Read Smart Formulating Journal III text version

Issue 03 | April 2007

Crosslinkers

ADDITIVES

journal Additives

Editorial

liquid coating systems. In addition to providing a certain structural viscosity and an anti-settling action for pigments, the use of fumed silica has been repeatedly demonstrated to positively influence the mechanical properties of coating films after curing. Besides known mechanical properties, scratch resistance often plays a central role in modern coating systems. For this application, a new generation of fumed silica has been developed to significantly improve scratch resistance for UV-curing, high-solids and conventional solvent-containing two-component PUR systems. Thanks to the combination of a chemical and mechanical post-treatment, these so-called structurally modified AEROSIL® products have only a customized low rheologic activity. Hence, amounts of over 10 wt %, as against the solids in the system, can be incorporated without producing an undesired high structural viscosity. Here, the higher filler content of AEROSIL® ensures a clear-cut increase in mechanical stability against scratches. AEROSIL® R 7200 and AEROSIL® R 9200 increase scratch resistance in UV-curing clearcoat systems, whereas AEROSIL® R 9200 delivers optimum performance in two-component PUR or highsolids clearcoat systems.

Resins Coloring Matting

Raw Materials for Resins

Dear Reader, Reader

The coatings sector is one of Degussa`s key markets. We currently generate more than 10 percent of our worldwide sales revenues in this innovative and dynamic market segment, and the percentage is increasing. This ties in well with our own aims. Indeed, we want to ratchet things up a bit higher and grow at an above-average rate. This is why one of the four key growth areas we`ve defined is Coatings and Adhesive Ingredients. We are taking concrete steps to achieve this growth. We are, for example, investing the bulk of inter-BU research funds in the projects of our Coatings Industry Team. The team`s work is supported by a long established network of researchers and technical service staff from our Coating and Bonding expertise field. The Industry Team does more than identify current and future market trends: starting with the building blocks of Degussa`s product range, we use coating raw materials from our business units to develop packages optimally tailored to our customers' requirements. In this way we address customer needs in keeping with our "solutions to customer" philosophy, and back up Degussa's claim of "creating essentials." The third issue of our Smart Formulating Journal once again gives you an overview of the breadth of our product range for the coatings market. At the same time, we also want to keep you abreast of the latest development trends and innovations. We welcome your comments, and look forward to what we hope will be a continuing and intensive dialog. Yours truly,

New AEROSIL® Dispersions for More Scratch Resistant Coatings

In two-component PUR or high-solids clearcoat systems, the scratch resistance of a coating can be increased by using fumed structurally modified hydrophobic AEROSIL® such as, for example, AEROSIL® R 9200. Dispersing AEROSIL® with a special pearl mill will not only improve significantly scratch resistance, but also enhance optical properties.

Our customers will soon be able to effectively utilize these performance advantages worldwide as Degussa launches another innovation: "VP Disp. CO 1030" ­ a 30 % dispersion of AEROSIL® R 9200 in 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate (MPA).

AEROSIL® in the Coatings Industry

Fumed silicas (AEROSIL®) are known in the coatings industry particularly for rheology control in

Dr. Manfred Spindler, Member of the Managing Board of Degussa GmbH

Continued on page 2 RESINS

Silicone and Epoxy: Combined in SILIKOPON®

Coatings face a particular challenge when they need to both offer excellent protection and look good in exterior use. The surface of the coating must also resist the effects of weather exposure and stand up not only to rain, snow and ice, but also to the high energy UV component in sunlight. Other requirements must also be met for an organic coating to be able to protect its substrate effectively against corrosion. Can coatings for outdoor use meet these requirements?

With SILIKOPON® EF from the Tego product range we are able to offer a binder which satisfies these demands. The silicone-epoxy hybrid high-solids binder system is one of the most eco-friendly coatings raw materials currently available.

What an anti-corrosion coating must offer:

good exterior resistance properties corrosion protection and high gloss UV resistance low solvent emissions

Continued on page 3

Additives

New AEROSIL® Dispersions for More Scratch Resistant Coatings TEGO® Dispers 685

Coloring

Crosslinkers

How to Improve Poor Drying of High Solids 2K PUR Coatings New Developments for Aluminum Components Open Windows for the Imagination

Resins

Raw Materials for Resins

1 5

New Readily Dispersible Pigment 6 Preparations in Granulate Form for Coating and Printing Ink Applications Advantages of SIPERNAT® 820 A 9 in Emulsion Paints and Matted Decorative Alkyd Paints

2 4

SILIKOPON® Alcohol-Resistant Plastic Coatings with DEGALAN® Tego ADDID® 2000 in Offset Inks SIVO® Sol Technology Dynasylan SIVO 121 Degussa Presents Liquid Synthetic Resins for the first Time Ever

2

5 8 8 8

1

Expanded Methacrylate 5 Capacities in the USA Degussa Sets Up Integrated 8 Production Network for Methacrylate Specialty Methacrylate Monomer 8 for Improved Mechanical Strength

RESINS

ADDITIVES Continued from page 1

Alcohol-Resistant Plastic Coatings with DEGALAN®

Plastics are found in the packaging industry, in civil engineering and construction, in electrical engineering, consumer electronics, and automotive manufacturing. To ensure that plastic materials will have particular useful properties for processing and end-use, they are subjected to many modifications during their manufacture. These include the addition of additives comprising fibers and fillers, selective copolymerization, and the physical mixing of polymers, to name a few. The properties of the surface of a coating always represent a tense trade-off of various factors, such as quality of the coating, the price that customers pay, environmental compatibility, and the cost of the energy required to apply the coating. In many applications it is standard practice to coat plastic surfaces. Not only does the coating give the plastic part a decorative appearance, it also improves certain surface properties of the substrate: resistance to solvents and chemicals, waterproofness, and weathering resistance, especially against UV radiation. Although plastic parts can be colored, the possibilities of obtaining the desired color or adjusting the required surface properties are limited. On the same token, the extrusion of plastic materials produces flow lines that must be coated over for to combine with aluminum pigments, its resistance to conventional household cleaners, and its ability to withstand mechanical stresses. In the high-end market segments of these appliances, there is a (clear) trend towards UV-curable and polyurethane-based coatings. The primary reason that the requirePlastic coatings for the entertainment electronics ments on coating materials have changed is that manufacturers the sake of appearance, and the are placing higher performance use of recycled plastic materials requirements on coating resisalso requires subsequent coating tance. Thermoplastic coatings can of the surface. achieve these resistance requireA line of products for the plastic ments only to a limited extent. coating industry is being developed to meet the continuously Products that can be used in growing requirements within the primer formulations are being value chain. developed for this sector. These One central field of application is polymers must feature special the painting of toys. Besides the adhesion to the plastic substrate desired quality characteristics, a as well as resistance to the paint cost-effective product solution is coating that will cover them. the decisive criterion for this mass market. Other applications are the coating of household appliances, mobile telephones, and television housTechnical contact: ings. For these consumer goods, [email protected] special attention is devoted to the www.degalan.com adhesion of the coating, its ability

New AEROSIL® Dispersions for More Scratch Resistant Coatings

Dispersion of AEROSIL® R 9200

Structurally modified AEROSIL® has a distinctly higher tapped density, namely, ca. 200g/l, than conventional AEROSIL® (ca. 50g/l, normal non-compacted product). On the one hand, the elevated density permits rapid low-dust incorporation of the powder ­ e.g. in a dissolver. On the other hand, the structural modification impedes the actual dispersing process, i.e. the disintegration of the "looser" agglomerates to the particles ­ aggregates ­ actually present after the dispersion process. To prevent any adverse effect on the coating's optical properties, such as gloss, haze or brilliance of color, when the scratch resistance of AEROSIL® is improved, these aggregates must be smaller than 1 µm. Both in-house research and customer experiences have shown that this dispersion quality is not achieved with conventional stirrers. Only special pearl mills can meet these high standards after several hours of dispersion. dispersion; nonetheless, greater particle finenesses are achieved; any abrasion that occurs is less significant because of the short dispersion time. the dispersion additionally contains an additive tailor-made for AEROSIL® R 9200, which optimizes the leveling of the coating material; all of the additives used are non silicone-based.

Performance Example with Evaluation of Scratch Resistance

To demonstrate the effectiveness of the dispersion, we used 15 % VP Disp. CO 1030 (ca. 5 % AEROSIL®) as against total formulation to distinctly improve

100 90

Wet scratching Crockmeter

Residual gloss %

80 70 60 50 without AEROSIL® with VP Disp. CO 1030

VP Disp. CO 1030

The experimental product VP Disp. CO 1030 is a 30 % AEROSIL® R 9200 dispersion in 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate (MPA). It is dispersed with a special pearl

5 µm

TEM cross section of an embedded clearcoat. The homogeneous distribution of the AEROSIL® R 9200 aggregates is clearly visible.

CROSSLINKERS

How to Improve Poor Drying of High Solids 2K PUR Coatings

Driven by stricter regulations on the emission of VOC, raw material producers are requested to develop high-solid resins that enable coating formulators to match the lower VOC levels imposed by regulators, e.g. European legislation. Directive 1999/13/EC, also known as the "VOC-Guideline," defines stringent limits for emissions to the coatings industry in the European Union. The approach of raw material producers is to lower the viscosity by reducing the molecular weight of the organic binder. The resulting coatings show slower physical drying behavior, which leads to a longer dirt pickup time. IPDI-based polyisocyanates are able to improve the drying performance significantly without a severe increase in VOC content. We will gladly share our data with you by web conference or you can order the full presentation by contacting: Technical contact: [email protected] NAFTA: [email protected] www.vestanat.com

mill that can be scaled to production volumes. Suitable additives permit the high filler content of AEROSIL® but simultaneously maintain the viscosity at a low level (ca. 500 mPa sec at 0.1l/ sec). However, the dispersion is sedimentation-stable even when stored for months at 40°C. The use of the dispersion VP Disp. CO 1030 provides the customer with the following advantages: more scratchproof, brilliant coatings easier incorporation of the dispersion, e.g. with a dissolver optimum particle morphology is already set in the dispersion and stabilized by suitable additives in contrast to a binder-containing dispersion, the concentration can be raised and the dispersion time reduced during the preparation of the

the scratch resistance of a twocomponent high-solids clearcoat. A Crockmeter (dry method) and an Elcometer 1720 with a slurry of quartz and water (wet method) were used for evaluation. These test systems provide the best possible simulation of scratching in a car wash. The gloss and haze of the surfaces were measured before and after scratching. The percentage of residual gloss can be determined from the results.

Test formulation

Desmophen A 870, BA* MPA Butyl acetate Xylene Solvesso 100 Butyl glycol acetate VP Disp. CO 1030 Vestanat HT 2500 L**

*

weight %

50.0 5.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 16.0 19.0

Bayer Material Science AG Degussa GmbH or Desmodur N 3390 (Bayer Material Science AG)

**

Technical contact: [email protected] www.aerosil.com

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smart formulating journal

RESINS Continued from page 1

Silicone and Epoxy: Combined in SILIKOPON®

The best of both worlds: SILIKOPON® EF

"Silicone and epoxy" is the secret behind the product's success. SILIKOPON® EF binder combines the best properties of both worlds to deliver durable exterior coatings.

Application parameters Pot life (25 °C) Drying time (25 °C) Adhesion Hardness Touch dry Through dry Cross-hatch Pencil hardness Pendulum hardness (König) DIN 53 157 Gloss Recoatability (25 °C) 60° Angle Minimum Maximum 4.5 h 4h 8h 5B F 86 82 % 6h 48 h

High-temperature coatings are often used outdoors ­ industrial coatings and vehicle exhausts, for instance, must be resistant to corrosion and solvents. The formulation of such coatings necessitates a combination of heat resistance, good adhesion and good resistance properties. Heat resistant coatings based on SILIKOPON® EW provide reliable, durable protection against corrosion and solvents.

Properties of a coating based on guide formulation

cessive atmospheric humidity nor low temperatures impair their curing. Coatings based on SILIKOPON® EF are suitable for all kinds of applications on industrial items. The choice of suitable solvents for thinning siliconeepoxy-hybrid coatings systems does not pose a problem. It is only necessary to ensure that the water content is suitably low. Small amounts of butanol or butyl acetate are ideal. Because of the low viscosity of the curing agent (aminopropyltriethoxysilane), no further addition of solvent is usually required.

Application for heat stable protective coating systems (motor cycle or car muffler systems)

2-pack silicone-epoxy-hybrid systems, the best of both worlds

With SILIKOPON® E types, Degussa offers various silicone-epoxy combination resins

Product SILIKOPON® EF Non volatile content 99.5 % Characteristics for the manufacture of high-solids coatings, very good gloss retention and colorfastness, very good resistance to corrosion and weathering solventborne, for stoving enamels, outstanding adhesion and solvent resistance

The siloxane-epoxy polymer, cross-linked by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO), enables the positive properties of organic and inorganic polymers to be combined in a new class of anti-corrosion coatings. The siloxane-epoxy polymer, cross-linked by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO), enables the positive properties of organic and inorganic polymers to be combined in a new class of anti-corrosion coatings. Coatings based on silicone-epoxy hybrid systems (SILIKOPON® EF) are highly resistant to many chemicals and exhibit excellent color fastness and gloss retention after weathering. Such coatings are not only weather resistant but also dirt-repellent, and are highly effective against graffiti. Neither ex-

Characteristics of coatings based on SILIKOPONE® EF

excellent gloss retention and color fastness very good corrosion protection in 2-pack coatings formulations very good resistance to chemicals high-solid (~ 90 %) and thus low VOC content tolerant to humidity during drying low drying temperatures (under 0 °C) possible isocyanate-free satisfy most common environmental, health and safety regulations

SILIKOPON® EW

50 %

SILIKOPON® EW combines the heat resistance of silicone resins with the strong chemical resistance of epoxy resins. SILIKOPON® EF combines outstanding weathering resistance with high chemical resistance in a two component system. Using SILIKOPON® EF, isocyanate-free coatings can be formulated with VOC content under 100 g/l. On suitable primers, top coats based SILIKOPON® EF exhibit unique weathering resistance, are easy-toclean and exhibit antigraffiti properties. There are particular advantages to using high-solids clear coats based on SILIKOPON® EF on the most diverse substrates (wood, metal, composites). These include emphasizing the natural wood grain on wood surfaces. Flame resistance is an additional benefit. The use of SILIKOPON® EF offers, for the first time, the possibility of providing wood surfaces with an attractive fire retardant finish.

Guiding formulation based on SILIKOPON® EF and amino-silane (AMEO) Component A Item 1 Silicone-epoxy resin Item 2 Light stabilizer Item 3 White pigment titanium dioxide Item 4 Filler Item 5 Fine particle silica Item 6 Butyl acetate Item 7 Silicone-epoxy resin Parts by weight (%) 32.4 1.0 26.6 2.0 1.0 5.0 32.0 100.0 Component B Item 1 Aminopropyltriethoxysilane 16.0

Double curing by aminosilanes in silicone-epoxy hybrid systems.

When the going gets hot: SILIKOPON® EW

Besides SILIKOPON® EF for exterior applications at normal temperatures, a second type of siliconeepoxy hybrid systems is available for corrosion protection and chemical resistance in high temperature applications: SILIKOPON® EW.

Technical contact: [email protected] www.tego.de

The light stabilizer is carefully incorporated in the resin. After adding items 3, 4 and 5, the mixture is finely dispersed. Items 6 and 7 can then be stirred in.

smart formulating journal

3

CROSSLINKERS

New Developments for Aluminum Components Open Windows for the Imagination

Today, powder coatings must satisfy a great variety of requirements. They must be high-quality, yet inexpensive. They must lend themselves to both indoor and outdoor applications, and they must serve as a functional coating that provides excellent protection or as a decorative coating with a diversified appearance ­ ranging from excellent leveling to roughly-textured. And, of course, they must also be available in all finishes, from high-gloss to dead-matte.

Heat sublimation technology is a new application for weather-resistant powder coatings, especially coatings based on polyurethane (PUR). This rapidly-growing application has made it possible to greatly improve the appearance of building components, especially components made of aluminum such as window frames, front doors, garage doors, office furniture, aluminum kitchen cabinets, sliding doors, bathroom fittings and accessories (glass and metal), among other things. This transfer print technology expands the design options for coatings far beyond their current Let us provide some examples to show how modifying the binder formulation can produce various gloss values. Figure 1 shows how important it is to determine the lowest level of gloss achieved with a PE mixture with its respective crosslinkers. In this study we adjust the ratio of the two polyesters and determine the gloss with two different crosslinkers. We achieved a more reproducible gloss range with EP-BF 1321, plus a remarkably lower gloss, lower by 20 gloss units, just by changing the crosslinker. Figure 2 shows the dependence of the matting on the layer thickness, within certain limits: the thicker the coating layer, the higher the gloss ­ a result that

60 50 40

Heat sublimation print: application aluminum window frame in wood design

Heat sublimation print with VESTAGON® products

formulations due to emission concerns, but are finding a foothold in Asian formulations. The one-shot matte systems currently used in Europe for aluminum windows, which probably represent the largest application in this sector, are based on uretdione hardeners like VESTAGON® EP-BF 1321.

bearing the reverse print design is then pressed onto the aluminum profile by either a pressure or vacuum process. The transfer of the 80 decorative designs 70 from the paper to 60 the coating sur50 face (heat-trans40 fer) takes place 30 at high tempera20 tures of approxi10 mately 200 °C. 0 0.7 : 1.0 0.8 : 1.0 0.9 : 1.0 1.0 : 1.0 1.1 : 1.0 During this step, EP-BF 1321 NCO : the printing inks OH Stoichiometric Ratio BF 1320 migrate into the pores of the coating and transfer Figure 3: Effect of Under- and Over-Indexing Stoichiometric Ratio on Gloss a perfect mirrorimage. Following With this binder system, low gloss the transfer, the paper/film is revalues can be obtained by reducmoved from the coated substrate. ing the isocyanate:polyester ratios, This removal is quite important though the lowest gloss values are and, among other things, prostill obtained using EP-BF 1321. motes the use of polyurethane

60 º Gloss

30 25 20

60 º Gloss

30 20 10 0 20.0 : 80.0 22.5 : 77.5 25.0 : 75.0 27.5 : 72.5 30.0 : 70.0 EP-BF 1321 BF 1320

60 º Gloss

15 10 5 0 20.0 : 80.0 ALBESTER 3115 : 3225 CRYLCOAT 2814-0 : E04060 REAFREE 17091 : 17014 25.0 : 75.0

Polyester Ratio ­ High OH : Low OH

Polyester Ratio ­ High OH : Low OH

Figure 1: Effect of Crosslinker and Polyester Ratio in Matte

limits. Design is now limited only by the imagination.

The Binder System

The application process for creative prints requires a highly crosslinked, hard and very smooth coating surface. Many of the applications listed above not only demand a variety of appearances, but also UV and weathering resistances. Polyurethane powder coatings satisfy not only these demands, but also provide absolutely the best performance over TGIC or hydroxyalkylamide systems. For the distinctness of image (DOI) in particular, PUR coatings are distinctly superior to all other alternatives. Italian powder-coating manufacturers began working on these requirements as early as a little over a decade ago. Printing systems and the inferior dyes of paper producers initially posed major problems. The need for matte appearances quickly became another source of concern, of which one of the first applications was ski poles. The blocked polyurethane crosslinkers, which were initially used, have disappeared from European

Polyurethanes The principal binder components for a matte polyurethane coating are a polyester comes as no surprise to specialists blend with high and low OH value in the powder coating industry. polyesters and a polyisocyanate Next, we would like to show the hardener. However, the required effect of the crosslink density on performance and gloss can 70 be achieved 60 only with a limited selec50 tion of bind40 er partners, 30 which have often been 20 developed us10 ing a particular crosslinker. 0 20.0 : 80.0 22.5 : 77.5 25.0 : 75.0 27.5 : 72.5 30.0 : 70.0 This means Polyester Ratio ­ EP-BF 1321 ~90 µm that a special High OH : Low OH EP-BF 1321 ~50 µm combination of BF 1320 ~50 µm polyesters and BF 1320 ~90 µm crosslinker is needed to obtain Figure 2: Effect of Film Thickness on the Gloss matting with the above properties. With the propthe relationship of the partners er choice, one-shot matte polyinvolved. Figure 3 illustrates the urethanes have an impressive effect on gloss of two one-shot visual appearance, very good impact matte formulations with underinresistances exceeding 160 in.-lb, exdexing (changing the stoichiometcellent leveling with (PCI 8 ­ 9), ric ratio of isocyanate to hydroxyl high crosslink densities, and exgroups), using two crosslinkers in cellent weather-stability. otherwise identical formulations.

60 º Gloss

Figure 4: Effect of Different Polyester Systems with VESTAGON® EP-BF 1321 on Gloss

We have already mentioned the effect of binder partner selection above, and in the final diagram (Figure 4), we would like to compare three different polyester mixtures in combination with VESTAGON® EP-BF 1321. These binder systems, which were tested in two polyester ratios, have completely different gloss values, such that desired gloss values can be reached using different polyester systems. Not shown here, they also demonstrate completely different shapes for the matting curve, a significant consideration when optimizing the cost and reproducibility of the formulations.

The Technology of the Image Transfer

The matte powder coatings that have been discussed are the recipient for sublimation dyes transferred by means of paper, film or direct printing. This process is often called "bleeding." The substrate to be coated, often an aluminum profile, is pretreated and coated with a powder coating described above, and the coating is then cured. The paper or film

systems, as polyurethane systems have higher crosslink densities and allow for easier removal of the paper/foil. This image that is left on the powder coated substrate is distinguished not only by its washability, but also features weatherresistance, depending on the dyes used. The image transferred can only be removed by completely destroying the coating. Aside from the successes in Europe, this system is now strongly in development in Turkey, the Middle East, and the United States. But this kind of application is also growing in China and southeast Asia, too, which shows that walls can`t stop today's trends. Upon request, we can provide formulations with various polyester systems and crosslinkers as a starting point toward the development of wood images. Technical contact: Europe and Middle East: [email protected] Americas and Asia: [email protected]

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smart formulating journal

RESINS

ADDITIVES

Tego ADDID 2000 in Offset Inks

®

Advantages:

TEGO® Dispers 685

Easier and more flexible formulation of radiation-curing printing inks

For years, the radiation-curing coatings and printing inks sector has grown faster than the overall market for coatings and printing inks. High demands are placed on pigmented formulations in this sector since they are responsible for the high color quality of modern print. Limits on pigment loading are rapidly reached, especially when using fine particle size pigments with high specific surface areas, such as carbon blacks and organic pigments. It seems that free-flowing formulations are not feasible above this limit and simply adding organic solvents is not appropriate. Formulations like these show bad flow properties and are difficult to apply. Color strength development is also frequently inadequate because of the pigments' surface chemistry. Here, the use of an effective wetting and dispersing additive is a promising option. However, up to now, commercially available products have been either solvent-containing, solid or only effective with some pigments. These problems can now be solved thanks to a high performance wetting and dispersing additive specially tailored for use in radiation-curing formulations: TEGO® Dispers 685.

viscosity control (adjustment) improved air drying properties no VOC; 100 % liquid strongly hydrophobic environmentally neutral compatibility with mineral oil, waxes, hydrocarbon resins, linseed oil, alkyds

Tego ADDID® 2000 is a nonpolar, stereospecific, low viscosity, unsaponifiable liquid polybutadiene with high 1.4-cis double bond content. It is strongly hydrophobic and environmentally neutral. The amount and speed of oxidative crosslinking has been shown to be dependent on the degree and type of unsaturation in the polymer. The number of double bonds, presence or absence of conjugated double bonds and the geometric arrangement of the double bonds (1.4-cis double bonds versus 1.2-vinyl double bonds) are very important. It has been proposed that high 1.4-cis polybutadienes react quickly with atmospheric oxygen to form peroxides and undergo crosslinking in its presence. The high degree of unsaturation is expressed by the high Iodine Number. 420 ­ 480 g iodine are required to react with 100 g Tego ADDID® 2000. As a result of the polybutadiene synthesis all double bonds are isolated. The high 1.4-cis content is also responsible for the high reactivity with atmospheric oxygen. Mineral oil and linseed oil are key components of offset inks. The ink viscosity is affected by the interaction of the mineral oil with linseed oil, polymer binders and other ingredients. Tego ADDID® 2000 is compatible with hydrocarbon oils, linseed oil, a lot of alkyds, waxes and hydrocarbon resins. The solvent free Tego ADDID® 2000 combines high and medium molecular weight with medium and low viscosity. The product has good pigment wetting properties and good pigment loading capability. It provides excellent drying properties in heatset and coldset

applications. Tego ADDID® 2000 sinks deep into the paper pores in coldset application and reacts under ambient temperature. Since Tego ADDID® 2000 is produced in a narrow viscosity range, it can be used for viscosity adjustment in the letdown stage. Another area where inks have been influenced by legislation is the toxicological effect of cobalt driers. They are mainly used as octoates or naphthanates. Studies have shown that different driers promote different drying properties. However, because of the toxicological potential of the Co2+ ion, its use has come under discussion in recent years. Environmentally neutral manganese­based driers, however, call for a longer drying time than cobalt driers. If we now introduce liquid 1.4-cis polybutadienes as an alternative binder to conventional mineral and linseed oil based inks, it is possible to use primary manganese driers without loosing good drying properties.

TEGO® Dispers 685 meets the highest technical requirements

Technical contact: [email protected] www.degussa4coatings.com

TEGO® Dispers 685

R AW M AT E R I A L S F O R R E S I N S

Expanded Methacrylate Capacities in the USA

GMAA plant goes on line

Construction of the new Methacrylic Acid (GMAA) plant has been completed and it is scheduled to go on line in April, 2007 in Fortier, LA. Following the buyout of CYRO Industries, the company initiated this project in order to complete the portfolio with high quality GMAA from a US source. Along with MMA, which is already produced in Fortier, and performance monomers, coming from Mobile, AL, the addition of the GMAA plant effectively completes the next step in the Methacrylates global growth strategy. The state-of-the-art "modular" plant was built by Dolphin Services, a wholly owned subsidiary of Gulf Island Fabrications, Inc., the worldwide leader in the construction of oil and gas production platforms. Once finished, the individual modules parts were barged to and assembled at Degussa's Fortier site. The design capacity of the new plant is approximately 20,000 metric tons, with the first commercial product being available in May, 2007. Methacrylic Acid is used in a variety of coatings, emulsion polymers and adhesives, as well as in the synthesis of other monomers. www.roehm.com

effectively lowers viscosity therefore enabling high pigment loadings raises color strength and thus helps to minimize pigment costs is free of organic solvents is liquid as a 100 % solids product and is thus easy to process and dose exhibits good compatibility with common monomers and oligomers is highly effective with a wide range of pigments ensures good long-term stability with regard to rheology and color strength

Compared to conventional additives, TEGO® Dispers 685 stands out by its versatility as it can also be used in solventborne formulations as well as in the manufacture of pigment concentrates.

Technical contact: [email protected] www.tego.de

smart formulating journal

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CO LO R I N G

New Readily Dispersible Pigment Preparations in Granulate Form for Coating and Printing Ink Applications

Degussa GmbH has recently acquired exclusive rights to sell INXELTM Pigment preparations. These preparations make it considerably easier to incorporate pigments into coating materials and printing inks. Using preparations based on Degussa pigment black, the product range will be gradually expanded by additional colors.

It is generally known that pigment powders often need to be abundantly dispersed to achieve satisfactory results for colorimetric properties. Pigment black has always been considered one of the hardest to disperse pigments in the coatings and printing inks industry. Therefore, Degussa had always been interested in offering preparations that circumvent or facilitate the dispersing step for our customers. Examples include tack pastes, which have been established in the market for many years. Consistently pursuing this approach, Degussa has joined forces with an innovative young enterprise that manufactures pigment preparations in granulate form, with Degussa holding the worldwide exclusive sales rights to the preparations. The granulate-form preparations contain not only pigment but also a binder that demonstrates good compatibility in most solvent-based coating applications. demonstrates that dispersion time was considerably reduced compared to the normal procedure. The dispersion of a pigment black powder is compared here with the dispersion of an INXELTM preparation in the laboratory dissolver or Skandex Disperser. INXELTM preparations were tested in various coating formulations, e.g., in a stoving paint (alkyd/melamine) and in a two-component acrylic system in our application technology laboratory. All INXELTM preparations can be smoothly incorporated with the dissolver. The usual coating parameters such as the fineness of grind, are on the same level as in conventionally manufactured coatings. Significant coloristic improvements were achieved with the pigment blackcontaining INXELTM preparations in the finished coating at comparable pigment black contents, calculated on binder solid. Comparable and sometimes considerably greater jetness, as well as distinct improvements in stability (higher dM value, or bluish undertone) could be achieved with the INXELTM preparations without the pearl mill step needed with pigment black powders. This is illustrated in Figure 2.

The binder used is a ketone resin that is soluble in all conventional coating solvents (with the exception of water). It also has broad-spectrum compatibility with:

Alkyd resins Vinylchloride copolymers Chlorinated rubber Chlorinated paraffin Nitrocellulose Cellulose acetobutyrate

Aromatic and aliphatic epoxy resins Phthalate plasticizers Hydroxypolyacrylates Melamine-formaldehyde resins Hydrocarbon resins

color range will now be widened successively until a color system is available with which all standard colors (not including luminescent and metallic colors) in the "RAL Classic Color Collection" system can be achieved. Full-scale production is scheduled to start in late 2007. A range of approximately 20 products will be available initially, enabling the user to employ special colors by mixing the different basic colors. A limited product range will be available for sampling at the European Coatings Show 2007. With these preparations, Degussa offers universal pigment preparations for solventbased coating systems under the product name INXELTM. Tests show that these new preparations can also be used in solventbased packaging printing inks and special plastics applications. However, in the longer term, special INXELTM product series will also be developed for printing ink and plastics applications.

70

Dispersion time (min)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pigment black powder Skandex Disperser INXELTM preparation Dissolver

0.82 0.81 0.80

Optical density

0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75

Figure 1: Comparison of dispersion times in minutes with a pigment black powder and an INXELTM preparation.

0.74 0.73 Pigment black powder Rubbed out INXELTM preparation Not rubbed out

These so-called INXELTM preparations are manufactured by a novel process that is the subject of a patent application. The pigment is incorporated in a binder matrix. The finished product consists of uniform granulates that can be incorporated in a solvent, a binder or a mixture of solvent and binder. Incorporation can be effected simply by stirring, e.g., with a dissolver. Elaborate equipment such as pearl mills are a thing of the past with these preparations. However, not only is complex dispersing equipment obviated; the dispersing time is considerably reduced as well. This opens new potential to the coating or printing ink manufacturer for considerable cost savings. Figure 1

Figure 3: Optical density of coatings prepared from a pigment black powder and an INXELTM preparation (pigment black / TiO2 = 4:100, two-component acrylic coating).

The excellent stabilization of the pigments is represented in Figure 3. In a white reduction test, the INXELTM preparation showed good tinting strength and narrow differences in the so-called rub-out test. This dramatically illustrates the good dispersion and pigment stabilization. Besides these economic advantages, the newly developed granulates offer further advantages. In contrast to the powdered alternatives already available on the market, the INXELTM granulates can be processed with absolutely no dust. Moreover, they contain no solvents and therefore afford a crucial advantage in terms of compliance with VOC guidelines and other environmental and health regulations. Furthermore, granulates are substantially easier to meter out than powders. The binder is highly lightfast, non-yellowing, heat resistant and also suitable for use in powder coatings. Because Degussa is one of the biggest manufacturers of pigment blacks in the world, it is no surprise that the first INXELTM preparations were manufactured with pigment black. Meanwhile, various preparations can be offered in different jetness ranges. The

300 295 290 14.5

MY + dM

285 280 275 270 265 Pigment black powder dM MY INXEL preparation

TM

The advantages of the new INXELTM preparations can be summarized as follows:

10.2

277

281

Significant reduction in the dispersion time Very good stabilization of the pigments and hence very good color development Absolutely dust-free handling Easy metering of the granulates Very precise metering of the granulates (better than with powders) Very good solubility in the usual solvents High compatibility with most binders

Figure 2: Jetness MY and undertone of coatings prepared from a pigment black powder and an INXELTM preparation (5 % pigment black , calculated on binder solid, two-component acrylic coating).

Technical contact: [email protected]

6

smart formulating journal

RESINS

SIVO® Sol Technology ­ New Silane-Based Metal Pre-Treatment Technology

Inorganic sol-gel binders are still new to the coatings industry, but they can bridge a gap where current products do not meet the performance standards required by customers. In an effort to bring a flexible system for various substrates and applications to market, Degussa has developed a new modular multi-component silane system that offers extended flexibility for different formulations.

Traditionally, inorganic coatings are mostly used in heavy corrosion protection. Zinc silicate paints are optimal for use on metal structures that need excellent protection against weather and exposure to salt or UV-radiation, such as ships, bridges, harbor structures, and other offshore installations. For the most durable zinc silicate coatings, silicic acid ester-based binders are used that hydrolyze and condense in order to form a resistant coating layer. Such layers can protect against corrosion for 15 to 20 years or more. Degussa has been active in this market for many decades and thus has been actively driving technological development in the field of inorganic and sol-gel systems. The advantage of such inorganic, silane-based surface coatings can be described concisely. They are much harder than traditional organic binders, can react with the metal surface, can improve the adhesion of subsequent coatings, can prevent water and chloride from reaching the protected metal surface, and are much less susceptible to weathering. Unfortunately, to date most systems are solvent-based. Thus, up until now the use of such inorganic coatings, even though they display excellent properties, has been limited due to the need for solvent abatement. The new SIVO® Sol Technology from Degussa comes as the first water-based inorganic system of its type. It is a water-based binder system for inorganic coatings with several specially designed water-based additives that can be matched to deliver the performance and characteristics needed for your application. Component Dynasylan® SIVO 110 Dynasylan® SIVO 111 Dynasylan® SIVO 112 Dynasylan® SIVO 113 Description Base inorganic binder component Neutralizing agent for steel surfaces Anti-fingerprinting and anti-graffiti additive Hydrophobation agent for improved weathering SIVO® Sol technology is a new modular, multicomponent, water-borne, sol-gel system for metal pre-treatment and coating. The additives in this toolbox are especially tailored to fit the base binder (Dynasylan® SIVO 110). This flexibility allows for this system to be formulated for anti-corrosion, anti-fingerprinting and scratch resistant coating systems.

Application of the SIVO® Sol system can be done on a number of metal substrates such as aluminum, steel, galvanized steel and other pretreated surfaces. Application is usually done via dip or spray coating and then cured at temperatures between 150 to 220 °C. It is especially on galvanized steel that the water-based silane system shows its advantages. As a pre-treatment under a polyester final coat, the corrosion resistance can be markedly improved. The salt spray tests show a marked improvement in the resistance to corrosion, in comparison to the untreated substrate.

SIVO® Sol coating with anti-graffiti effect through addition of Dynasylan SIVO 112 to base formulation Dynasylan® SIVO 110 on left.

Technical Contact: Europa/ROW: [email protected] NAFTA: [email protected] www.dynasylan.com

RESINS

SIVO® Sol Technology

SIVO® Sol Technology is a modular system for water-borne inorganic coatings. It is based on a base component and three additives that can be formulated for metal coating applications, including metal pre-treatment and anti-fingerprinting coatings. Depending on the application, these additives can be added in different ratios into the base component to give the desired effects. The resulting inorganic coatings are hard, durable, resistant to chemical attach and still surprisingly flexible. The individual components have been especially engineered in order to fit into this new technological platform. The base component, Dynasylan® Sivo 110, is a system derived from hydrolyzed and condensed silanes and nano-scaled inorganic filler particles. Any solvents have been removed during a special production process resulting in a water-based solgel system, virtually VOC-free. It has been developed for flexibility in the formulation of inorganic coating systems. It displays excellent adhesion, also for subsequent coatings, and barrier properties to water and chloride and thus much improves corrosion properties. Furthermore, together with the additive Dynasylan® Sivo 112, it displays excellent anti-graffiti and anti-fingerprinting effects. The system displays excellent resistance against chemical attack, is very temperature resistant, and is usually applied in film thicknesses below 5 µm.

500 hours of salt spray test on Galvanized steel with solvent based standard pre-treatment (left, 5 µm) and SIVO 110 pre-treatment (right, 1 µm). Surface Coating: Polyester Powder

Silane technology much improves the corrosion resistance of treated metal surfaces. It is an ideal primer for use as an adhesion promoter for further coatings. It can also be used as topcoat on metals and ceramics. It is especially suited for easy-to-clean and antigraffiti surfaces. For these purposes Dynasylan® SIVO 110 is used in a two-component form together with up to 50 % Dynasylan® SIVO 112. The resulting effect is shown in the pictures below.

New wood surface treatment agent

Dynasylan® SIVO 121 is a water-borne wood impregnation agent that gives wood surfaces oil and water repellent properties. Untreated and weathered surfaces of originally waxed or varnished wood are ideally suited for the treatment with Dynasylan® SIVO 121. It is solvent free and significantly reduces the soiling of treated wood surfaces. Treated surfaces have an excellent beading effect, which is ideal for wooden decks or garden furniture.

Product not available in USA and Canada.

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R AW M AT E R I A L S F O R R E S I N S

R AW M AT E R I A L S F O R R E S I N S

Degussa Sets Up Integrated Production Network for Methacrylate

Degussa will set up a major Verbund (integrated production network) in Shanghai to manufacture methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylate specialties. The Degussa Supervisory Board gave the go-ahead for this facility to be constructed in December, 2006. The investment volume for the entire plant, including all intermediates, is around 250 million euros, making it Degussa's second-largest single investment. The global-scale facility is scheduled to come on stream in 2009 on completion of the construction phase, which should last approximately two years. Dr. Klaus Engel, Chairman of the Management Board of Degussa GmbH and Member of the Board of parent RAG AG, comments: "The new MMA Verbund facility in China underscores our global growth strategy. We see an attractive market development in Asia, and this investment reinforces our position as one of the world's leading methacrylate producers." Once all the approvals are obtained from the Chinese authorities, Degussa will construct an MMA facility with an annual capacity of 100,000 metric tons, which will practically all be processed into highly-refined methacrylate specialties and polymers. These are components used in a wide variety of products, such as LCD screens, scratch-proof paints, top-quality adhesives, modern interior trims for cars and numerous plastics applications. The facility will be built at Degussa's multi-user Site (MUSC) at Shanghai Chemical Industry Park Development Ltd., (SCIP), where the world's leading specialty chemicals company has already established several new operations. In view of the upcoming construction of the MMA Verbund production facility, Degussa secured SCIP's collaboration through a further cooperation agreement in September 2006. www.roehm.com

Specialty Methacrylate Monomer for Improved Mechanical Strength

The most important criteria for choosing a specific polyacrylic resin as a binder are durability, flexibility and solvent resistance. These properties can be achieved by crosslinking the polymer film. Crosslinking can proceed at room or elevated temperature with self crosslinking emulsions or by using a curing agent that reacts with functional groups incorporated into the emulsion polymer. A third possibility can be identified in hydrogen bonding, e.g. between amide and carboxylic acid groups. The latter has been investigated with two types of emulsion polymers containing the combination of either methacrylamide (MAA) or acrylamide (AA) with glacial methacrylic acid (GMAA). The composition of the materials is shown in Table 1.

16

Tensile strength (MPa)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 acrylamide methacrylamide 2 4 6 8

MAA/AA (wt %)

Figure 1: Measurement of tensile strength of emulsion polymers containing an MAA-GMAA or AA-GMAA combination

Monomer BA-MMA-MAA-GMAA with MFT-adjustment to a temperature range of 3 ­ 8 °C BA MMA MAA GMAA BA-MMA-AA-GMAA with MFT-adjustment to a temperature range of 3 ­ 8 °C BA MMA AA

Content (wt %) 52 ­ 58 34 ­ 46 0­8 2 51 ­ 58 36 ­ 46 0­6 2

RESINS

GMAA

Table 1: Composition of emulsion polymers with the combination of methacrylamide/acrylamide and glacial methacrylic acid MMA: Methyl Methacrylate; BA: Butyl Acrylate

Degussa Presents Liquid Synthetic Resins for the first Time Ever

With Synthetic Resin EP-UC Degussa launches a new, innovative, liquid polyetherketone based resin having pigment affine groups. Synthetic Resin EP-UC is a high performance resin featuring high dispersing abilities and outstanding pigment wetting properties. Its universal solubility and outstanding compatibility give formulators an even wider range of application options. The main targeting point of product development, however, was to use Synthetic Resins EP-UC as a grinding resin for high-quality pigment preparations.

The main innovative highlights in terms of application potential:

solventborne pigment preparation/waterborne letdown system waterborne pigment preparation/solventborne letdown system solid stir-in pigment preparation, soluble in both organic solvents and water

The polymers were achieved by conventional semi batch emulsion polymerization. Films were prepared and subsequently tested in stress strain experiments. The chemical resistance against solvents was monitored as well. Increased solvent resistance could be observed with increasing amide content. The mechanical tests reveal an improved tensile strength with increasing amide content. In this regard, methacrylamide results in a better performance than acrylamide. Comparing the effect of MAA and AA, the former always results in a 50 ­ 90 % increase in mechanical strength. The superiority of MAA to AA is even more pronounced than the figures indicate: whereas high MAA contents of up to more than 8 % can be readily incorporated, the incorporation of AA is limited to about 4 %. Higher concentrations, e.g. 6 %, cause thickening and a high coagulum formation. The superiority of MAA to AA is also demonstrated when correlating elongation at break and tensile strength.

30

25

Tensile strength (MPa)

decreasing amide content

20

15

10

5

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Elongation at break (%)

amide free MAA AA

Figure 2: Correlation of elongation at break and tensile strength for copolymers with MAA and GMAA, as well as for conventional amide-free emulsion polymers

Technical contact: [email protected] www.coatings-colorants.com

Technical contact: [email protected] www.reohm.com

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smart formulating journal

CO LO R I N G

Advantages of SIPERNAT® 820 A in Emulsion Paints and Matted Decorative Alkyd Paints

SIPERNAT® 820 A is quite commonly used as a partial replacement for TiO2 Pigments in emulsion paints and other architectural coatings. SIPERNAT® 820 A is produced via precipitation by adding sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate to the sodium silicate. By varying the major parameters during the precipitation process ­ e.g. temperature, pH, time etc. ­ it is possible to obtain an aluminum silicate like SIPERNAT® 820A with a different morphology. This can be determined by x-ray as amorphous primary silica particles.

Differences can even be observed among synthetic aluminum silicates. Whiteness in particular can differ due to the content of iron and the associated yellow discoloration of the material. 820 A can optimize the maximum amount of titanium dioxide white pigment in the paint necessary to enhance the formulation's hiding power and whiteness. Figure 6 illustrates the increased hiding power of an emulsion paint containing SIPERNAT® 820 A. And the viscosity behavior of emulsion paints containing SIPERNAT® 820 A remains excellent after extended storage as well. The pH value of 5 % aqueous SIPERNAT® 820 A suspension is about 10.1, which usually increases the pH value of emulsion paints. This shift into the more strongly basic range has a positive effect on storage stability. Due to the replacement of the white titanium dioxide, PVC is increased only about 1 ­ 2 %, which does not have an adverse effect with the paints produced according to the listed test formulations. SIPERNAT® 820 A has a favorable influence on brushability and leveling. Paints formulated with SIPERNAT® 820 A are also characterized by good washing and scrub resistance in accordance with DIN 53778 and DIN ISO 11 998. A tendency to cracking could not be observed for the dry emulsion paint, on the contrary in some cases it could be reduced by using SIPERNAT® 820A (optimal packing density). 820 A can be as high as 10 % due to the binders' high pigment absorption capacity. The high pH value of SIPERNAT® 820 A means that special care must be given to compatibility with basic pigments when selecting the binders for producing satin gloss decorative paints. SIPERNAT® 820 A is more than a simple and a conventional filler: it positively improves the physical properties of the emulsion paint and contributes to lower formulation costs. The designation of SIPERNAT®

96 95.4

Contrast ratio (%)

95.3 95 94.3 94

Why use SIPERNAT® 820 A?

Manufacturers of interior and exterior emulsion paints want to produce their paints on a high quality level but also as cost-effectively as possible. In these formulations, titanium dioxide is the most costly raw material. Here, substituting SIPERNAT® 820 A for TiO2 delivers excellent results without reducing the paint's wet and dry hiding power. The hiding power should be as high as possible in order to achieve this even at low dry film thicknesses. The extent of the hiding power can be determined by means of the contrast ratio, i.e. comparing the lightness of a white paint on a black substrate with its lightness on a white substrate, according to DIN 53778-3. The hiding power depends on the difference in the refractive indices of the materials used (binder, pigment, filler). The higher this difference, the higher the hiding power. Titanium dioxide pigment provides the largest difference and therefore is the critical factor for hiding power.

93

TiO2 SIPERNAT® 820 A

10 % TiO2

8 % TiO2 2% SIPERNAT®

6 % TiO2 4% SIPERNAT®

60 ° 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

85 °

SIPERNAT® 820 A differs from natural products in several respects: 1. The specific surface area is higher

than in natural products 2. It is a more uniform product 3. It is amorphous where as natural products containing silica may be more crystalline 4. It provides a higher whiteness than natural products even when later subjected to a purification process

Besides the refractive index, particle size distribution, pigment volume concentration (PVC) and the degree of dispersion of the pigment have an effect on hiding power. Effective dispersion of the white pigment and the fillers in the binder is key to effective deployment. Specifically, this effect is achieved by using particularly fine, precipitated synthetic aluminum silicates like SIPERNAT® 820 A. These silicates spread out in an optimum arrangement between the dispersed particles of titanium dioxide and exert, so to speak, a spacer effect between the pigment particles. Consequently, SIPERNAT®

The fineness of SIPERNAT® 820 A's silicate particles gives them a high oil adsorption, thereby lowering the critical pigment volume concentration of the formulation and raising the porosity of the coating system. The refractive index of an ordinary filler like calcium carbonate (n=1.55) is quite similar compared to aluminum silicate (n=1.46). Both indices lie below the limit that applies to pigments of n>1.7 (DIN 55943 and 55945). Nevertheless, up to 50 % of the titanium dioxide pigment present can be replaced with aluminum silicate with no negative impact on the contrast ratio or whiteness of the formulation. In fact, in most cases both parameters are improved. Depending on the type of titanium dioxide and its percentage portion in the formulation, it is possible in emulsion to substitute it up to 40 % by weight with SIPERNAT® 820 A, though in the overall formulation the proportion of SIPERNAT® 820 A should not exceed more than 4 %. In most cases the substitution increases the opacity of the dry paint. The whiteness is increased in any case. Figures 4 and 5 demonstrate the contrast ratio and the whiteness of an interior paint after substituting 2 and 4 % titanium dioxide with SIPERNAT® 820 A. In addition to improving optical characteristics, SIPERNAT® 820 A also delivers significant cost savings in the manufacturing of emulsion paints since the filler ensures the highest possible distribution between the dispersed particles of titanium dioxide. The bottom line: SIPERNAT® 820 A maximizes the white pigmentation of titanium dioxide on paint surfaces, improving opacity and whiteness of the formulation.

75 74 73 72 71 70 10 % TiO2 8 % TiO2 2% SIPERNAT® 6 % TiO2 4% SIPERNAT® 73.0 72.5 73.9

Whiteness Berger

Reflectometervalue

Figure 1: The spacer effect of SIPERNAT® 820 A increases hiding power and whiteness

Figure 2: Contrast ratio of an interior paint after substituting 2 and 4 % titanium dioxide with SIPERNAT® 820 A

without 5% 8% SIPERNAT® SIPERNAT® SIPERNAT®

Figure 5: Matting effect of SIPERNAT® 820 A in decorative paints

Figure 3: Whiteness of an interior paint after substituting 2 and 4 % titanium dioxide with SIPERNAT® 820 A

SIPERNAT® 820 A in Solvent-Borne Alkyd Paint

SIPERNAT® 820 A plays also a significant rule in decorative Alkyd Paints. By using SIPERNAT® 820 A, effects can be achieved in decorative paints, which can not be attained with natural products ­ even if these have been milled extremely fine. Flat or satin gloss systems and primers in particular offer opportunities for compensating part of the white pigments' loss in hiding power. Primers containing SIPERNAT® 820 A have outstanding opacity and filling power, are faster-surface-drying, and show better through-drying. They also stand up better to abrasive treatment. Primers with SIPERNAT® 820 A level out well and present an excellent substrate for high gloss finishes. Primers and semi satin gloss paints, SIPERNAT® 820 A acts as an antisettling agent for fillers and pigments. In addition, the slight degree of thixotropy has a favorable effect on brushability and prevents the paint from running off from vertical surfaces. In satin gloss paints, SIPERNAT® 820 A is used primarily as a cost-effective flatting agent. In this special case, the concentration of SIPERNAT®

820 A as a "functional pigment extender," if not quite accurate in a technical sense, is nonetheless entirely justified on account of its fine-particle nature, purity and special structure, and the advantages associated with these. SIPERNAT® 820 A is highly constant.

3200 3100 3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 1. day 1. week Storage time 4. weeks

Figure 4: Hiding power of two interior emulsion paints. Right with, left without SIPERNAT® 820 A

Figure 6: Viscosity of a decorative paint as a function of the storage time, storage time 4 weeks at T = 40 °C

SIPERNAT® 820 A has a comparatively low specific density. This effects an increase in volume of the finished paint and provides a further interesting viewpoint: even in combination with titanium dioxide post-treated with high portions of aluminum or silicon compounds, whiteness and opacity can be further increased with SIPERNAT® 820 A.

One critical aspect when it comes to satin gloss decorative paints is binder compatibility with basic pigments because of the high pH of SIPERNAT® 820 A.

Viscosity in mPa*s

Technical contact: [email protected] www.degussa-fp.de

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D E G U S S A 4 C O AT I N G S

ECS 2007: See You There!

Degussa to present intelligent and innovative solutions at the European Coatings Show in Nuremberg.

Eight Degussa business units will be showcasing a wide range of products at this year's European Coatings Show, to be held 8 ­ 10 May 2007. The products will be presented over a 500 square meter area at the Smart Formulating stand in Hall 1. Smart Formulating is the concept Degussa has been following for the last four years in the paints and coatings market. It stands for our promise to work closely with customers to develop innovative, effective, and individual solutions for formulating modern coloring and coating systems. The presentation of the system solutions offered has evolved since 2005 from a shop-in-shop concept into a customer-oriented presentation organized by coatings components. Says Dirk Hoffmann, spokesperson for the Coatings team: "The development of this show was based

European Coatings Show, Nuremberg, May 8 ­ 10, 2007 Hall 1, Booth 1-315

on a questionnaire distributed to 300 customers at ECS 2005." Considerably more than 80 percent of customers rated the organization, design, and functionality of our trade show stand as good or very good. However, we did identify potential for improvement with regard to focus and clarity and we implemented changes accordingly in a more ,,open" concept for this year's show, a major event

in the coatings world." "It wasn't easy to realize these wishes for an area of this magnitude," adds Hoffmann, "but alert visitors will recognize the familiar component colors and the distinctive Smart Formulating color wheel, and will find their way to the right contact much more easily." Degussa's coatings experts are already looking forward to welcoming you to the show.

Coloring

As a supplier of gas, furnace and lamp blacks, Degussa has a broad product portfolio encompassing colorant and pigment black technologies for optimizing customer ink, paint and coatings solutions. Pigment Blacks, e.g. PRINTEX® are produced in seven carbon black plants spread around the world. The latest development is NEROX® ­ a new product group of oxidized pigment blacks for high-performance industrial coatings and printing inks. The COLORTREND® Color Systems leads the portfolio with low-VOC, non-VOC and APE-free colorants technology for decorative paint and coatings applications. These systems include full customizing services for color formulation and state-of-the-art color merchandising for "Point of Sales Tinting" Additional color concepts for industrial coat. ings can be adapted to specific customer requirements. INXELTM preparations are dust-free, easily dispersible in granular form and provide excellent pigment stabilization and hence very good color development.

Additives

A multitude of coatings contain additives besides pigments and binders. They play an important role in the development of highquality coating systems. TEGO® Dispers 655 permits low shear bronze slurries and inhibits reagglomeration of effect pigments. This special property permits waterborne effect coatings with a particularly long shelf life. Degussa offers modified and unmodified ketone condensation resins labeled as synthetic resins. They improve the solids content and yield of coating systems and printing inks. AEROSIL® fumed silica is widely used to control the rheology of liquid paints and coatings. It prevents hard settling in coating systems containing pigments, fillers or matting agents. IONOL® stands for a family of efficient, long-term stabilizing phenolic antioxidants maintaining product quality. And adding VESTOSINT® fine powders to coating formulations results in abrasion-resistant, highly elastic textured coatings. The particles act as impact absorbers and prevent the surface from cracking.

Raw Materials for Resins

More than 80 years of methacrylate experience and almost 40 years of isophorone chemistry are the basis of Degussa's top position as global supplier for the resin industry. Degussa's raw materials are essential for all innovative and ecofriendly technologies. Besides standard monomers like MMA and BMA, Degussa offers methacrylate monomers optimizing the key properties of polymers. Degussa's comprehensive set of aliphatic di-isocyanates (VESTANAT®) offers the optimum solution for any type of nonyellowing urethane resin like waterborne PUD, radiation curable urethane acrylates, etc. VESTAMIN® aliphatic diamines form the basis for epoxy curing agents. The broad range of Dynasylan® functional silanes is the ideal toolkit for design and synthesis of polysiloxanes, silicone resins or systems for sol-gel-type processes. Beside the range of monomers Degussa provides oligomeric and polymeric building blocks (Tegomer®) as well.

Coloring Additives Raw Materials for Resins Crosslinkers Resins Matting

Crosslinkers

Degussa is one of the leading suppliers of high-performance crosslinkers for all major modern coating technologies. Aliphatic PUR crosslinkers from Degussa for exterior applications exhibit an excellent durability profile in various systems like liquid 2-pack or 1 pack systems and also in powder coatings technology. Recent developments with uretdione-based VESTAGON® BF crosslinkers resulted in low temperature cure powder coatings for temperature sensitive substrates. Degussa's aliphatic diamines are the basis for industry-standard epoxy hardeners for industrial floorings etc. Functional silanes of the Dynasylan® range are used as curing agents in specific applications leading to excellent adhesion to mineral substrates. As a specialist in crosslinking agents, Degussa offers a range of bi-, tri- and tetrafunctional chemicals labeled TAICROS® aqua and phenyl bisoxazolines.

Resins

Binders constitute the single most important ingredient in paint systems. Degussa's expertise in resins and complete binder systems make the company the solution provider for the coatings industry. Good weathering characteristics, suitability for a wide range of applications in comparison to chlorinated binders are the positive features of thermoplastic methacrylate resins (DEGALAN®). Customers all over the world benefit from Degussa's leading position in polyester resins (DYNAPOL®) for both hard and flexible coil and can coatings. Specialty resins improve the intermediate adhesion and flow behavior of coatings on critical substrates. They also provide lasting corrosion protection. The silicone-based/siliconehybrid binders (SILIKOPHEN®, SILIKOFTAL® and SILIKOPON®) are a class on their own in providing resistance against heat, weather, corrosion, chemicals and UV.

Matting

Matting agents made by Degussa can modify the surface in a way that makes the light hitting it scatter in a defined fashion. The company offers thermal silicas as well as untreated and surfacetreated precipitated silicas. For the coatings industry Degussa offers matting agents under ACEMATT® brand. Radiation-cured systems (ACEMATT® 3300) are gaining ground in an increasing number of applications thanks to their favorable emissions behavior. The most important market segment in Europe is the wood coating sector with over 14 %. Silk matt effects in water based, solvent based and in powder coatings can also be achieved by adding a micronized wax of the VESTOWAX® series.

Imprint

Editor Editoral team

Degussa GmbH, Benningsenplatz 1, 40474 Düsseldorf, Germany Rainer Lomölder (V.i.s.d.P.) · Rolf Dülm · Wernfried Heilen Wilfried Robers · Torsten Stojanik · contact: [email protected] Liebchen+Liebchen GmbH, 60386 Frankfurt am Main, Germany www.LplusL.com mt druck Walter Thiele GmbH & Co., Printed in Germany

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