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Military Trucks for Asian Market

Today's military trucks though not as glamorous as their other heavier and armed combat brethrens are essential for a modern military to function well. Generally, trucks and trailers are responsible for transporting personnel, equipment, food, water, ammunition, and fuel once on the ground, represent the logistical backbone of military operations. The new generation trucks have taken a more tactical and multi-purpose role. These trucks have been converted into platforms such as command centre, artillery, air defence systems and others. Trucks basically fall into three classifications: military light trucks, of which the Humvee is the best known, weighing 8,500 to 10,000 pounds; medium-duty trucks, with 2.5- or 5-tonne payload capacities; and heavyduty vehicles such as equipment transporters and line haul tractors, commonly called semis. Although built to withstand a wide range of environmental conditions and threats, the truck fleets of many armies is ageing and thus becoming less effective over time. To overcome readiness problems caused by an ageing truck fleet, to support a more agile military force, and to reduce costs over the long term, many armies in the Asia-Pacific region are focusing on procuring the latest generation of military trucks and transporters. Here ADJ looks at the basic medium/heavy-duty trucks (transport purposes) that are available for the Asian market. With many land forces in the AsiaPacific examining the procurement of new military trucks and transporters, our attention moves to the options available to them. The options include, but are not limited to, the Renault Sherpa 5, AvtoKrAZ-6322, Iveco, MAN 8x8, Mercedes Benz Unimog, Oshkosh and Volvo Truck M6 (4x4).

by Kelvin Fong

enclosed and a circular roof hatch is fitted. This can mount a light machine gun if required. Motive power is provided by a MAN sixcylinder diesel engine developing 370hp in the 26 M, 410hp in the 32 M. This is coupled to a 16-speed ZF manual gearbox. A ZF hydraulic torque converter is an option to the conventional clutch, a further option being a fully automatic ZF gearbox. Conventional beam axles and leaf spring suspension is employed, the rear axles being fitted with cross-axle differential locks as standard. A differential lock is optional on the front axle(s).

lower control arms at wheel position. This system provides each front wheel with a total vertical travel of 406mm and a travel of 325mm on the rear axles. All four cargo body models have removable tailgates and dropsides. The load area for the MK23 and MK25 is 4m long and the MK27 and MK28 is 6.12m long. The flatbeds can accommodate ISO compatible loads such as containers and shelters.

Renault Sherpa 5

Renault Trucks has acquired vast experience in the field of mobility, applicable to civilian or militarised trucks as well as tactical or combat vehicles. It offers a comprehensive range of wheeled military and armoured vehicles for logistical and tactical transport, as well as for carrying armament systems. Of emerging interest is their new range of Sherpa tactical trucks which offer outstanding mobility and payload capacity. In combat zones, support vehicles must be able to operate as close to the action as possible, deploy in a minimum amount of time, and be able to carry out swift, individualised supply missions to elementary units. This range of rigid trucks is designed to carry out all transport operations on the field, including the most challenging. The versatile tactical vehicles in the Renault Sherpa range fulfil these requirements perfectly: fording capacity; able to operate on even the most challenging terrain at consistent average speeds. These vehicles--epitomising versatility-- are just as much at home on asphalt roads as dirt tracks, and possess all the qualities needed to ensure their success whatever the task, and whatever the conditions: performance, comfort, sturdiness, efficiency and a long working life. Furthermore, most of these models can be fitted with an armoured cab as an additional option. The Sherpa 5 can carry a

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Oshkosh

The performance of tactical transport trucks that the US military is operating in Iraq is also being looked at. Of particular interest is the Oshkosh (6x6) Medium Tactical Vehicle operated by the US Marine Corps as its tactical logistics vehicle. All versions of the Oshkosh (6x6) Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement (MTVR) are based on the same 6x6 drive configuration with the engine under a forward bonnet. The chassis frame is constructed using bolted/ huck bolted formed channel made of carbon manganese steel while the three-seat cab is of welded aluminium extrusion construction with adhesive bonded aluminium skins. The aluminium hinged windscreen, roof, sidewalls, door frames and rear wall can be folded down to reduce overall height to 2.489m. Power is provided by a Caterpillar C-12 electronically controlled ADEM III six-cylinder diesel developing 425hp. This is coupled to an Allison HD 4070P electronically controlled seven-speed transmission with a TC-541 torque converter. The suspension uses a system known as the Oshkosh TAK-4 independent suspension which utilises a coil spring and upper and

MAN SX Series

The Steyr 26 M 37 6x6 and Steyr 32 M 41 8x8 trucks are militarised examples of the MAN F2000 range of commercial trucks assembled by MAN Sonderfahrzeuge AG at the former Österreichische Automobilfabrik ÖAF-Gräf und Stift AG plant in Vienna. The F2000 chassis also serves as the base for the MAN FX range of tactical trucks. The Steyr 26 M and 32 M trucks are designed to carry a maximum load of 12,000 and 18,000kg, respectively, both on and off-road. They are of conventional design, being based on a C-section low distortion ladder frame chassis with riveted cross-members. The three-seat forwardcontrol commercially derived cab is of all-steel construction and tilts forward 70º to allow access to the engine and transmission. The driver has a suspended seat and single or twin passenger seats can be fitted. The cab is fully

LANDFORCES

total payload of seven tonnes over road surfaces or the most challenging terrains such as sand, stones and mud. Nexter (formerly Giat) was the launch customer for the Sherpa 5 which became the platform for the Caesar 155mm self-propelled howitzer sold to France and Thailand. The Sherpa 5 is also C-130 air transportable and has an armoured cab, heater, right hand drive, bead lock, centralised tyre inflation, automatic gearbox ZF 6HP602 and a permanent 6x6 power take off.

Iveco M 150.30

The Iveco M 150.30 WM (4×4) 7,000kg truck is the lightest component of the Iveco Heavy Range of tactical trucks and is manufactured by Astra Veicoli Industriali SpA, Astra being part of the Iveco organisation. For the domestic Italian market, the vehicle is marketed as the Astra SM 44.30. The three-person cab is constructed using glass fibre reinforced resins, has a flat single-piece windscreen and was designed from the outset to accept add-on armoured protection. The roof is fitted with an observation hatch and a machine gun ring-mount is optional. The standard cab is rail-transportable to STANAG 2832, while an optional low-profile cab allows the vehicle to be transported by C-130 aircraft with minimal preparation. The chassis frame is of conventional channel section design but is manufactured from specific high-grade steels. Front and rear towing/recovery points are standard and a self-recovery winch is optional. Three chassis lengths are available: 6.45, 7.275 and 7.875m (with respective wheelbases of 3.5, 4.2 and 4.8m). In addition to conventional dropside cargo/troop, tanker or flatbed/shelter mounting bodies, the M 150.30 chassis is designed to accept a variety of specialised equipment. The British Army took delivery of three air-transportable vehicles fitted with EADECO well-drilling equipment. For commonality and ease of support the M 150.30 and other vehicles in the Iveco Heavy Range now make extensive use of driveline components (engine, gearbox, transfer box and axles) used in the Iveco Eurotrakker range of militarised commercial trucks. The M 150.30 is powered by an Iveco EURO III compliant 9.5-litre 300hp diesel engine, although a EURO II version, without electronic engine management systems, remains available for certain markets. Four-wheel drive is fulltime, longitudinal and cross-axle differential locks are fitted and drive is transmitted via either a ZF 5 HP 500 five-speed automatic gearbox, or ZF 16 S 109 synchromesh 16KrAZ-6322

speed manual gearbox, and Iveco two-speed transfer box.

KAMAZ Military Truck

KAMAZ or KAMA Heavy-Duty Truck Production Plant is a Russian manufacturer of a wide range of diesel engines and military trucks of 3 tonnes-40 tonnes load capacity, including all-wheel drive multipurpose trucks of the Mustang family. KAMAZ assembled its first truck model in February 1976 and now, 30 years later, the heavy duty models are exported to many countries including Eastern Europe, China, the Middle East, and North Africa. Its trucks are known for their simple yet functional design, robust appearance and great efficiency. Today Kamaz is the largest truck producer in Russia. KAMAZ experience of trucks' successful operation in military and defence structures, as well as design reserve, were the prerequisites for developing the multi-purpose Mustang military truck family, including KAMAZ 4350 (4x4), KAMAZ 5350 (6x6), KAMAZ 6350 (8x8), with load capacities of 4 tonnes, 6 tonnes and 10 tonnes, respectively. A new KAMAZ-43501 truck with scaleddown wheelbase and tires has been produced on the base of KAMAZ-4350 chassis with a load capacity up to 3 tonnes to substitute vehicles of similar load capacity powered with petrol engines. The major features of two-axle KAMAZ-43501 and KAMAZ-4350 trucks are their manoeuvrability in comparison to similar Russian and foreign trucks, smooth running, high steering response even in extreme road conditions. By using the anti-roll bars installed on both axles, the truck is capable of passing sharp turns and heavy road sections easily without rolling or swinging. The trucks are provided with a three-seat comfortable cab with zones for crew rest, arms and special equipment arrangement. To protect from small arms and shell fragments, all Mustang military trucks may be equipped with cabs with external or internal armouring.

Mercedes-Benz Unimog

The overall layout of the latest generation Unimog remains the same as that of earlier models, that being conventional with the engine and cab at the front and the standard troop carrying/cargo body at the rear; both mounted on a torsionally stiff chassis. Any significant visual differences in the new models are limited to a grille that has been reshaped to accommodate the radiator that comes with the EURO 3 emissions compliant engines. In addition to new engines, the latest generation Unimogs are also fitted with a Mercedes-Benz EPS (Electronic Pneumatic Shift) gearbox for the first time. Compared to a manual gearbox this reduces both driver fatigue and driveline stresses, particularly when operating off-road for extended periods. The standard cab is an all-steel tillable twodoor model that seats two or three (twopassenger bench seat optional). A roof hatch is standard; the backrest of the passengers' seat tilting forward to form a standing platform. Hydraulic suspension for driver and single passenger seats is an option, as is airconditioning. A seven-seat crew-type cab is a further option. Left- or right-drive versions of all models are available. The cab mounts to the chassis via three bearing mounting points. The chassis is a C-section torque-resistant ladder-type design with tubular crossmembers. Tow and/or recovery points can be fitted front and rear. Platforms, box-type bodies and flats for shelters are mounted on the chassis by means of a torsion-free subframe. The standard troop carrying/cargo-type body can seat up to 16. Motive power for the latest Unimog range is provided by one of two Mercedes-Benz EURO III emissions compliant diesel engines: OM 904 LA in models U3000 and U4000, and OM 924 LA in model U5000; the OM 924 LA being a bored and stroked version of the OM 904 LA. For the first time in the Unimog range these engines are coupled to a Mercedes-Benz eightspeed electrical-pneumatic shifting (EPS) gearbox. A further eight working gears are optional. The two-speed transfer box is integrated within the gearbox and all aggregates are sealed against dust, sludge and water. In the event of an electronics failure, some gears may be engaged pneumatically via an emergency switch.

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SHP Media Sdn Bhd

Heavy Duty AvtoKrAZ-6322

Ukrainian automaker AvtoKrAZ has established itself by developing military vehicles that meet the requirements of military vehicles' multifunctionality. Owing to their high technical capabilities, KrAZ heavy-duty military vehicles especially trucks are used by most of the world armies. Scores of special military equipment products are mounted on KrAZ chassis. The KrAZ trucks are equipped with diesel engines from the Yaroslavl motor plant (Russia), with power of 240hp to 400hp. At a customer's request, vehicles can be equipped with the engines of leading foreign manufacturers, such as Deutz, Cummins or Volvo. Even in complete off-road conditions and extreme temperatures KrAZ military vehicles can carry pontoon parks, missile systems and radio-engineering complexes, transport crew and different cargoes. They can travel in conditions and on terrain in which other military vehicles cannot operate. The KrAZ-6322 (6x6) is a vehicle of high cross-country ability, equipped with a platform and intended for different cargos and crew transportation; it can drive on all roads, offroad and in cross-country. Its payload provides a capacity of 12,000kg at a maximum negotiable slope of 58%. The KrAZ-6322 provides a capability to tow aircraft of 75 tonnes on concrete surfaces at an airfield, and can house 32 soldiers with their ammunition.

Recently AvtoKrAZ Holding Company has won a tender for the delivery of KrAZ-6322 heavy-duty four-wheel drive vehicles of different modifications announced by the Indonesian National Police. These trucks will be on service as part of the UNO peace-support mission in Sudan. The trucks delivered, which are used by the armies of Yemen, Angola, India, Egypt and the Iraqi Security Forces, include the KrAZ-6322 platform vehicles, tanker trucks for transportation of water and fuel, and recovery vehicles. KrAZ vehicles will be manufactured according to the requirements specified by the UNO for automobile technique. The present trucks will be coloured in white with a laydown of the UNO logo. This delivery of trucks is the first relating to the UNO during some years. Earlier KrAZ trucks implemented the targets as part of the peacekeeping contingent of the Ukrainian Armed Forces in Sierra Leone, Lebanon, Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan.

Volvo FM12

The Volvo FM12 range of trucks succeeds the earlier FL12 range but is effectively an evolution of the same concept. As with all Volvo models, the majority of the major components including engines, transmissions, cabs and chassis frames are designed and manufactured inhouse. With the exception of the high mobility FM12 8x8 designed in cooperation with Timoney

Technology of Ireland and fitted with Timoney independent suspension, the entire range are based on the standard commercial FM range. The base engine used throughout the range is a development of an existing 12-litre unit and is available with power outputs of 340, 380, 420 and 460hp. Transmissions include manual, semiautomatic and full automatic versions. Military all-wheel drive versions are equipped to meet NATO specifications with front/rear towing facilities, recovery points, blackout lighting and inter-vehicle start sockets and so on. Waterproofing for deep salt-water wading and winterisation for operation in extreme cold is also possible. The FM12 model range is suitable for a variety of applications, such as tractors, cargo vehicles and tankers, when fitted with the appropriate superstructure. The Swedish Army operates a number of these vehicles equipped with load handling equipment. Volvo has developed a cab armouring system which, by way of an appliqué kit attached to built-in fixing points, allows a standard cab to be fully protected within a short space of time. Depending on cab size and protection levels required, the total weight of the add-on armour will be approximately 1,500 to 1,600kg. Loading on the original cab structure is limited to approximately 1,100kg, the rear wall of the cab being fixed to the chassis frame. The optional mine protection is also designed for fixing directly to the chassis frame.

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