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HOW TO CONDUCT A FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT & DEVELOP BEHAVIOR PLANS TO REDUCE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

Presented by Dr. Vincent J. Carbone Board Certified Behavior Analyst & Gina Zecchin Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst

THE "NOT-WELL-KNOWN"

HISTORY OF FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT

1. THE TERM FUNCTIONAL REFERS TO THE CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR. 2. B.F. SKINNER WAS THE FIRST TO USE THE TERM WHEN REFERRING

TO THE "CAUSES" OF BEHAVIOR. HE PURPOSEFULLY DISCARED CAUSE AND EFFECT IN FAVOR OF FUNCTIONAL IN AN EFFORT TO PRECISELY TALK ABOUT BEHAVIOR THE WAY MATHEMATICIANS AND PHYSICISTS TALK ABOUT THEIR SUBJECT MATTERS.

3. SKINNER'S RESEARCH AND THE RESEARCH OF HIS FOLLOWERS

STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF IDENTIFYING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EVENTS WHICH WERE "FUNCTIONALLY RELATED" TO BEHAVIOR.

4. HE SUGGESTED THAT MALADAPTIVE AS WELL AS ADAPTIVE

BEHAVIORS SHOWED FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS RELATED TO ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES.

5. IN THE LATE 1970's AND EARLY 1980's THE SEVERE SELF-INJURIOUS

BEHAVIOR OF PERSONS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES BECAME THE SUBJECT OF THE FIRST EFFORTS TO DEVELOP A PROTOCOL FOR CONDUCTING FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENTS.

6. BEGINNING WITH THE RESEARCH OF DR. BRIAN IWATA AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, A PROTOCOL FOR CLASSIFYING AND SELECTING TREATMENTS BASED UPON "FUNCTION" AS OPPOSED TO OTHER FACTORS BEGAN TO EMERGE.

7. SINCE THAT TIME THE PROTOCOL HAS BEEN REFINED AND HAS BEEN

THE SUBJECT OF HUNDREDS OF RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS APPEARING MOSTLY IN JOURNALS DEVOTED TO PRACTIVE OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS.

8. THE RESEARCH HAS EXTENDED THE ANALYSIS BEYOND SELFINJURIOUS BEHAVIOR OF DEVELOPMENTALLY DISABLED PERSONS TO INCLUDE PERSONS WITH ALL TYPES OF BEHAVIOR DISORDERS, MANY DIFFERENT BEHAVIORS AND ACROSS ALL COGNITIVE LEVELS.

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WHAT IS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT?

1. A SET OF PROCEDURES TO IDENTIFY THE CAUSES OF A MALADAPTIVE OR SOCIALLY INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR AND REDUCE IT THROUGH TEACHING REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORS INSTEAD OF SUPPRESSING IT THROUGH PUNISHMENT. 2. THE BODY OF EMPIRICAL AND SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE WHICH SUPPORTS THESE METHODS IS FOUND IN THE FIELD OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 3. WITHIN FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY THE CAUSES ARE SOUGHT IN THE IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT AND THE LEARNING HISTORY OF THE INDIVIDUAL 4. CAUSES OF THE MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR BASED UPON INTRAPSYCHIC VARIABLES OR PYSCODYNAMIC PROCESSES ARE GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION. 5. THE OUTCOME OF THE ASSESSMENT IS AN ANALYSIS OF THE WAY THE PERSON LEARNED THE MALADPATIVE AND HOW IT IS PRESENTLY SUPPORTED OR MAINTAINED IN THE PRESENT LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. 6. FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT DOES NOT EMPHASIZE A SEARCH FOR A DIAGNOSIS OR CLASSIFICATION OF SYMPTOMS ACCORDING TO PSYCHODYNAMIC PROCESSES AS FOUND IN THE DSM-IV. 7. INSTEAD, THE PURPOSE OF THE ASSESSMENT IS TO CLASSIFY THE MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR BY ITS FUNCTION (CAUSE) AND THEN SELECT TREATMENTS OR INTERVENTIONS WHICH ARE EFFECTIVE IN REDUCING BEHAVIOR IN THAT FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY. 8. CONSEQUENTLY, TREATMENTS OR INTERVENTIONS ARE CLASSIFIED BY FUNCTIONAL CATEGORIES AND NOT BY FORM OF THE MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIAOR. 9. IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION MANY PRACTICTIONERS CHOOSE INTERVENTIONS OR TREATMENTS BASED UPON TOPOGRAPHY OR FORM OF THE BEHAVIOR INSTEAD OF THE FUNCTION. (Prereferral) Interventions) 10. AS A RESULT SOME RECOMMENDED INTERVENTIONS ACTUALLY STRENGTHEN THE MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR INSTEAD OF REDUCING IT. 11. THIS SITUATION CAN MAKE SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND THEIR PERSONNEL VULNERABLE TO SUCCESSFUL LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND ETHICAL CHALLENGES

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WHAT ARE THE MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOR?

1.

· · ·

SOCIALLY MEDIATED POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: Something that is delivered by another person after behavior that makes the behavior more likely to occur. Attention Activities Tangible items

How it's value increases or decreases: Deprive the person of access to these items or give the person plenty of these items. (Establishing Operation) 2. SOCIALLY MEDIATED NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: the withdrawal of something (demand) that is aversive by another person after a behavior that makes the behavior more likely to occur · · Escape or removal of unpreferred demands (usually academic) Avoidance or at least postponement of unpreferred demands

How its value increases or decreases: When instructional demands are a warning signal for less reinforcement or a warning signal for more reinforcement. (Establishing Operation) 3. AUTOMATIC POSITIVE REINFORCMENT : Movements or activities of your body that produce a feeling that makes the behavior that produced it more likely. · Self stimulatory sensations produced by behavior How it's value increases or decreases: When left in a boring environment without other things to do or when placed in an enriched social environment. (Establishing Operation) AN EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT ALLOWS YOU TO GROUP BEHAVIORS BY THEIR FUNCTIONS AS OPPOSED TO THEIR FORM OR LEVEL OF DISRUPTIVENESS.

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Five General Steps to a Functional Analysis; Functional Analysis Checklist

Conducting a Functional Analysis

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C ONDUCTING

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F UNCTIONAL A NALYSIS

A Functional Analysis is an assessment process by which the controlling environmental variables (functions) of behavior are identified. Moreover, once these variables or functions are identified they can be manipulated so that behavior changes. After completing a Functional Analysis, interventions that are the least restrictive, and have the best possibility of accelerating or decelerating a targeted behavior can be implemented.

T h e r e a r e f iv e ( 5 ) g e n e r a l s te p s to c o n d u c tin g a F u n c tio n a l A n a lys is . STEP 1 FUNCTIONAL INTERVIEW(example forms attached)

Functional Interview: 1 ) Co n d u c t a F u n c tio n a l A s s e s s me n t I n te r v ie w o f a t le a s t tw o ( 2 ) p e r s o n s w h o k n o w th e s tu d e n t a n d h a v e b e e n in v o lv e d in th e s itu a tio n s in w h ic h th e ma la d a p tiv e b e h a v io r o c c u r s . 2 ) I n a d d itio n c o mp le te tw o ( 2 ) F A S T ( F u n c tio n a l A s s e s s me n t S c r e e n in g T o o l;) , a n d /o r a Mo tiv a tio n A s s e s s me n t S c a le . E ith e r o r b o th o f th e s e f o r ms c a n b e u s e d . STEP 2 D I R E C T O B S E R V A T I O N (e x a m p l e f o r m s a t t a c h e d )

Co lle c t d a ta b y d ir e c tly o b s e r v in g th e ta r g e te d b e h a v io r a n d me a s u r in g : 1) Sequence Analysis (PREFERRED) - Recording a) antecedents; b) b e h a v i o r ; a n d c ) c o n s e q u e n c e . ( MA L A D A P T I V E B E H A V I O R C A R D ; . 2 ) F r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e - h o w ma n y time s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s ) . 3 ) Ra te o f o c c u r r e n c e - th e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e p e r u n it o f time ( e . g . 1 0 b e h a v io r s d iv id e d b y 2 0 min o b s e r v a tio n = . 5 b e h a v io r s p e r min u te o r a b o u t o n e b e h a v io r e v e r y tw o min u te s ) . 4 ) D u r a tio n - h o w lo n g th e b e h a v io r la s ts ( e . g . ta n tr u m f o r 1 0 min u te s ) . 5 ) L a te n c y - th e d u r a tio n o f time b e tw e e n a s timu lu s a n d a r e s p o n s e ( e . g . the student begins work 40 seconds after a teacher gives the direction to b e g in th e w o r k ) . STEP 3 EXPERIMENTAL MANIPULATIONS)

T h i s s t e p n e e d s t o b e c o mp l e t e d : 1 ) I f th e f u n c tio n o f th e b e h a v io r is n o t o b v io u s ( a f te r c o n d u c tin g s te p s 1 and 2). 2 ) I f it is f e a s ib le g iv e n th e s e v e r ity o f th e b e h a v io r . T h i s p r o c e d u r e a l l o w s t h e i n t e r v i e w e r / o b s e r v e r t o e mp ir i c a l l y t e s t f o r t h e f u n c t i o n s o f th e b e h a v io r . T h e c o n d itio n in w h ic h th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s mo s t f r e q u e n tly s u g g e s ts th e f u n c tio n o f th e b e h a v io r . T o te s t f o r th e f u n c tio n s o f th e ma la d a p tiv e b e h a v io r d o th e following:

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1 ) A l o n e C o n d i t i o n - T e s t = b e h a v io r ma in ta in e d b y S E L F S T I MU L A T I O N A llo w th e s tu d e n t to b e a lo n e w ith o u t a n y s timu la tio n . Co u n t th e n u mb e r o f time s th e ta r g e te d b e h a v io r o c c u r s . T h is s e s s io n s h o u ld la s t f o r 2 0 min u te s . 2 ) A t t e n t i o n C o n d i t i o n - T e s t = b e h a v i o r ma i n t a i n e d b y A T T E N T I O N Allow the student to engage in preferred activities. Give five(5) to 10 seconds of a t t e n t i o n f o r e a c h o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o r , ( i. e . " H e y , d o n ' t h i t y o u r s e l f lik e th a t. Y o u c o u ld h u r t yo u r s e lf ! " ) . Co u n t th e n u mb e r o f time s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s . T h is s e s s io n s h o u ld la s t f o r 2 0 min u te s . 3 ) D e m a n d C o n d i t i o n - T e s t = b e h a v i o r ma i n t a i n e d b y E S C A P E / A V O I D A N C E P l a c e t h e s t u d e n t i n a t a s k o r d e ma n d s i t u a t i o n . A l l o w t h e s t u d e n t t o ESCAPE (leave the situation) for each occurrence of the targeted b e h a v io r . W a it a b o u t o n e min u te . A f te r th e o n e min u te e la p s e s , d ir e c t th e s tu d e n t b a c k to th e ta s k o r d e ma n d s itu a tio n . Co u n t th e n u mb e r o f time s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s . T h is s e s s io n s h o u ld la s t f o r 2 0 min u te s . 4 ) P la y C o n d it io n - T e s t = C O N T R O L C O N D I T I O N . P l a c e t h e s t u d e n t i n a n e n r i c h e d r ei n f o r c i n g e n v i r o n me n t . A l l o w t h e s t u d e n t t o e n g a g e i n f r e e a c c e s s t o p r e f e r r e d i t e ms a n d a c t i v i t i e s . D o n o t c o n s e q u a te th e ta r g e te d b e h a v io r ( u n le s s it is a n e me r g e n c y s itu a tio n ) . Co u n t th e n u mb e r o f time s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s . T h is s e s s io n s h o u ld la s t 2 0 min u te s . STEP 4 FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS SUMMARY

C o mp l e t e t h e F U N C T I O N A L A S S E S S ME N T S U MMA R Y f o r m u s i n g i n f o r ma t i o n f r o m t h e : 1 ) F u n c tio n a l A n a lys is in te r v ie w s yo u h a v e c o n d u c te d ( s te p 1 ) . 2 ) D ir e c t O b s e r v a tio n d a ta th a t yo u h a v e c o lle c te d ( s te p 2 ) . 3 ) E x p e r ime n ta l Ma n ip u la tio n if c o n d u c te d ( s te p 3 ) . STEP 5 BEHAVIOR LESSON PLAN

Ba s e d o n th e in f o r ma tio n o b ta in e d f r o m th e a b o v e p r o c e d u r a l s te p s : 1 ) Ch o o s e a n in te r v e n tio n f o u n d in th e I N T E RV E N T I O N S BA S E D U P O N FUNCTION OF THE BEHAVIOR. W r i t e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n L E S S O N P L A N s h e e t f o r b e h a v io r s t a r g e t e d f o r decrease.

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FUNCTIONAL INTERVIEW

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS INTERVIEW

S tu d e n t: Teacher: Be h a v io r o f Co n c e r n : Positive Reinforcers: Negative Reinforcers: ID# date: / /

I n s t r u c t i o n s : I n te r v ie w a p e r s o n w h o h a s o b s e r v e d th e b e h a v io r o f th e s tu d e n t f o r a n e x te n d e d p e r io d o f time in ma n y d if f e r e n t s itu a tio n s . Ch e c k th e b o x e s w h e n e v e r th e r e s p o n d e n t a n s w e r " Y E S " to a q u e s tio n . F o r e v e r y " Y E S " r e s p o n s e th e r e s h o u ld b e a q u a l i f y i n g c o mme n t w r i t t e n o n t h e l i n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n . 1 . P h y s io lo g ic a l, M e d ic a l, EO F a c t o r s D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r d u r in g c e r ta in s e a s o n s o f th e ye a r ? Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e th e r e s u lt o f a n y f o r m o f d is c o mf o r t ( e s c a p e r e s p o n s e to h e a d a c h e , s t o ma c h a c h e , d i z z i n e s s , b l ur r e d v is io n , e a r in f e c tio n , e tc . ) . Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e s ig n a lin g s o me d e p r iv a tio n c o n d itio n ? ( T h ir s t, h u n g e r , lack of rest, etc.) Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e a s id e e f f e c t o f me d ic a tio n ? ( T ir e d , u n s te a d y, th ir s t, c o n f u s e d , to x ic le v e ls ) Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e th e r e s u lt o f a me d ic a l c o n d itio n ? ( S e iz u r e s , P K U , allergies, CP) 2. Antecedents and Setting Event Factors A r e t h e r e a n y c i r c u ms t a n c e s i n w h ic h th e b e h a v io r A L W A Y S o c c u r s ? A r e t h e r e a n y c i r c u ms t a n c e s i n w h ic h th e b e h a v io r N E V E R o c c u r s ? D o e s i t o c c u r a t c e r t a i n t i me s o f t h e d a y ? D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r o n ly w ith c e r ta in p e o p le ? C o u ld t h e b e h a v io r b e r e l a t e d t o a n y s k i l l d e f i c i t s ? ( C o mmu n ic a t i o n , e x c e s s i v e t a s k r e q u ir e me n ts , p h ys i c a l a b i l i t y ) I s t h e b e h a v io r r e l a t e d t o a n y p a r t i c u la r a c t i v i t i e s ? I s th e b e h a v io r in r e s p o n s e to a v e r s iv e s timu li? ( T o n e o f v o ic e , ig n o r in g , d e ma n d s , n o is e le v e l, n u mb e r o f p e o p le in th e r o o m, a g ita tio n /c o n s e q u e n c e s d e liv e r e d to o th e r s tu d e n ts , lig h tin g , c h a n g e in r o u tin e , tr a n s itio n s ) 3. Operant (consequences) Factors W h a t d o e s t h e b e h a v io r a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t t o g a i n ? ( A t t e n t i o n , p r e f e r r e d a c t i v i t i e s o r i t e ms ) D o e s th e b e h a v io r a llo w th e s tu d e n t to p o s tp o n e , a v o id , o r e s c a p e a v e r s iv e s t i mu la t i o n ? ( U n p r e f e r r e d a c t i v i t i e s , d e ma n d s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , p a i n ) D o e s th e b e h a v io r p r o v id e s e lf - s timu la tio n a c tiv ity? ( Bo r e d o m, imp o v e r is h e d e n v ir o n me n t) D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r c o lla te r a l w ith a n y o th e r b e h a v io r o r a s p a r t o f a c h a in o f b e h a v io r s ? D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r a s a r e s u lt o f h a v in g a p r e f e r r e d a c tiv ity te r min a te d ? 8

MOTIVATION ASSESSMENT SCALE Student: Interviewer: ID#: B e h a v i o r:

N E V E R A L M O S T N E V E R S E L D O M H A L F T H E U S U A L L Y A L M O S T A L W A Y S A L W A Y S

D a te :

/

/

Instructions: For each FUNCTION area add the numerals and place the sum on the line marked TOTAL. The area with the highest score suggests the function of the behavior.

T I M E

Function: SENSORY 1. Would this behavior occur continuously if your child was left alone for long periods of time (e.g., one hour?) 2. Does this behavior occur repeatedly, over and over, in the same way (e.g., rocking back and forth for 5 minutes)? 3. Does it appear to you that the child enjoys performing this behavior and would continue even if no one was around? 4. When this behavior is occurring does the child seem unaware of anything else going on around her/him? Function: ESCAPE 1 Does this behavior occur following a command to perform a difficult task? 2. Does the behavior occur when any request is made of your child? 3. Does the child seem to do this behavior to upset or annoy you when you are trying to get her/him to do what you ask? 4. Does the behavior stop occurring shortly after you stop working or making demands of her/him? Function: ATTENTION 1. Does this behavior occur when you are talking to other persons in the room? 2. Does the behavior occur whenever you stop attending to the child? 3. Does the child seem to do this behavior to upset or annoy you when you are not paying attention to her/him (e.g., sitting in a separate room, interacting with another child)? 4. Does the child seem to do this behavior to get you to spend time with her/him? Function: TANGIBLE 1. Does this behavior ever occur to get a toy, food, or game that they had been told they can't have? 2. Does the behavior occur when you take away a favorite toy or food? 3. Does this the toy or 4. Does this they can't behavior stop occurring shortly after you give the child food they have requested? behavior seem to occur when the child has been told that do something they wanted to do?

Total 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6

Adapted from: Durand, V.M. & Crimmins, D.B. (1988). Identifying the variables maintaining self-injurious behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 99-107)

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FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS SCREENING TOOL (FAST)

S tu d e n t: Date: / / DOB: / / Be h a v io r P r o b le m: I n f o r ma n t : Interviewer:

To the Interviewer: The FAST is designed to identify a number of factors that may influence the occurrence of behavior problems. It should be used only as an initial screening tool and as part of a comprehensive functional analysis of the behavior problem. The FAST should be administered to several individuals who interact with the client frequently. Results should then be used as the basis for conducting direct observations in several different contexts to verify likely behavioral functions, clarify ambiguous functions, and identify other relevant factors that may not have been included in this instrument. To the Informant: After completing the section on "Informant-Client Relationship," read each of the numbered items carefully. If a statement accurately describes the student's target behavior problem, circle "Yes." If not, circle "No."

ID# S c h o o l:

Exceptionality: Grade:

INFORMANT-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP I n d ic a te yo u r r e la tio n s h ip to th e s tu d e n t: H o w lo n g h a v e yo u k n o w n th e s tu d e n t? Parent Therapist Years Mo n th s Teacher/Instructor Residential Staff

Yes No D o yo u in te r a c t w ith th e s tu d e n t o n a d a ily b a s is ? I f " N o , " h o w ma n y h o u r s p e r w e e k ? I f " Y e s , " h o w ma n y h o u r s p e r d a y? I n w h a t s itu a tio n s d o yo u typ ic a lly o b s e r v e th e s tu d e n t? ( Ma r k a ll th a t a p p ly) Self-care routines Leisure activities A c a d e mi c s k i l l s tr a in in g W o r k o r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g Meals E v e n in g s W h e n th e s tu d e n t h a s n o th in g to d o Other:

P a r t I . P r o b l e m B e h a v i o r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n: L i s t b e h a v i o r p r o b l e ms o f c o n c e r n . D e s c r i b e e a c h i n c l e a r a n d o b j e c t i v e t e r ms . 1__________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________ P a r t I I . D im e n s io n s o f P r o b le m Be h a v io r . P r o v i d e a n d e s t i ma t e o f t h e f r e q u e n c y a n d s e v er i t y o f t h e e a c h p r o b l e m b e h a v i o r . U s e t h e following criteria for severity: Mild ( d is r u p tiv e b u t n o t d a n g e r o u s ) , Mo d e r a te ( d e s tr u c tiv e to p h ys ic a l e n v ir o n me n t) , S e v e r e ( p o s e s p h ys ic a l d a n g e r to s tu d e n t o r o th e r s ) SEVERITY FREQEUNCY 1.Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Less Often Mild/Moderate/Severe 2.Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Less Often Mild/Moderate/Severe 3.Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Less Often Mild/Moderate/Severe 4.Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Less Often Mild/Moderate/Severe

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PART III. Critical Situations: D e s c r ib e th e s itu a tio n s in w h ic h th e p r o b le m b e h a v io r is m o s t l i k e l y t o o c c u r . D a y s / t i me s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S e ttin g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ P e r s o n s P r e s e n t:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A c tiv ity_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ W h a t h a p p e n s r ig h t b e f o r e th e p r o b le m b e h a v io occurs?___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ D e s c r ib e th e s itu a tio n s in w h ic h th e b e h a v io r is l e a s t l i k e l y t o o c c u r : D a y s / t i me s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S e ttin g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ P e r s o n s P r e s e n t:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A c tiv ity_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Part IV. Social Influences On Behavior 1. 2. T h e b e h a v io r u s u a lly o c c u r s in yo u r p r e s e n c e o r in th e p r e s e n c e o f o th e r s tu d e n ts . T h e b e h a v io r u s u a lly o c c u r s s o o n a f te r yo u o r o th e r s in te r a c t w ith th e s tu d e n t in s o me w a y , s u c h a s d e liv e r in g a n in s tr u c tio n o r r e p r ima n d , w a lk in g a w a y f r o m ( ig n o r in g ) th e s tu d e n t, taking away a "preferred" i t e m, r e q u ir i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o c h a n g e a c t i v i t i e s , t a l k i n g t o s o me o n e e l s e i n t h e student's presence, etc. 3. T h e b e h a v i o r o f t e n i s a c c o mp a n i e d b y o th e r " e mo t i o n a l " r e s p o n s e s , s u c h a s y e l l i n g o r c r yin g . C o mp l e t e P a r t V i f y o u a n s w e r e d " Y e s " t o i t e ms 1 , 2 , o r 3 . S k i p P a r t V i f y o u a n s w e r e d " N o " t o a l l t h r e e i t e ms i n P a r t I . Part V. Social Reinforcement 4. 5. T h e b e h a v i o r o f t e n o c c u r s w h e n t h e s t u d en t h a s n o t r e c e i v e d mu c h a t t e n t i o n . W h e n th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s , yo u o r o th er s u s u a lly r e s p o n d b y in te r a c tin g w ith th e s tu d e n t in s o me w a y ( e . g . , c o mf o r tin g s ta te me n ts , v e r b a l c o r r e c tio n o r r e p r ima n d , r e s p o n s e b lo c k in g , r e d ir e c tio n ) . 6. 7. 8. 9. T h e s tu d e n t o f te n e n g a g e s in o th e r a n n o yin g b e h a v io r s th a t p r o d u c e a tte n tio n . T h e s t u d e n t f r e q u e n t l y a p p r o a c h e s y o u ( o r o th e r s ) a n d /o r i n i t i a t e s s o c i a l interaction. T h e b e h a v io r r a r e ly o c c u r s w h e n yo u g iv e th e s tu d e n t lo ts o f a tte n tio n . T h e b e h a v io r o f te n o c c u r s w h e n yo u ta k e a p a r tic u la r ite m a w a y f r o m th e s tu d e n t o r w h e n y o u t e r mi n a t e a p r e f e r r e d l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y. ( I f " ye s , " i d e n t i f y: T h e b e h a v io r o f te n o c c u r s w h e n yo u in f o r m th e s tu d e n t th a t ( s ) h e c a n n o t h a v e a c e r ta in ite m o r c a n n o t e n g a g e i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y. ( I f " Y e s , " i d e n t i f y: Yes No Yes No Yes No ) Yes No ) Yes No ) 11 Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

10.

1 1 . W h e n th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s , yo u o f te n r e s p o n d b y g iv in g th e s tu d e n t a s p e c if ic ite m, such as a favorite toy, f o o d , o r s o me o t h e r i t e m. ( I f " Y e s , " i d e n t i f y:

12. 13. 14.

T h e s tu d e n t o f te n e n g a g e s in o th e r a n n o y i n g b e h a v i o r s t h a t p r o d u c e a c c e s s t o p r e f e r r e d i t e ms o r a c t i v i t i e s . The behavior rarely occurs when you give the student free access to his or her f a v o r i t e i t e ms o r a c t i v i t i e s . T h e b e h a v i o r o f t e n o c c u r s d u r i n g t r a in i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r w h e n y o u p l a c e o t h e r t y p e s o f d e ma n d s o n th e student. (If "Yes," identify the activities: __ self-care _ _ a c a d e mi c __work _ _ o th e r ) T h e s t u d e n t o f t e n i s n o n c o mp l i a n t d u ri n g t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r w h e n a s k e d t o c o mp l e t e t a s k s . Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No T h e b e h a v io r o f te n o c c u r s w h e n th e imme d ia te e n v ir o n me n t is v e r y n o is y o r crowded W h e n th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s , yo u o f te n r e s p o n d b y g iv in g th e s tu d e n t a b r ie f " b r e a k " f r o m a n o n g o in g ta s k . T h e b e h a v i o r r a r e l y o c c u r s w h e n y o u p l a c e f e w d e ma n d s o n t h e s t u d e n t o r w h e n y o u leave the student alone. Yes No Yes No Yes No

15. 16. 17. 18

Part VI. Nonsocial (Automatic) Reinforcement 19. 20 T h e b e h a v io r o c c u r s f r e q u e n tly w h e n th e s tu d e n t is a lo n e o r u n o c c u p ie d . T h e b e h a v io r o c c u r s a t r e la tiv e ly h ig h r a te s r e g a r d le s s o f w h a t is g o in g o n in th e s tu d e n t' s imme d ia te s u r r o u n d in g e n v ir o n me n t. T h e s tu d e n t s e e ms to h a v e f e w k n o w n r e in f o r c e r s o r r a r e ly e n g a g e s in a p p r o p r ia te o b j e c t ma n ip u la tio n o r " p la y" b e h a v io r . T h e s tu d e n t is g e n e r a lly u n r e s p o n s iv e to s o c ia l s timu la tio n . The student often engages in repetitive, stereotyped behaviors such as body r o c k in g , h a n d o r f in g e r w a v in g , o b j e c t tw ir lin g , o r mo u th in g , e tc . W h e n th e s tu d e n t e n g a g e s in th e b e h a v io r , yo u a n d o th e r s u s u a lly r e s p o n d b y d o in g n o th in g ( i. e . , yo u n e v e r o r r a r e ly a tte n d to th e b e h a v io r ) . T h e b e h a v i o r s e e ms t o o c c u r i n c y c l e s . D u r in g a " h ig h " c yc le , th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s f r e q u e n tly a n d is e x t r e me l y d if f i c u l t t o i n t e r r u p t. D u r i n g a " l o w " c y c l e , t h e b e h a v i o r r a r e l y o c c u r s . T h e b e h a v io r s e e ms t o o c c u r mo r e o f t e n w h e n t h e s t u d e n t i s i l l . T h e s t u d e n t h a s a h is t o r y o f r e c u r r e n t i l l n e s s ( e . g . , e a r o r s i n u s i n f e c t i o n s , a l l e r g i e s , d e r ma t i t i s ) . Yes No Yes No

21.

Yes No Yes No Yes No

22. 23.

24.

Yes No

25.

Yes No Yes No Yes No

26. 27.

12

SCORING SUMMARY C i r c l e t h e i t e ms a n s w e r e d " Y e s . " I f y o u c o mple te d o n ly P a r t I I , a ls o c i r c l e I t e ms 1 , 2 , and 3. 1 1 1 1 9 1 9 2 2 2 2 0 2 0 3 3 3 2 1 2 4 4 9 1 4 2 2 2 5 5 1 0 1 5 2 3 2 6 6 1 1 1 6 2 4 2 7 7 1 2 1 7 8 1 3 1 8 L i k e l y M a i n t a i n i n g V a r i a b l e: S o c i a l p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( a t t e n t i o n ) S o c i a l p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( a c c e s s t o activities) S o c i a l n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( e s c a p e ) A u t o ma t i c r e i n f o r c e me n t ( s e n s o r y s t i mu la t i o n ) A u t o ma t i c n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( p a i n a tte n u a tio n )

P a r t V I I : R e p l a c e me n t B e h a v i o r s D e s c r i b e s o me a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v i o r s t h a t co u l d b e s t r e n g t h e n e d a s r e p l a c e me n t s f o r t h e s tu d e n t' s p r o b le m b e h a v io r s . Replacements P r o b le m Be h a v io r 1.______________________________________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________________________________ 3.______________________________________________________________________ 4._____________________________________________________________________ V I I I . C o mmu n ic a t i o n S k i l l s : 1 . I n d ic a te th e s tu d e n t' s p r ima r y f o r m o f c o mmu n ic a tio n ______Vocal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S ig n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G e s tu r e s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ O th e r 2 . H o w th e d o e s th e s tu d e n t c o mmu n ic a te a w a n t o r n e e d ( f o r a tte n tio n , f o o d , activities, etc.)? ________________________________________________________________________ 3 . H o w d o e s th e s tu d e n t c o mmu n ic a te a d e s ir e to s to p a n d o n - g o in g a c tiv ity? ________________________________________________________________________ IX. Preferences L is t th in g s th a t a p p e a r to b e s tu d e n t p r e f e r e n c e s a n d mig h t b e u s e d th e r e f o r e a s r e in f o r c e r s f o r a p p r o p r ia te b e h a v io r . 1.PreferredPersons__________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2 . P r e f e r r e d A c t i v i t i e s ( v i d e o s , t o y s , s w i n g , g a me s , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3 . F o o d , s n a c k s a n d r in k _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

13

X . P r e v io u s I n te r v e n tio n s : P r o v id e a s u mma r y o f a n y p r e v io u s in te r v e n tio n s a n d th e ir e f f e c ts u p o n th e p r o b le m b e h a v io r . I n c lu d e d e s c r ip tio n s o f p r o c e d u r e s , d a te s a n d s u mma r y o f b e h a v io r a l d a ta if a v a ila b le . __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ________ A d p a te d f r o m D r . Br ia n I w a ta ' s w o r k ( 1 9 9 6 & 1 9 9 8 ) a t T h e F lo r id a Ce n te r o n S e lf I n j u r y.

14

DATA RECORDING PROCEDURES

DATA RECORDING MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR CARD

Location: Student Date: Time: What Happened Before? Appeared to be in discomfort Asked to do something Bored-no materials/ activities Could not get desired item Loud/disruptive environment Nothing "out of the blue" Ongoing behavior interrupted Other student provoked Stopped from doing activity Transitional time Attention given to others Other (specify ) Inappropriate Behavior Fidgeting Noncompliance Off task Physical/Verbal aggression Playing with objects Property destruction Provoking/Teasing others Running away Screaming/Tantrum Self-injurious behavior Other (specify ) ID# Teacher What Happened After? Called for assistance Interruption/Blocking Nothing/Ignored Physical discomfort relieved Physical redirection to activity Physical restraint (manual) Removed from room/area Required to continue activity Separation within room/area Time-out (duration: ) Verbal redirection to activity Other (specify )

15

ANALOGUE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

Deliberate manipulation of conditions

Note that ABC flow of events. investigate, but program these conclusions. data are collected as behavior occurs in the natural You might find that there are situations you want to they do not occur very often. You can therefore situations to occur, collect data, and then draw

Several situations that have been examined include having the child do a task, in a room by themselves, in a room with other people who reprimand them for inappropriate behavior, and in an enriched environment with toys, activities, etc.

16

Analogue Experimental Analysis

Below is the protocol for conducting the experimental functional analysis.

17

SCHOOL DISTRICT OF INDIAN RIVER COUNTY

S tu d e n t: Observer: FUNCTIONAL MANIPULATION INTERVAL RECORDINGT ID#: S c h o o l: Date: / /

Instructions: This data sheet measures the percent of intervals in which the targeted behavior occurs therefore, you will need a timer that counts down intervals. For each condition there are 30 intervals. 1) Set the time interval anywhere from 10 sec. to 60 sec. (e.g. if the timer is set at 20 sec. intervals, recording all 30 intervals during one condition will equal 10 minutes). 2) Begin the observation by starting the time. 3) At the end of each interval, look at the student to see if the targeted behavior is occurring. 4) If the behavior is occurring, place a "+" in the corresponding interval box. 5) If the behavior is not occurring, place a "-" in the corresponding box. 6) Calculate the percentage by dividing the number of intervals containing a "+" by the total number of intervals (30).

Alone Condition

Condition #:

Interval set at:

Percent of intervals:

%

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

2 0

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

2 7

2 8

2 9

3 0

Attention Condition

Condition #:

Interval set at:

Percent of intervals:

%

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

2 0

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

2 7

2 8

2 9

3 0

Demand Condition

Condition #:

Interval set at:

Percent of intervals:

%

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

2 0

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

2 7

2 8

2 9

3 0

Play Condition

Condition #:

Interval set at:

Percent of intervals:

%

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

2 0

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

2 7

2 8

2 9

3 0

18

Examine the graph below for a set of data from each of the above situations. After viewing the data, what might you conclude?

N u m b e r o f b e h a v i o

i n a 2 0 m i n u t e s e s si o

20

10

A lone T ask A t t ent ion T oy s

0 0 1 2 3 S essions 4 5 6

Most problem behaviors occur when demands or tasks are required. Thus, you might speculate that the behaviors are somehow related to the task. Perhaps the person finds task work boring, and the behaviors may serve as a way to escape. In such a case, you should reinforcers to encourage task completion. For example, give more frequent and more desirable reinforcement. A more desirable reinforcement might be allowing the child a short break after completing a small portion of the task. Or perhaps the tasks are boring or too difficult; thus, task difficulty should be changed. Whatever the reason, the child should be kept in the task situation, if possible, when problem behavior occurs to prevent reinforcement of the problem behavior. If you let the child out of the task for problem behavior you will be teaching him/her to do it more often. Now imagine another scenario, in which assessment data indicate that the problem behavior occurs only when attention is available (see below).

N u m b e r o f t a n t r u m s

15

10 A l one A t t ent i on T as k T oy s

5

0 0 1 2 3 S essi ons 4 5 6

In this situation you would want to teach the child to ask for attention and to tolerate situations where there is little attention. To do this you would teach the c h ild to c o mmu n ic a te " I w a n t a tte n tio n " a n d th e n g iv e it. H o w e v e r , it w o u ld b e imp o r ta n t to r e me mb e r th a t th e p r o b le m b e h a v io r w o u ld n e v e r g e t yo u r a tte n tio n a g a in . W h e n th e p r o b le m b e h a v io r h a p p e n e d yo u mig h t w ith d r a w a tte n tio n a n d e v e n u s e t i me o u t . 19

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS SUMMARY

FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SUMMARY

S tu d e n t: Today's Date: / / ID#: Exceptionality: S c h o o l: DOB: / /

A.

D e s c r i b e t h e b e h a v i o r:

B.

C o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e F u n c t i o na l A n a l y s i s I n t e r v i e w ( s ) a n d d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a t o c o m p l e t e t h e a r e a s b e l o w: 1. B E H A V I O R ( e . g . ta n tr u ms , a g g r e s s io n , n o n - e n g a g e me n t, n o n - c o mp lia n c e ) :

2.

S E T T I N G E V E N T ( e . g . t i me , t r a n s i t i o n , p r i o r n e g a t i v e e v e n t , h u n g e r ) :

3.

ANTECEDENT (e.g. instructions, activity, errors, no attention):

4.

CO N S E Q U E N CE S ( e . g . e n d o f a c tiv ity, f e e d b a c k , p u n is h me n t, a tte n tio n ) :

5.

F U N CT I O N ( 1 . G a in s o me th in g : 2 . A v o id /e s c a p e : 3 . I n c r e a s e / d e c r e a s e s t i mu l a t i o n ) :

6.

H Y P O T H E S I S ( 1 . P o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t : 2 . N e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t : 3 . S t i mu la t i o n ) :

20

BEHAVIOR REDUCTION METHODS

B EHAVIOR R EDUCTION

1. Procedures are selected based upon the assessment of the controlling variables 2. Treatment includes manipulation of antecedents as well as consequences 3. Replacement behaviors or functional equivalents are taught directly in most case

21

REINFORCEMENT BASED APPROACHES TO BEHAVIOR REDUCTION Three Procedures to Reduce Behavior 1. Eliminate the Behavior's Establishing Operation Deprivation Aversive Stimulation 2.Terminate the Behavior's Reinforcement Contingency Extinction 3.Replace the Behavior with an Alternative Response Differential Reinforcement

22

PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY SOCIALLY MEDIATED POSTIVE REINFORCEMENT 1. Establishing Operation: Deprivation from the reinforcer Rx: Noncontingent delivery of reinforcer (NCR) 2. Maintaining Reinforcer: Socially Mediated Rx: EXT: Contingent removal of reinforcer 3. Behavioral Replacement (DRA of Functional Equivalent Behavior) Rx: Differential Positive Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior.

23

PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY SOCIALLY MEDIATED NEGATIVE REINFORCMENT 1. Establishing Operation: Aversive Stimulation Rx: Teaching Procedures To Reduce Value of Negative Reinforcement and NCR 2. Maintaining Reinforcer: Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement. Rx: Escape EXT; Guided Compliance 3. Behavioral Replacement: (DRA of Functional Equivalent) Rx: Differential Negative Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

24

PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY AUTOMATIC POSITIVE REINFORECMENT 1. Establishing Operation: Generalized Deprivation of stimulation. Rx: Noncontingent stimulation (NCR) 2.Maintaining Reinforcer: Automatic Positive Reinforcement. Rx: Sensory EXT: response block, protective equipment, etc. 3.Behavioral Replacement: (DRA of Functional Equivalent

Rx: Provide stimulating environment and establish alternative self stimulatory behavior.

25

GENERAL INTERVENTIONS FOR PROBLEM BEHAVIOR REDUCTION If the problem behavior is a function of ATTENTION or THINGS 1. Give lots of attention and enriched environment to prevent the behavior 2. NEVER give attention for the problem behavior ever again. Withdraw attention for the problem behavior. Timeout or ignoring will work. DON'T USE FOR SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR. 3. TEACH a child a communication behavior of asking for attention and give attention when he/she uses the replacement behavior. If the problem behavior is a function of ESCAPE or AVOIDING WORK or YOUR DEMANDS 1. Reduce the motivation to escape by reducing demands, decrease the effort, quicken the pace of instruction, use errorless teaching, mix easy and difficult responses, choices, etc. 2. NEVER allow the child to escape or avoid a demand again. Require the student to do whatever your ask if it means you must physically guide him to do it. 3. TEACH the child a communication behavior of asking for a break to replace the problem behavior. Give a break whenever the child asks at first. If the problem behavior is a function of FEELING GOOD 1. Provide an enriched environment that may incorporate the reinforcing stimulation for appropriate behaviors. 2. PHYSICALLY or with equipment prevent the problem behavior from occurring to stop the good feeling.

3 . TEACH the child to enjoy social interactions and doing other

activities that get lots of social reinforcement or to engage in more socially appropriate and less harmful methods of selfstimulatory behaviors.

26

I NTERVENTIONS B ASED U PON F UNCTION

OF THE

B EHAVIOR

Interventions for Behaviors Maintained by

SOCIAL POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

1 . N o n c o n tin g e n t r e in f o r c e me n t: e n r i c h t h e c l a s s r o o m w i t h f r e q u e n t r e i n f o r c e me n t . T o b e u s e d o n ly w h e n b e h a v io r is d u e to d e p r iv a tio n o f a tte n tio n . 2 . E x t i n c t i o n : r e mo v e p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e r f o r t h e b e h a v i o r , e . g . i g n o r e , a c t i v i t i e s , f o o d . T o b e u s e d w h e n e v e r p o s s ib le s in c e it c a n b e v e r y e f f e c tiv e . H o w e v e r , t e a c h e r mu s t b e s u r e t h a t b e h a v i o r i s r e a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g f o r t h e r e i n f o r c e r b e i n g r e mo v e d . 3 . T ime o u t: r e mo v i n g a c c e s s t o p o s i t i v e r e i n f o rc e r w h i c h i s ma i n t a i n i n g t h e mis b e h a v io r . Ca n b e v e r y e f f e c tiv e b u t mu s t b e u s e d p r e c is e ly a n d N E V E R f o r e s c a p e mo t i v a t e d b e h a v io r s . T h e p r o c e d u r e w i l l o n ly b e e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n a c la s s r o o m w h ic h is v e r y r e in f o r c in g f o r a lte r n a tiv e a p p r o p r ia te b e h a v io r s . 4 . D i f f e r e n t i a l R e i n f o r c e me n t o f " A N Y " o t h e r b e h a v i o r ( D R 0 ) : d e l i v e r p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e r i f mis b e h a v i o r h a s n o t o c c u r r ed f o r a p e r io d o f time . F o r e x a mp le , n o ta n tr u ms o r th r e a ts o c c u r f o r a p e r io d o f t i me g iv e r e i n f o r c e r . I t i s d if f i c u l t t o u s e th is s u c c e s s f u lly in a c la s s r o o m b u t s h o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d a s a n a lte r n a tiv e to p u n is h me n t. 5 . D i f f e r e n t i a l r e i n f o r c e me n t o f a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v io r ( D R A ) : t e a c h t h e s t u d e n t t o g e t y o u r a t t e n t i o n o r o t h e r p o s i t i v e t h in g s t h r o u g h a mo r e a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . This frequently takes the form of teaching the student to ask or request attention o r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t mis b e h a v i n g t o g e t i t . M o s t o f t h e t i me t h i s w i l l t a k e d is c r e te tr ia l tr a in in g a lo n g w ith E x tin c tio n f o r th e mis b e h a v io r . The c o mb in a tio n o f th e s e tw o ( 2 ) te c h n iq u e s is th e mo s t e f f e c tiv e me th o d f o r d e c r e a s in g b e h a v io r o f th is typ e .

27

Interventions for Behaviors Maintained by

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (ESCAPE)

1 . N o n c o n tin g e n t ta s k r e mo v a l: th is is s imila r to n o n c o n tin g e n t r e in f o r c e me n t. T h is s h o u ld o n ly b e u s e d f o r th e mo s t s e v e r e c a s e s o f ma la d a p tiv e b e h a v io r s in c e it does not teach alternative behaviors. 2 . S timu lu s d e ma n d f a d in g: t h e s e a r e v e r y i mp o r t a n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s r e l a t e d t o c h a n g e s in h o w in s tr u c tio n is d e liv e r e d . T h e s e ma y b e t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e te c h n iq u e s f o r ma n a g in g th e b e h a v io r o f b e h a v io r d is o r d e r e d s tu d e n ts . T h e s e interventions include: Pace of instruction S tu d e n t c h o ic e s F r e q u e n c y o f D e ma n d s a n d h o w d e liv e r e d I n te r s p e r s a l o f e a s y a n d h a r d ta s k s G e n e r a l d if f ic u lty o f a s s ig n me n ts Opportunities for students to actively respond 3 . E x tin c tio n T h r o u g h P r e v e n tio n o f E s c a p e ( E s c a p e :E X T) : t h i s i s t h e mo s t e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e t o d e c r e a s e e s c a p e mo t i v a t e d b e h a v i o r b e c a u s e i t r e mo v e s t h e r e i n f o r c e r , e s c a p e , f o r t h e b e h a v i o r . I t i s a l s o t h e mo s t d if f i c u l t t o i mp le me n t b e c a u s e i t s o me t i me s r e q u i r e s p h y s i c a l l y g u i d i n g a r e s p o n s e w h i c h ma y n o t p o s s ib le w ith a ll s tu d e n ts . 4 . D e v e lo p me n t o f I n s tr u c tio n F o llo w in g Be h a v io r ( D RI) : t h i s i s s o me t i me s c a l l e d " c o mp l i a n c e t r a i n i n g " . C o mp l i a n c e p r o b l e ms s e e m t o b e a t t h e h e a r t o f ma n y b e h a v i o r p r o b l e ms . T h e s e a r e p r o c e d u r e s d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h i n g c o mp l i a n c e w i t h r e q u e s ts b y p r a c tic in g c o mp lia n c e ma n y t i me s a d a y f o r r e i n f o r c e me n t . T h i s te c h n iq u e ma y r e q u ir e h u n d r e d s a n d h u n d r e d s o f p r a c tic e tr ia ls a lo n g w ith e s c a p e : E X T a n d r e i n f o r c e me n t i n t h e r e a l c la s s r o o m e n v ir o n me n t to o v e r c o me t h i s p r o b le m. I t i s b e s t t o u s e E s c a p e : E X T w i t h t h i s t e c h n iq u e t o e n h a n c e i t s effectiveness. 5 . D e v e lo p me n t o f A p p r o p r ia te E s c a p e Be h a v io r ( D N RA ) : t h i s i s a t e c h n iq u e d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h a s t u d e n t t o r e q u e s t h i s r e i n f o r c e r ( e s c a p e f r o m a d e ma n d ) a p p r o p r i a t e l y a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e mis b e h a v i o r , e . g . t a n tr u ms , t h r e a t s , n o n c o mp lia n c e , e tc . T h is te c h n iq u e is b e s t u s e d a s p a r t o f d is c r e te tr ia l p r a c tic e s e s s io n s a t f ir s t a lo n g w ith r e in f o r c e me n t f o r th e b e h a v io r in th e r e a l c la s s r o o m situation.

28

Interventions for Behaviors Maintained by

AUTOMATIC POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

1 . S e n s o r y Re in f o r c e me n t Co n tin g e n t U p o n A lte r n a tiv e Be h a v io r ( D RA ) : t h is p r o c e d u r e r e q u ir e s th a t a s tu d e n t w h o s e f id g e tin g b e h a v io r is ma in ta in e d b y s e lf s timu la to r y r e s p o n d in g ma y b e a llo w e d to mo v e a r o u n d a n d f id g e t o n ly a f te r b r ie f p e r io d s o f w o r k a n d n o f id g e tin g . T h is ma y b e ta u g h t d ir e c tly in d is c r e te t r i a l t r a i n in g . 2 . Re in f o r c e me n t o f A lte r n a tiv e S e lf - S timu la to r y Re s p o n s e s ( D RA ) : th is p r o c e d u r e i n c l u d e s p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t w i t h a n a l t e r n a t i v e me t h o d o f r e c e i v i n g s e l f s timu la to r y s e n s a tio n s w h ic h a r e mo r e a p p r o p r ia te . F o r e x a mp le , a llo w th e s tu d e n t to mo v e in h is s e a t o r ma n ip u la te s o me o b j e c ts c o n tin g e n t u p o n a p p r o p r ia te b e h a v io r . 3 . D e v e lo p me n t o f E f f e c tiv e S o c i a l R e i n f o r c e r s : b y p a i r i n g t e a c h e r a t t e n t i o n w i t h v e r y s tr o n g a c tiv ity r e in f o r c e r s a n d th e o p p o r tu n ity to mo v e a r o u n d a s a f o r m o f s t i mu la t i o n t h e v a l u e o f s o c i a l r e i n f o r c e r s i n t h e f u t u r e w i l l b e i n c r e a s e d . W h e n yo u h a v e mo r e p o te n t s o c ia l r e in f o r c e r s th e n yo u ma y b e a b le to p r o v id e th e m f o r b e h a v io r s o th e r th a n f id g e tin g a n d mo v in g . T h is te c h n iq u e is b e s t u s e d in c o o p e r a tio n w ith # 1 a b o v e . 4 . S e n s o r y E x tin c tio n : Re mo v a l o r a tte n u a tio n o f th e s e n s o r y r e in f o r c e r ma in ta in in g th e b e h a v io r .

29

DEVELOPING A BEHAVIOR PLAN

COMPONENTS OF A BEHAVIOR LESSON PLAN

1. PROCEDURES TO REDUCE THE MOTIVATION

TO EXHIBIT THE MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR · Effective instructional practices · Pace of instruction · Opportunities to actively respond · Reduction in demands · Reduction in difficulty of work · Choices 2. PLACE THE MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR ON EXTINCTION · Never reinforce maladaptive behavior again 3. DIFFERENTIALLY REINFORCE THE REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR · Provide the functionally equivalent reinforcement for the replacement behavior 4. TEACH THE REPLACMENT BEHAVIOR INTENSELY AND PRACTICE IT OFTEN.

30

BEHAVIOR LESSON PLAN S tu d e n t: P la n A u th o r : Goal: Objectives: Reinforcers: ID#: Date: / / S c h o o l:

1.

Be h a v io r to r e d u c e o r e limin a te ( T a r g et Be h a v io r ) . I n d ic a te b a s e lin e f r e q u e n c y a n d s e v e r ity o f th e b e h a v io r .

2.

W h a t is th e f u n c tio n ( c a u s e ) o f th e b e h a v io r ( A tte n tio n , E s c a p e D e ma n d s , G e t T h i n g s , S e l f S t i mu la t i o n ) .

3.

W h a t i s t h e b e h a v i o r t h a t w i l l r e p l a c e t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o r ( Fu n c t i o n a l E q u i v a l e n t ) :

4 . W h a t w i l l I d o t o p r e v e n t t h e t a r g e t b eh a v i o r ' s o c c u r r e n c e ( A n t e c e d e n t c h a n g e s e . g . I n s tr u c tio n , Ch o ic e s , D e ma n d F a d in g ) :

31

Be h a v io r L e s s o n P la n Page 2

5.

W h a t d o I d o w h e n h e / s h e d o e s t h e c o r r e c t ( R e p l a c e me n t ) b e h a v i o r i n e v e r y d a y c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s ( P o s i t i v e R e i n f o r c e me n t / N e g a t i v e R e i n f o r c e me n t ) :

6.

W h a t w i l l I d o w h e n h e / s h e " e v e n t h in k s " a b o u t d o i n g t h e i n c o r r e c t o r t a r g e t b e h a v io r in e v e r yd a y c la s s r o o m s itu a tio n s ( E x tin c tio n /P u n is h me n t) :

7.

W h e n a n d h o w w i l l I p r a c t i c e t h e c o r r e c t ( R e p l a c e me n t ) b e h a v i o r d u r i n g i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s ( F u n c t i o n a l C o mmu n i c a t i o n T r a i n i n g - D R A ) :

8.

How will I know if the procedures are working (Evaluation):

32

GRAPHING CODE Student: School: Target Behavior:

Acquisition Deceleration

# # #

PROGRAM DATA ANALYSIS RECORD

C O U N T

B A S E L I N E

MEDICATIONS

NOTES

T i me

Date:___________ Data Sheet 2 Practice for w hen he/she w ants something and the a n s w e r i s Y E S , b u t n o t f o r p r o b l e m b e h a vio r

Procedures: Set up motivation for attention or items and teach replacement behavior of asking instead of aggression or self-injury.

BEHAVIORS # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Situation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N # of restarts

#

Situation

# of restarts

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

43

Emergency Procedures and Emergency Procedure Form

Emergency Procedures

44

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

IF ANY OF THE FOLLOWING EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ARE USED MORE T H A N F I V E (5) T I M E S W I T H A N I N D I V I D U A L S T U D E N T I N A S C H O O L Y E A R , A BEHAVIOR DECELERATION PROGRAM MUST BE WRITTEN AND IMPLEMENTED.

IF THE CHILD DOES NOT BECOME CALM WITHIN 30 MINUTES after use o f a n y o n th e E ME RG E N CY P RO CE D U RE S , s ta f f s h o u ld c o n ta c t th e p a r e n ts to tr a n s p o r t th e s tu d e n t h o me . I f th e p a r e n ts a r e u n a v a ila b le , o u ts id e a g e n c ie s o r a u t h o r i t i e s ma y b e c o n t a c t e d . I n r a r e c i r c u ms t a n c e s , i t ma y b e c o me n e c e s s a r y to transport the student to a crisis stabilization unit. S o me s tu d e n ts e x h ib it s e v e r e a g g r e s s iv e , d is r u p tiv e , n o n - c o mp lia n c e , a n d s e lf - in j u r io u s b e h a v io r s . T h e r e a r e t i me s w h e n e x h ib i t i n g t h e s e b e h a v io r s w i l l p o s e a n i mme d ia t e d a n g e r t o th e s tu d e n t o r o th e r s a n d s te p s mu s t b e ta k e n imme d ia te ly to in te r r u p t th e b e h a v io r . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a n o u t l i n e f o r t h e u s e o f E me r g e n c y P r o c e d u r e s a n d t h e i r r e s t r i c t i o n s .

An EMERGENCY PROCEDURE is appropriately used:

· · · W h e n a s tu d e n t is e n g a g e d o r a b o u t to e n g a g e in A g g r e s s iv e b e h a v io r th a t h a s th e p o te n tia l o f in j u r in g o th e r s . W h e n a s tu d e n t is e n g a g e d o r a b o u t to e n g a g e in S e lf in j u r io u s b e h a v io r . W h e n a s tu d e n t is e n g a g e d o r a b o u t to e n g a g e in D e s tr u c tiv e b e h a v io r th a t h a s th e p o te n tia l o f d o in g s u b s ta n tia l p r o p e r ty d a ma g e . EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 1 . S E CL U S I O N : d i r e c t i n g a c h i l d t o a d e s i g n a t e d s e c l u s i o n / t i me o u t r o o m W I T H N O D O O R ( n o t j u s t o p e n ) a n d r e q u i r i n g t h e c h i l d t o r e ma i n i n t h i s r o o m w i t h o u t p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t a n d w i t h o u t o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s U N T I L T H E S T U D E N T I S C A L M . DO NOT USE THIS PROCEDURE FOR INSTANCES OF SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR. Restrictions: a . A s t a f f me mb e r mu s t ma k e v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c h i l d e v e r y 2 min u t e s , ( d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s ma n d a t o r y ) . b . U s e o f A CT ( A g g r e s s io n Co n tr o l T e c h n iq u e s ) , T . E . A . M. o r C P I ( C r i s i s P r e v e n t i o n I n t e r v e n t i o n ) , t o c o n ta in o r tr a n s p o r t th e s tu d e n t to th e r o o m. c . I n c lu d e a r e le a s e c o n tin g e n c y - a d d itio n a l p e r io d o f time f o r ` c a lm' b e h a v io r ( b e tw e e n 1 0 s e c o n d s a n d 5 min u t e s ) b e f o r e r e l e a s e f r o m t h e e me r g e n c y p r o c e d u r e d . F u ll d o c u me n ta tio n o n th e E me r g e n c y P r o c e d u r e F o r m, ( F C - 1 6 5 0 ) . T h i s f o r m w i l l b e f i l e d w i t h 1 ) t h e teacher or school based Behavior Specialist; 2) with th e s c h o o l A d min is tr a tio n ; e . D o n o t e x c e e d 3 0 min u t e s f o r t h e t o t a l d u r a t i o n o f t h e procedure 2 . S E C U R E D S E C L U S I O N : d ir e c t i n g a c h i l d t o a d e s i g n a t e d s e c l u s i o n / t i me o u t r o o m w i t h t h e d o o r c lo s e d a n d s e c u r e d b y a g r a v ity o r e le c tr o n ic lo c k . THIS PROCEDURE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED 3 . MA N U A L R E S T R A I N T : p h ys i c a l l y r e s t r a i n i n g a c h i l d . Restrictions: 45

a.

U s e o f A CT ( A g g r e s s io n Co n tr o l T e c h n iq u e s ) , T . E . A . M. o r C P I ( C r i s i s P r e v e n t i o n I n t e r v e n t i o n ) , t o c o n ta in o r tr a n s p o r t th e s tu d e n t. b . I n c lu d e a r e le a s e c o n tin g e n c y - a d d itio n a l p e r io d o f time f o r ` c a lm' b e h a v io r ( b e tw e e n 1 0 s e c o n d s a n d 5 min u t e s ) b e f o r e r e l e a s e f r o m t h e e me r g e n c y p r o c e d u r e c . F u ll d o c u me n ta tio n o n th e E me r g e n c y P r o c e d u r e F o r m( F C - 1 6 5 0 ) . T h i s f o r m w i l l b e f i l e d w i t h 1 ) t h e teacher or school based Behavior Specialist; 2) with th e s c h o o l A d min is tr a tio n ; d . D o n o t e x c e e d 3 0 min u t e s f o r t h e t o t a l d u r a t i o n o f t h e procedure.

4 . P R O T E C T I V E E Q U I P M E N T : u s e o f h e l me t s , g lo v e s , s p l i n t s , w r i s t r e s t r a i n t s , c h a i r w i t h s tr a p s , r if to n c h a ir , w r a p ma t, o r o th e r s imila r d e v ic e s . Restrictions: a . U s e o f A CT ( A g g r e s s io n Co n tr o l T e c h n iq u e s ) , T . E . A . M. o r C P I ( C r i s i s P r e v e n t i o n I n t e r v e n t i o n ) , t o c o n ta in o r tr a n s p o r t th e s tu d e n t. b . I n c lu d e a r e le a s e c o n tin g e n c y - a d d itio n a l p e r io d o f time f o r ` c a lm' b e h a v io r ( b e tw e e n 1 0 s e c o n d s a n d 5 min u t e s ) b e f o r e r e l e a s e f r o m t h e e me r g e n c y p r o c e d u r e c . F u ll d o c u me n ta tio n o n th e E me r g e n c y P r o c e d u r e F o r m( F C - 1 6 5 0 ) . T h i s f o r m w i l l b e f i l e d w i t h 1 ) t h e teacher or school based Behavior Specialist; 2) with th e s c h o o l A d min is tr a tio n ; d . D o n o t e x c e e d 3 0 min u t e s f o r t h e t o t a l d u r a t i o n o f t h e procedure. e . O n e o n o n e mo n ito r in g mu s t o c c u r f o r th e e n tir e p e r io d . f . I t i s a d v is e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h a p h ys i c i a n t o d e t e r mi n e if th e u s e o f th e e q u ip me n t mig h t b e c o n tr a in d ic a te d d u e to me d ic a l c o n d itio n s . g . A n y s ig n o f p h ys ic a l d is tr e s s a s a r e s u lt o f th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e p r o te c tiv e e q u ip me n t s h o u ld le a d to imme d ia te r e mo v a l o f th e e q u ip me n t a n d p r o mp t me d ic a l a tte n tio n .

46

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Complete this form for every occasion that an emergency procedure is used for any student

Student: Date: / / AM/PM

ID#: DOB: / /

Exceptionality : School:

Time of Day :

1) Ty pe of Behavior: Aggression Describe the Behavior:

Property Destruction

Self Injury

2) What ty pe of Emergency Procedure was implemented? Seclusion Manual Restraint Equipment 3) What was the duration of the Emergency Procedure? Beginning Time Ending Time Duration

Protective

Total

4) Describe the conditions or circumstances which led to the maladaptive behavior:

5) Describe the procedures or techniques that were used to preclude the need for the Emergency Procedures that were implemented:

6) List the names of any individuals who were involved or witnessed this incident:

7) Signature of staff members who implemented the Emergency Procedure:

8) Administrative Review Administration: I have reviewed this report.

47

Signature

Date

/

/

48

QUICK REFERENCE TO PROCEDURES

E = Encouraged M = Mandatory Unrestricted Level I

Student Support Specialist consultation

E = Encouraged M = Mandatory Unrestricted Level II

Student Support Specialist consultation

E = Encouraged M = Mandatory Restricted Level III

Approved by: Student Support Specialist Behavior Analyst Parent

E = Encouraged M = Mandatory Restricted Level IV

Approval By: Student Support Specialist Behavior Analyst Building Administrator Parent

1) 2) 3)

Reinforcement by Presentation Differential Reinforcement Schedules Shaping

E E E

1) 2) 3)

Punishment by W ithdrawal Timeout by Exclusion but not class activities: less than 60 min. Timeout by Exclusion and all class activities: not to exceed 15 min. Response Cost Response Blocking Verbal Reprimand: not to exceed 1 Over correction w/Positive Practice Limited Contingent Activities: not to exceed 3 min. Protective Equipment: not to exceed 5 minutes

M M M

E E E

E E E

1) 2) 3)

4) 5) 6) 7)

Response Priming Chaining Establishing Operation Prompting, Graduated Guidance, Prompt Fading Demand Fading

E E E E

4) 5) 6) 7)

M M M M

E E E E

E E E E

4) 5) 6) 7)

Timeout: behind partition: not to exceed 15 min Timeout: alternative class: not to exceed 15 min. Timeout: other students removed: not to exceed 15 min. Manual Restraint: not to exceed 5 min. Required Relaxation: not to exceed 5 min. Overcorrection/Restitution: not to exceed 15 min. Generalized Compliance Training: non-aggressive behavior: not to exceed 5 min. Escape Extinction with physical blocking: hand over hand

M M M

M M M

M M M

1) 2) 3)

Sensory Extinction: Timeout by Facial Screening: not to exceed 5 min. Timeout by Seclusion: not to exceed 15 min. Time out by Secured Seclusion (PROHIBITED) Contingent Extensive Motor Movement: not to exceed 15 min. Contingent Extensive Discomfort Protective Equipment: more than 5 min; not to exceed 15 min. Lengthy Manual Restraint; More than 5 min; not to exceed 15 min. Required Relaxation: more than 5 min; not to exceed 15 min. Compliance Training : for aggressive or selfinjurious behavior not to exceed 15 min.

M M M

M M M

M M M

M M M M

M M M M

M M M M

4) 5) 6) 7)

M M M

M M M

M M M

8)

E

8)

M

E

E

8)

M

M

M

8)

M

M

M

9)

Negative Reinforcement

E

9)

M

E

E

9)

M

M

M

10)

Social Extinction

E

10 )

M

M

M

11) 12)

Escape Extinction (without Physical Blocking) Contingent Guided Practice

E E

49

SCHOOL DISTRICT OF INDIAN RIVER COUNTY

A PPROVAL F ORM L EVEL III

S tu d e n t: Date: / / Grade: D e s c r ip tio n o f Be h a v io r :

AND

L EVEL IV R ESTRICTED P ROCEDURES

ID#: Exceptionality: / / S c h o o l:

DOB:

LEVEL III

RESTRICTED BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES

Check the procedure(s) that apply Required relaxation not to exceed 5 min. Overcorrection including restitution not exceed 15 min. Compliance training for non-aggressive behavior. Escape EXT. With Physical Blocking.

Timeout behind a partition. Timeout in another class or alternative class. Timeout in the student's classroom after the other students have been removed. Brief manual restraint not to exceed 5 min.

to

I h a v e r e v ie w e d th e p r o p o s e d p r o c e d u r e s a n d a ll o th e r p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n a tte mp te d . I c o n s id e r th e p r o p o s e d p r o c e d u r e s to b e th e le a s t r e s tr ic tiv e a n d a p p r o p r ia te in te r v e n tio n ( s ) a t th is time . Mo r e o v e r , th e p r o p o s e d p r o c e d u r e s a r e n o t c o n s id e r e d e x p e r imen ta l in n a tu r e a n d h a v e e mp ir ic a l s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e S c i e n c e o f H u ma n B e h a v i o r . / / S tu d e n t S u p p o r t S p e c ia lis t D a te LEVEL IV RESTRICTED BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES

Check the procedure(s) that apply Sensory Extinction Timeout by facial screening; not to exceed 15 min. Timeout by seclusion; not to exceed 15 min. Contingent excessive motor movement; not to exceed 15 min. Contingent excessive discomfort. Protective Equipment more than 5 min; not to exceed 15 min. Lengthy manual restraint more than 5 min; not to exceed 15 min. Required Relaxation more than 5 min; not to exceed 15 min. Compliance training for aggressive and self injurious behavior; not to exceed 15 min.

I h a v e r e v ie w e d th e p r o p o s e d p r o c e d u r e s a n d a ll o th e r p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n a tte mp te d . I c o n s id e r th e p r o p o s e d p r o c e d u r e s to b e th e le a s t r e s tr ic tiv e a n d a p p r o p r ia te in te r v e n tio n ( s ) a t th is time . Mo r e o v e r , th e p r o p o s e d p r o c e d u r e s a r e n o t c o n s id e r e d e x p e r imen ta l in n a tu r e a n d h a v e e mp ir ic a l s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e S c i e n c e o f H u ma n B e h a v i o r .

/

Behavior Analyst Date

/ /

/

Principal Date

50

SAMPLE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SUMMARY

& BEHAVIOR PLAN

FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SUMMARY

Student: Justin ID#: DOB: / /E x c e p t i o n a l i t y :

51

Today's Date:

3 /

24 /02

S c h o o l:

A.

D e s c r i b e t h e b e h a v i o r: A g g r e s s i o n i n t h e f o r m o f h i t t i n g o th e r s w i t h o p e n h a n d ; s e l f in j u r io u s b e h a v io r in th e f o r m o f h a n d s in mo u th a n d s la p p in g n e c k a n d e a r s a n d face.

B. 1.

C o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e F u n c t i o na l A n a l y s i s I n t e r v i e w ( s ) a n d d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a t o c o m p l e t e t h e a r e a s b e l o w: B E H A V I O R ( e . g . ta n tr u ms , a g g r e s s io n , n o n - e n g a g e me n t, n o n - c o mp lia n c e ) : S a me a s above. 2. S E T T I N G E V E N T ( e . g . t i me , t r a n s i t i o n , p r i o r n e g a t i v e e v e n t , h u n g e r ) : N o p a r t i c u la r s e t t i n g i s mo r e l i k e l y t h a n o th e r s . 3. ANTECEDENT (e.g. instructions, activity, errors, no attention): When deprived o f a tte n tio n o r le f t a lo n e . 4. CO N S E Q U E N CE S ( e . g . e n d o f a c tiv ity, f e e d b a c k , p u n is h me n t, a tte n tio n ) : Be h a v io r h a s p r o d u c e d in c r e a s e d a tte n tio n a n d a u to ma tic r e in f o r c e me n t. 5. F U N C T I O N ( 1 . G a i n s o me t h i n g : 2 . A v o i d / e s c a p e : 3 . I n c r e a s e / d e c r e a s e s t i mu la t i o n ) : G a i n s a t t e n t i o n a n d i n c r e a s e s s t i mu la t i o n 4 . H Y P O T H E S I S ( 1 . P o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t : 2 . N e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t : 3. S t i mu la t i o n ) : W h e n J u s t i n i s d e p r i v e d o f a t t e n t i o n h e w i l l e n g a g e i n h i t t i n g a n d /o r s e l f - i n j u r i o u s b e h a v io r i n t h e f o r m o f h a n d mo u t h i n g , n e c k , f a c e a n d e a r s l a p p i n g d u e to a h is to r y o f a tte n tio n f o r th e s e b e h a v io r s .

52

BEHAVIOR LESSON PLAN Student: Justin P la n A u th o r : V . Ca r b o n e S c h o o l: H a r d K n o c k s Date: 3/ 24 02

G o a l: T o r e d u c e a g g r e s s io n a n d s e lf - in j u r io u s b e h a v io r to z e r o b y S e p te mb e r 1 , 2 0 0 2 O b j e c t i v e s : B y S e p t e mb e r 1 , 2 0 0 2 , J u s t i n w i l l e n g a g e i n " 0 " a g g r e s s i o n s a n d S I B s f o r a t least 10 consecutive days. Re in f o r c e r s : A tte n tio n ( h u g s , tic k le s p e e k a b o o g a me s , e tc . , to ys th a t ma k e n o is e o r mu s ic , 1 . Be h a v io r to r e d u c e o r e limin a te ( T a r g et Be h a v io r ) . I n d ic a te b a s e lin e f r e q u e n c y a n d s e v e r ity o f th e b e h a v io r . S e l f - i n j u r y - e a r s l a p , w r i s t b i t e , h an d i n mo u t h , mo u t h s l a p , f a c e s l a p A g g r e s s io n - s la p p in g w ith o p e n h a n d to b o d y o f o th e r p e r s o n . T h e b e h a v io r o c c u r s a t a r a te o f a b o u t 1 p e r 1 0 min u te s . T h e s e v e r ity o f th e b e h a v io r v a i e s f r o m mi l d t o mo d e r a t e .

2.

W h a t is th e f u n c tio n ( c a u s e ) o f th e b e h a v io r ( A tte n tio n , E s c a p e D e ma n d s , G e t T h i n g s , S e l f S t i mu la t i o n ) .

T h e s e lf - in j u r y a n d a g g r e s s io n a p p e a r to h a v e a ma j o r f u c n tio n r e la te d to in c r e a s in g a tte n tio n th a t f o llo w s th e b e h a v io r . I n a d d itio n , th e b e h a v io r s o me time s o c c u r s in b o r in g e n v ir o n me n t s in c e it p r o d u c e s a r e la tiv e ly h ig h r a te o f s timu la tio n in th e f o r m o f s e lf s t i mu la t i o n . 3. W h a t i s t h e b e h a v i o r t h a t w i l l r e p l a c e t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o r ( Fu n c t i o n a l E q u i v a l e n t ) : J u s i n w i l l b e t a u g h t t o r e q u e s t ( ma n d ) a t t e n t i o n b y r a i s i n g h i s h a n d a s a fucntionally equivalent response that will produce attention. He will also be taught t o r e q u e s t o t h e r i t e ms t h a t w i l l p r o d u c e r ei n f o r c e me n t t h a t w i l l r e d u c e t h e v a l u e o f a t t e n t i o n a s a s r e i n f o r c e r a n d a u t o ma t i c r e i n f o r c e me n t , e . g . r e q u e s t i n g mu s i c t o y s . These requestw will be tuaght with signs (ASL). 4 . W h a t w i l l I d o t o p r e v e n t t h e t a r g e t b e h av i o r ' s o c c u r r e n c e ( A n t e c e d e n t c h a n g e s e . g . I n s tr u c tio n , Ch o ic e s , D e ma n d F a d in g ) : 1 . T e a c h e r w i l l p r o v i d e s t i mu l a t i n g e n v i r o n me n t a n d t a s k a c t i v i t i e s 2 . T e a c h e r w i l l d e l i v e r a t t e n t i o n o n a s c h e d u l e o f a b o u t e v e r y 5 min u t e s . 3 . T e a c h e r w i l l s c h e d u l e ½ h o u r p e r d a y t o t e a c h i n g J u s t i n t o ma n d a t t e n t i o n a n d reinforcers.

5.

W h a t d o I d o w h e n h e / s h e d o e s t h e c o r r e c t ( R e p l a c e me n t ) b e h a v i o r i n e v e r y d a y c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s ( P o s i t i v e R e i n f o r c e me n t / N e g a t i v e R e i n f o r c e me n t ) :

F o r r e q u e s t i n g a t t e n t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y J u s t i n w i l l b e i mme d i a t e l y g i v e n 2 0 s e c o n d s o f teacher attention. F o r r e q u e s t i o n i t e ms a p p r o p r i a t e l y J u s t i n wi l l b e g i v e n a c c e s s t o t h e i t e m f o r a t l e a s t 3 0 seconds. 53

6 . W h a t w i l l I d o w h e n h e / s h e " e v e n t h i n k s " ab o u t d o i n g t h e i n c o r r e c t o r t a r g e t b e h a v i o r i n e v e r yd a y c la s s r o o m s itu a tio n s ( E x tin c tio n /P u n is h me n t) : For any instance of aggression extinction in the form of withdrawal of attention will occur. F o r t h e S I B t h e t e a c h e r w i l l b lo c k t h e S I B a n d mo v e a w a y a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e . I t ma y b e n e c e s s a r y to th e n r e - d ir e c t to th e o n - g o in g a c tiv ity b u t n o t w h e n th e S I B o r a g g r e s s io n o c c u r s . I f th e a tte n tio n o r ite m b e in g r e q u e s te d c a n b e g iv e n a t th a t time , b u t n o t f o r t h e a g g r e s s i o n o r S I B , t h e t e a c he r w i l l c o u n t t o 2 5 a n d t h e n p r o mp t J u s t i n to r e q u e s t a p p r o p r ia te ly w ith th e h a n d r a is e o r s ig n . I f d u r in g th e c o u n tin g J u s tin continues the behavior the teacher will re-start the count. 7. W h e n a n d h o w w i l l I p r a c t i c e t h e c o r r e c t ( R e p l a c e me n t ) b e h a v i o r d u r i n g i n t e n s i v e t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s ( F u n c t i o n a l C o mmu n i c a t i o n T r a i n i n g - D R A ) :

D u r i n g a t l e a s t t w o 1 5 min u t e i n t e n s i v e t e a c h in g s e s s i o n s p e r d a y J u s t i n w i l l b e t a u g h t t o r e q u e s t a t t e n t i o n b y r a i s in g h a n d a n d p r e f e r r e d t o y s b y s i g n i n g . T h e t e a c h e r w i l l a r r a n g e to h a v e th e r e in f o r c e r s p r e s e n t a n d imme d ia te ly p r o mp t th e r e s p o n s e w h e n t h e mo t i v a t i o n i s d e mo n s t r a t e d f o r t h e a t t en t i o n o r i t e m. T h e b e h a v i o r s t a u g h t w i l l a c t a s f u n c t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t r e p l a c e me n t b e h a v i o r s f o r t h e a g g r e s s i o n a n d s e l f - i n j u r y . D a t a s h o u l d b e r e c o r d e d e a c h d a y d u r i n g t h e s e s e s s i o n s o n t h e f o r ms a t t a c h e d . 8. How will I know if the procedures are working (Evaluation):

D a t a w i l l b e r e c o r d e d f o r e a c h i n s t a n c e o f a g g r e s s i o n a n d S I B u s i n g t h e ma l a d a p t i v e c a r d s . T h e d a ily f r e q u e n c y s h o u ld b e c h a r te d o n th e a tta c h e d g r a p h .

54

GRAPHING CODE Student: School: Target Behavior:

Acquisition Deceleration

# # #

PROGRAM DATA ANALYSIS RECORD

C O U N T

B A S E L I N E

MEDICATIONS

NOTES

T i me

55

Date:___________ DATA SHEET Practice for w hen he/she w ants something and the a n s w e r i s Y E S , b u t n o t f o r p r o b l e m b e h a vio r

Procedures: Teacher develops motivation for attention and items and then teaches functional equivalent as replacement for aggression and SIB.

BEHAVIORS # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Situation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N # of restarts

56

# 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Situation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

# of restarts

57

FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT

TRAINING EXERCISE

I NTERPRETING D ATA AND V IDEO

Analysis to Develop Behavior Plan

58

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS INTERVIEW

S tu d e n t: Ro g e r I D # date: 3/ 15 /02

Teacher: Ms. Shell Shocked Be h a v io r o f Co n c e r n : T a n tr u ms th a t ta k e th e f o r m o f s c r e a min g , r u n in g a r o u n d , te a r in g u p ma te r ia ls , k ic k in g th e w a lls , ye llin g p r o f a n ity. P o s i t i v e R e i n f o r c e r s : T a k in g a w a l k , d r a w i n g w i t h ma r k e r s , t a k in g a w a l k , t o y a n i ma l s , c a n d y. N e g a t i v e R e i n f o r c e r s : E s c a p e f r o m d e ma n d s . I n s t r u c t i o n s : I n te r v ie w a p e r s o n w h o h a s o b s e r v e d th e b e h a v io r o f th e s tu d e n t f o r a n e x te n d e d p e r io d o f time in ma n y d if f e r e n t s itu a tio n s . Ch e c k th e b o x e s w h e n e v e r th e r e s p o n d e n t a n s w e r " Y E S " to a q u e s t i o n . F o r e v e r y " Y E S " r e s p o n s e t h e r e s h o u l d b e a q u a l i f y i n g c o mme n t w r i t t e n o n t h e l i n e c o r r e s p o n d in g to th e q u e s tio n . 1 . P h y s io lo g ic a l, M e d ic a l, EO F a c t o r s D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r d u r in g c e r ta in s e a s o n s o f th e ye a r ? N O Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e th e r e s u lt o f a n y f o r m o f d is c o mf o r t ( e s c a p e r e s p o n s e to h e a d a c h e , s to ma c h a c h e , d iz z in e s s , b lu r r e d v is io n , e a r in f e c tio n , e tc . ) . N O Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e s ig n a lin g s o me d e p r iv a tio n c o n d itio n ? ( T h ir s t, h u n g e r , la c k o f r e s t, e tc . B E H A V I O R I S MO R E S E V E R E W H E N H E I S T I R E D A N D MO R E F R E Q U E N T . Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e a s id e e f f e c t o f me d ic a tio n ? ( T ir e d , u n s te a d y, th ir s t, c o n f u s e d , to x ic le v e ls ) NO Co u ld th e b e h a v io r b e th e r e s u lt o f a me d ic a l c o n d itio n ? ( S e iz u r e s , P K U , a lle r g ie s , CP ) N O 2. Antecedents and Setting Event Factors A r e t h e r e a n y c i r c u ms t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e b e h a v i o r A L W A Y S o c c u r s ? W H E N T R A N S I T I O N I N G F R O M P R E F E R R E D T O U N P R E F E R R E D A N D W H E N D E N I E A P R E F E R R E D I T E M. A r e t h e r e a n y c i r c u ms t a n c e s i n w h i c h t he b e h a v i o r N E V E R o c c u r s ? W H E N E N G A G E D I N PREFERRED ACTIVITIES. D o e s i t o c c u r a t c e r t a i n t i me s o f t h e d a y? N O , A T T I ME W H E N MO R E D E MA N D S A R E P L A C E D U P O N H I M B E H A V I O R O C C U R S MO R E F R E Q U E N T L Y . D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r o n ly w ith c e r ta in p e o p le ? N O C o u ld t h e b e h a v io r b e r e l a t e d t o a n y s k i l l d e f i c i t s ? ( C o mmu n ic a t i o n , e x c e s s i v e t a s k r e q u ir e me n ts , p h ys i c a l a b i l i t y ) Y E S , H E H A S P O O R V E R B A L S K I L L S A N D T H E R E F O R E D O E S N O T H A V E MA N Y W A Y S T O NEGOTIATE. I s t h e b e h a v io r r e l a t e d t o a n y p a r t i c u la r a ct i v i t i e s ? I F T H E A C T I V I T Y I S P R E F E R R E D T H E N T H E T R A N S I T I O N W I L L B E MO R E D I F F I C U L T . I s th e b e h a v io r in r e s p o n s e to a v e r s iv e s timu li? ( T o n e o f v o ic e , ig n o r in g , d e ma n d s , n o is e le v e l, n u mb e r o f p e o p le in th e r o o m, a g ita tio n /c o n s e q u e n c e s d e liv e r e d to o th e r s tu d e n ts , lig h tin g , c h a n g e in routine, transitions) NO 3. Operant (consequences) Factors W h a t d o e s t h e b e h a v io r a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t t o g a i n ? ( A t t e n t i o n , p r e f e r r e d a c t i v i t i e s o r i t e ms ) I T A P P E A R S T H A T T H E T A N T R U MS H A V E L E D T O R O G E R E S C A P I N G D E MA N D S A N D GETTING THINGS HE WANTS. D o e s th e b e h a v io r a llo w th e s tu d e n t to p o s tp o n e , a v o id , o r e s c a p e a v e r s iv e s timu la tio n ? ( U n p r e f e r r e d a c t i v i t i e s , d e ma n d s , s o c i a l i nt e r a c t i o n , p a i n ) Y E S , B Y R U N N I N G A R O U N D A N D A W A Y H E E S C A P E S T H E D E MA N D MO ME N T A R I L Y . D o e s th e b e h a v io r p r o v id e s e lf - s timu la tio n a c tiv ity? ( Bo r e d o m, imp o v e r is h e d e n v ir o n me n t) N O D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r c o lla te r a l w ith a n y o th e r b eh a v io r o r a s p a r t o f a c h a in o f b e h a v io r s ? T H E B E H A V I O R S T A R T S W I T H S C R E A MI N G A N D T H E N B E C O ME S D E S T R U C T I V E O F P R O P E R T Y . D o e s th e b e h a v io r o c c u r a s a r e s u lt o f h a v in g a p r e f e r r e d a c tiv ity te r min a te d ? Y E S .

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FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS SCREENING TOOL (FAST)

S tu d e n t: Ro g e r I D # Date: 3 / 15 / 02 Grade: 2 Be h a v io r P r o b le m: T a n tr u ms th a t ta k e th e f o r m o f s c r e a min g , r u n in g a r o u n d , te a r in g u p ma te r ia ls , k ic k in g the walls, yelling profanity. I n f o r ma n t : T e a c h e r I n te r v ie w e r : V . Ca r b o n e Exceptionality: Autism DOB: / / S c h o o l:

To the Interviewer: The FAST is designed to identify a number of factors that may influence the occurrence of behavior problems. It should be used only as an initial screening tool and as part of a comprehensive functional analysis of the behavior problem. The FAST should be administered to several individuals who interact with the client frequently. Results should then be used as the basis for conducting direct observations in several different contexts to verify likely behavioral functions, clarify ambiguous functions, and identify other relevant factors that may not have been included in this instrument. To the Informant: After completing the section on "Informant-Client Relationship," read each of the numbered items carefully. If a statement accurately describes the student's target behavior problem, circle "Yes." If not, circle "No."

INFORMANT-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP I n d ic a te yo u r r e la tio n s h ip to th e s tu d e n t: Therapist H o w lo n g h a v e yo u k n o w n th e s tu d e n t? Parent Residential Staff 3 Y e a r s 5 Mo n th s Teacher/InstructorXXXXXXX

No D o yo u i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t o n a d a i l y b a s i s ? XXXX Yes I f " N o , " h o w ma n y h o u r s p e r w e e k ? I f " Y e s , " h o w ma n y h o u r s p e r d a y? 6 I n w h a t s itu a tio n s d o yo u typ ic a lly o b s e r v e th e s tu d e n t? ( Ma r k a ll th a t a p p ly) X Self-care routines Leisure activities X A c a d e mi c s k i l l s tr a in in g W o r k o r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g X Meals E v e n in g s W h e n th e s tu d e n t h a s n o th in g to d o Other:

P a r t I . P r o b l e m B e h a v i o r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n: L i s t b e h a v i o r p r o b l e ms o f c o n c e r n . D e s c r i b e e a c h i n c l e a r a n d o b j e c t i v e t e r ms . 1 S R E A MS V E R Y L O U D L Y 2.RUNS AROUND AND AWAY 3. KICKS HOLES IN WALLS 4. YELLS PROFANITY.

P a r t I I . D im e n s io n s o f P r o b le m Be h a v io r . P r o v i d e a n d e s t i ma t e o f t h e f r e q u e n c y a n d s e v e r i t y o f t h e e a c h p r o b l e m b e h a v i o r . U s e t h e f o l l o w i n g criteria for severity: Mild ( d is r u p tiv e b u t n o t d a n g e r o u s ) , Mo d e r a te ( d e s tr u c tiv e to p h ys ic a l e n v ir o n me n t) , S e v e r e ( p o s e s p h ys ic a l d a n g e r to s tu d e n t o r o th e r s ) SEVERITY FREQEUNCY 1 . H o u r l y / Daily / W e e k l y / L e s s O f t e n 2 . H o u r ly/D a i l y / W e e k l y / L e s s O f t e n 3 . H o u r ly/D a i l y / W e e k l y / L e s s O f t e n 4 . H o u r ly/D a i l y / W e e k l y / L e s s O f t e n M i l d /M o d e r a t e / S e v e r e M i l d /M o d e r a t e / S e v e r e M i l d /M o d e r a t e / S e v e r e M i l d /M o d e r a t e / S e v e r e 60

PART III. Critical Situations: D e s c r ib e th e s itu a tio n s in w h ic h th e p r o b le m b e h a v io r is m o s t l i k e l y t o o c c u r . D a y s / t i me s _ A N Y T I M E S e t t i n g : T R A N S I T I O N S B E T W E E N A C I TI V I T I E S a n d D E N I E D T A N G I B L E I T E M Persons Present:TEACHER A c t i v i t y: C O U L D B E A N Y A C T I V I T Y What happens right before the problem behavior occurs?DEMAND TO TRANSITION PLACED ON HIM O R T O L D " N O " T H A T H E C O U L D N O T H A V E S O ME T H I N G D e s c r ib e th e s itu a tio n s in w h ic h th e b e h a v io r is l e a s t l i k e l y t o o c c u r : D a y s / t i me s D O E S N ' T M A T T E R S e t t i n g : N O D E MA N D S A N D F R E E A C C E S S T O D E S I R E D I T E MS . Persons Present:DOESN'T MATTER A c t i v i t yW H E N A C T I V I T Y I S N O T P R E F E R R E D .

Part IV. Social Influences On Behavior 1. 2. T h e b e h a v io r u s u a lly o c c u r s in yo u r p r e s e n c e o r in th e p r e s e n c e o f o th e r s tu d e n ts . Yes No T h e b e h a v io r u s u a lly o c c u r s s o o n a f te r yo u o r o th e r s in te r a c t w ith th e s tu d e n t in s o me w a y, s u c h a s Yes No d e liv e r in g a n in s tr u c tio n o r r e p r ima n d , w a lk in g a w a y f r o m ( ig n o r in g ) th e s tu d e n t, ta k in g a w a y a "preferred" i t e m, r e q u ir i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o c h a n g e a c t i v i t i e s , t a l k i n g t o s o me o n e e l s e i n t h e s t u d e n t' s p r e s e n c e , etc. 3. T h e b e h a v i o r o f t e n i s a c c o mp a n i e d b y o t h e r " e mo t i o n a l " r e s p o n s e s , s u c h a s y e l l i n g o r c r y i n g . Yes No C o mp l e t e P a r t V i f y o u a n s w e r e d " Y e s " t o i t e ms 1 , 2 , o r 3 . S k i p P a r t V i f y o u a n s w e r e d " N o " t o a l l t h r e e i t e ms i n P a r t I .

Part V. Social Reinforcement 4. 5. T h e b e h a v i o r o f t e n o c c u r s w h e n t h e s tu d e n t h a s n o t r e c e i v e d mu c h a t t e n t i o n . Yes No W h e n th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s , yo u o r o th e r s u s u a lly r e s p o n d b y in te r a c tin g w ith th e s tu d e n t in s o me w a y Yes No ( e . g . , c o mf o r tin g s ta te me n ts , v e r b a l c o r r e c tio n o r r e p r ima n d , r e s p o n s e b lo c k in g , r e d ir e c tio n ) . T h e s tu d e n t o f te n e n g a g e s in o th e r a n n o yin g b e h a v io r s th a t p r o d u c e a tte n tio n . T h e s t u d e n t f r e q u e n t l y a p p r o a c h e s y o u ( o r o th e r s ) a n d /o r i n i t i a t e s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e b e h a v io r r a r e ly o c c u r s w h e n yo u g iv e th e s tu d e n t lo ts o f a tte n tio n . Yes No Yes No Yes No

6. 7. 8. 9.

T h e b e h a v io r o f te n o c c u r s w h e n yo u ta k e a p a r tic u la r ite m a w a y f r o m th e s tu d e n t o r w h e n yo u t e r mi n a t e Yes No a p r e f e r r e d l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y. ( I f " ye s , " i d e n t i f y: T R A N S T I O N) T h e b e h a v io r o f te n o c c u r s w h e n yo u in f o r m th e s tu d e n t th a t ( s ) h e c a n n o t h a v e a c e r ta in ite m o r cannot Yes No e n g a g e i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y. ( I f " Y e s , " i d e n t i f y: D E N Y C A N D Y)

10.

1 1 . W h e n th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s , yo u o f te n r e s p o n d b y g iv in g th e s tu d e n t a s p e c if ic ite m, s u c h a s a f a v o r ite toy, Yes No ) f o o d , o r s o me o t h e r i t e m. ( I f " Y e s , " i d e n t i f y:

61

12. 13. 14.

T h e s tu d e n t o f te n e n g a g e s in o th e r a n n o y i n g b e h a v i o r s t h a t p r o d u c e a c c e s s t o p r e f e r r e d i t e ms o r activities. activities. Yes No Yes No T h e b e h a v i o r r a r e l y o c c u r s w h e n y o u g i v e t h e s t u d e n t f r e e a c c e s s t o h i s o r h e r f a v o r i t e i t e ms o r T h e b e h a v i o r o f t e n o c c u r s d u r i n g t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r w h e n y o u p l a c e o t h e r t y p e s o f d e ma n d s o n t h e Yes No

student. (If "Yes," identify the activities: __ self-care

15. 16. 17. 18

XXX academic

__work

__ other)

No

T h e s t u d e n t o f t e n i s n o n c o mp l i an t d u r i n g t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r w he n a s k e d t o c o mp l e t e t a s k s . Y e s T h e b e h a v io r o f te n o c c u r s w h e n th e imme d ia te e n v ir o n me n t is v e r y n o is y o r c r o w d e d task. Yes No Yes No

W h e n th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s , yo u o f te n r e s p o n d b y g iv in g th e s tu d e n t a b r ie f " b r e a k " f r o m a n o n g o in g T h e b e h a v i o r r a r e l y o c c u r s w h e n y o u p l a c e f e w d e ma n d s o n t h e s t u d e n t o r w h e n y o u l e a v e t h e s t u d e n t a lo n e . Yes No

Part VI. Nonsocial (Automatic) Reinforcement 19. 20 T h e b e h a v io r o c c u r s f r e q u e n tly w h e n th e s tu d e n t is a lo n e o r u n o c c u p ie d . Yes No

T h e b e h a v io r o c c u r s a t r e la tiv e ly h ig h r a te s r e g a r d le s s o f w h a t is g o in g o n in th e s tu d e n t' s imme d ia te Yes No s u r r o u n d in g e n v ir o n me n t. T h e s tu d e n t s e e ms to h a v e f e w k n o w n r e in f o r c e r s o r r a r e ly e n g a g e s in a p p r o p r ia te o b j e c t ma n ip u la tio n Yes No o r " p la y" b e h a v io r . T h e s tu d e n t is g e n e r a lly u n r e s p o n s iv e to s o c ia l s timu la tio n . Yes No T h e s t u d e n t o f t e n e n g a g e s i n r e p e t i t i v e , s t e r e o t yp e d b e h a v i o r s s u c h a s b o d y r o c k i n g , h a n d o r f i n g e r Yes No w a v in g , o b j e c t tw ir lin g , o r mo u th in g , e tc . W h e n th e s tu d e n t e n g a g e s in th e b e h a v io r , yo u a n d o th e r s u s u a lly r e s p o n d b y d o in g n o th in g Y e s No ( i. e . , yo u n e v e r o r r a r e ly a tte n d to th e b e h a v io r ) . T h e b e h a v io r s e e ms to o c c u r in c yc le s . D u r in g a " h ig h " c yc le , th e b e h a v io r o c c u r s f r e q u e n tly a n d is Yes No e x t r e me l y d if f i c u l t t o i n t e r r u p t. D u r i n g a " l o w " c y c l e , t h e b e h a v i o r r a r e l y o c c u r s . T h e b e h a v io r s e e ms t o o c c u r mo r e o f t e n w h e n t h e s t u d e n t i s i l l . Yes No T h e s t u d e n t h a s a h is t o r y o f r e c u r r e n t i l l n e s s ( e . g . , e a r o r s i n u s i n f e c t i o n s , a l l e r g i e s , d e r ma t i t i s ) . Yes No SCORING SUMMARY C i r c l e t h e i t e ms a n s w e r e d " Y e s . " I f y o u c o mp l e t ed o n ly P a r t I I , a ls o c ir c le I te ms 1 , 2 , a n d 3 . 1 1 1 1 9 2 2 2 2 0 3 3 3 2 1 4 9 1 4 2 2 5 1 0 1 5 2 3 6 1 1 1 6 2 4 7 1 2 1 7 8 1 3 1 8 L i k e l y M a i n t a i n i n g V a r i a b l e: S o c i a l p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( a t t e n t i o n ) S o c i a l p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( a c c e s s t o activities) S o c i a l n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( e s c a p e ) A u t o ma t i c r e i n f o r c e me n t ( s e n s o r y s t i mu la t i o n ) 62

21.

22. 23.

24.

25.

26. 27.

1 9

2 0

2 4

2 5

2 6

2 7

A u t o ma t i c n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e me n t ( p a i n a tte n u a tio n )

P a r t V I I : R e p l a c e me n t B e h a v i o r s D e s c r i b e s o me a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v i o rs t h a t c o u l d b e s t r e n g th e n e d a s r e p l a c e me n t s f or t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r o b l e m b e h a v io r s . Replacements P r o b le m Be h a v io r 1. TANTRUMS COMPLIANCE

2.______________________________________________________________________ 3.______________________________________________________________________ 4._____________________________________________________________________ V I I I . C o mmu n ic a t i o n S k i l l s : 1 . I n d ic a te th e s tu d e n t' s p r ima r y f o r m o f c o mmu n ic a tio n _XXXXVocal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S ig n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G e s tu r e s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ O th e r 2 . H o w t h e d o e s t h e s t u d e n t c o mmu n i c a t e a w a n t o r n e e d ( f o r a t t e n t i o n , f o o d , a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . ) ? HE WILL FIRST ASK AND THEN TANTRUM IF DENIED. 3 . H o w d o e s th e s tu d e n t c o mmu n ic a te a d e s ir e to s to p a n d o n - g o in g a c tiv ity? I G N O R E S T H E D E MA N D A N D T H E N T A N T R U MS I F R E Q U I R E D T O R E S P O N D . IX. Preferences L is t th in g s th a t a p p e a r to b e s tu d e n t p r e f e r e n c e s a n d mig h t b e u s e d th e r e f o r e a s r e in f o r c e r s f o r a p p r o p r ia te b e h a v io r . 1 . P r e f e r r e d P e r s o n s N O O N E I S A N Y MO R E P R E F E R R E D T H A N O T H E R S . 2 . P r e f e r r e d A c t i v i t i e s ( v i d e o s , t o y s , s w i n g , g a me s S T U F F E D A N I M A L S , W A L K , M A R K E R S F O R DRAWING 3 . F o o d , s n a c k s a n d r in k C A N D Y A N D E S P E C I A L L Y G U MMI B E A R S . X . P r e v io u s I n te r v e n tio n s : P r o v id e a s u mma r y o f a n y p r e v io u s in te r v e n tio n s a n d th e ir e f f e c ts u p o n th e p r o b le m b e h a v io r . I n c lu d e d e s c r ip tio n s o f p r o c e d u r e s , d ate s a n d s u mma r y o f b e h a v io r a l d a ta if a v a ila b le . ROGER HAS HAD SEVER AL BEHAVIOR PLANS NONE OF WHICH HAVE REDUCED THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR.. WE USED A PICTURE SCHEDULE TO HELP HIM TRANSITION BUT T H A T D I D N O T W O R K . W E W A R N E D H I M O F TR A N S I T I O N S B U T T H A T W A S N O T E F F E C T I V E EITHER. WHEN TANTRUMS OCCURRED WE USED TIME OUT IN A CORNER OF THE ROOM B U T H E O N L Y B E C A M E M O R E D I S R U P T I V E. S O M E T I M E S W H E N T H E T A N T R U M S O C C U R R E D IF WE TOOK HIM FOR A WALK THE TANTRUMS WERE LESS OF A PROBLEM FOR A WHILE. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC EXAMINATIONS WERE CONDUCTED AND WE WERE I N F O R M E D T H A T H E H A D P O O R I M P U L S E C ON T R O L A N D N E E D E D M E D I C A T I O N S O H E W A S PLACED ON CLONIDIN.

Adpated from Dr. Brian Iwata's work (1996 & 1998) at The Florida Center on Self-Injury. BELOW ARE SOME DATA THAT WERE RECORDED ON ROGER'S OCCURRENCE OF PROBLEM BEHAVOR BY HIS TEACHER IN HIS CLASSROOM OVER A 2 WEEK PERIOD. THE BOLD AND ENLARGED PRINT REPRESENTS ABOUT 50 REPORTS OF THE THE MOST FREQUENTLY RECORDED ANTECEDENTS BEHAVIORS AND CONSEQUENCES.

63

DATA RECORDING MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR CARD

Location:

Student ROGER

Date: Time:

ID# Teacher What Happened After?

What Happened Before? Appeared to be in discomfort

Inappropriate Behavior Fidgeting

Asked to do something

Bored-no materials/ activities

Noncompliance

Off task Physical/Verbal aggression Playing with objects

Called for assistance

Interruption/Blocking Nothing/Ignored Physical discomfort relieved

Could not get desired item

Loud/disruptive environment Nothing "out of the blue"

Property destruction

Provoking/Teasing others Running away

Screaming/Tantrum

Self-injurious behavior

Physical redirection to activity P h y s ic a l r e s t r a in t (manual) Removed from room/area

Required to continue activity Separation within room/area

O n g o in g b e h a v io r interrupted

Other student provoked Stopped from doing activity Transitional time Attention given to others Other (specify )

Other (specify

KICK HOLES IN WALL)

Time-out (duration: Verbal redirection to a c t iv it y

Other (specify )

64

FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT DATA- ROGER

60

NUMBER OF PROBLEM BEHAVIORS

50 40 30 20 10 0

D PL A Y N D EM A IB LE

DEMAND PLAY TANGIBLE

TA

CONDITIONS

N

G

65

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