888-195 1).Leading Spanish soprano. KR, S. Kaschmann, Giuseppe (1847-1869-1925). World-famous Italian baritone. KR, S. G6. Lanzoni, Agostino (1853-?-1918). Italian bass. Mostly provincial career in leading roles; first Jehovahin Perosi's Mose. Luppi, Oreste (1870-1892-1950). Leading Italian bass. KR. Magini-Coletti, Antonio (1855-1880-1912). Leading Italian baritone. KR, S. Maurel, Victor (1848-1867-1923). World-famous French baritone. KR, S, G6. Mazzoleni, Ester (1883or 1884-1904 or 1 9 0 6 ? ) Leading Italian soprano. KR. . Melba, Nellie (1861-1885-1931). World-famous Australian soprano. KR, S. Mieli, Oreste (1870-?-1924). Italian tenor. KR. Navarrini, Francesco (1855-1878-1923). Leading Italian bass. KR, S. Nordica, Lillian ( 1857-1 878-1 914).World-famous American soprano. KR, S, G6. Pacini, Giuseppe (1862-1887-1910). Leading Italian baritone. S. Pacini, Regina (1871-1888-1965). Leading Portuguese soprano. KR, S. Parvis, Taurino (1878or 1879-?-?). Leading Italian baritone. KR. Pini-Corsi, Antonio (1858-1878-1918). Leading Italian baritone and buffo. KR, S, G6. Raisa, Rosa (1893-1913-1963). Leading Italian soprano (Polish-born). R, G6. K Sammarco, Mario (1868-1888-1930). World-famous Italian baritone. KR, S, G6. Scampini, Augusto (1880-1905-1907). Leading Spanish tenor. KR. Scotti, Antonio (18661889-1936). World-famous Italian baritone. KR, S, G6. Sembrich, Marcella (1858-1877-1935). World-famous Polish soprano. KR, S, G6. Siems, Margarethe (1879-1902-1952). Leading German soprano. KR, S, G6. Signorini, Francesco (1860-1882-1927). Leading Italian tenor. KR. Stracciari, Riccardo (1875-1900 or earlier-1955). Leading Italian baritone. KR, S. Talexis, Amelia ( 1875-2-1 911).French soprano. KR. Tamagno, Francesco (1850-1874-1905). World-famous Italian tenor. KR, S, G6. Tetrazzini, Luisa (1871-1890-1940). World-famous Italian soprano. KR, S. G6. Trentini, Emma (1878-1904-1959). Leading Italian soprano. KR. Venerandi, Pietro (3-?-?). Italian tenor. Career details untraced. Early budget-label recording artist. Vignas, Francesco (1863-1888-1933). Leading Spanish tenor. KR, S. Wedekind, Erika (1868-1894-1944). Leading German coloratura soprano. KR. Zenatello, Giovanni (18761898[asbaritonel-1901 [tenor]-1949).Leading Italian tenor. KR, S, G6.

Most of these singers were prominent on what might be called the Italian circuit: i.e., the lesser Italian houses and the Italianstaffed and -organized seasons of opera held regularly throughout the Spanish-speaking world and, to a lesser extent, in leading cities of Eastern Europe and the Middle East.

'' When accounts conflict, the dates given by The N e w Grove are preferred. If there is no article in The N e w Grove, all relevant dates are given.

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi Ornamentation

Table 2 DATA ON THE RECORDINGS Ex.

#

Artist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Stracciari De Lucia Caffetto Scampini Sembrich Caligaris Talexis Gabbi Battistinil Corsi

Opera

Aria

Original

Place/date * recorded

LP transfer* '

Nabucco Ernani

Col Dl2470 Phono M 1811 Berliner 52462 GC 2-52611 "Emani involami" Col 1364 G&T 53326 Fono 92111 Co110124 "Da quel di" G&T 054103

"Dio di giuda" "Come rugiada"

Milan, 1925 Naples, 1917 Milan, 1900 Milan, 1908 New York, 1903 Milan, 1904 Milan, 1908 Milan, 1903 Milan, 1907

99-29 GV 575 Y2 35232

CO 326, GV 100

Table 2 continues

19TH

Ex.

#

CENTURY MUSIC

Artist

Opera

Aria

Original

Placeldate recorded

LP transfer

10 Boninsegnal Cigada

11 De Reszke 12 Chaliapin 13 Lanzoni 14 Battistini 15 Battistini 16 Kaschmann 17 Corradetti Due Foscari 18 Amato 19 Corradetti 20 Bonini 21 Battistini Macbeth 22 De Lucia Luisa Rigoletto 23 Albani 24 Anselmi 25 Caruso 26 Constantino 27 Nordica Trovatore 28 Chelotti 29 Ciaparelli (asViafora) 30 Burzio 31 Mazzoleni 32 Campanari 33 Corradetti 34 DeBassini 35 Albani 36 Biel 37 Signorini 38 Caruso 39 Gilion 40 Tetrazzini 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Raisa Corsi Bellincioni Sembrich Tetrazzini Melba Pacini Huguet Brambilla De Lucia Battistini De Bassini De Bassini Battistini Scotti Burzio Caruso Gilion Vignas Battistini Magini-Coletti Bellantoni Tetrazzini

G&T 054062 "Infelice" "Lo vedremo" "0de' verd'anni"

Milan, 1905

"0 vecchio cor"

"Questa dunque" "Pieta, rispetto" "Quando le sere" "Parmi veder"

"Tacea la notte"

"I1 balen"

"Ah, si, ben mio"

"D'amor sull'ali"

Traviata

"Ah, fors'e lui"

Col1221 (take 2) New York, 1903 HMV 052389 St. Petersburg, 1912 GB 100415 Fonodisc Mondial246 c. 1913 G&T 054105 Milan, 1907 CO 326, GV 100 G&T 052141 Milan, 1907 CO 326, GV 100 G&T 052032 Milan, 1903 Odeon 37226 Milan, 1905-06 Vic 88438 New York, 1913 GV 561 Odeon 37227 Milan, 1905-06 Fono 39760 Milan, 1906 HMV 052369 Milan, 1912 CO 328, GV 79 Phono M1792 Naples, 1917 GV 575 Odeon 110136 1911-14 99-1 13 Fono 62 151 Milan, 1907 Vic 88429 New York, 1913 Co130463 New York, 1910 Col mx.30134 (unp.)New York, 1906 SYO 6 Fono 399 13 Milan, 1906 Vic 741 16 Camden, 1908 Fono 39934 Milan, 1906 Fono 92539 Milan, 1909110 Vic 81082 Camden, 1905 Fono 92294 Milan, 1909 Co1307 New York, 1902 Odeon RG2016 1911-14 99-1 13 G&T 52692 Milan, 1903 GC 2-52669 Milan, 1908 Vic 88121 New York, 1908 ARM1-2767 Milan. 1906 Fono 39653 99-72 -. Vic 88426 New ~ o r k1913 GEMM 22&227. . OASI 5 72 Pathe 60070 US, 1917 99-52 Odeon 110221 Milan c. 1910-12 GB 1006 G&T 053019 Milan, 1903104 GV 568 Col 1366 New York, 1903 Y2 35232 New York, 1911 GEMM 22&227, Vic 88293 OASI 5 72 New York, 1910 Vic 88064 Milan, 1905 Fono 39237 G&T 53474 Milan, 1906 C 0 3 73 Phonodisc 145 Milan, 1906

~

Ballo

"De' miei

bollenti" "Di provenza" "Alla vita"

Forza

G&T 052129 HMV 0523 17 Coll695 (Take 1) Co11695 (Take3 ) G&T 052142 Vic 8 1070 "Ma dall'arido" Fono 395 14 "Ma se m'e forza" Vic 88346 Fono 92662 Fono 62083 "Uma fatale" HMV 2-052251 Fono 92620 Fono 92729 "Pace, pace" Vic 88502 .

&

Milan, 1906 Milan, 1911 1904-05 1904-05 Milan, 1907 New York, 1905 Milan, 1906 New York, 1911 Milan, 1909 Milan, 1907 Milan, 1924 Milan. 1910 ~ i l a n 1910 : New ~ o r k1914 , Milan, 1903

RS 305

CO 327 CO 326 ARM1-3571 CO 412/3 CO 393 OASI 633 GEMM 220-227, OASI 572 99-58

64 Giraldoni

Don Carlo

"Per me giunto"

G&T 52404

Ex.

#

Artist

Opera

Aria

Original

Placeldate recorded

LP transfer

WILL CRUTCHFIELD Verdi

Ornamentation

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 82 86 89 91 97 98 99 100 101 103 106 108 109 110 114 117 118 119 120 121 122 125 127 128 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 141 145 146 147 148 151 153 154 155 156

De Lucia Caruso Bonci Caruso Caruso Tamagno Albani Tetrazzini Navarrini Luppi Tamagno De Negri Maurel De Angelis Wedekind Parvis Ancona Battistini Anselmi De Lucia De Lucia Boronat Barrientos Caruso Parvis De Lucia Nordica Zenatello Battistini De Lucia Navarrini Arimondi Battistini Scotti Sammarco Trentini Boninsegna Kaschmann Battistini De Lucia Caruso Del Papa Venerandi Escalais Cigada Brambilla D'Andrade De Lucia Pacini, G. Bruno Pacini, G. Gilion Mieli Talexis Garbin

Rigoletto

Naples, 1917 "Questa o quella" Phono C 1761 Milan, 1902 Sera. 60146 G&T 52344 Mark56 725 "La donna" Edison Ambreol291001 1913 Milan, 1902 R7 Zono X1555 Milan, 1904 VIC-1430 Vic 8 1025 Milan, 1903 GEMM 20819 Trova tore "Deserto sulla HMV 7-52277 terra" "Di' tu se fedele" Vic 64082 1907 Ballo London, 1909 GEMM 22&227 "Saper vorreste" GC 053222 Fono 74034 Don Carlo "Dormiro sol" Milan, 1907 GV 14 Milan, 1905 Fono 39319 Milan, 1903 GEMM 20819 "Ora e per semprel'G&T 52675 Otello Milan, 1902 Zono 1556 Milan, 1907 "Quand'ero Fono 62016 Falstaff paggio" Milan, 1928-29 OASI 528 "Tu sul labbro" Nabucco Col D 18059 Dresden, 1905 "Emani involami" G&T 53464 Ernani New York, 1906 "Da quel di" Col30032 New York, 1907 R 5213 "0 de verd'anni" Vic 88062 Milan, 1907 GV 100, CO 326 "0 sommo Carlo" G&T 054107 Milan, 1907 CO 359 Rigoletto "Questa o quella" Fono 62148 Milan, 1906 RS 305 "E il sol G&T 054084 dell'anima" Naples, 1917 "Parmi veder" Phono C 1745 Milan, 1908 99-3, SYO-9 "Tutte le feste" GC 053186 Milan, 1906 Fono 39543 New York, 1907 ARM1 2766 "Bella figlia" Vic 96000 Col 10574 Milan, 1905 Trovatore "I1 balen" Naples, 1917 GV 575 "Ah, si, ben mio" Phono M 1791 New York, 1906 SYO 6 "Miserere" Col mtx 30135-2 (unp.1 Milan, 1903 "Un di, felice" Traviata G&T 527 12 Milan, 1912 CO 325, GV 100 HMV 054395 "Pura siccome" Milan, 1906 RS 305 "Parigi, o cara" G&T 054081 Milan, 1907 GV 14 Boccanegra "I1 lacerato spiritol'Fono 62025 New York?, 1907 GV 95 Col. 30090 "Eri tu" G&T 052146 Milan, 1907 CO 326 Ballo New York, 1904 CO 363 Vic 85044 Milan, 1905 Fono 39270 "Saper vorreste" G&T 53153 Milan, 1904 "Pace, pace" G&T 053088 Milan, 1907 GV 534 Forza Milan, 1903 Don Carlo "Carlo, che e sol" G&T 05203 1 GV34 Milan,1913 "Per me giunto" HMV 052404 "Celeste Aida" Phono M 1763 Naples, 19 17 GV 5 75 Aida New York, 1904 VIC 1430 Vic 85022 New York, 1898 Mark 56 826 "Morir, si pura" Bettini 5 Milan, 1905 Lorn bardi "La mia letizia" Col 10446 Milan, 1906 OASI 597 Fono 39533 Milan, 1906 Ernani "0sommo Carlo" G&T 054078 Rigoletto Milan, 1906 "Caro nome" Wotama 10101 "Cortieiani" Lvro~hone 'A 10 Berlin, 1906-07 R 5204 d Milan, 1902 RS 305 Trovatore "Dl geloso amor" Fono 69004 Milan, 1905 99-84 "Stride la vampa" G&T 53227 Milan, 1902 " 1 balen" Fono 39003 Milan, 1904 99-84 Milan, 1909 GV 96 "Ah, si, ben mio" Fono 92631 1902-03 "Miserere" Zono X2552 Milan, 1905 RS 309 Fono 39347 G&T 52428 Milan, 1903 Travia ta "Un dl, felice" Table 2 continues

19TH

Ex.

#

CENTURY MUSIC

Artist Magini-Coletti De Lucia Anselmi Bonci Tamagno Maurel Battistini Corradetti Tamagno Melba Galvany Boronat

Opera

Aria

Original

Place/date recorded Milan, 1907 Naples, 1917 Milan, 1910 Milan, 1906 Milan, 1903 Paris, 1903 Milan, 1907 Milan, 1909 Milan, 1903 London, 1904 Milan, 1908 St. Petersburg, 1904 Milan, 1908

LP transfer

165 168 169 170 171 172 173 175 176 180 181 183

Forza Aida Otello Ernani Trovatore Traviata

"Di provenza" Fono 92000 "0 tu che in seno" Phono M 1798 "Celeste Aida" Fono 62561 Fono 39695 "Esultate" G&T 052101 "Era la notte" G&T2-32814 "Vieni meco" G&T 054106 Fono 92310 G&T 52678 "Di quella pira" "Sempre libera" G&T 03026 GC 054209 G&T 53346 "Anch'io GC 53554 dischiuso" "Emani involami" Col3307

GV 5 75 GEMM 208/9 CO 326, GV 100 GEMM 208/9 RLS 7 19 OASI 5 74 99-3, SYO 9

184 De Frate 186 Ciaparelli 187 189 190 191 195 196 200 201 204 205 Sembrich Campanari Casini Bonini Battistini Pini-Corsi Siems Huguet Battistini Pini-Corsi

Nabucco Ernani

Vic 88022 "0 de' verd'anni" Vic 85087 Zono X 493 Due Foscari "0vecchio cor" Fono 3983 1 Forza "Egli e salvo" HMV 7-52 194

Traviata Ballo Forza

"Toh, toh, poffare" G&T 2-52557 "Ah, fors'e lui" Parlo P 250 "Sempre libera" G&T 54296 "Eri tu" HMV 2-052254 "Scena della G&T 54349 finestra"

79 80 81 83 84 85 87 88 90 92 93 94 95 96 102 104 105 107 111 112 113 115 116 123 124 126 129 see 2 see3 see2 see 5 see 5 see 9 see9 see 14 see 16 see 18 see 21 see21 see 22 see 65 see68 see 28 see 70 see 3 3 see43 see45 see 50 see 114 see51 see 120 see 72 see 6 0 see 128

New York, 1906-07 New York, 1906 New York, 1905 Milan, 1901 Milan, 1906 Milan, 1921 CO 412/13, GV 101 Milan, 1906 c. 1912 Milan, 1906 CO 373 Milan,1924 CO412/13 Milan, 1907

As a practical aid to locating the records, Issue numbers have been favored over matrix numbers, which are the only unique identifiers of recordings. Abbreviations: Col = Columbia; Fono = Fonotipia; GC = Gramophone Company; G&T = Gramophone and Typewriter Company (predecessor of GCJ; Parlo = Parlophon; Phono = Phenotype; Vic = Victor; Zono = Zon-0-Phoneizonofono.

" Places are unknown in several instances. Recent research has shown that a number of the Fonotipia recordings long thought to have been made in Milan were in fact made in London, but a listing which would make correction of this table possible is not available at the time of writing. Recording dates are often uncertain as well, and may in some cases refer to publication rather than recording. More specific information may be found in the discographies which appear regularly in T h e Record Collector and Recorded Sound, the journal of the British Institute for Recorded Sound.

"'This list, again compiled with convenience in view, gives only reissues known by me to be available for sale at the time of writing. Several of the other records cited here have been reissued at one time or another and no doubt will be again. Prefixes: 99 = Club "99"; GV and RS = Rubini Records; Y = Odyssey records; GB = Bongiovanni records; GEMM = Pearl Records; C O = Court Opera Classics IPreiser); SYO = Sunday Opera Records; ARM1 = RCA's Camso series; VIC = Victrola; Sera. = Seraphim; R = Rococo Records; OASI = OASI Records; RLS = a reissue series of British EMI.

137 138 139 140 142 143 144 149 150 152 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 166 167 174 177 178 179 182 185 188

see21 see65 see66 see 65 see98 see 99 see 99 see 3 4 see 3 4 see 3 3 see 156 see 43 see47 see 4 3 see 46 see48 see51 see51 see 54 see54 see 173 see 176 see27 see 27 see 180 see2 see9

192 193 194 197 198 199 202 203 206 207

see 95 see 180 see 52 see21 see99 see 25 see 119 see 118 see 195 see 195

http://www.jstor.org

LINKED CITATIONS

- Page 1 of 1 -

You have printed the following article: Vocal Ornamentation in Verdi: The Phonographic Evidence Will Crutchfield 19th-Century Music, Vol. 7, No. 1. (Summer, 1983), pp. 3-54.

Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28198322%297%3A1%3C3%3AVOIVTP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E

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[Footnotes]

11

Mme Cinti-Damoreau and the Embellishment of Italian Opera in Paris: 1820-1845 Austin Caswell Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 28, No. 3. (Autumn, 1975), pp. 459-492.

Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0139%28197523%2928%3A3%3C459%3AMCATEO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O

13

Mme Cinti-Damoreau and the Embellishment of Italian Opera in Paris: 1820-1845 Austin Caswell Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 28, No. 3. (Autumn, 1975), pp. 459-492.

Stable URL:

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40

A Note on Princess Eboli Andrew Porter The Musical Times, Vol. 113, No. 1554. (Aug., 1972), pp. 750-754.

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43

Giuseppe Verdi Algernon St. John-Brenon The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 1. (Jan., 1916), pp. 130-162.

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NOTE: The reference numbering from the original has been maintained in this citation list.

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