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EVOLUTION OF NIGERIA'S WATER SECTOR DRIVING FORCES AND CONSTRAINTS ­ A NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE

By Professor Adebayo Adedeji

Outline of Presentation

· Introduction · Background setting · Evolution of the water sector system 1914 to date · Problems facing the sector · Summary listing of constraints · Driving forces (Negative & Positive Propelling Factors)

Introduction

· Acknowledgements ­ · Need for govt. to step up action in Poverty Alleviation

­ Poverty level in Nigeria:

· ACDESS 1998 Human Development Report -- 48.5% (55 million) living below poverty level. · World Bank (1993) -- 34% (34 million of the 1992 population) · News media average figure -- 60% (72 million)

­ Improvement in water supply -- key to alleviating poverty.

Background Setting

· Centrality of Adequate Water Supply to Life and Civilisation:

­ Five basic human needs ­ water , food , health, education, and peace & order. ­ Water is a common denominator to at least 4 of these.

· Traditional ways of coping with problem of water:

­ 3 main sources (now & then) ­ River and pond; dug wells (unprotected & protected) & rainfall.

Background Setting(contd.) Distribution of Sources of Drinking Water (Based on FOS/UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 1995)

12% 9% 1% 2% 19% Protected Well Unprotected well Pond Vendor Piped Public Tap Hand pump other

11% 29% 17%

Background Setting (contd.)

· Disaggregation of the severity of potable water deprivation situation:

­ Non-availability of adequate potable water adverse impact on economic & social empowerment - (health, welfare & productivity) ­ National average on access to potable water -- 32% not representative of wide variations between states (Lagos - 78%, Kwara - 55%, Ogun - 52%, Taraba - 6%, Benue - 11%, Bauchi - 13%).

Background Setting (contd.)

· Well endowed country in water resources · Existence of vast surface and ground water:

­ Niger & Benue with their numerous tributatries; several other perennial rivers, e.g. ­ Gongola, Hadehia-Jama'are, Kaduna, Cross River, Sokoto, Ogun, Osun, and Imo; ­ Total annual surface flow est. at between 193 x 10 and 315 x10 cubic metres; ­ Volume of ground water also considerable in large sedimentary basins (which are shared basins); ­ High rainfall in south, low in the north and extreme variability in the north; persistent drought in the north. ­ Environmental degradation ­ deforestation, fertiliser run-off and industrial effluents affects availability.

Evolution of the water sector system 1914 to date

· 1914 to date characterized by lack of coordination, and multiplicity of agencies responsible for water supply. · Waterworks Act of 1915 (just after amalgamation in 1914). · The Minerals Act and the Public Health Act; · Two to three decades after 1914 ­ Public water supply commenced in some towns ­ Lagos, Calabar, Kano, Ibadan, Abeokuta, Ijebu Ode and Enugu; (established by local Authorities). Calabar and Lagos (Native Administration).

Evolution of the water sector system 1914 to date(contd.)

· Regional government started ­ assumed technical and financial responsibilities for new water schemes; · Local authorities of the colonial era successful in providing essential local services compared with the elected local government of the era of regional self govt. · Consequently regional govts. Transferred local govt. responsibilities to parastatals­ thus marked the advent of SWAs. · The SWA era characterised by lack of funds to meet promised expansion, and unreliability.

Evolution of the water sector system 1914 to date

· 1976 ­ creation of the Federal Ministry of Water Resources (FMWR); · 1973 ­ 76 ­ estab. of RBDAs (Initially 11, later 12). · 1985 ­ National Water Resources Institute (NWRI). · 1977 ­ FMWR merged with Federal Ministry of Agriculture; Separated from Agriculture and resurfaced as a separate ministry in 1979; in 1984 merged again with Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Dev. In 1989 became a separate Ministry again (Characteristic of policy discontinuity of the military era. · RBDAs suffered same fate 11 -> 18 -> 12.

Problems of the Sector

· Lack of Comprehensive Irrigation Policy:

­ History of irrigation practice :

· Shaduf lift irrigation system possibly imported to NE Nigeria from North Africa around 700 AD; · Because of lack of any comprehensive irrigation policy only 300,000 ha or less than 10% of arable land is under irrigation. · Urgent need to increase irrigated land to 50% to 60% of arable land to meet increasing demand from the rapidly increasing population. · Comprehensive irrigation policy necessary to increase the human-population carrying capacities per hectare.

Problems of the Sector Dams

· In total 149 dams in the country. 81 owned by the State Governments, 59 by the Federal and 9 by private companies · Of these, 59 out of the 107 large dams are principally for irrigation · 20 for hydropower · Medium and small dams: 12 and 22 for water supply; 6 and 9 for irrigation

Problems of the Sector

· Water Supply Institutional Landscape ­ very elaborate, and not effectively coordinated and harmonised. · 5 levels ­

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Federal (FMWR, 12 RBDAs, NWRI, and PTF; State level - 36 SWAs and FCT Water Board; Local Govt. Level ­ 774 LGAs; Private sector; Community; and Household level.

Problems of the Sector

· Shared water courses ­ Rivers Niger and Benue, Cross River, Lake Chad, and the Lagoon system; · Downstream of these shared basins; · To jointly manage these shared basins with other co-riparians Nigeria entered into the following agreements :

­ At the multinational level ­ LCBC (May 1964) , NBA ( Oct. 1964); ­ At Bilateral level ­ Nigeria-Niger Joint commission for cooperation; Nigeria-Benin Joint commission for cooperation; Nigeria-Cameroon Joint Commission.

Summary Listing of Other Constraints

· Lack of clear and coherent regulation; · Lack of clear definitions of the functions and relationship of sector institutions; · Lack of coordination; · Dwindling funds; · Dearth of data for planning and projections; · Over-centralization; · Lack of autonomy of water supply agencies; · Common perception of water being a free good due to the politicising of water supply by govts.

Summary Listing of Other Constraints

· Lack of public awareness about water conservation; · Erratic and inadequate power supply; · Lack of accountability (pervasive corruption); · Lack of technical & financial capacity to efficiently monitor distribution systems; · Shortage of qualified, honest & transparent manpower; · Lack of people-oriented and user friendly water resources management strategy.

Driving Forces : Negative Propelling Factors

· · · · Demographic Factor Rapid urbanisation factor Environmental factor Transboundary waters factor (poor handling of transboundary waters)

Driving Forces : Negative Propelling Factors

· Demographic factors:

­ Population ­ 111.3 million (1995 ­ World Bank, 1997); (10th most populous country in the world.) ­ By 2025 projected pop. ­ 232 (low variant) to 247 (high variant) million. ­ Growth rates ­ 2.85 (high variant), 2.70 (medium variant), 2.40 (low variant).

Driving Forces : Negative Propelling Factors

· Factor of Rapid Urbanisation:

­ 1952 urban pop. 10% of the country pop., 1963 ­ 19%, 1985 ­ 30%, 1991 ­ 36%; projected to be 70% by 2020. ­ Lagos pop. Estimated to be 8 to 10 million; projected to reach 20-24 million by 2020.

· Environmental Factors:

­ Already discussed, but exacerbating water scarcity.

· Transboundary Waters:

­ Re-invigoration of govt. efforts necessary concerning putting new life into these RBOs.

Driving Forces : Positive Propelling Factors

· Restoration of democracy; · Putting in place a holistic sustainable human development programme; · A paradigm shift in the management strategy of water resources; · Encouraging Private Sector Participation (PSP) in water development & delivery; · Growing demand for comprehensive regional initiative & approach to development & utilisation of transboundary water resources;

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