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African Masks Grade 3 Sessions 3-4 Essential Questions: Why is art different I different cultures? Why is it important to know and understand art and customs from other places? What are some different purposes for making art in other countries? Objectives: 1. Students will gain an awareness, appreciation and understanding of the uses of masks in many cultures through time 2. Students will show an understanding of characteristics of masks - exaggeration, distortion, symmetry 3. Students will create a sculptural mask using paper mache - exhibiting craftsmanship in applying layers 4. Students will exhibit craftsmanship and creativity in completion of mask details/embellishments and choice of finishing. Vocabulary: Abstraction, distortion, exaggeration, ritual, ancestor mask, relief - addition/paper mache, adornment, symmetry Materials: Gallon milk jugs - faces cut off, newspapers, flour paste, plastic dishes, brown paper toweling end rolls, construction paper scraps, white glue and brushes (tissue paper could also be used), tempera paint ­ brushes, sand paper, (The following if available...) brown shoe polish, feathers, fake fur, beads, horse hair, raffia Alternate: Use plastic mask forms

Resources: Private collection of masks - Assorted mask prints (see Crystal Productions) - teacher made PowerPoint - books Check out these websites: http://www.artyfactory.com/africanmasks/context/artist.htm Teacher Preparation: Cut face off of gallon milk cartons with utility knife - handle side may be used too. Have one per child. These can be reused year after year. Mix flour and water for paste. Thinned Elmer's Glue or Wood Glue is a good alternative. Procedures: 1. Show PowerPoint presentation to introduce mask making. Discuss, in limited detail the cultural aspects of the mask - reasons for making masks - types of masks. Concentrate heavily on the visual details that make a mask interesting and enjoyable to look at it. Present examples of masks - both actual masks from personal collection and paper mache examples. 2. Make sketches of ideas for mask on newsprint. Show students to fold paper in half and draw so that they create a completely symmetrical mask. (Or have handouts with basic mask form pre-drawn.) 3. Decide which side of milk carton would work best for your design. Handle side can be used too for interesting effects. Handle can be the start of the nose with the impressions indicating where the eyes would be. 4. Tear newspapers into strips (have plenty ready for students to start). Dip into flour and water paste - smooth off excess Layer strips of newspaper on the form until it is strong enough to add features with paper pulp. Wadded newspaper works well or aluminum foil works well for items like horns or wing-type attachments. Go beyond the form of the milk jug. 5. When Shreddi mix is dry, layer everything with another layer newspaper strips or brown paper toweling 6. When dry - sand mask with sandpaper. (optional step) 7. Give choices for finishing - paint with tempera or acrylics - OR tiny pieces of torn construction paper can be applied to the surface using a white glue glaze. This technique is very time consuming but produces a unique surface look. 8. Optional treatments: If the student uses a single tempura paint brown show polish can be added for a nice patina. Or students can layer 2 colors of tempura paint and use the sand paper to sratch away top layer to show the first. Or final treatment masks can be mod podge'd to protect finish (Works very well if storing for long periods of time). 9. Embellish with beads - feathers - fake fur - buttons - shells - raffia - whatever you have on hand.

Evaluation: 1. Did students exhibit an awareness/understanding of masks from various cultures? 2. Did students integrate planning into their own mask design - showing characteristics of masks from various cultures? Did students break the form with added sculptural relief? 3. Did students exhibit craftsmanship in applying layers of paper maché? 4. Did students exhibit craftsmanship and creativity in finishing their mask and applying embellishments? Standards: 3-1: Use details to describe the subject matter in artworks (e.g., subtle facial expressions, distinctive clothing or stormy weather) 5-3: Apply problem solving skills from other subject areas (e.g., scientific method and inquiry processes) to solve artistic problems. Modifications: Display instructions in a highly visible area.Work with students thru the beginning steps of paper mache. Have pre-cut strips for use by students with mobility impairments. Advise students to refer back to their drawings often.

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Microsoft Word - African Masks 3.doc