#### Read M32-M43-E.qxd text version

`1Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive SystemAir Cylinders' Drive SystemFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocityFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocityHow to Read the GraphThis graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown below, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.Glossary of Terms: Cylinder's Motion Characteristics(1) Piston start-up timeIt is the time between the solenoid valve is energized (de-energized) and the piston (rod) of a cylinder starts traveling. The accurate judgement is done by the start-up of acceleration curve.(2) Full stroke timeIt is the time between the solenoid valve is energized (de-energized) and the piston (rod) of a cylinder is reached at the stroke end.ConditionsPressure Piping length 1m 2m 3m Cylinder orientation Speed controller Load factor 0.5 MPa Series CJ2, Series CM2, Series CQ2 Series MB, Series CQ2 Series CS1, Series CS2 Vertically upward Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%(3) 90% force timeIt is the time between the solenoid valve is energized (de-energized) and the cylinder output is reached at 90% of the theoretical output.(4) Mean velocityValues which devided stroke by &quot;full stroke time&quot;. In the sequence or diaphragm, it is used as a substituting expression for &quot;full stroke time&quot;.(5) Max. velocityIt is the maximum values of the piston velocity which occurs during the stroke. In the case of Graph (1), it will be the same values as &quot;stroke end velocity&quot;. Like Graph (2), when lurching or stick-slipping occurs, it shows substantially larger values.(6) Stroke end velocityIt is the piston velocity when the piston (rod) of a cylinder is reached at the stroke end. In the case of a cylinder with adjustable cushion, it says the piston velocity at the cushion entrance. It is used for judging the cushion capability and selecting the buffer mechanism.(7) Impact velocityIt is the piston velocity when the piston (rod) of a cylinder is collided with the external stopper at the stroke end or arbitrary position. (Reference) Balancing velocity: If a cylinder having enough longer stroke is driven by meter-out, the latter half of a stroke will be in an uniform motion. Regardless of the supply pressure or a load, the piston speed for this time will be dependent only on the effective area S [mm2] of the exhaust circuit and the piston area A [mm2] . Balancing velocity = 1.9 x 105 x (S/A ) [mm/s] is estimated with this formula.Note) These definitions are harmonized with SMC &quot;Model Selection Program&quot;.ExampleWhen the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.øFull stroke time (t ) q Stroke (L)Graph (1)Graph (2)Full stroke time Full stroke time Piston start-up time Max. speedd%d%Piston start-up timeAccelerationStroke end velocityw Stroke end velocity (u ) Full stroke time0SpeedSpeed Acceleration Stroke end velocity00StrokeSpeed Stroke end velocity90% force time Supply chamber pressure90% force time Exhaust chamber pressure Supply chamber pressure(mm) Stroke Time (sec) ON SOL. OFFExhaust chamber pressure Stroke Stroke0Time0TimeFront matter 32Front matter 331Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive SystemAir Cylinders' Drive SystemFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocityFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocitySeries CJ2/Bore size: ø6, ø10, ø16Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2Series CM2/Bore size: ø20, ø25, ø32, ø400.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 60 Stroke (mm) 45 Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 200 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) 150 100ø6AS1201F SY3120-M5 -M5-04 TU0425 SYJ3120-M3 AN120 VQD1121-M5 AS1200 -M5 -M3 AN120 -M5 70%0.3 0.4 0.5 10% 30% 50%70%ø20SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS2201F -01-04 AS2200 -0110%30%50%70%30% 50% 10%30 15 070%50%30%5010% 0ø10AS1201F SY3120-M5 -M5-04 AN120 TU0425 SYJ512 -M5 -M5 VQZ1120-M5 AS1200 -M5100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0ø25SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS2201F -01-04 AS2200 -01200 150 100 50 0ø16AS1201F SY3120-M5 -M5-04 AN120 TU0425 SYJ512 -M5 -M5 VQZ1120-M5 AS1200 -M5100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0ø32ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -01200 150 100 50 0Silencer TubingSolenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Stroke end velocity (mm/s)ø40ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -02-06 AS2200 -02200 150 100 50 0For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Stroke end velocity (mm/s)For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.How to Read the Graph How to Read the GraphThis graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.ConditionsPressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 1mExampleWhen the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.qSpeed controller Load factor((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%w Stroke end velocity (u )Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOLFront matter 34Stroke end velocityMeter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully openedStroke (L)d%d%Stroke (mm)Cylinder orientation Vertically upwardøFull stroke time (t )Full stroke timeSpeedFront matter 351Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive SystemAir Cylinders' Drive SystemFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocityFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocitySeries CQ2/Bore size: ø12, ø16, ø20Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller 0.00 Full stroke time (sec) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 10% 30% 50% 70% 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 20Series CQ2/Bore size: ø25, ø32Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller 0.00 Full stroke time (sec) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50ø12SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M570%50%30%10%Stroke (mm) 15 10 5 0ø25SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M510% 70% 50% 30% 10%30%50%70%40 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) 30 20 10 0ø16SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M520 Stroke (mm) 15 10 5 0ø32SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0604 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -0140 30 20 10 0ø20SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M540 Stroke (mm) 30 20 10 0Silencer TubingSolenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Stroke end velocity (mm/s)For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.Silencer TubingSolenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Stroke end velocity (mm/s)For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.How to Read the Graph How to Read the GraphThis graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.ConditionsPressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 1mExampleWhen the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%øFull stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)Full stroke timed%d%Stroke (mm)qSpeed Stroke end velocityw Stroke end velocity (u )Stroke Time (sec) SOL ON OFFFront matter 36Front matter 371Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive SystemAir Cylinders' Drive SystemFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocityFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocitySeries CQ2/Bore size: ø40, ø50, ø63Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4Series CQ2/Bore size: ø80, ø1000.8 0.9 70% 1.0 100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0ø40ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -010.5 0.6 0.7 50% 10% 30%30% 10%25 0SY7120-02 TU1065 SX7120-01 AN101 -01AS4000 -0350% 30% 10%50 25 0ø50ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -02-06 AS2200 -02100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0ø100ANB1 -03 VFS41 TU1208 VFR41 AN300 -03 AS5000 -03 -03 -03 AS420 -03100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0ø63ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0805 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS3201F -02-08 AS3000 -02100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0Silencer TubingSolenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Stroke end velocity (mm/s)For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.Silencer TubingSolenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Stroke end velocity (mm/s)For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.How to Read the Graph How to Read the GraphThis graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.ConditionsPressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 2mExampleWhen the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%øFull stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)Full stroke timed%d%Stroke (mm)qSpeed Stroke end velocityw Stroke end velocity (u )Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOLFront matter 38Front matter 39Stroke (mm)70% 50%ø80AN110 -0110% 70%30%50%70%100 751Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive SystemAir Cylinders' Drive SystemFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocityFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocitySeries MB/Bore size ø32, ø40, ø50Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6Series MB/Bore size: ø63, ø80, ø1001.0 30% 1.2 1.4 1.6ø32ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -010.8 10%50%1.8 70%2.0 400 Stroke (mm) 300Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position)Speed controllerFull stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 400 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) 300ø63AN110 -01 AN101 -01 TU1065 SY7120-02 SX7120-02 AS4000 -0310%30%50%70%70%50%30% 10%200 100 0200 10070%50% 30% 10%0 400 300 200 100 0ø40ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -02-06 AS2200 -02400 Stroke (mm) 300 200 100 0ø80ANB1 -02 VFS31 TU1065 VFR31 AN200 -02 AS5000 -02 -02 -02 AS420 -02ø50ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0805 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS3201F -02-08 AS3000 -02400 Stroke (mm) 300 200 100 0ø100ANB1 -03 VFS41 TU1208 VFR41 AN300 -03 AS5000 -03 -03 -03 AS420 -03400 300 200 100 0Silencer TubingSolenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Silencer TubingStroke end velocity (mm/s)Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller01002003004005006007008009001000Stroke end velocity (mm/s)For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.How to Read the Graph How to Read the GraphThis graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.ConditionsPressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 2mExampleWhen the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%øFull stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)Full stroke timed%d%Stroke (mm)qSpeed Stroke end velocityw Stroke end velocity (u )Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOLFront matter 40Front matter 411Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive SystemAir Cylinders' Drive SystemFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocityFull Stroke Time &amp; Stroke End VelocitySeries CS1, CS2/Bore size: ø125, ø140, ø160Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 1.0 2.0Series CS1/Bore size: ø180, ø200, ø250, ø3008.0 9.0 10.0 800 Stroke (mm) Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 800 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm)ø125ANB1 -03 VFR3100-03 SGP10A VEX3320-03 AN300 -03 AS420 -02 AS5000 -023.0 4.0 5.0 10% 30% 50% 70%6.07.070% 50% 30% 10%ø180ANB1 -04 AN400 -04 SGP15A VEX3500-04 VP3145-03 AS420 -0310% 30% 50%70% 70% 50% 30% 10%600 400 200 0600 400 200 0ø140ANB1 -03 VFR3100-03 SGP10A VEX3320-03 AN300 -03 AS420 -03 AS5000 -03800 Stroke (mm) 600 400 200 0ø200ANB1 -04 AN400 -04 SGP15A VEX3500-04 VP3145-03 AS420 -04800 600 400 200 0ø160ANB1 -04 VFR4100-04 SGP10A VEX3320-04 AN400 -04 AS420 -03800 Stroke (mm) 600 400 200 0ø250ANB1 -06 VEX3500-06 SGP20A VP3145-04 AN500 -06 AS600 -10800 600 400 200 0Silencer TubingSolenoid valve (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller050100150200250300350400450500Stroke end velocity (mm/s)ø300ANB1 -10 VEX3500-10 SGP20A VP3145-06 AN600 -10 AS600 -10800 600 400 200 0For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Applicable modelSpeed controller050100150200250300350400450500Stroke end velocity (mm/s)For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.How to Read the Graph How to Read the GraphThis graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.ConditionsPressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 3mExampleWhen the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%øFull stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)Full stroke timed%d%Stroke (mm)qSpeed Stroke end velocityw Stroke end velocity (u )Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOLFront matter 42Front matter 431Best PneumaticsSolenoid Valves Flow Characteristics(How to indicate flow characteristics)1. Indication of flow characteristicsIndication of the flow characteristics in specifications for equipment such as solenoid valve, etc. is depending on &quot;Table (1)&quot;.Solenoid Valves Flow CharacteristicsQ = 600 x C (P1 + 0.1)Table (1) Indication of Flow Characteristics Corresponding Indication by Other equipment international standard indicationsP2 + 0.1 2 -------- ­ b 293 P1 + 0.1 1 ­ ------------ -------- ···················· (2) 1­b 273 + tStandards conforming to ISO 6358: 1989 JIS B 8390: 2000Q : Air flow rate [dm3/min (ANR)], dm3 (Cubic decimeter) of SI unit are also allowed to described by l C b P1 P2 t(liter). 1 dm3 = 1 l . : Sonic conductance [dm3/(s·bar)] : Critical pressure ratio [-] : Upstream pressure [MPa] : Downstream pressure [MPa] : Temperature [°C]C, bEquipment for pneumaticsS CvJIS B 8390: 2000 Equipment: JIS B 8373, 8374, 8379, 8381 ANSI/(NFPA)T3.21.3: 1990Note) Formula of subsonic flow is the elliptic analogous curve. Flow characteristics curve is indicated in Graph (1). For details, make the use of SMC's &quot;Energy Saving Program&quot;.2. Equipment for pneumatics2.1 Indication according to the international standards(1) Standards conforming toExample) Obtain the air flow rate for P1 = 0.4 [MPa], P 2 = 0.3 [MPa], t = 20 [°C] when a solenoid valve is performed in C = 2 [dm3/(s·bar)] and b = 0.3. According to formula 1, the maximum flow rate = 600 x 2 x (0.4 + 0.1) xISO 6358: 1989: Pneumatic fluid power--Components using compressible fluids-- Determination of flow-rate characteristics JIS B 8390: 2000 : Pneumatic fluid power--Components using compressible fluids-- How to test flow-rate characteristics(2) Definition of flow characteristics Flow rate characteristics are indicated by the comparison between sonic conductance C and critical pressure ratio b. Sonic conductance C : Values which devide the passing mass flow rate of an equipment in a choked flow condition by the product of the upstream absolute pressure and the density in the standard condition. Critical pressure ratio b : It is the pressure ratio which will turn to the choke flow (downstream pressure/upstream pressure) when it is smaller than this values. (critical pressure ratio) Choked flow : It is the flow which upstream pressure is higher than the downstream pressure and it is being reached the sonic speed in a certain part of an equipment. Gaseous mass flow rate is in proportion to the upstream pressure, and not dependent on the downstream pressure. (choked flow) Subsonic flow : Flow in more than the critical pressure ratio. Standard condition : Air in the state of temperature 20°C, absolute pressure 0.1 MPa (= 100 kPa = 1 bar), relative humidity 65%. It is stipulated by adding the abbreviation (ANR) after the unit depicting air volume. (standard reference atmosphere) Standard conforming to: ISO 8778: 1990 Pneumatic fluid power--Standard reference atmosphere, JIS B 8393: 2000: Pneumatic fluid power--Standard reference atmosphere (3) Formula of flow rate It can be indicated by the practical unit as following. When P2 + 0.1 --------  b, choked flow P1 + 0.1293 ---------- = 600 [dm3/min (ANR)] 273 + 20Pressure ratio = ---------- = 0.80.3 + 0.10.4 + 0.1Based on Graph (1) it is going to be 0.7 if it is read by the pressure ratio as 0.8 and the flow ratio to be b = 0.3. Hence, flow rate = Max. flow x flow ratio = 600 x 0.7 = 420 [dm3/min (ANR)].1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Flow rate ratio 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.10.5b = 0.10.2 0.3 0.40.6Q = 600 x C (P1 + 0.1)293 -------- ················································(1) 273 + tP1Equipment C, bP2QWhen P2 + 0.1 -------- &gt; b, subsonic flow P1 + 0.10 00.10.20.30.40.5 0.60.70.80.91Pressure ratio (P2 + 0.1) / (P1 + 0.1)Graph (1) Flow characteristics lineFront matter 44Front matter 451Best PneumaticsSolenoid Valves Flow Characteristics(How to indicate flow characteristics)2.1 Indication by international standards(4) How to testBy piping the equipment on test with the test circuit as shown in figure (1), while maintaining the upstream pressure to a certain value which does not go down below 0.3 MPa, measure the maximum flow rate to be saturated in the first place. Then next, measure this flow at the point of 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% flow and the upstream pressure and downstream pressure. And from this maximum flow rate, figure out the sonic conductance C. Also, substitute the other each data for the subsonic flow formula to figure out b and then obtain the critical pressure ratio b from that average.Pressure gauge or pressure convertor Thermometer Pressure control equipment ød3  3d1 ød1 Differential pressure gauge or differential pressure converter ød2 Flow control valveSolenoid Valves Flow CharacteristicsQ S P1 P2 t:Air flow rate[dm3/min(ANR)], dm3 (cubic decimeter) of SI unit is good to be described by l (liter), too. 1 dm3 = 1 l : Effective area [mm2] : Upstream pressure [MPa] : Downstream pressure [MPa] : Temperature [°C] Note) Formula of subsonic flow (4) is only applicable when the critical pressure ratio b is the unknown equipment. In the formula by sonic conductance C (2), it is the same formula when b = 0.5.(4) Test methodBy piping an equipment for test with the test circuit shown in the figure (2), discharge air to the atmosphere until the pressure inside the air tank goes down to 0.25 MPa (0.2 MPa) from the air tank filled with compressed air of a certain pressure (0.5 MPa) which does not go down below 0.6 MPa. Measure the discharging time for this time and the residual pressure inside the air tank which had been left until it turned to be the normal values, and then figure out the effective area S by the following formula. The volume of air tank should be selected within the specified range by corresponding to the effective area of an equipment for test. In the case of JIS B 8373, 8374, 8379, 8381, the pressure values are in the parenthesis and the coefficient of formula is 12.9.3d3Air supplyFilterShut off valveFlow meter  10d3 10d1 3d1 10d2 3d2Equipment Pipe for measuring for test temperature Pipe for measuring Pipe for measuring pressure in the pressure in the downstream pressure upstream sideFig. (1) Test circuit based on ISO6358, JIS B 8390.V Ps + 0.1 293 S = 12.1 -- log10 (----------) ---- ······ (6) t P + 0.1 T S : Effective area [mm2] V : Air tank capacity [dm3] t : Discharging time [s] Ps : Pressure inside air tankbefore discharging [MPa] P : Residual pressure inside air tank after discharging [MPa] T : Temperature inside air tank before discharging [K]Pressure switch Thermometer Pressure control equipment Air tank Rectifier tube in the upstream side Control circuitPower supplySolenoid valve Equipment for test Rectifier tube in the downstream side2.2 Effective area S(1) Standards conforming to JIS B 8390: 2000: Pneumatic fluid power--Components using compressible fluids-- Determination of flow-rate characteristics Equipment standards: JIS B 8373: 2 port solenoid valve for pneumatics JIS B 8374: 3 port solenoid valve for pneumatics JIS B 8379: Silencer for pneumatics JIS B 8381: Fittings of flexible joint for pneumatics (2) Definition of flow characteristicsEffective area S: It is the cross-sectional area with having an ideal throttle without friction which was deduced by the calculation of the pressure changes inside air tank or without reduced flow when discharging the compressed air in a choked flow from an equipment attached to air tank. It is the same concept representing the &quot;easy to run through&quot; as sonic conductance C.Air supplyFilterShut off valvePressure gauge or pressure convertor Timer (Clock) Pressure recorderFig. (2) Test circuit based on JIS B 83902.3 Flow coeffiecient Cv factorThe United States Standard ANSI/(NFPA)T3.21.3:1990: Pneumatic fluid power--Flow rating test procedure and reporting method--For fixed orifice componentsdefines the Cv factor of flow coefficient by the following formula based on the test conducted by the test circuit analogous to ISO 6358.(3) Formula of flow rateWhen P2 + 0.1 --------  0.5, choked flow P1 + 0.1 293 Q = 120 x S(P1 + 0.1) --------··················································(3) 273 + t WhenQ Cv = ---------------------- ···························· (7) P (P2 + Pa) 114.5 ------------ T1P : Pressure drop between the static pressure tapping ports [bar] P1 : Pressure of the upstream tapping port [bar gauge] P2 : Pressure of the downstream tapping port [bar gauge]:P2 = P1 ­ P Q : Flow rate [dm3/s standard condition] Pa : Atmospheric pressure [bar absolute] T1 : Test conditions of the upstream absolute temperature [K]Test condition is P1 + Pa = 6.5 ± 0.2 bar absolute, T1 = 297 ± 5K, 0.07 bar  P  0.14 bar. This is the same concept as effective area A which ISO6358 stipulates as being applicable only when the pressure drop is smaller than the upstream pressure and the compression of air does not become a problem.P2 + 0.1 &gt; 0.5, subsonic flow -------- P1 + 0.1 Q = 240 x S (P2 + 0.1) (P1 ­ P2)Conversion with sonic conductance C:293 --------································(4) 273 + tS = 5.0 x C················································································(5)Front matter 46Front matter 47`

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