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Today's materials

Reliability: Critical parameters

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Today's materials

·Pcb materials overview ( IPC ) ·FR4 : what is it ? ·Reliability: Critical parameters

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

1

IPC 4101 Classification

IPC Spec IPC-4101B/00 IPC-4101B/01 IPC-4101B/02 IPC-4101B/03 IPC-4101B/04 IPC-4101B/05 IPC-4101B/10 IPC-4101B/11 IPC-4101B/12 IPC-4101B/13 IPC-4101B/14 IPC-4101B/20 IPC-4101B/21 IPC-4101B/22 IPC-4101B/23 IPC-4101B/24 IPC-4101B/25 IPC-4101B/26 IPC-4101B/27 IPC-4101B/28 IPC-4101B/29 IPC-4101B/30 IPC-4101B/31 IPC-4101B/32 IPC-4101B/33 IPC-4101B/40 IPC-4101B/41 IPC-4101B/42 Reinforcement Cellulose Paper Cellulose Paper Cellulose Paper Cellulose Paper Cellulose Paper Cellulose Paper Woven E-Glass Surface, Cellulose Paper Core Woven E-Glass Surface, Nonwoven E-Glass Core Woven E-Glass Surface, Nonwoven E-Glass Core Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Surface, Nonwoven E-Glass Core Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Unidirectional E-Glass, Cross-plied Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass N/A Woven E-Glass N/A Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Resin System Phenolic Modified Phenolic Phenolic, Flame Resistant Phenolic, Flame Resistant Modified Epoxy, Flame Resistant Phenolic, Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Phenolic (2), Flame Resistant Polyester, Flame Resistant Epoxy, Flame Resistant Polyester (1), Vinyl Ester (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy, Flame Resistant Epoxy, Non Flame Resistant Difunctional Epoxy (1) Multifunctional Epoxy (2),Flame Resistant Epoxy, Hot Strength Retention, Non Flame Resistant Epoxy, Hot Strength Retention, Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Polyphenylene oxide (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Non-Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Cyanate Ester (2), Flame Resistant Bismalemide/Triazine (BT) (1), Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2) Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2) Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2) Polyimide Polyimide Polyimide (1), Epoxy (2) ID Ref. NEMA XPC, UL/ANSI XPC NEMA XXXPC, UL/ANSI XXXPC NEMA FR1, UL/ANSI FR1 NEMA FR2, UL/ANSI FR1 NEMA FR3, UL/ANSI FR3 UL/ANSI FR2 NEMA CEM-1, UL/ANSI CEM-1 NEMA CRM-5, ANSI CRM-5/11 NEMA CEM-3, UL/ANSI CEM-3 ANSI 4101/13 UL/ANSI CEM-3 NEMA G10, UL/ANSI G-10, MIL-S-13949/03 GE/GEN NEMA FR4, UL/ANSI FR-4/21, MIL-S-13949/04 GF/GFN/GFK/GFP/GFM NEMA G11 ­ GB, UL/ANSI G-11, MIL-S-13949/02 GB/GBN/GP NEMA FR5, UL/ANSI FR-5, MIL-S-13949/05 GH/GHN/GHP NEMA FR4, UL/ANSI FR-4/24, MIL-S-13949/04 GF/GFG/GFN NEMA FR4, ANSI 4101/25, MIL-S-13949/04 GF/GFG/GFN NEMA FR4, UL/ANSI FR-4/26, MIL-S-13949/04 GF/GFT ANSI 4101/27 ANSI 4101/28, MIL-S-13949/04 GN/GFT ANSI 4101/29, MIL-S-13949/04 GN/GFT UL/ANSI GPY, MIL-S-13949/26 ­ GIT/GMT N/A N/A N/A UL/ANSI GPY, MIL-S-13949/10 GI/GIN/GIJ/GIP/GIL UL/ANSI GPY, MIL-S-13949/10 GIL/GIP UL/ANSI GPY, MIL-S-13949/10 GIJ Tg C° min. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 100° N/A N/A N/A N/A 100° 110° Dk @ 1Mhz 5.6 4.8 6 5 4.8 N/A 5.4 4.1 5.4 N/A 5.4 5.4 5.4

135-1755.4 135-1855.4 150° 5.4

150-2004.4 170° 5.4

110° 5.4 170-2205.4 170-2204.4 170-2204.8 90° 7 90° 7 150° 7 200° 250° 200° 5.4 5.4 5.4

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

IPC 4101 Classification

IPC-4101B/50 IPC-4101B/53 IPC-4101B/54 IPC-4101B/55 IPC-4101B/58 IPC-4101B/60 IPC-4101B/70 IPC-4101B/71 IPC-4101B/80 Woven Aramid Non-Woven Aramid Paper Unidirectional Aramid Fiber, Cross-plied Non-Woven Aramid Paper Non-Woven Aramid Paper Woven Quartz Fiber Woven S-2 Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Surface, Cellulose Paper Core Woven E-Glass Surface, Nonwoven E-Glass (chopped felt) Core Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass Woven E-Glass (1) Resin System Primary Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Polyimide Cyanate Ester Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Multifunctional Epoxy (1), Non-Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Polyimide, Flame Resistant Cyanate Ester Cyanate Ester Epoxy (1), Phenolic (2), Flame Resistant ANSI 4101/50, MIL-S-13949/15 AF/AFN/AFG ANSI 4101/53, MIL-S-13949/31 BIN/BIJ ANSI 4101/54 ANSI 4101/55, MIL-S-13949/22 BF/BFN/BFG ANSI 4101/58 ANSI 4101/60, MIL-S-13949/19 QIL ANSI 4101/70 ANSI 4101/71, MIL-S-13949/29 GCN NEMA CEM-1, UL/ANSI CEM-1 150-200° 4.5 220° 4.5 230° 150-200° 135-185° 250° 230° 230° 100° 4.2 4.5 4.5 3.4 4.3 4.5 5.4

IPC-4101B/81 IPC-4101B/82 IPC-4101B/83 IPC-4101B/90 IPC-4101B/91 IPC-4101B/92 IPC-4101B/93 IPC-4101B/94 IPC-4101B/95 IPC-4101B/96 IPC-4101B/97 IPC-4101B/98 IPC-4101B/99 IPC-4101B/101 IPC-4101B/121 IPC-4101B/124 IPC-4101B/126 IPC-4101B/129

Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Polyphenylene ether, Flame Resistant Polyphenylene ether, Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Polyphenylene ether, Flame Resistant Difunctional Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Modified Epoxy or NonEpoxy (max wt. 5%) (3), Flame Resistant Difunctional Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Modified Epoxy or Non-Epoxy (max wt. 5%) (3), Flame Resistant Difunctional Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Modified Epoxy or Non-Epoxy (max wt. 5%) (3), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Modified Epoxy or NonEpoxy (max wt. 5%) (3), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Modified Epoxy or NonEpoxy (max wt. 5%) (3), Flame Resistant Epoxy (1), Multifunctional Epoxy (2), Modified Epoxy or NonEpoxy (max wt. 5%) (3), Flame Resistant (2) Resin System Secondary

NEMA CEM-3, UL/ANSI CEM-3 NEMA FR4, UL/ANSI FR-4 UL/ANSI FR-4 ANSI 4101/90 ANSI 4101/91 UL/ANSI FR-4 110-150° UL/ANSI FR-4 110-150° UL/ANSI FR-4 110-150° UL/ANSI FR-4 110-150° ANSI 4101/96 UL/ANSI FR-4, MIL-S-13949/04 GF/GFN/GFK/GFP/GFM UL/ANSI FR-4, MIL-S-13949/04 GF/GFG/GFN UL/ANSI FR-4/99 UL/ANSI FR-4/101 UL/ANSI FR-4/121 UL/ANSI FR-4/124 UL/ANSI FR-4/126 UL/ANSI FR-4/129 (3) Resin System Secondary 2

N/A 110° 150-200° 175° 175° 110-150° 110-150° 150-200° 150-200° 175° 110° 150° 150° 110° 110° 150° 170° 170°

5.4 5.4 5.4 4.2 4.2 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 4.2 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

2

IPC 4101 Classification extract

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

FR4 prepreg

Glass fabric + resin = prepreg

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% B2O3 CaO MgO Al2O3 Silica

gl as Ve s rt A ex d' R tex -g l K ass -g la T- ss gl U ass S g la -2 s G s la D ss gl as s

E

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

3

FR4 Laminate Press prepreg + Cu foil = laminate

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

2006: EU Legislation:

R o H S

estriction f azardous ubstances

W E E E

aste lectrical lectronic quipment

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

4

ROHS

R o H S

estriction f azardous ubstances

Prohibits:

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Lead ( Pb ) Cadmium ( Cd ) Mercury ( Hg ) Chromium IV ( Cr IV ) Polybrominated biphenyls ( PBB ) Polybrominated biphenylethers ( PBBE )

The Flame Retarder in standard FR4 material = Tetra-bromo-bisphenol-A ( TBBA ) TBBA and epoxy resin with TBBA don't belong to the PBB or PBBE

Todays brominated epoxy resin base materials are in full compliance with the EU legislation.

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

ROHS

R o H S

estriction f azardous ubstances

Prohibits:

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Lead ( Pb ) Cadmium ( Cd ) Mercury ( Hg ) Chromium IV ( Cr IV ) Polybrominated biphenyls ( PBB ) Polybrominated biphenylethers ( PBBE )

Pb - Free

Higher soldering temperature Pcb Finish must be Pb free

· · · · · Pb free HASL Immersion Ni Au Immersion Sn OSP ( + Immersion Ni Au ) Immersion Ag

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

5

ROHS: Influences on PCB Material Higher soldering temperature ( Reflow up to 265 ºC, Wave up to 280 ºC ) is demanding: · Base material with a higher Tg or lower Z-axis expansion

< > defective metalisations

· Base material with a higher thermal resistance

< > delamination & material decomposition

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Reliability: Tg

Base material with a higher Tg or lower Z-axis expansion

Z axis elongation

z in function of Tg

Polyimide DE-Cu 104 DE-Cu 114 IS 410

2 2 = 5 x 1 1 40 135 150 180 260 Tg (oC)

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

6

Reliability: Tg

Base material with a higher Tg or lower Z-axis expansion

Z axis elongation

2,8 % 1,65mm

z= 200

FR4 Tg 135

1.15 % 1,62mm 0.5 % 1,61mm 0 % 1,60mm

z= 45 20 135

z = 50 Polyimide Tg 260

Cu : z = 17

250 T (oC)

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Reliability: thermal stability

· T260 test ( Thermomechanical analyzer : TMA)

Pressure: 5 mN

t2-t1 = T260

expansion 260°C

t1

time

t2

Start temp.:30oC Heating rate: 10oC/min End temp: 60 min at 260oC

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

7

Reliability: thermal stability

· T260 test (TMA)

Delamination caused by:

­ Destruction of the resin matrix ­ Bad adhesion caused by humidity or entrapped solvents ­ Bad Cu adhesion

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Reliability: thermal stability

· T260 test (TGA)

­ Measuring the weight change at 260 ºC in function of the time ( 60 min) ­ Good thermal stability if the weight loss is < 1 % ­ Loss is caused by evaporation, chemical reactions and material decomposition

· T260 test results:

Tg (oC) Standard FR4 Thermal stable FR4 High Tg FR4 130 138 180 T260(min) ~ 15 > 60 > 60 TGA (%) 17,7 0,2 0,89

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

8

Reliability: thermal stability

· Decomposition Temperature:

­ Temperature at which the material lost 5 % weight

100 95

Weight %

Sn/Pb solder 210245°C Pb free solder 240270°C Standard FR4 Therm. Stable high Tg FR4 Special resin (high frequency)

210 240 270

320 350

400

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Temperature °C

Reliability: summary Property

Tg T260 x / y z Dimensional stability

Influenced by

Resin system Resin chemistry Reinforcement Tg Resin filler Reinforcement Resin filler

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

9

Reliability: summary

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Influences on PCB Material & Finish

W E E E

aste lectrical lectronic quipment

Regulates the disposal and recycling of electrical and electronic waste

Epoxy base materials contain halogen ( flame retarder TBBA ) Halogen containing waste must be declared as special waste whereas halogen free waste can be disposed of as standard waste OEMs are using the "Eco Labels" for their marketing

Halogen free material

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

10

ROHS

P b F r e e M A T E R I A L

Todays brominated epoxy resin base materials are in full compliance with the EU ROHS legislation.

Pcb Finish must be Pb free Higher soldering temperature

Industrial applications

Was: Isola DE 114 , Tg 150, T260 = 15 min CTEZ T<Tg = 70, T>Tg = 250 Is: Isola IS 400 , Tg 140 -150, T260 > 60 min CTEZ T<Tg = 38, T>Tg = 200 Will be: ?

Immersion Ni Au / Sn / Ag & OSP Higher Tg or lower Z-axis expansion Higher thermal resistance = T260

High end, high reliability

Isola IS 410 , Tg 170 , T260 > 60 min CTEZ T<Tg = 55, T>Tg = 217 Isola IS 420 , Tg 170, T260 > 60 min CTEZ T<Tg = 38, T>Tg = 200 ?

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Reliability: Tg

Thermal cycling 15 min 125 °C 15 min -55 °C

Transition time = 30 sec

Acceptable end of life failure level 1 % = 1 ppm via failure at 500 cycles

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

11

Reliability

· HATS: Highly accelerated thermal shock

or

· IST: Interconnect stress test

HATS

Range: -60 to 160 C Heating method: Air 36 coupons = 144 nets / batch Coupon emulates functional Pcb design Typical cycle time: 3.5 min from 25 to 150 C 6 min from -45 to 150 C

IST

Range: 25 C = minimum Heating method: DC current 6 coupons = 12 nets / batch Coupon with special heating nets Typical cycle time: 3 min from 25 to 150 C

· Correlation between HATS / IST and Thermal cycling under investigation

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Reliability

· IST: Interconnect stress test

· Heat Radiates from the Power Circuit to the Sense Circuit

· Copper Planes Help to Distribute the Heat · Grid Size Determines Temperature Delta Between Power and Sense · The established rejection criteria is a 10% increase in bulk resistance, at any time during the test protocol

RESISTANCE DEGRADATION OF THE PTH INTERCONNECT 50 PTH INTERCONNECT FAILING R E S IS TA N C E D E GR A D A TIO N IN M ILLIOH M S 40 ACCELERATION

30

20 CRACK PROPAGATION ANNEALING FATIGUE POST INTERCONNECT 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 301 316 331 346 361 376 391 PTH CRACK INITIATION STRAIN RELIEF IST CYCLES

10

0

-10

Heat Radiates from the Power Circuit to the Sense Circuit Copper Planes Help to Distribute the Heat Grid Size Determines Temperature Delta Between Power and Sense

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

12

Reliability

· HATS: Highly accelerated thermal shock

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

Materials

· High speed / High performance materials:

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Almost every day, new materials are launched We test them to be able to give a good NPI support Often materials are not fully developed Often availability is very poor Often suppliers forget to mention disadvantages

Take care !

The material with the best marketing <> The best material

©ACB / [email protected] / NPI 2008

13

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