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6/28/2010

Multigrade teaching

Teaching two or more grades at the same time

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Problem of dispersed populations

GER and Distance, sites with no special girls' education program 60% 50% 40%

Geographical mapping in West Africa shows that attendance falls off very rapidly with distance to school

Boys Girls

GER 30%

20% 10% 0% w ith school 0 < 1KM 1 < 2KM 2 < 3KM

N = 179

Village <=> School Distance

Implications of changing walking distance

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5km walking distance (70% coverage)

2km walking distance (25% coverage)

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Schools for small populations

· Reaching remote people requires small schools. · A "full size" school needs a population of over 1,000 people

­ 20% of school age, PTR 45.

Gr 1 Gr 2 Gr 3 Gr 4 Gr 5 Gr 6 Gr 7

77 65 53 45

Average 45

31 24 20

· Even with this population, uneven class sizes make efficient teacher utilization difficult

International story

· Multigrade teaching widely used

Country Finland Multigrade classes/ schools (%) 70

Netherlands

Ireland

53

42 40 35 34 33 25

· Quality

­ As good as other schools, ­ Better results for certain types of learners

Australia Sweden France New Zealand England

Scotland

Canada

25

20

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How do multigrade teachers do it?

· Three main methods:

­ Quasi-monograde (one group at a time)

· Needs teaching materials

­ Partially together

· e.g reading, writing exercises

­ Fully together

· Needs curriculum flexibility

· Teachers need

­ Training in these techniques ­ Teaching materials ­ Policy support

But in reality

· Training · Materials · Policy

­ Deployment, inspection, curriculum

· Parents · One teacher school

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Questions for you

· How widely is Multigrade used? · How are teachers trained? · How well is it supported in policy?

Deployment, inspection, curriculum, materials

· What could be done to make better use of multigrade teaching?

How widely is Multigrade used?

· · · · · · · Zimbabwe: Satellite schools

­ Sometimes happen in times of crisis (?? Exception)

Liberia:

­ 2 classes at a time (board divided in 2) ­ ALP condensed curriculum

Eritrea: very small schools in remote areas

­ 2 grades at a time, about 100 schools

Somalia: Very dispersed population.

­ Historically was used for students of different grades

Sth Sudan: Isolated cases in community schools

­ Some went very well, not adopted by Government

Uganda: not widely used, not sure.

­ schools in each sub-county

Kenya: rarely used,

­ but times where there is a teacher shortage, often in two rooms. ­ Organization that rescues children ­ one year rehabilitation ­ Non formal schools for the poor.

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How are teachers trained?

· Eritrea: orientation workshop,

­ now to be part of the pre-service training, manual

· Liberia: for APL 10 days training + refreshers · Somalia:

­ Historically 4 year training, with demonstration school. Internship for a year. Not multigrade

· · · · ·

Zimbabwe: Not included Angola: Minimal training Kenya: None Uganda; None Sudan: None

How well is it supported in policy?

Deployment, inspection, curriculum, materials

· Liberia:

­ DEO trained in ALP method

· Zimbabwe:

­ Unviable schools ­ given extra teachers. (20:1)

· Sth Sudan: Under non formal system,

­ model on BRAC Bangladesh ­ Small schools, especially for girls, near to community

· Kenya: mentioned in policy documents · Eritrea: Deployment at regional level.

­ Problems in curriculum, materials designed for "normal" ­ Supervision more frequently

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What could be done to make better use of multigrade teaching?

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