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Time Lines Review: Preclassic to Late Classic

Preclassic period: 2000 B.C. to A.D. 100. Late Preclassic: 400 B.C. to A.D. 250. Early Classic: A.D. 250 ­ 600. Late Classic: A.D. 600 ­ 900.

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Preclassic Period

Southern Highlands: first area to develop complex civilization. El Porton: first glyphs, 400 B.C. Abaj Takalik: first Long Count date, A.D. 126. Kaminaljuyu: stelae combine images + glyphs

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Preclassic Period, Central Lowlands

El Mirador: Largest Late Preclassic site. Enormous temple complexes Triadic pyramid design. Stucco masks beside stairways, with Sun God and Venus references.

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El Mirador

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El Tigre complex, El Mirador

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Cerros, Preclassic Site

Nakbe, stucco mask

Preclassic site abandoned at end of period. Intentional development of institution of kingship. "Urban renewal" of central city for temple construction and elite center.

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Cerros "Crown Jewels"

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Development at Cerros

Later phases added more temples. End of Cerros: capture of ahau? Temple 3 at Cerros: designed for an ahau's tomb, but never used. Captured ahau? Failed transfer of power, for some reason? People returned to simpler way of life at end of Preclassic period.

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Early Classic Period ­ A.D. 250 600

Many Maya cities developed in central lowlands during this time. Tikal: main center of activity. Major leaders at Tikal: Great Jaguar Paw Curl Snout Stormy Sky

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Tikal's Conquest

Smoking Frog's conquest of Uaxactun: high point of Early Classic, A.D. 378. Stela 31: created by Stormy Sky, A.D. 411, as retrospective on Tikal's history. Original placement: Stormy Sky's tomb ­ but moved by Ah Cacau around A.D. 690 as part of rejuvenation of Tikal.

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Tikal

North Acropolis

Uaxactun

Smoking Frog became ahau at Uaxactun and erected Stela 5, commemorating his victory. Elements include references to Teotihuacán culture.

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Late Classic Period ­ A.D. 600 - 900

Period of great military conflict. Lord Water, of Caracol, captured Double Bird of Tikal, A.D. 562, and destroyed many monuments there. Tikal entered "hiatus" period. Caracol, allied with Calakmul, conquered Naranjo. Forced construction of hieroglyphic stairs in Naranjo celebrating Lord Kan II's victory.

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Late Classic War and Politics

Great Jaguar Paw's lineage (Tikal) establishes new dynasty in Dos Pilas, with Flint Sky. Dos Pilas, under Flint Sky: Forms alliance with Calakmul Moves back against Tikal and captures Shield Skull in A.D. 679. Sends daughter, Lady Woc, to Naranjo to begin a dynasty there.

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Naranjo

Lady Woc establishes dynasty there in A.D. 682. Smoking Squirrel born 688, becomes ahau in 693, when 5 years old. Lady Woc serves as regent (ahau), with much power.

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Naranjo under Smoking Squirrel

Lady Woc (Naranjo) stands on captive Kinich Cab (Ucanal) Stela 24, Naranjo

Smoking Squirrel continued the aggressive policies of his mother, capturing Ucanal, an ally of Caracol, and depositing stones from the muchhated hieroglyphic stairway in Ucanal as a rebuke.

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Yaxchilan in the Late Classic

Lintels at Yaxchilan record the activities of the elite. 2 prominent figures: Shield Jaguar and Bird Jaguar and their wives. Founder of the lineage: Yat Balam ­ also figures in their symbolism.

Yaxchilan Temple 33

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Lintel 25, Yaxchilan Lady Xoc communes with Yat Balam

Lintel 24 Yaxchilan

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Stela 11, Yaxchilan Shield Jaguar and Bird Jaguar in Flapstaff Ritual

Stela inside Temple 21, Yaxchilan

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Lintel 16 Yaxchilan Bird Jaguar with his captive, Yax Cib Toc

Lintel 17, Yaxchilan Bird Jaguar and Lady Balam

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Palenque

Problem of ahau succession slightly different here. 2 women served as ahaus: Lady Kanal-Ikal Lady Zac-Kuk, Pacal's mother. 2 most powerful ahaus: Pacal the great (Temple of the Inscriptions) Chan Bahlum (Group of the Cross)

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Palenque

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Temple of the Sun, Palenque

Layout of Group of the Cross Temples

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Copan

Most recent topic: review notes about activities there. Special note: Altar Q, as profound symbol of connections between each ahau in the line of succession.

Temple of the Sun

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General Themes: Classic Period

Social patterns and economic development: Growth of large population centers. Massive accumulation of wealth by the elite. Increasing social complexity. Increasing numbers of nobility.

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Classic Period Themes

Warfare Dominant theme during period. 2 forms of warfare: Conquest and domination of another place: Tikal (Uaxactun) and Copan (Quirigua). More often, raiding and capture of nobles in other cities. ­Led to political disruption if ahau held and not killed for a time.

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Alliances

Political power gained through alliances Marriage: noble woman becomes wife of ruler of another center. Flint Sky: sent daughter Lady Woc to Naranjo to start new lineage.

Role of Women

Often invisible in public record Sometimes visible in auxiliary role. Yaxchilan examples: Lady Xoc ­ wife of Shield Jaguar. Lady Eveningstar ­ from Calakmul, wife of Shield Jaguar and mother of Bird Jaguar. Lady Balam ­ wife of Bird Jaguar. Lady Great Skull ­ wife of Bird Jaguar and mother of Chel Te, the heir.

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Women

Rulers as regent for male heir: Lady Woc of Naranjo, regent for Smoking Squirrel. Rulers in their own right, Palenque: Lady Kanal-Ikal and Lady Zac-Kuk. Unusual enough that Pacal and Chan Bahlum had to explain and legitimize.

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Architecture and Sculpture

Main symbolic purposes: Establish prestige of rulers Military conquests Sacrifices Connections with supernaturals Sun, Venus, Hero Twins, ball game. Ancestor veneration, emphasizing powerful past nobles. Record times and dates of events.

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Use of Symbols

World (Ceiba) Tree Scepter/staff of rulership Blood letting/sacrifice Deities (Jaguar Sun, Venus, Xbalanque, Hunapu) Popol Vuh symbols - - e.g. severed heads. Witz mountain: passage to Xibalba.

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Evolution of Ahauship

Began as concept of single individual with unquestioned authority and divine, supernatural powers. End of Classic: concept of ruling council becoming prevalent ­ Copan example. Vulnerability of single individual recognized; ruling council provided more continuity. Adopted in later Maya periods.

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