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Aerobic Composting Technologies: Process Options

Workshop: Composting of Organics June 24, 2008 Charles W. Peterson, FEU

Technology Options

· Windrow - Self propelled - Towable straddle turner - Power Take-Off (PTO) · Aerated Static Pile · In-vessel - Enclosed aerated static pile - Agitated bed - Rotary drum · Vermicomposting

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Technology Tradeofffs

Windrow Aerated Static Pile Medium Primary: 21-30 Curing: 30 Medium Medium Medium In-Vessel

Land Time (days) Process Environmental Cost

Most Primary: 30-45 Curing: 30 Least Least Least

Least Primary: 7-10 Curing: 30 Best Best Most

Windrow Self Propelled Straddle Turner

· Pile dimensions limited by size of turner - Height: 2-3 m, Base: 4-5 m · Equipment specs (motor) determine daily turning capacity · CAPEX: $200,000 - $350,000

Images: http://organic.tfrec.wsu.edu/compost/ImagesWeb/CompEquip.html http://www.gemacosales.com/products/wildcat/selfpropelled_compost_turners.htm

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Windrow Elevating (Self Propelled / Towable) Turner

· Windrow height can be higher than straddle turner

Images: http://organic.tfrec.wsu.edu/compost/ImagesWeb/CompEquip.html

Windrow: Towable Straddle Turner

· Less expensive then self propelled, more area needed for maneuvering area between windrows · CAPEX: $60,000 - $100,000

Images: http://organic.tfrec.wsu.edu/compost/ImagesWeb/CompEquip.html

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Composting ­ Windrow Power Take-Off (PTO)

· On-farm use - low daily throughput · Single / double pass

Images: http://organic.tfrec.wsu.edu/compost/ImagesWeb/CompEquip.html http://www.ibiblio.org/steved/Luebke/Luebke-compost2.html

Composting: Aerated Static Pile

· Forced aeration ­ air draw down through a pile or upwards (in-vessel) - Air treatment - odor removal (bio-filters) · Process control ­ pile oxygen levels

Images: http://organic.tfrec.wsu.edu/compost/ImagesWeb/CompEquip.html (left image)

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In-Vessel System: Enclosed Aerated Static Pile - Gore Cover Systems

Images: http://www.gore.com/en_xx/products/fabrics/swt/gore_cover_composting_biological_yardwaste.html

In-Vessel System: Enclosed Aerated Static Pile - NaturTech

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In-Vessel System: Agitated Bed ­ IPS (Siemens)

Images: http://www.water.siemens.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/Product_Lines/Microfloc_Products/Brochures/IPS-GEN-BR-0108.pdf

In-Vessel System: Rotating Drums ­ Andar Environmental

Images: http://www.andar.co.nz/Products/Environmental/Rotocom/system.asp

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Vermicomposting

· Using earthworms to breakdown organic matter into natural fertilizer/soil conditioner

Images: http://www.kvafsu.kar.nic.in/Deoni%20Farm.htm, http://www.wormwoman.com/acatalog/2004-fall-tour/2004-fall-tour-08.html, http://torontoist.com/2007/07/square_feet_ver.php

Case Study: ECARU Facility Cairo, Egypt

· Existing composting operation: 375 tpd - ERPA expansion: 1,100 tpd · Process: waste sorting / windrow · Climatic condition: tropical / dry

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Case Study: ECARU Facility Cairo, Egypt - Sorting

Case Study: ECARU Facility Cairo, Egypt - Sorting Schematic

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Case Study: ECARU Facility Cairo, Egypt - Composting

Case Study: Smart Facility Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

· ERPA: 500 tpd (waste), 300 tpd organics · Process: waste sorting / windrow · Climatic condition: tropical / wet (about 3 m/yr) · Front-end sorting similar to Cairo

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Case Study: Smart Facility Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia - Composting

· High precipitation ­ tarps over windrows to minimzes leachate · Care in est. composting area ­ 4 acres (original), re-clculated to 15 acres

Case Study: Tashkent, Uzbekistan

· Projected throughput: 400 tpd to start · Simple compost ­ wastepicking , but no sorting · Proposal ­ aerobic landfill, only income carbon revenue ­ low cost operation · Market ­ landfill cover · Project failed ­ climate: temperate / dry, low emission factors

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THANK YOU

FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT Charles Peterson, [email protected]

Note: The Bank does not endorse any of the products shown in this presentation. They are shown only as examples of various composting technology options.

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Information

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