Read M32-M43-E.qxd text version

1

Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive System

Air Cylinders' Drive System

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

How to Read the Graph

This graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown below, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.

Glossary of Terms: Cylinder's Motion Characteristics

(1) Piston start-up time

It is the time between the solenoid valve is energized (de-energized) and the piston (rod) of a cylinder starts traveling. The accurate judgement is done by the start-up of acceleration curve.

(2) Full stroke time

It is the time between the solenoid valve is energized (de-energized) and the piston (rod) of a cylinder is reached at the stroke end.

Conditions

Pressure Piping length 1m 2m 3m Cylinder orientation Speed controller Load factor 0.5 MPa Series CJ2, Series CM2, Series CQ2 Series MB, Series CQ2 Series CS1, Series CS2 Vertically upward Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%

(3) 90% force time

It is the time between the solenoid valve is energized (de-energized) and the cylinder output is reached at 90% of the theoretical output.

(4) Mean velocity

Values which devided stroke by "full stroke time". In the sequence or diaphragm, it is used as a substituting expression for "full stroke time".

(5) Max. velocity

It is the maximum values of the piston velocity which occurs during the stroke. In the case of Graph (1), it will be the same values as "stroke end velocity". Like Graph (2), when lurching or stick-slipping occurs, it shows substantially larger values.

(6) Stroke end velocity

It is the piston velocity when the piston (rod) of a cylinder is reached at the stroke end. In the case of a cylinder with adjustable cushion, it says the piston velocity at the cushion entrance. It is used for judging the cushion capability and selecting the buffer mechanism.

(7) Impact velocity

It is the piston velocity when the piston (rod) of a cylinder is collided with the external stopper at the stroke end or arbitrary position. (Reference) Balancing velocity: If a cylinder having enough longer stroke is driven by meter-out, the latter half of a stroke will be in an uniform motion. Regardless of the supply pressure or a load, the piston speed for this time will be dependent only on the effective area S [mm2] of the exhaust circuit and the piston area A [mm2] . Balancing velocity = 1.9 x 105 x (S/A ) [mm/s] is estimated with this formula.

Note) These definitions are harmonized with SMC "Model Selection Program".

Example

When the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.

ø

Full stroke time (t ) q Stroke (L)

Graph (1)

Graph (2)

Full stroke time Full stroke time Piston start-up time Max. speed

d%

d%

Piston start-up time

Acceleration

Stroke end velocity

w Stroke end velocity (u ) Full stroke time

0

Speed

Speed Acceleration Stroke end velocity

0

0

Stroke

Speed Stroke end velocity

90% force time Supply chamber pressure

90% force time Exhaust chamber pressure Supply chamber pressure

(mm) Stroke Time (sec) ON SOL. OFF

Exhaust chamber pressure Stroke Stroke

0

Time

0

Time

Front matter 32

Front matter 33

1

Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive System

Air Cylinders' Drive System

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Series CJ2/Bore size: ø6, ø10, ø16

Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2

Series CM2/Bore size: ø20, ø25, ø32, ø40

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 60 Stroke (mm) 45 Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 200 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) 150 100

ø6

AS1201F SY3120-M5 -M5-04 TU0425 SYJ3120-M3 AN120 VQD1121-M5 AS1200 -M5 -M3 AN120 -M5 70%

0.3 0.4 0.5 10% 30% 50%

70%

ø20

SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS2201F -01-04 AS2200 -01

10%

30%

50%

70%

30% 50% 10%

30 15 0

70%

50%

30%

50

10% 0

ø10

AS1201F SY3120-M5 -M5-04 AN120 TU0425 SYJ512 -M5 -M5 VQZ1120-M5 AS1200 -M5

100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0

ø25

SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS2201F -01-04 AS2200 -01

200 150 100 50 0

ø16

AS1201F SY3120-M5 -M5-04 AN120 TU0425 SYJ512 -M5 -M5 VQZ1120-M5 AS1200 -M5

100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0

ø32

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -01

200 150 100 50 0

Silencer Tubing

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

ø40

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -02-06 AS2200 -02

200 150 100 50 0

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

How to Read the Graph How to Read the Graph

This graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.

Conditions

Pressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 1m

Example

When the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.

q

Speed controller Load factor

((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%

w Stroke end velocity (u )

Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOL

Front matter 34

Stroke end velocity

Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened

Stroke (L)

d%

d%

Stroke (mm)

Cylinder orientation Vertically upward

ø

Full stroke time (t )

Full stroke time

Speed

Front matter 35

1

Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive System

Air Cylinders' Drive System

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Series CQ2/Bore size: ø12, ø16, ø20

Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller 0.00 Full stroke time (sec) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 10% 30% 50% 70% 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 20

Series CQ2/Bore size: ø25, ø32

Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller 0.00 Full stroke time (sec) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

ø12

SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M5

70%

50%

30%

10%

Stroke (mm) 15 10 5 0

ø25

SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M5

10% 70% 50% 30% 10%

30%

50%

70%

40 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) 30 20 10 0

ø16

SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M5

20 Stroke (mm) 15 10 5 0

ø32

SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0604 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -01

40 30 20 10 0

ø20

SY3120-M5 AN120 TU0425 SYJ5120-M5 -M5 VQ1160-M5 AS1201F -M5-04 AS1200 -M5

40 Stroke (mm) 30 20 10 0

Silencer Tubing

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

Silencer Tubing

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

How to Read the Graph How to Read the Graph

This graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.

Conditions

Pressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 1m

Example

When the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.

Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%

ø

Full stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)

Full stroke time

d%

d%

Stroke (mm)

q

Speed Stroke end velocity

w Stroke end velocity (u )

Stroke Time (sec) SOL ON OFF

Front matter 36

Front matter 37

1

Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive System

Air Cylinders' Drive System

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Series CQ2/Bore size: ø40, ø50, ø63

Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Series CQ2/Bore size: ø80, ø100

0.8 0.9 70% 1.0 100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

ø40

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -01

0.5 0.6 0.7 50% 10% 30%

30% 10%

25 0

SY7120-02 TU1065 SX7120-01 AN101 -01

AS4000 -03

50% 30% 10%

50 25 0

ø50

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -02-06 AS2200 -02

100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0

ø100

ANB1 -03 VFS41 TU1208 VFR41 AN300 -03 AS5000 -03 -03 -03 AS420 -03

100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0

ø63

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0805 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS3201F -02-08 AS3000 -02

100 Stroke (mm) 75 50 25 0

Silencer Tubing

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

Silencer Tubing

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

How to Read the Graph How to Read the Graph

This graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.

Conditions

Pressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 2m

Example

When the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.

Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%

ø

Full stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)

Full stroke time

d%

d%

Stroke (mm)

q

Speed Stroke end velocity

w Stroke end velocity (u )

Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOL

Front matter 38

Front matter 39

Stroke (mm)

70% 50%

ø80

AN110 -01

10% 70%

30%

50%

70%

100 75

1

Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive System

Air Cylinders' Drive System

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Series MB/Bore size ø32, ø40, ø50

Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6

Series MB/Bore size: ø63, ø80, ø100

1.0 30% 1.2 1.4 1.6

ø32

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -01-06 AS2200 -01

0.8 10%

50%

1.8 70%

2.0 400 Stroke (mm) 300

Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position)

Speed controller

Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 400 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) 300

ø63

AN110 -01 AN101 -01 TU1065 SY7120-02 SX7120-02 AS4000 -03

10%

30%

50%

70%

70%

50%

30% 10%

200 100 0

200 100

70%

50% 30% 10%

0 400 300 200 100 0

ø40

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0604 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS2201F -02-06 AS2200 -02

400 Stroke (mm) 300 200 100 0

ø80

ANB1 -02 VFS31 TU1065 VFR31 AN200 -02 AS5000 -02 -02 -02 AS420 -02

ø50

ANB1 -01 SY5120-01 TU0805 SX5120-01 AN101 -01 AS3201F -02-08 AS3000 -02

400 Stroke (mm) 300 200 100 0

ø100

ANB1 -03 VFS41 TU1208 VFR41 AN300 -03 AS5000 -03 -03 -03 AS420 -03

400 300 200 100 0

Silencer Tubing

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Silencer Tubing

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

How to Read the Graph How to Read the Graph

This graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.

Conditions

Pressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 2m

Example

When the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.

Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%

ø

Full stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)

Full stroke time

d%

d%

Stroke (mm)

q

Speed Stroke end velocity

w Stroke end velocity (u )

Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOL

Front matter 40

Front matter 41

1

Best Pneumatics Air Cylinders' Drive System

Air Cylinders' Drive System

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Full Stroke Time & Stroke End Velocity

Series CS1, CS2/Bore size: ø125, ø140, ø160

Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 1.0 2.0

Series CS1/Bore size: ø180, ø200, ø250, ø300

8.0 9.0 10.0 800 Stroke (mm) Applicable model Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Speed controller Full stroke time (sec) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 800 Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm) Stroke (mm)

ø125

ANB1 -03 VFR3100-03 SGP10A VEX3320-03 AN300 -03 AS420 -02 AS5000 -02

3.0 4.0 5.0 10% 30% 50% 70%

6.0

7.0

70% 50% 30% 10%

ø180

ANB1 -04 AN400 -04 SGP15A VEX3500-04 VP3145-03 AS420 -03

10% 30% 50%

70% 70% 50% 30% 10%

600 400 200 0

600 400 200 0

ø140

ANB1 -03 VFR3100-03 SGP10A VEX3320-03 AN300 -03 AS420 -03 AS5000 -03

800 Stroke (mm) 600 400 200 0

ø200

ANB1 -04 AN400 -04 SGP15A VEX3500-04 VP3145-03 AS420 -04

800 600 400 200 0

ø160

ANB1 -04 VFR4100-04 SGP10A VEX3320-04 AN400 -04 AS420 -03

800 Stroke (mm) 600 400 200 0

ø250

ANB1 -06 VEX3500-06 SGP20A VP3145-04 AN500 -06 AS600 -10

800 600 400 200 0

Silencer Tubing

Solenoid valve (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

ø300

ANB1 -10 VEX3500-10 SGP20A VP3145-06 AN600 -10 AS600 -10

800 600 400 200 0

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

Solenoid valve Silencer Tubing (2 position) Applicable model

Speed controller

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Stroke end velocity (mm/s)

For details corresponding to each various condition, make the use of SMC Model Selection Program (Front matter 55) for your decision.

How to Read the Graph How to Read the Graph

This graph shows the full stroke time and stroke end velocity when a cylinder drive system is composed of the most suitable equipment. As the graph shown at right, various load ratio and full stroke time which corresponds to stroke and terminal velocity are indicated for every cylinder bore size.

Conditions

Pressure Piping length 0.5 MPa 3m

Example

When the cylinder bore size is ø, its stroke is L , and load ratio is d %, full stroke time t is obtainted, as an arrow mark q, by reading the value on the abscissa over the point at which the ordinate L hits the full stroke line (red line) of d %. Terminal velocity u is obtained, as an arrow mark w, by reading the value on the abscissa below the point at which the ordinate L hits the terminal velocity line (blue line) of d %.

Cylinder orientation Vertically upward Speed controller Load factor Meter-out, connected with cylinder directly, needle fully opened ((Load mass x 9.8)/Theoretical output) x 100%

ø

Full stroke time (t ) Stroke (L)

Full stroke time

d%

d%

Stroke (mm)

q

Speed Stroke end velocity

w Stroke end velocity (u )

Stroke Time (sec) ON OFF SOL

Front matter 42

Front matter 43

1

Best Pneumatics

Solenoid Valves Flow Characteristics

(How to indicate flow characteristics)

1. Indication of flow characteristics

Indication of the flow characteristics in specifications for equipment such as solenoid valve, etc. is depending on "Table (1)".

Solenoid Valves Flow Characteristics

Q = 600 x C (P1 + 0.1)

Table (1) Indication of Flow Characteristics Corresponding Indication by Other equipment international standard indications

P2 + 0.1 2 -------- ­ b 293 P1 + 0.1 1 ­ ------------ -------- ···················· (2) 1­b 273 + t

Standards conforming to ISO 6358: 1989 JIS B 8390: 2000

Q : Air flow rate [dm3/min (ANR)], dm3 (Cubic decimeter) of SI unit are also allowed to described by l C b P1 P2 t

(liter). 1 dm3 = 1 l . : Sonic conductance [dm3/(s·bar)] : Critical pressure ratio [-] : Upstream pressure [MPa] : Downstream pressure [MPa] : Temperature [°C]

C, b

Equipment for pneumatics

S Cv

JIS B 8390: 2000 Equipment: JIS B 8373, 8374, 8379, 8381 ANSI/(NFPA)T3.21.3: 1990

Note) Formula of subsonic flow is the elliptic analogous curve. Flow characteristics curve is indicated in Graph (1). For details, make the use of SMC's "Energy Saving Program".

2. Equipment for pneumatics

2.1 Indication according to the international standards

(1) Standards conforming to

Example) Obtain the air flow rate for P1 = 0.4 [MPa], P 2 = 0.3 [MPa], t = 20 [°C] when a solenoid valve is performed in C = 2 [dm3/(s·bar)] and b = 0.3. According to formula 1, the maximum flow rate = 600 x 2 x (0.4 + 0.1) x

ISO 6358: 1989

: Pneumatic fluid power--Components using compressible fluids-- Determination of flow-rate characteristics JIS B 8390: 2000 : Pneumatic fluid power--Components using compressible fluids-- How to test flow-rate characteristics

(2) Definition of flow characteristics Flow rate characteristics are indicated by the comparison between sonic conductance C and critical pressure ratio b. Sonic conductance C : Values which devide the passing mass flow rate of an equipment in a choked flow condition by the product of the upstream absolute pressure and the density in the standard condition. Critical pressure ratio b : It is the pressure ratio which will turn to the choke flow (downstream pressure/upstream pressure) when it is smaller than this values. (critical pressure ratio) Choked flow : It is the flow which upstream pressure is higher than the downstream pressure and it is being reached the sonic speed in a certain part of an equipment. Gaseous mass flow rate is in proportion to the upstream pressure, and not dependent on the downstream pressure. (choked flow) Subsonic flow : Flow in more than the critical pressure ratio. Standard condition : Air in the state of temperature 20°C, absolute pressure 0.1 MPa (= 100 kPa = 1 bar), relative humidity 65%. It is stipulated by adding the abbreviation (ANR) after the unit depicting air volume. (standard reference atmosphere) Standard conforming to: ISO 8778: 1990 Pneumatic fluid power--Standard reference atmosphere, JIS B 8393: 2000: Pneumatic fluid power--Standard reference atmosphere (3) Formula of flow rate It can be indicated by the practical unit as following. When P2 + 0.1 -------- b, choked flow P1 + 0.1

293 ---------- = 600 [dm3/min (ANR)] 273 + 20

Pressure ratio = ---------- = 0.8

0.3 + 0.1

0.4 + 0.1

Based on Graph (1) it is going to be 0.7 if it is read by the pressure ratio as 0.8 and the flow ratio to be b = 0.3. Hence, flow rate = Max. flow x flow ratio = 600 x 0.7 = 420 [dm3/min (ANR)].

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Flow rate ratio 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0.5

b = 0.1

0.2 0.3 0.4

0.6

Q = 600 x C (P1 + 0.1)

293 -------- ················································(1) 273 + t

P1

Equipment C, b

P2

Q

When P2 + 0.1 -------- > b, subsonic flow P1 + 0.1

0 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Pressure ratio (P2 + 0.1) / (P1 + 0.1)

Graph (1) Flow characteristics line

Front matter 44

Front matter 45

1

Best Pneumatics

Solenoid Valves Flow Characteristics

(How to indicate flow characteristics)

2.1 Indication by international standards

(4) How to test

By piping the equipment on test with the test circuit as shown in figure (1), while maintaining the upstream pressure to a certain value which does not go down below 0.3 MPa, measure the maximum flow rate to be saturated in the first place. Then next, measure this flow at the point of 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% flow and the upstream pressure and downstream pressure. And from this maximum flow rate, figure out the sonic conductance C. Also, substitute the other each data for the subsonic flow formula to figure out b and then obtain the critical pressure ratio b from that average.

Pressure gauge or pressure convertor Thermometer Pressure control equipment ød3 3d1 ød1 Differential pressure gauge or differential pressure converter ød2 Flow control valve

Solenoid Valves Flow Characteristics

Q S P1 P2 t

:Air flow rate[dm3/min(ANR)], dm3 (cubic decimeter) of SI unit is good to be described by l (liter), too. 1 dm3 = 1 l : Effective area [mm2] : Upstream pressure [MPa] : Downstream pressure [MPa] : Temperature [°C] Note) Formula of subsonic flow (4) is only applicable when the critical pressure ratio b is the unknown equipment. In the formula by sonic conductance C (2), it is the same formula when b = 0.5.

(4) Test method

By piping an equipment for test with the test circuit shown in the figure (2), discharge air to the atmosphere until the pressure inside the air tank goes down to 0.25 MPa (0.2 MPa) from the air tank filled with compressed air of a certain pressure (0.5 MPa) which does not go down below 0.6 MPa. Measure the discharging time for this time and the residual pressure inside the air tank which had been left until it turned to be the normal values, and then figure out the effective area S by the following formula. The volume of air tank should be selected within the specified range by corresponding to the effective area of an equipment for test. In the case of JIS B 8373, 8374, 8379, 8381, the pressure values are in the parenthesis and the coefficient of formula is 12.9.

3d3

Air supply

Filter

Shut off valve

Flow meter 10d3 10d1 3d1 10d2 3d2

Equipment Pipe for measuring for test temperature Pipe for measuring Pipe for measuring pressure in the pressure in the downstream pressure upstream side

Fig. (1) Test circuit based on ISO6358, JIS B 8390.

V Ps + 0.1 293 S = 12.1 -- log10 (----------) ---- ······ (6) t P + 0.1 T S : Effective area [mm2] V : Air tank capacity [dm3] t : Discharging time [s] Ps : Pressure inside air tank

before discharging [MPa] P : Residual pressure inside air tank after discharging [MPa] T : Temperature inside air tank before discharging [K]

Pressure switch Thermometer Pressure control equipment Air tank Rectifier tube in the upstream side Control circuit

Power supply

Solenoid valve Equipment for test Rectifier tube in the downstream side

2.2 Effective area S

(1) Standards conforming to JIS B 8390: 2000: Pneumatic fluid power--Components using compressible fluids-- Determination of flow-rate characteristics Equipment standards: JIS B 8373: 2 port solenoid valve for pneumatics JIS B 8374: 3 port solenoid valve for pneumatics JIS B 8379: Silencer for pneumatics JIS B 8381: Fittings of flexible joint for pneumatics (2) Definition of flow characteristics

Effective area S: It is the cross-sectional area with having an ideal throttle without friction which was deduced by the calculation of the pressure changes inside air tank or without reduced flow when discharging the compressed air in a choked flow from an equipment attached to air tank. It is the same concept representing the "easy to run through" as sonic conductance C.

Air supply

Filter

Shut off valve

Pressure gauge or pressure convertor Timer (Clock) Pressure recorder

Fig. (2) Test circuit based on JIS B 8390

2.3 Flow coeffiecient Cv factor

The United States Standard ANSI/(NFPA)T3.21.3:1990: Pneumatic fluid power--Flow rating test procedure and reporting method--For fixed orifice components

defines the Cv factor of flow coefficient by the following formula based on the test conducted by the test circuit analogous to ISO 6358.

(3) Formula of flow rate

When P2 + 0.1 -------- 0.5, choked flow P1 + 0.1 293 Q = 120 x S(P1 + 0.1) --------··················································(3) 273 + t When

Q Cv = ---------------------- ···························· (7) P (P2 + Pa) 114.5 ------------ T1

P : Pressure drop between the static pressure tapping ports [bar] P1 : Pressure of the upstream tapping port [bar gauge] P2 : Pressure of the downstream tapping port [bar gauge]:P2 = P1 ­ P Q : Flow rate [dm3/s standard condition] Pa : Atmospheric pressure [bar absolute] T1 : Test conditions of the upstream absolute temperature [K]

Test condition is P1 + Pa = 6.5 ± 0.2 bar absolute, T1 = 297 ± 5K, 0.07 bar P 0.14 bar. This is the same concept as effective area A which ISO6358 stipulates as being applicable only when the pressure drop is smaller than the upstream pressure and the compression of air does not become a problem.

P2 + 0.1 > 0.5, subsonic flow -------- P1 + 0.1 Q = 240 x S (P2 + 0.1) (P1 ­ P2)

Conversion with sonic conductance C:

293 --------································(4) 273 + t

S = 5.0 x C················································································(5)

Front matter 46

Front matter 47

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