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Shafique N. Virani, "The Days of Creation in the Thought of Nasir Khusraw," in Nasir Khusraw: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, ed. Sarfaroz Niyozov and Ramazon Nazariev, Khujand, Tajikistan: Noshir Publications, 2004, 74-83. www.shafiquevirani.org

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The Institute of Ismaili Studies

AKa.r.eMHHH Y.riYMH 1."JYMXJ'PHH To~HKHCTOH Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan

Nasir Khusraw: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

Mypammu6on ea My~appuponu MaCbyJZ:

General Editors :

CaptJ>apo3 Hue3oB Ba PaMa3ou Ha3apueB Sarfaroz Niyozov and Ramazon N azariev

X~au.r.

2005

Hampuem <<llomup»

Khujand 2005

Publishing House "Noshir"

Shafique N. Virani, "The Days of Creation in the Thought of Nasir Khusraw," in Nasir Khusraw: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, ed. Sarfaroz Niyozov and Ramazon Nazariev, Khujand, Tajikistan: Noshir Publications, 2004, 74-83. www.shafiquevirani.org

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The Days of Cre atio n in the Tho ugh t of Nas ir Khu sraw 1

Shaf ique N. Vira ni ·

.Lo! Your Lord is God Who created the heavens and the earth in six days. ThenHeascendedihe Throne... (Qur'an 7:54) · AndG od blessed the seventh day and made it holy... (Genesis 2:3).

The Abrahan1ic faiths share a belief in the completion of creat ion in six days~ with the seventh day, or Sabbath, having a hallowed aUra of parti cular veneration and sanctity. Reflecting on this notion, the prominent Ismaili dign itary, Din Shirazi, observes that the exoteric expositors of this doctr al-Mu'ayyad fi'line are completely befuddled in their explanations of it. By confounding scnptural statements which, in his view, are clearly symbolic, with crude speculations abou t the creation of the physical universe in six tWenty-four hoUr periods, they have comp letely misunderstood the sacred texts.· Al-Mu'ayyad reasons that time itself is mark ed by the movement of the celestial spheres, with the rising and setting of the sun indic ating to human beings the passing of the days. Now, if creation had yet to occur, if God had sun, the earth and the planetary bodies, how then could these verse yet to fashion the s refer to the passage of time, as it is conventionally understood? The sage is even less impressed by·those who claim, citing a Qur' anic verse, that ·the creation of the heay ens and the earth takes God six ·days, each spanning a thousand years. 3 Certainly, he opines, the Creator, whose power is infmite, is not limited by time in his creation; as he says in the Qur'an, .'Ours is but a single Command, like the twinkling of an eye'. (54:50)? There ~\}St

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he asserts, and it is the place therefore be a deeper meaning to the six days of creation, 4 . . ... of ta 'wil, of esoteric exegesis, to unveil that meaning. ad's ·colleague Nasir . In his masterpiece of ta 'wil, the Wajh-i din, al-Mu'ayy eneutics of this tradition as Khusraw expounds on the ideas behind the spiritual henn · · · follows:

commenced the creation of It is mentioned in the traditions that God, may He be exalted, on Saturday. The impo1t of this the world on Sunday, completed it on Friday and rested time. All have accepted it :tradition has been hidden from the people since the dawn of Sabbath and do not work according to the capacity of their intellects. The Jews revere the are that when the Prophets on it because God rested on this day. However, they are unaw of God, six Prophets would said this, they meant people to know that, by the Command th came, he would not ·come to this world to command people to work When the seven for their labours. They called it the command in this manner. Rather, he would reward them 5 . . Sabbath and declared it sacred.

the creation of the Thus, according to the ta 'wil, these days do not concern ual casinos, a creation that physical universe. They refer to the creation of a spirit of the week, Sunday, and commenced with Adam, who represented the first day sented Monday, Tuesday, continued with Noah, Abral1am, Moses and Jesus, who repre is represented by Friday, Wednesday and Thursday respectivelgr. Muhammad, who the last and fmal day, which brought this creation to its completion. Yet, to come was nt for the co1nmm1dment would consummate the entire spiritUal creation; a day not 1nea ution. This· was the. Sabbath, rd of work, but rather for the allocation of rewa7 and retrib . . or Lord of the Resurrection (qa 'im-i qiyama).

on that day for those who People await the advent of the Sabbath, for there will be repose fulfilment of (the Prophets') have recognised the reality of these days and who laboured in physical world and know command and with knowledge. Those who toil physically in this ded for it tomorrow in·the the esoteric mealling of this with their souls today will be rewar . 8 · . ,. spiritual world.

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. great cycles of d the 1be days of creation, in Ismaili thought, were considere the dense world of earthly prophecy. God 's memling in these verses concerned not religion. In the former, the phenomena, but a world of far greater import, that of latter, it is marked by the movement of the celestial spheres marks time, while in the ban-i adwar). The structure coming of God 's messengers, the lords of the cycles (sahi to the Ismaili savants. This of these cycles of prophecy· was· of tremendous interest· cycles, the days of creation, paper will explore Nasir Khusraw's exposition of these and their consummation in the advent of the Sabbath.

parts, one spiritual and ·To our author, the world of religion is composed of two and space, consists of the one physical. The spiritual world, which is beyo nd time. lower, physical world m1d Universal Intellect and the Universal Soul. It precedes this d are called into 'existence its temporal cycles~. The two ~eat angels of the spiritual worl ls in the physical world are from nothing and are simple. . Paralleling these two ange n)and the Foundation (of the natiqs and the·asas, the Enunciator (ofth e divine revelatio are six, the qa 'im being the its esoteric interpretation)Y The nqtiqs, of whom there 75 .

.seventh, are the lords of the major cycles, or what may be referred to as the greater days. These days are themselves divided into seven days, the minor cycles, which are the cycles of the Imams. 10 The periods are sometimes differentiated by referring to the major cycle o.f the natiq as dawr, while referring to the minor cycle of the Imam as ruzgar or zamana. 12 Nasir Khusraw's predecessor, Abl;L Ya'qub al-Sijistani, traces six imams between every two natiqs, but states that in the period of the sixth natiq, there will be numerous imams tmtil the coming of the lord qfthe ·Sabbath, the qa 'im. 13 In this regard, he must haye had in mind the well-known prophetic tradition, equally cited by, Nasir, 'If there were to remain of time but a single day, God would prolong that day until there would come a man from among my descendants who would fill the earth 14 with equity and justice even as it has been filled with oppression and ir~justice.' That final day, which is prolonged until the coming of the qa 'im, is the day ofMuhanm1ad. Each of the seven lords of the major cycles is a link between thespiritual world and the physical world. Their bodies are earthly, but their subtle spirits belong to the celestial realm. It is tlu·ough their subtle spirits that they accept the bounties of that realm, and through their physical bodies that they convey these bounties to the physical world. However, Nasir asserts human· speech can never capture the reality of the · · · · · · spiritual world, but can only hint at it. 15 . In the minor cycle, the Imam and his hujjat, or proof, are the parallels of the natiq and the asas in the major cycle. Hence, in ta 'wil, the symbols associated with the natiq and·the·asas in the major cycle are often related equally to the Imam and the huJ]at in the minor cycle. Nasir Khusraw's ta 'wil of the adhan, or call to prayer, may be taken as an example. When proclaiming the adhan, the muezzin turns his face to the right while armouncing 'come to prayer' (hayya 'ala- 'l-salat) ·and turns his face to the left while annmmcing 'come to salvation' (hayya 'ala 'l-jalah). According to Nasir, the right hand signifies the natiq and the left, the asas. Similarly, the right hand signifies the hnam and the left, the hujjat. By saying 'come to prayer' and turning his face to the right, the muezzin indicates, 'you should accept the natiq and the in1am who are the lords of the zahir, the exoteric, by performing the exoteric prayer.' By saying 'come to salvation' and turning his face to the left, the muezzin indicates, 'by listening to the knowledge of r~ality (haqiq_at)'" lou should accept the asas and the hujjat, who are the . · lords ofthe batzn, the esotenc.' 1 Nasir Khusraw explains that just as· the human body is sustained by the four elements, earth, air, fire and water, the human soul is nourished by the four hadds, or spiritual dignitaries, the Universal Intellect, the Universal Soul, the natiq and the asas. ·Two of the fom· elements, air and fire, are subtle, while tWo, earth and water, are· dense. Similarly, two of these hadds, the Intellect and the Soul, are spiritual, while tWo, the natiq and the asas, are physical. With respect to _the body these latter two are human 17 beings, but with respect to intellect and soul, they are archangels. As in a day tl1e brightness of the moon succeeds that of the Sun, in the major cycle the natiq is represented by the sun and the asas by the moon, while in the minor cycle the Imam is represented by the sun and the hujjat by the moon. 18 · · . . · The Universal Intellect, the Univers~ Soul,jadd,fath rutd khayal, also kriown as 19 the Pen, the Tablet, Serapbiel, Michael and Gabriel, are the five spiritual hadds who are eternal and unchanging~ · They are ontologically beyond the world of cycles. Paralleling these five spiritual beings in the physical world are the natiq, the asas, the

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Thes e are the five physical hadds, who se status 1 to these five spiritual and continues in ever y cycle, or day? It was in reference said, 'I recei ved it [i.e. the divine m~ssage] from the physical entities that the. Prop het22 s are the recipients of ta 'yid, five and conveyed it to the five. ' The five earthly hadd 'ulwi), while the ranks belo w or spiritual inspiration, from the celestial hadds (hudud-i licentiates) and the mustajibs them, i.e. the da 'i, the greater and lesser ma 'dhuns (the inspiration and are thus the· (initiates), do not have · access to this direct spiritual 3 e, of the rank belo w it. The recipients of ta 'wil? Every rank acts as the Imam , or guid the ma 'dhun, the hujjat ma 'dhunis the imam of the mustajibs, the da 'i is the Imam of rund ersta nds the Qur' anic is the Imam of the da 'i and soon . It is in this light that Nasi anki nd throu gh their Imam ' dictum, 'The day whe n we shall summ on all hum . . (17:71)?4 ion has a quintessence Abu Ya'q ub al-Sijistani explains that everything in creat , the rational animal or (maghz). Amo ng animals, the quintessence is the hum an being g form having appeared in . natiq-i zinda. He is the fruit of all creation; every proceedin distinguishing characteristic of anticipation .of his advent. As reaso ned spee ch is the gs in the course of a cycle humankind, the thoughts entmciated by hum an bein , whic h is hidden in the mille resemble milk that may be churned to prod uce cream is besto wed upon a single The summ a of these subtle thoughts is give n a form and nce of all hum an reason. This individual, who cari give voic e to the cream or quintesse The words of the prop het individual is the one invested with the prophetic mission. word s are palatable to them, implant themselves in the hearts of his people, beca use his 5 Nasi r Khu sraw explains, the as tl1ey represent the pinnacle of hum an wisd om? As the Universal Intellect, so that prophet received a comp lete share of know ledg e from , intellects of hum an beings he wou ld be able to convey to the innate, but incomplete 6 ction ? Unlike other hum an · that whic h they lacked, and henc e bring them to perfe an reason, but is inspired by beings, the prop het is not dependent on deficient hum 7 ersal Intellect? . . iel, 'the tnist ed spirit,' who in tum is inspired by the Univ Gabr ed by the ta 'yid, the As mentioned above, the lords of the cycles are distinguish Soul tl1rough }add, fath and spiritual inspiration that they receive from the Universal symbol of the Universal khayal. In Nasi r Khu sraw 's ta 'wil, the evening pray er is a prayer, there are six sunn at' Soul .. 1fte r the farida or obligatory porti on of this 28 six natiqs unde r him, so rak 'ats. This signifies that the Universal Soul inspires the 9 , the afternoon prayer is the that they may conv ey his light to the peop le? Similarly This is because the natiq is symbol of the natiq. In Arabic, it is know n as zuhr. the trilateral root, za ', ha ', ,;a ', charged with bringing the zahir (a word derived from the people. Furthermore, the :which is also the root of zuhr), the exoteric revelation, to is, the advent of tl1e current time of this prayer com men ces six hour s after sunrise; That s from the cycle of Jes'us, natiq, Muhammad, com es after the passing away of six Imam . . · · · 30 . . · who was the sun of his cycle. ble the days of the week, . In relation tq each other, the lords of the cycles resem day and the qa 'im being the each succeeding the next, with Ada m being the first imam s or lords of ta 'wil. In Sabbath. However, betw een every two natiqs are six ys that occur in the cycle of relation to the lords of ta 'wil, the natiqs were like the Frida 1 mu 'a, the day of assembly or seve n days ? In Arabic, Friday is know n as yawm al-ju munity assemble in one place. gathering, because on that day all the people of the coni

i 0 and the hujjat.

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Similarly, the Friday prayer signifies the natiq, because the nati~ is the seventh imam, who gathers within himself the ranks of his six predecessors. Bef9re reaching his position, the natiq first passes through the ranks of mustajib, ma 'dhun, da 'i, hujjat etc., finally attaining the station of a nabi, or prophet. 33 · · The natiqs are the lords of the revelation (tanzi[), who convey the light of the Uruversal Soul in a physical form, i.e. the parables and symbols of the holy books. But each of the natiqs has a wasi, a legatee, who begets a line of imams. These imams are charged with the ta 'wil, the spiritual interpretation of these parables and symbols back to their primordial form as pure light. Hence, Nasir Khusraw explains, when God speal<s of the Prophets in Qur'an 35:25, he speal<S in the plural. This is because the tanzil, the exoteric revelation, may tal<:e different forms. However, when he speaks in the same verse of the imams, the lords of ta 'wil, addressing ·them as the Luminous Book, he uses the singular. This is because the meaning of all the revelations is one, regardless of the variety in their modes of expression?4 Adatn's wasi was Seth, Noah's was Shem, Abraham 's was Ishtnael, Moses' was Aaron, Jesus' was Simon Peter and Muha.rrnhad's was 'Ali? 6 · . · . . . · · Every Prophet, wasi and Imam has twelve hl4jats, who are what are sometimes called the htgjats of the day. One among the twelve hl4jats of the prophet is his wasi, one of the wasi, twelve huJ}ats is an imam, and one of the imam's twelve hujjats will be his future successor. 35 It is through this lens that our author understands the tradition ofthe Prophet, 'the Month ofRamad an (shahr ramadan) is one of God's names.'. As the prophets, awsiya' (pl. of wasi) and imams of the religious hierarchy are the· 'munes ofGod,' i.e. those through whom God is .recognised, the month of Ramadan must refer to a hierarch? 7 The word for month, shahr, also means renown, so this hierarch is one who is well known to God. The Qur'an states, 'The Month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur' an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance and the Criterion [of right and wrong]' (2:185). Accordingly, this hierarch is the one in whom God revealed the Qur'an, and who removes the ambiguity of the Holy Book's parables. He is thus none other than the wasi, 'Ali, the lord of the ta 'wil. Hence, the asas or wasi holds a position arr1ong the twelve hujjats parallel to that held by the tnonth of Ran1adan among the twelve months. 38 . · . In his cycle, the natiq appoints one hadd, the asas,· who is the fooodatioq ofilie esoteric interpretation. · The asas then appoints seven hadds, the seven Imams who will be the lords of the 1ninor cycle. Every imam appoints one imam, ·who win·. be his successor. 39 The imams succeed each other like the days of the week. Just as the days of the week have twenty-four hours, the imams have twenty-four hu}jats. Twelve of these are huJ}ats of the day, and represent the exoteric or zahir, while twelve ate htgjats of the night, and represent the esoteric, or batin.'4° The Imam dispatches the twelve hujjats of the day to the twelve clitnes, which are known in Ismaili parlance as the jaziras, or islands. 41 It is through these twelve hujjats that the light of tawhid, of God's unity, reaches the world. 42 Each of these twelve hujjats has thirty da 'is, just as each of the twelve months has thirty days. 43 Nasir also distinguishes a special class of four hujjats, who are never separated from the imam. People must go through the mediation of these hujjats to receive a word from the imam, just as pilgrims who wish to reach the holy sanctuaiy, the Ka'ba, must pass through one of its four miqats, or entranceways, and don the ihram, the pilgrimage garb symbolising the assumption of a 78

consecrated state. the qa 'im, comes the lahiq the seventh cycle, governed by · ·· . Before the advent of fjat of an Imam is generally his 45 This is noteworthy, as the h11 the · or huJjat of the qa 'im. is the harbinger of the advent of e hujjat of the qa 'im, however, tter tha n a contemporary. Th of power (laylat al-qadr) is be e Qur'anic verse, 'Th e night Sabbath. Th icates that his knowledge is 46 is said to refer to him, and ind ir rank is one. thousand months' (97:3), ugh of course, collectively, the ams, tho superior to that of a thousand im qa 'im to be his khalifas, and he considers the successors of the nt cycle of 47 It seems that Nasir Thus, he explains that the curre cial rank to this function. .·assigns a spe a ',o r the imams, and that of of two pa rts - that of th e awliy is Muhammad 48 composed liquely to the seventh imam, same time, he also alludes ob At the is the khalifas. although the name of this im am a'il, having the rank of qiyama, , Muhammad b. Ism d 49 . . .. t1'y mentwne . . 1c1 not exp1 verse, 'Lo! Your lord is one in the well-known Qur'anic ' The reference to the thr then he ascended the Throne ... avens and the earth in six days; d's God who created the he 'im, who is Go d's throne. Go by Nasir as symbolic of the qa iyama, (7:54) is interpreted mmand regarding the qa 'im-i.q throne is the fulfilment of his co sitting upon the ntext that God declares,· of the six days. It is in this co 50 · who appears after the passing One, the Subduer!' (40: 16). - the of is the kingdom today? Go d's 'Whose generated by the activity 51 the sir Khusraw, the world was The According to Na to a perfect child, the qa'im. the sole purpose of giving birth Universal Soul for s: birthing process of human being Qur'an descdbes six stages in the

of clay We created man of an extraction a receptacle secure , in then we set him, a drop (of spenn) p a clot created of the dro then we then we created of the clot a tissue then we created of the tissue bones then we clothed the bones in flesh creators! (23:12-14). ation- blessed by God, the best of n, we produced him as ane w cre The s preceding the arrival of the

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rallel to the six natiq o TI1ese six stages are seen as pa on his predecessors, but one wh 52 creation', a natiq following up in qa 'im, who is 'a ne w Resurrection. When the muezz in his ushering in of the Great bkind to differs from them of the natiq 's summoning huma 53 to call the adhan it is symbolic faces the qibla la. The afternoon prayer n, who is represented by the qib the Lord of the Resurrectio of things equals their height, commences wh en the shadows of represents the asas. It ic (zahir and batin) in the time uality of the exoteric and esoter ing of demonstrating the eq s period represents the weaken ning of the SliD at the end of thi advent of the the asas.· The wa · of the asas, and the· coming the natiq, the end of the cycle the zahir of occurs in the middle of the 54 ented by the witr prayer, which of qa 'im. The qa 'im is repres is symbolises that on the Day ion of all the other prayers.· Th t fhe night after the complet ng all the physical hadds, excep le will dispense with honouri dn ess · is Resurrection, pe5op tradition of the Prophet, 'G oo f 5 Interpreting a well-known sir Khtisraw qa 'im himsel the Day of Resurrection,' Na in the forelocks of horses till lill;otted up oning.ofhumankind, will not this is that the da 'wa, the smnm · expla.lns that the ta 'wil of s, and the da 'is,· symbolised by hujjatS, symbolized by the horse 56 ·The witr prayer consists of be severed frmn the the qa 'im 's manifestation. their forelocks, till the time of 79

three units or rak'ats, indicatjng that the qa 'im has three ranks, those of prophethood (nubuwwa), legateeship (wasaya) and restuTection (qiyama). The fact that one of the rak'ats is recited separately from the other two indicates that the qa'im holds a rank 7 that neither the natiq nor the asas held. 5 Expollllding on .this difference in rank alludes to the Qur'anic among the seven days, or lords of the cycles, Nasir Khusraw 58 the six plari.ets that are visible to the notion of the seven heavens. He explains. that naked eye - Satlirn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon - are similar in that they have light However, it is only the seventh, the Sllll itself, which has both light and heat. Moreover, in the presence of the stm, the other six disappear from view. Such is 59 . the place of the qa'im among the natiqs. 60 the 'Id al-Adha, the festival of sacrifice, as well as The qa 'im is represented by 61 by the prayer recited on tlus occasion. He is the lord of the two worlds, as the inner· n1eaning of the Divine scriphrre is revealed tl1rough him and he delivers the believers from the torment of ignorance, extracting symbols from concealment and explai11ing them. The fact tl1at the expression 'God is Greater' (Allahu akbar) is recited five times before the festival prayer indicates that dtrring the cycle of the qa'im, the believers receive benefit directly from the five spiritual hadds, the Universal Intellect, the 62 Universal Soul,jadd,fath and khaya/. Theta 'wil of reciting Allahu akbar before the festival. prayer is that the divine unity and grandeur of God will be revealed to the . . people through the qa 'im. 63 . 64 The qa 'im is from among the descendants of the asas and represents the pinnacle and pl.rrpose of. creation. Because .of him, the Universal Soul attains completion and reaches the rank of the Universal Intellect, leading to the annihilation of the physical world. 65 This is why, in the sitting prayer after the witr, two rak'ats, representing the two spiritual hadds, are recited as one. This indicates that the qa 'im has linked the two spiritual hadds such that there is no ·separation between them. InNasirKhusraw's view, God accmnplished the creation of the world of religion in six days, the cycles of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. However, the Sabbath, the seventh day, will be such that the wise will achieve felicity, truth will be eternally established, the darkness of ignorance shall be banished in the 66 light of knowledge, 'and the earth shall shimmer in the light of her Lord' (39:69). However, he points out mindfully, this Qur'anic verse suggests that presently the earth is enveloped in darkness, or else what would be the point of illuminating it in the funrre? Surely, he declares, the Qur'an refers not to physical light, which is ablUldant, but to a spiritual light tl1at will engulf the world of religion at the time of the qa jim's advent. . But, as he conCludes his discnssion of this matter in his Jami ' al-hikmatayn, 67 · . . 'this is a subtle allusion only for the wise. '

I would like to thank Dr Faquir M. Hunzai of The Institute of lsmaili Studies and Dr Taber~ Qutbuddin ofthe University of Chicago, both of whom read a draft ofthls paper and provided invaluable · feedback. 2 here is to Qur'an 32:5, 'He regulates the affair from the heaven to the earth; then The reference shall it ascend to him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years of what you count.'Ct: 70:4. 3 ln this regard, Nasir Khusraw is in full agreement with his predecessor,and is equally critical of such inteipretations. See .Jami' al-hikmatayn, ed. Hemy Corbin and Muhammad Mo'in, Le Livre . . . · · . Reunissant les Deux Sagesses (Tehran, 1953), pp. 163-164. 4 Abu Nasr Hibat al-Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din Shirazi, al-Majalis al Mu'ayyadiyya, ed. Hatim Hamid al1

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tr. JawadMuscati and Khan Din (Bombay, 1975), vol.l, pp. 358-359, al-Majalis al Mu'ayyadiyya, yyadfi.d-Din al-Shirazi Bahadur A M. Moulvi, Life and Lectures of the Grand Missionary al-Mua · . . · (Karachi, 1950), pp. 123-124. 5 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, ed. Gholam-Reza Aavani (Tehran, 1977), p. 65. , Cyclical Time and 6 Ibid., Nasir Khusraw, Jami' al-hikmatayn, p. 163, p. 165. Cf. Henry Corbin ofal-Qadi al-Nu'inan's Jsmaili Gnosis (London and Boston, 1983), p. 97. Yves Marquet discusses some n a propos des heptades d'imams,' Arabica, views in this regard in his Yves Marquet, 'Le Qadi Nu'ma . · · · XXV· ~1978), pp. 225-232. cation with the Sabbath in an Nasir vividly depicts the centrality ofthe qa'im and his identifi Yahya al-Khashshab (Cairo, illustration of concentric circles to be found in his Khwan al-ikhwan, ed. · . . . 1940), 1ss. Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 65. 9 . lbid., p. 72. . Liberation: A 10 Khusraw, Gushayish wa Rahayish, ed. and trans. Hunzai, Knowledge and Nasir (trans.). Cf. Corbin, Cyclical Time Treatise on Philosophical Theology (London, 1998), p. 58 (ed.), p. 93 · . and Jsmaili Gnosis, p.184. · of natiq, and so is 11 In the cycle of prophethood, the seventh imam, however, rises to the level seventh Imam rises to the more commonly known by this title. Similarly, in the cycle of imamate, the level of ga'im, and hence is known as such. . logy, however, is 12 Nasir Khusraw, Wqjh-i din, pp. 13, 127, Khwan al-ikhWan, p. 86. This termino · is often giveri his own period in these not static. Cf. Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, pp. 43, 335. The asas es with that of the natiq. passage~, though one would assume that his time coincid Jthbat al-nubu 'at, ed. 'ArifTamir (Beirut, 1966), p. 193. 1.> Abu Ya'qub al-Stjistani, . 80, Six Chapters or 14 Nasir Khusraw, Rawshana' i-nama, ed. Tahsin Yaziji (Tehran, 1373), p. , 1949)~ p. 39 (ed.), p. 81 Shishfasl also called Rawshana' i-nama, ed. and trans. Wladimir Ivanow (Leiden , . . . · . (trans.)._ .· rs or Shish fasl also called Rawshana' Six Chapte l:l Nasir Khusraw, Rawshana' i-nama, pp. 76-77, . · · . pp. 78-80 (trans.). i-nama,pp. 37~38 (ed.), ia'wil of ruku' (genuflection 1 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 149, cf. pp. 157-158, where the · and recognition of the hujjat during ritual prayers) is stated to be recognition ·ofthe asas in the major cycle of the natiq in the major in the minor cycle, while that of sujud (prostration) is stated to be recognition the Imam is the natiq of the cycle and recognition of the Imam in the minor cycle. One may even say that ranks of the minor cycle, the minor cycle. Nasir, in fact, states on p. 188 of this work that among the seven imam is the sukhan-go, which is Persian for natiq. 17 ·. lbid., pp. 60-61. ' .· ' .. ' ' 18 Ib'd · 195 . ' 1 .,pp. Nasir elaborates on 19 See, for example, Nasir Khusraw, Khwan al-ikhwan, pp. 170-171, where atayn, p. 109, 138, 155, as these latter three, and Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 232, 258, Jami' al-hikm , 2000), p. 116 ff. Cf. Paul well as AbuYa'qub Sijistani, Kitab al-iftikhar, ed. Ismail K. Poonawala (Beirut 110, 119 andHeinzHalm, Kosmologie E. Walker,.Early Philosophical Shiism (Cambridge, 199J), pp. 30, aden, 1978), pp. 67~74, und Heif.<slehre der friihen isma'iliya: eine Studie iiber islamischen Gnosis (Wiesb · pp. 206-209, which draws heavily on the.Kitab al-iftikhar. 20 the bah is itself an interesting one. He is often considered the chief The question of the role of prior to the rising of a natiq) lnrjjat. Nasir explains that each of the siX true Imams (i.e. apparently those g the command of God in his has a bah 'who succeeds him in religion and who is unique in accomplishin whether 'succeeds him in religion' means 'is lifetime,' Wajh-i din, p. 148. The question then arises as to among the Imam's offspring. his successor to the imamate,' in which case the bah would have to be from ered the successor or inheritor Of course, this interpretation is not necessarily the case, as the wasi is consid . his offspring. of the Rrophet, without succeeding to hls position as prophet, or being from among rs or Shish Chapte 21 Nasir Khusraw, Khwan al-ikhwan, p. .174, Rawshana' i~nama, pp. 72-73, Six (trans.) Cf Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 126, 198fasl also called Rawshana' i-nama, p. 34 (ed.), p.74 , a term generally reserved 199 On p. 126, the da 'i seems, unusually, to be referred to as lahiq, or adjunct for the da'i. It is possible that the word tor the hty'jat. The term.Janah, or wing, is more commonly used place. This would allow the hujjat in this passage is a scribal en·or, and that the word bah should take its Wellsprings of Wisdom (Salt term lahiq to retain its more trru:litional meaning. Cf. Paul E. Walker, The

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. . .. Lake Cicy, 1994), pp. 19, 177, and Walker~ Early Philosophical Shlism, p. 18. 22 fasl also called Rawshana 'iNasir Khusraw, Rawshan 'i-nama, p. 73, Six Chapters or Shish . ·~ · nama, ~· 35 (ed.), p. 75 (trans.), Khwan al-ikhwan, p. 174. · . · .· · . · 3 Khusraw, It :may also be possible that the da 'i receives ta 'yid,. but this is ambiguous. See Nasir · . Wajh-i din, pp. 126,198-199, which may be compared with Wajh-i din, p. 247,Rawshana'i-nama, p. 73, Six Chapters or Shishfasl also called Rawshana'i-nama, p. 35 (ed.), p. 75 (trans.). It must also be kept in mind that the da 'is themselves are divided into two groups, the limited da 'is and the absolute da 'is, and this distinction maybe significant in the matter. Nasir Khusraw, ·Wajh-i din, p. 255. Cf Sijistani, Kitab al · . · ·. . iftikhar and pp. 224-225. also called Rawshana'i:1i Nasir Khusraw, Rawshana' i-nama, p. 74, Six Chapters or Shishfasl . · · · .· nama, ~· 36 (ed.), pp. 76-77 (trans.). 5 Both - Abu Ya'qub ai-Sijistani, Kashf al-mahjub, ed. Henry Corbin (Tehran, 1949), pp. 69-70. Corbin and Landolt read mim, shin, kcif, lam in this passage as mitshkil to ruTive at their translations. While this is certainly possible, I have preferred the reading mushakkal, which appears to me to suit the context better. See Abu Ya' qub al-Sijistani, Kashf al-mahjub: Le Devoilement des Chases Cachees, trans. Henry Corbin (Lagrasse, 1988), pp. 103-104, 'Kashf al-Mahjub: Unveiling of the Hidden,' trans. Hermann Landolt in An Anthology ofPhilosophy in Persia (Oxford, 2001 ), p. 108. 26 See Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 61. 27 Nasir Khusraw, Zad al-musafirin, ed. Muhammad Badhl ar-Rahman (Berlin, 1341/ [1923]), p. 27, quoting Qur'an26:192-195. Compare, however, Nasir Khusraw's assertion that when the Prophet's nutq attains its completion upon the achievement of the spiritual mi'raj,·he recognises the Universal Soul · . directlY. and not through intennediaries; Wajh-i din, p. 138. a bending of the torso from an is A rak'atis a portion of the Muslim prayer ritual that involves upright ~osition, followed by two prostrations .. 2 NasirKhusraw, Wajh-i din, pp. 169-170. 30 . Ibid.,pp.171-:172. 31 imam for payghambar, according to the variant noted from Ibid., p. 64. Note~ in line 16,read · · manuscript A 32 . . Ibid., pp. 186-188. . 33 . . .. Ibid., pp. 186-187. 34 Ibid., p. 64. Nasir understands of the word Imam, described above in relation to his ta 'wil of Qur'an 17:71 should also be kept in mind in this context. Cf Walker, Early Philosophical Shiism, p. 115. 35 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 64. Cf Corbin, Cyclical Time and Ismaili Gnosis, p. 184. 36 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh~i Din, pp. 251-252. Ibn Hawshab 'Mansur al-Yaman', in his Kitab alrushd wa '1-hidaya, generally .refers to the twelve deputies ·of the natiq as the naqibs, though acknowledging that the wasi is the hujjat of the Prophet. The twelve naqibs of the natiq surrimon humankind'to follow the exoteric teaching ofthe Prophet, while the twelve hujjats of the mutimm imam summon humanity to follow his esoteric doctrines. See Ibn Hawshab, Kitab al-rushd wa '1-hidaya, trans. W. Ivanow, 2nd revised edition ed., Studies in Early Persian Ismailism (Bombay, 1955), pp 33-46. The same text also refers to the succession of the hujjat to the rank of imam. Cf Nasir Khusraw, Khwan al. . .. . ikhwan· 244, in which the tenn naqib is used in a similar manner. 3 al-Mu'ayyadiyya, p. 202. In this connection, see al-Mu'ayyad fi'd-Din Shirazi, al-Majalis 38 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, 253-254. Nasir Khusraw furnishes an interesting, though somewhat enigmatic, example of this in his ta'wil of the Qur'anic story ofJoseph, see Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, pp. 184-185, 252. Cf Ja'far b. Mansur al-Yaman, al-'Alim wa'l-ghulain, ed. and trans. James Winston MatTis, The Master and the Disciple (London, 200 1), p. 32 (ed.), p. 99 (trans.) 39 · Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, pp. 346-327. 40 Ibid., pp. 225, 252, 259-260. 41 . . .. . Ibid., pp. 229, 275. . . · . . 42 Ib'd ·. . · . .. I .,p. 331 . . . 43 (1960), Ibid., 178. Bayard Dodge, 'The FatimidHierru·chyand Exegesis,' The Muslim World, 50 p. 133, mentions that each hujjat of ajazira has thirty naqibs, each of whom has twenty-four da 'istwelve of the day and twelve of the night. Unfortunately, rio location for this information is specified. 44 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i Din, p. 264. Ibn Hawshab,too, refers to 'the four sacred luminaries', . citing the Qur'anic verse, 'Indeed, the number of months in God's view is twelve- so ordained by him the

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day he created.the heavens and the earth. Ofthese, four are sacred... ' (IX: 36). See Ibn Hawshab, Kitab at-rushd wa '1-hidaya, p. 47. This reference to four miqats, rather than the traditional five, is unusuaL alQadi al-Nu'man lists the traditional five, on the authority of the Imam al-Sadiq, see al-QadiAbuHanifa alNu'man b. Muhammad, Daha'im al-lslam, ed. Asaf A.A. Fyzee (Cairo, 1951-1961), p. 297. al-Qadi Abu Hanifa al-Nu'man b. Muhammad, Ta'wil ad-Daha'im, ed. Muhammad Hasan al-Ajami (Cairo, 19671969), pp. 157-:163 does not shed any further light on the issue, as the ta'wil offered is different from Nasir's. Cf. A. J. Wensinck, J. Jornier, 'ihram', Encyclopaedia ofIslam. CD-ROM version 1.0 (Leiden, .. . 1999). 45 NasirKhusraw, Wajh-idin,p.261. · 46 . Ibid., pp. 176, 261. 47 . . pp. 153, 176. . lbid., 48 Ibid., p. 248, read khulafa' in place of khalqan, as per the variant noted from manuscript A. 49 Ibid., pp. 104-105, Abu Ya'qub Sijistani mentions a similar doctrine in hls hitherto unpublished · Kitab al-maqalid, see Walker, Early Philosophical Shiism, p. 140. 50 . . Nasir Khusraw, Jami' al-hikmatayn, p.165. · 51 Time and lsmaili Gnosis, pp. 99Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 97. See also Corbin, Cyclical .· . .. 100, 113. 52 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 256. This symbolism is echoed by Abu Ya'qub al- Sijistani; see · · . Walket, Early Philosophical Shiism, p. 141. Cf. Sami Naqib Macrame, The Doctrine of the lsmaili . · · · (Bei.tu~)972),pp. 31-34. 5 ~ Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i Din, pp. 148-149. . · 54 lbtd., pp. 172. . 5 ~ Ibid., pp. 176. 6 ~ Ibid., pp. 276. 7 . ' Ibid., pp. 176. 58 is used here in its traditional sense and not its modem meaning. . The word 'planet', of course, 59 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p. 245, Jami' al-hikmatayn, pp. 111-112. 60 Nasir Khusraw, Wajh-i din, p.192 . 61 Ibid., p. 152. . 62 Ibid., p. 193. 63 . . . Ibid., pp. 192-193. . 64 . . . p. 176. Ibid., 65 'i-nama, p. 81, Six Chapters or Shishfasl also called Ibid., p. 177, Nasir Khusraw, Rawshana · · Rawshana' i-nama, p. 40 (ed.), p. 82 (trans.).· 66 NasirKhusraw, Wajh-idin, pp. 165-166. 67 Nasir Khusraw, Jami' al-hikmatayn, p. 166.

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