Read 12093_chem-works_microchemistry.pdf text version

Additional SupplyNeeds (to be suppliedby you)

Your Microchemistry set includes all of the special chemicals and materials to provide you with the reagent chemicals and equipment to perform experiments and provide you with hours of educational fun. Since there are so manyexperiments and procedures, you are asked to supply manyof the common household items and household chemicals which would be impractical to supply and ship in your chemistry set. Youwill need to gather various items listed in each experiment so that you can perform the experiments. Always read through your experimentbeforehandand gather all of the materials you will needat the beginning. Thefollowing list of outside items and materials is listed below for your convenience. YouDONOT needto collect ALLitems on the list at one time, only as you plan aheadto perform a particular experimentor series of experiments.

WARNING:

THIS CONTAINS SET CHEMICALS & APPARATUS THAT BEHARMFUL MAY IF MISUSED. READ

ITEM #2835 AGES 10 AND UP

CAUTIONS ON INDIVIDUAL CONTAINERS CAREFULLY.TOBEUSED CHILDREN NOT BY EXCEPT ADULT UNDER SUPERVISION.

Plastic sheeting for workarea paper towels for cleanup Cotton or cotton balls Scissors Distilled water Isopropyl RubbingAlcohol or Ethyl Rubbing Alcohol Cardstock (3" x 5" filing card) Pencils (red and black) Ball point pen Kitchen paring knife Fine sandpaper Sheet of white paper Liquid dishwashing soap Hair shampoo Dishwasher Jet-Dry @soap Liquid hand soap Baby powder or talcum powderor flour Sodium Chloride (table salt) Iron nails Copper tacks Aluminumnails Styrofoamballs Modeling clay Toothpicks P!pe c!ea~ers Straws Gum drops 9 volt battery D-cell battery Vinegar Cornstarch Several heavy books Crushed ice Cellophane tape Transparent tape Household ammonia Plastic sandwich bags

Lemonjuice 3%solution hydrogen peroxide Fine steel wool Raw liver Rawpotato Grassclippings and/or plant leaf Sunlight and/or strong artificial light source Sodiumbicarbonate (baking soda) Alka Seltzer~ tablet Teaspoon Toothbrush Window pane Wooden ruler Set of colored pencils Flower petals Plant fruit skins i.e. blueberries, blackberries,cherries, red cabbage leaves Householdtea from tea bags Householdsoap solution Liquid laundry detergent Pet shampoo Clear soda (sparkling water) Toothpaste Milk Grapefruit juice Rain water Plastic wrap Fine line marker Individual brand samplesof different vinegars i.e. apple cider vinegar, white vinegar, amber vinegar, pineapple vinegar, tarragon vinegar Various brands of Antacid tablets C~eanseror scouring powder Kleenex Various nickels and pennies (15 each) Model paint or fingernail enamel

SMITHSONIAN

Chem-Works MicroChemistry

~" 2 3 4 5 6 7 __~.__~

10

11

1 2D

O0 0000 O0 0000 O0 0000 00"" "-"

© MM NATURAL SCIENCE INDUSTRIES, LTD. ¯ 910 ORLANDO AVENUE WEST HEMPSTEAD, 11552-3942° (516) 678-1700 NY ® © 2000SmithsonianInstitution PART #2835-08 PRINTEDIN HONG KONG

PLEASE KEEP A NOTE OF OUR NAME AND ADDRESSDETAILS FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.

Chem-Works List of Set Contents

IN U.S.A. CONTACT." NATURALSCIENCEINDUSTRIES, LTD. 910 Orlando Avenue West Hempstead, NY 11552-3942 516-678-1700

IN EUROPECONTACT: NSI SIMM GmbH D 76162 KARLSRUHE GERMANY 49- 0721-9584-116 #8 #11 #18 #40 #41 #42 #44 #47 #49 #53 #57 #58 #64 #65 #67 #70 #63 #54 #38 #61 1 Well .............. Cobalt Chloride ...................... China 1 Bottle .......... Copper ........................ England Sulfate 1 Bottle .......... Sodium Silicate ...................... Sweden 1 Bottle .......... Calcium Hydroxide .................. Germany 1 Well .............. Calcium ...................... Japan Nitrate 1 Bottle .......... CitricAcid ................................ China 1 Well .............. Ferrous Sulfate ...................... Taiwan 1 Well .............. Methylene ...................... England Blue 1 Bottle .......... Potassium .................... Japan Iodide 1 Bottle .......... Sodium ........................ Germany Sulfate 1 Bottle .......... Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate China 1 Bottle .......... Ammonium Japan Chloride .............. 1 Bottle .......... Magnesium ................ Germany Sulfate 1 Well .............. Phenolphthalein ...................... U.S.A. 1 Bottle .......... Sodium Carbonate .................. Germany 1 Well .............. Universal Indicator .................. U.S.A. 1 Package Iron ................................ China ...... Wire 1 Package Zinc ................................ China ...... Wire 1 Package Aluminum........................ China ...... Wire 1 Package Copper ............................ China ...... Wire 1 Each .............. 6"Plastic ............................ China Ruler 1 Each .............. Filter .................................. England Paper 1 Package ........ Molecule Kit.................................. China 1 Each .............. Safety Goggles ............................ China 1 Package ........ Galvanometer Kit .......................... China 1 Pair ................ Spring .................................. China Clips 1 Each .............. Soda .................................. Hong Kong Straw 1 Each .............. Magnifier ...................................... China 1 Each .............. Battery 9V Clip ............................. China Cup 2 Each .............. 1oz. ...................................... U.S.A. 1 Each .............. Atom .................................. China Sheet t Each .............. Red ...................................... China LED 1 Each .............. Microplate .................................... China 8 Each .............. Pipette .......................................... .S.A. U 1 Each .............. Resistor Ohm 1K .......................... Taiwan Each .............. Plastic withCap Tube .................. China ...................................... China 2 Each ............ Toothpick Each .............. PVC Coated ........................ Wire China Each .............. Instruction ........................ Hong Kong Manual

BY CHILDREN OVER 10 YEARS OLD. TO BE USED SOLELY UNDER THE STRICT SUPERVISION OF ADULTS THAT HAVE STUDIED THE PRECAUTIONS GIVEN IN THE EXPERIMENTALSET. CAUTION! CONTAINS SOME CHEMICALS WHICH ARE CLASSIFIED AS A SAFETY HAZARD. READ THE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USE, FOLLOWTHEM AND KEEP FOR REFERENCE. DO NOT ALLOW CHEMICALS TO COME INTO CONTACTWITH ANY PART OF THE BODY, PARTICULARLY THE MOUTHAND EYES. KEEP SMALL CHILDREN AND ANIMALS AWAYFROMEXPERIMENTS. STORE THIS SET OUT OF REACHFROMSMALL CHILDREN. EYE PROTECTION FOR SUPERVISING ADULTS IS NOT PROVIDED. ENTER THE DETAILS AND TELEPHONE NUMBEROF THE LOCAL POISON CENTER QR HOSPITAL IN THE BOX BELOW: IN CASE OF ACCIDENTALINTAKE OF A CHEMICALCONTACT:

WARNING! FOR USE ONLY

GENERAL FIRST AID INFORMATION:

IN CASE OF EYE CONTACT: WASHOUT WITH PLENTY OF WATER, HOLDING EYE OPENIF NECESSARY.SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ADVICE. IF SWALLOWED: WASHOUT MOUTHWITH PLENTY OF WATER, DRINK SOME FRESH WATER. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ADVICE. IN CASE OF INHALATION: REMOVE PERSONTO FRESH AIR. IN CASE OF CONTACTAND BURNS: WASHAFFECTED AREA WITH PLENTY OF WATER FOR 5 MINUTES. IN CASE OF INJURY OR DOUBT, SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE WITHOUT DELAY. TAKE THE CHEMICAL WITH THE CONTAINERWITH YOU. NOTE: FIRST AID INFORMATIONMAY ALSO BE FOUNDIN THE INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE EXPERIMENTS OR ON THE CONTAINERS. If wemade error andleft something of this set, or if an out something damaged, are sorry and wish to correct our is we error. Please not return the set to the store where do you purchased as the store doesnot havereplacement it, parts. Instead, write us a letter givingus: 1. Date of Purchase 2. WherePurchased 3. Price Paid 4. Model Number 5. Name Set of 6. Brief Description Problem of 7. SalesReceipt

ADVICE FOR SUPERVISING ADULTS:

¯ READ AND FOLLOWTHESE SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS, THE SAFETY RULES AND THE FIRST AID INFORMATION AND KEEP THEM FOR REFERENCE. ¯ THE INCORRECT USE OF CHEMICALS CAN CAUSE INJURY AND DAMAGE TO HEALTH. ¯ ONLY CARRYOUT THOSEEXPERIMENTS WHICHARE LISTED IN THE INSTRUCTIONS.¯ THIS SET IS FOR USE BY CHILDREN OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE. ¯ BECAUSECHILDREN'S ABILITIES VARY SQ MUCH, EVEN WITHIN AGE GROUPS, SUPERVISING ADULTS SHOULD EXERCISE DISCRETION AS TO WHICH EXPERIMENTS ARE SUITABLE AND SAFE FOR THEM. THE INSTRUCTIONS SHOULDENABLE SUPERVISORSTO ASSESS ANY EXPERIMENTTO ESTABLISH ITS SUITABILITY FOR A PARTICULAR CHILD. ¯ THE SUPERVISINGADULT SHOULD DISCUSS THE WARNINGSAND SAFETY INFORMATION WITH THE CHILD OR CHILDREN BEFORE COMMENCING THE EXPERIMENTS. PARTICULARATTENTION SHOULDBE PAID TO THE SAFE HANDLINGOF HOT LIQUIDS. THE AREA SURROUNDINGTHE ACTIVITY SHOULD BE KEPT CLEAR OF ANY OBSTRUCTIONS AND AWAY FROM STORAGE OF FOOD, IT SHOULDBE WELL LIT AND VENTILATEDAND CLOSETO A WATER SUPPLY. ¯ A SOLID TABLE WITH A HEAT RESISTANT TOP SHOULD BE PROVIDED.

Wewill do our best to satisfy you.

SAFETY RULES:

° DO READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USE, FOLLOWTHEM AND KEEP THEM FORREFERENCE. ¯ DO KEEP YOUNG CHILDREN AND ANIMALS AND THOSE NOT WEARING EYE PROTECTION AWAYFROM THE EXPERIMENTAL AREA. ¯ DO ALWAYSWEAREYE PROTECTION.¯ DO STORE CHEMICALSETS OUT OF REACHOF YOUNGCHILDREN. ¯ DO CLEAN ALL EQUIPMENT AND WASH AFTER CARRYINGOUT THE EXPERIMENTS.¯ DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKEIN THE ACTIVITY OR EXPERIMENTALAREA. ¯ DO NOT USE EQUIPMENTWHICH HAS NOT BEEN SUPPLIED QR RECOMMENDED THE SET. ¯ DO NOT ALLOWCHEMICALS TO COMEINTO CONTACTWITH THE EYES IN OR MOUTH. ¯ DO NOT REPLACEFOODSTUFFS ORIGINAL CONTAINER. DISPOSE OF IMMEDIATELY. ¯ DO MAKE IN SURE THAT ALL CONTAINERS ARE FULLY CLOSED AND PROPERLYSTORED AFTER USE.

Quality Control Department Natural ScienceIndustries, Ltd. 910 Orlando Avenue West Hempstead, NY 11552-3942 (516) 678-1700

~

VIAL UMBEF

SIZE OF NAME OF CONTENTS VIAL OR CONTAINER (CHEMICAL NAME)

CHEMICAL FORMULA

WARNING ON LABEL

FIRST AID FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASEOF EYE CONTACT,IMMEDIATELYFLUSH EYES FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IN CASE OF SKIN CONTACT. IMMEDIATELY WASHSKIN WITH SOAP AND LARGE AMOUNTSOF WATER ¯ IF INHALED. GETTO FRESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED GET MEDICAL HELP IMMEDIATELY IN ALL CASES. CONTACT A POISON CONTROL CENTER AND/OR SEEK MEDICAL AT-rENTION. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASE OF EYE CONTACT,IMMEDIATELYFLUSH EYES FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IN CASE SKIN CONTAC IMMEuIAIELY I- LUSHSKIN l- HEEOF 1. LY WITH WATER ¯ IF INHALED, GET10 FRESH R A I " IF SWALLOWED AND PERSON IS CONSCIOUS, GIVE WATER AND GET MEDICAL HELP IN ALL CASES. CONTACT A POISON CONTROL CENTER AND/OR SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASE OF EYE CONTACT.IMMEDIATELYFLUSH EYES FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IN CASE OF SKIN CONTACT, IMMEDIATELY WASHSKIN WlrH SOAP AND LARGE AMOUNTSOF WAFER ¯ IF INHALED,GET 1O FFIESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWEDAND PERSON IS CONSCIOUS. WASHOUT MOUTHWITH WATER. IN ALL CASES. CONTACT A POISON CONTROL CENTER AND/OR SEEK MEDICAL ATrENTION. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FACT SHEET

The SmithsonianInstitution is a museum, education and research complexof 17 museums galleries, and the National Zoological Park. Fifteen museums galleries and and are located in Washington, D.C., two are in NewYork City, and the National Zoois in Washington. of the museums galleries are situated on the National Mall between Ten and the U.S. Capitol and Washington Monument. One the world'sleadingscientific research of centers,the Institution hasfacilities in eight states andthe Republic Panama. of Research projectsin the arts, history, andscience are carried out by the Smithsonian over the world. atf The newNational Museum the American of Indian is scheduled openonthe National to Mall in 2002. The centerpiece the museum the priceless collection of Native American of is artifacts transferred to the Smithsonian from the Museum the American ot Indian, Heye Foundation (New York). The New York exhibition facility - the HeyeCenterof the National Museurn the American of Indian openedOctober30, 1994 in lower Manhattan. Anothernewmuseum, National Postal Museum, located near UnionStation on the is Capitol Hill. Devoted the history of the U.S. mail service, the museum to houses world's the largest and mostcomprehensive collection of its kind, with morethan 16 million stamps, covers,andartifacts.

WARNING

#53

SODIUM SULFATE

Na2SO o10H20 4

READ SIDE PANEL BEFORE USING CAUSES EYE AND SKIN IRRITATION MAY BE HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHAI ED OR ABSORBED f HROUGH SKIN.

#57

6 ml

ALUMINUM AMMONIUM SULFATE

DANGER °12H20 AINH4(SO4)2

R[AD SIDE PANEL. BEFORE (/,=;INC. CAUSESBURNS CORROSIVE HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN

WARNING

#58

6 ml

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

NH4C1

READ SIDE PANEL BEFORE USING CAUSES SKIN. MUCOUS MEMBRANEAND SEVERE EYE IR RITA'IION. MAY BE HARMFULIF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

I

WARNING

#64

6 ml

MAGNESIUM SULFATE

MgSO4°7H20

READ SIDE PANEL BEFORE USING. CAUSES IRRITAT/ON MAYBE HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, iNHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASEOF EYE CONTAC~"IMMF DIAIELY FI.USH EYES FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IN CASE OF SKiN CONTACT. IMMEDIATELYWASHSKIN WITH J SOAP AND LARGE AMOUNTSOF WATER ¯ IF INHALED, GET TO FRESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED AND PERSON IS CONSCIOUS, WASH OUT ~ MOUTHW TH WATER¯ IN ALL CASES, CONTACT A POISON CONTROL CENTER AND/OR SEEK MEDICAL A'VrENTION. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASE OF EYE CONTACT.IMMEDIATELYFLUSH EYES FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IN CASE OF SKIN CONTACT, IMMEDIATELYFLUSH SKIN WITH WATER, THEN WASHTHOROUGHLY wITH SOAP AND WATER ¯ IF INHALED, GET TO FRESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED AND PERSONIS CONSCIOUS, GIVE WATER AND GET MEDICAL HELP IMMEDIATELY¯ IN ALL CASES, CONTACT A POISON CONTROL CENTER AND~OR SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION. KEEP OUT OF REACH )F CHILDREN. FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASE OF EYE CONTACT.IMMEDIATELYFLUSH EYES FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IN CASE OF SKIN CONTACT.IMMEDIATELY WASHSKIN WITH SOAP AND LARGE AMOUNTSOF WATER IF INHALED. GET TO FRESHAIR IF SWALLOWED AND PERSON IS CONSCIOUS. IMMEDIATELY JVE WATER AND GET MEDICAL HELP. IN ALL CASES. CONTACT A POISON CONTROL CENTER OF CHILDREN.

WARNING

HISTORY

James Smithson (1765-1829), a British scientist, drewup his will in 1826 naming his nephew,HenryJames Hungerford,as beneficiary. Smithson stipulated that, shouldthe nephew withoutheirs (as he did in 1835), the estate would the UnitedStatesto found die go "at Washington, underthe name the Smithsonian of Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge..." On July 1, 1836, Congress acceptedthe legacy bequeathed the nation by James to Smithsor~, ~nd,nh=clo#d faith nf the United States to the charitable trust. In 1838, th~ following approval of the bequest by the British courts, the United States received Smithson's estate- bagsof gold sovereigns then the equivalent of $515,169. Eight years later, on August10, 1846, an Act of Congresssigned by President JamesK. Polk, established Smithsonian the Institution in its presentformandprovided the administrafor tion of the trust, independent the government of itself, by a Board Regents Secretary of and of the Smithsonian. SMITHSONIAN MUSEUMS, GALLERIES AND ZOO

#65

6 ml

PHENOLPHTHALEIN

C20H1404

READ SIDE PANEL BEFORE USING CAUSES EYE. SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE IRRITATION. MAY BE HARMFUL ~F SWALLOWED, INHALED OR A R£CIRFCFI3 THROUGH SKIN.

DANGER

#67

6 ml

SODIUM CARBONATE

Na2CO3ol0H20

READ SIDE PANFL BEFORE USING. CAUSES BURNS _ CORROSIVE HARMFUL IF ,SWALLOWED. INHALED OR ABSORBED ]HROUGH SKIN

Methyl Red-

WARNING

READ SIDE PANEL BEFORE USING. CAUSES EYE AND SKIN IRRITATION. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

#70

6 ml

UNIVERSAL INDICATOR onpaper strips

C15H15N302

Phenolphthalein Bromthymol Blue Thymol Blue Methy~ Yellow

FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASEOF EYE CONTACT.IMMEDIATELYFLUSH EYES FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IN CASEOF SKIN CONTACT,IMMEDIAFELY FLUSH SKIN FREELY WITH WATER ¯ IF INHALED. GET TO FRESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWEDAND PERSON IS CONSCIOUS. WASH OUT MOUTHWITH WATER. IN ALL CASES, CONTACT A POISON CONTROL CENTER AND/OR SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

polybag #54 polybag polybag polybag

IRON WIRE ZINC WIRE

Fe

CAUTION

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

Zn

CAUTION

KEEP OUT OF REACHOF CHILDREN.

#38

ALUMINUM WIRE

AI

CAUTION

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

SmithsonianInstitution Building ("Castle") Anacostia Museum Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Arts and Industries Building Cooper-Hew/It, National Design Museum Freer Gallery of Art Hirshhorn Museumand Sculpture Garden

National Museum American Art of National Museum American History of National Museum the American Indian of National Museum Natural History of National Portrait Gallery National Postal Museum National Zoological Park

#61

COPPER WIRE

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

National Air andSpace Museum

National Museum African Art of

Renwiek Gallery

S. Dillon Ripley Center

Cu

CAUTION

Page 57

Chem-Works INDEX

SIZE OF NAMEOF CONTENTS VIAL NUMBER VIAL OR (CHEMICAL NAME) 3ONTAINER

CHEMICAL FORMULA

WARNING ON LABEL

FIRSTAID

#8 Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter 3 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... AWordThe to "Chemist". ............................................................................................................... The MicroChemistry System .......................................................................................................... Section - Preparation 1 of Laboratory Equipment ................................................................ Section - PropertiestheMicrochemistry .......................................................... 2 of System Section - How Destroy 3 to Surface Tension ...................................................................... Section - Alcohol Surface 4 and Tension ............................................................................ Section - AVisible 5 Illustration Surface of Tension ............................................................ Chemical Modelsand Chemical Reactions .................................................................................. Section - Paper 1 Chemistry .................................................................................... Lab I Section - Paper 2 Chemistry .................................................................................... Lab II Section - Synthesis 3 ........................................................................................................ Section 3A- Synthesis ........................................................................................................ Section - Paper 4 Chemistry .................................................................................. Lab III Section 4A- Using Molecular .................................................................................. Models Section 4B- Using Molecular II .............................................................................. Models Section - Decomposition - A Chemical 5 of Water Change .............................................. Section - Paper 6 Chemistry IV........................................................................................ Section 6A- Using Models 3-D ............................................................................................ Section - ElectricalSeparation Elements a Compound 7 of from .................................... Section - Another 8 Electrical Separation .......................................................................... Section - Electrolysis 9 of Ferrous ........................................................................ Sulfate Section10- AChemical Separation .................................................................................... The Gaseous ofMatter Phases .................................................................................................... Section - The 1 Effectof Pressure theVolume a Gas on of .............................................. Effectof Temperature Volume a Gas onthe of ........................................ Section2 - The Section - Gas 3 Diffusion .................................................................................................. Section 3A- Gas Diffusion II ................................................................................................ Section4 - Preparation .................................................................................... of Oxygen Section - Does Contain 5 Air Oxygen? .............................................................................. Section - Natural 6 Oxygen Production: Action Enzymes The of ...................................... Section7 - Methylene asanIndicator Blue ...................................................................... Section - Plants Oxygen 8 and .......................................................................................... Section - TestingGas Carbon 9 a for Dioxide .................................................................. Section 10 - Preparation ofCarbon ........................................................................ Dioxide Section11 - AReaction Produces Dioxide which Carbon .................................................. Section12 - Producing Dioxide Another .................................................... Carbon in Way Section13 - The Production of Ammonia ............................................................................ Section 14- Neutralization .................................................................................. of Gases Section15 - A Reaction Ammonium of Chloride Calcium and Hydroxide .......................... Experiments with Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Solutions .......................................................................................................... An Electrolyte .................................................................................... Detector ElectrolytesNon-Electrolytes and .................................................................... Another for theElectrolyte Use Detector ........................................................ Reactions of Solutions .................................................................................... Testing Products Reaction the of a .................................................................. Testing Remaining the Solution a Chemical of Reaction ................................ page 1 page 2 page 2 page 3 page 8 page 8 page 9 page 9 page 10 page 11 page 12 page 13 page 13 page 14 page 15 page 15 page 16 page 17 page 17 page 17 page 18 page 19 page 19 page 19 page 19 page 20 page 21 page 21 page 21 page 22 page 22 page 23 page 23 page 23 page 24 page 24 page 25 page 25 page 25 page 26 page 26 page 27 page 27 page 28 page 29 page 30 page 31

6 ml

COBALT CHLORIDE

CoC12¯ 6H20

FIRSTAID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYES FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKIN CONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKINFREEREAD SIDE PANEL BEFORE US- LY WITHWATER GET AIR ING. CAUSES EYE, SKIN, AND ¯ IF INHALED, TOFRESH ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS, AND IS IMMEDIATELY MUCOUS MEMBRANE IRRITAGIVE WATER . TION, HARMFUL INHALED IF OR IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER ABSORBEDTHROUGHSKIN. ATTENTION.KEEPOUT OF REACH MAYBE FATALIF SWALLOWED.AND/ORSEEKMEDICAL OF CHILDREN.

POISON DANGER

WARNING #11 6 ml

COPPER SULFATE

CuSO ¯ 5H20 4

READ SIDE PANELBEFORE USING.CAUSES SKIN, MUCOUSMEMBRANE SEAND VERE EYE IRRITATION. HARMFUL SWALLOWED. IF INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

FIRSTAID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYESFREELYWITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKINCONTACT. OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKIN FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IF INHALED. TO FRESH GET AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS, AND IS IMMEDIATELY GIVEWATER .. IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/OR SEEKMEDICAL AI-rENTION. KEEPOUTOF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYES FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKINCONTACT. OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKIN FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IF INHALED, TOFRESH GET AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS, AND IS GIVE LARGE QUANTITIES WATER MILK. DO NOT OF OR INDUCE VOMITING, IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/ORSEEKMEDICALATTENTION.KEEPOUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRSTAID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYESFREELY WITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKIN CONTACT. OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKIN FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IF INHALED. TO FRESH GET AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS, AND IS WASH OUT MOUTH WITHWATER. IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/OR SEEKMEDICAL ATTENTION.KEEPOUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRST AID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FL~H EYES FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKIN CONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKIN FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IF INHALED. GETTO FRESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS. AND IS WASH OUT MOUTH WITHWATER. IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/OR SEEKMEDICAL A'I-rENTION. KEEPOUTOF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRSTAID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT. OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYES FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKiN CONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY WASH SKIN WITH SOAPAND LARGEAMOUNTS WATER OF ¯ IF INHALED. TOFRESH GET AIR IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/ORSEEKMEDICAL ATTENTION.KEEPOUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRSTAID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYESFREELY WITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKIN CONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKIN FREELY WITHWATER ¯ IF INHALED, GETTO FRESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS. AND IS IMMEDIATELY GIVEWATER.. IN ALL CASES. CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/OR SEEKMEDICAL A'ITENTION. KEEPOUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRSTAID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT. OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYESFREELYWITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKIN CONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY WASH SKIN WITH SOAPAND LARGEAMOUNTS WATER OF ¯ IF INHALED. GETTO FRESH AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS. AND IS WASH OUT MOUTH WITH WATER. IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/OR SEEKMEDICAL ATTENTION.KEEPOUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. FIRSTAID: ¯ IN CASE EYECONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH EYESFREELYWITHWATER ¯ IN CASE SKIN CONTACT, OF IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKINFREELY WITHWATER ¯ IF INHALED, TOFRESH GET AIR ¯ IF SWALLOWED PERSON CONSCIOUS. AND IS IMMEDIATELY GIVE WATER. IN ALL CASES, CONTACT POISON CONTROL A CENTER AND/OR SEEKMEDICAL ATTENTION.KEEPOUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

DANGER Chapter4 #18 6 ml SODIUM SILICATE Na2SiO ° 5H20 3

READ SIDE PANELBEFORE USING.CAUSES SKIN, MUCOUSMEMBRANE SEAND VERE EYE IRRITATION. HARMFUL SWALLOWED. IF INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

DANGER #40 6 ml

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

Ca(OH) 2

READSIDE PANEL BEFORE USING. CAUSESBURNS. ESPECIAL ON SK!NI "V WET CORROSIVE. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. MAY FATAL INHALED. BE IF

WARNING #41 6 ml CALCIUM NITRATE Ca(NO3) ¯ H20 2

READ SIDE PANEL BEFORE USING.CAUSES EYE,SKIN, AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE IRRITATION. MAY HARMBE FUL ~F SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

Chapter5

#42

6 ml

CITRIC AcID-t-

C6H807° H20

WARNING READSIDE PANEL BEFORE USING. CAUSESEYE AND SKIN IRRITATION. WARNING

READ S~DEPANELBEFORE USING.CAUSES EYE. SKIN, AND MUCOUSMEMBRANE IRRITATION. MAYBE HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

6 ml

FERROUS SULFATE

FeSO ¯ 7H20 4

WARNING

METHYLENE BLUE

H18C1N3S°3H20 C16

Chapter6

READ S~DEPANELBEFORE USING. CAUSES EYE AND SKIN IRRITATION. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED. INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

WARNING

POTASSIUM IODIDE

KI

READ SIDE PANELBEFORE USING.CAUSES EYE, SKIN, AND MUCOUSMEMBRANE IRRITATION. HARMFUL IF INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN.

Page 56

APPENDIX C A NOTE TO ADULTS AND PARENTS Youhave wisely chosento purchasethe NSI XM4000chemistry set. With this set, you have started your child on the path of learning about SCIENCE the wondersfound in the world of chemistry, biology and physics. But remember and also, too little knowledge can be a dangerousthing. Real scientists use powerful tools, substanceswhich can be poisons and may cause harm if misused or misapplied. Becauseof this, the WARNINGSthis set are REAL.They apply to the materials on WHEN USED LARGER IN QUAN]I! IES! BUT, that is not the case here! HERE'SWHY!The amounts are deliberately made small and dilute. They are less LIKELYto cause harmbecauseof the limited quantity and form. BUT,westill want YOUANDYOUR CHILDto READ,HEED ANDUNDERSTAND instructions given you in the set. In this way, we trust the that POWERFUL chemicals may be SAFELY USED,in many fun experiments. Remember, too, if you have any questions about CHEMICAL HEALTH ANDSAFETY contact your local physician or Poison Control Center, or Natural Science Industries.

Chapter 7

Acid Base and Solutions .............................................................................................................. Section - The Scale Indicators 1 pH and .......................................................................... Section 1A Dilution an ............................................................................................ of Acid Section 2 - Natural Indicators ............................................................................................ Section 3 - Natural Indicators ............................................................................................ Section 4 - Other Natural Indicators .................................................................................. Section 5 - Testing Acids Bases for and ............................................................................ Section 6 - Testing Water pH Rain for Value .................................................................... Section 7 - Testing pH Other the of Chemicals .................................................................. Titration, Quantitative .................................................................................................... A Method Section 1 - Preparation a Standard Solution of Base ........................................................ Section 2 - Testing Vinegar Solutions ................................................................................ Section 3 - How Acetic is in Vinegar? Much Acid .............................................................. Section 4 - Comparing Different Brands Vinegar of .......................................................... Section 5 - How Base in Antacid Much is Tablets? .......................................................... Section 6 - Different BrandsAntacid of .............................................................................. Electrochemistry Section 1 Section 1 ASection 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8 -

page 32 page 32 page 33 page 34 page 34 page 35 page 35 page 35 page 36 page 37 page 37 page 37 page 38 page 39 page 40 page 40

Chapter 8

Chapter 9 Chemicalssupplied in your microplate are: Well B-l: Cobalt Chloride Well B-2: CalciumNitrate Well B-3: Ferrous Sulfate Well B-4: MethyleneBlue Well B-5: Phenolphthalein Well B-6: Universal Indicator Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C

........................................................................................................................ page 42 page 42 Detecting .......................................................................................................... page 43 Detecting Flow Electrons the of ...................................................................... page 44 ASimple .................................................................................................. Cell page 44 ASimple Battery .............................................................................................. page 45 Another ................................................................................................ Battery page 45 Activity Metals of .............................................................................................. page 46 Other Electrochemical Reactions .................................................................... page 47 CorrosionDifferent of Metals .......................................................................... page 48 ACorrosion .............................................................................................. Pair page 49 page 53 page 55

AnswersExperiment to Questions .............................................................................................. The Periodic of Elements Table .................................................................................................... ANote Adults Parents to and ......................................................................................................

Page 55

II

CHAPTER1

Thesafest wayto handleANY chemicalis to treat it as if it were '1'!!!~ )lOS'r l)i~tl)l.¥ I~OISON

APPENDIX B THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOBEL GASES

Introduction _A_W~O_RD PARENTS TO This laboratory manualis prepared with one main concern: SAFETY! In recent years the ecological and health sciences have stated that exposure to certain chemicals, either in work, school, or at home, can cause serious health problems. Yet youngscientists needthe "handson" experience,the thrill of ex* perimentation, and the satisfaction of discovery which is possible only through labs. The MicroChemistry approach has been adopted by high schools and colleges throughout the United States. The use of small amounts of chemicals to investigate the workings of chemistry in no way lessens the excitement of experimentation. Yet, this approach reducesthe possibility of exposure the exof perimenter to harm from chemicals necessary for the experiment itself. This is not to say that ALL CHEMICALS CHEMICAL and PROCESSES the MicroChemistry approach are absolutely in safe. __.ALL CH.~MICALS AND PROCEDURES HAVE A POTENTIAL TO CAUSE HARM. MicroChemistrylessens that possibility by reducing, considerably, the amount materials used. By using plasticware, of minimal amounts glassware, by eliminating the use of fire or of burners andrestricting the use of heat, an additional safety factor is provided. MicroChemistryequipmentis safe and easy to use. Fromthe scientific viewpoint, for the first time in ANY chemistry set, young experimenters will be able to tell HOW MUCH a substancereacts or is present rather than only lookof ing at generalproperties. Some the experiments in this manualare: of QUALITATIVE This means that if a test is doneyou will, to tell if starch is present a food. in

Follow these simple rules to insure that your interest in chemistry will not be stoppedby an injury or sickness causedby mishandling your experiment.

SafetyRules

1) NEVER ALLOW A CHILD TO EAT ANY CHEMICAL OR THE PRODUCTSOF THEIR EXPERIMENT! NEVER ALLOW THEM TO EAT FOOD WHEN YOU ARE EXPERIMENTING. DO NOT ALLOW ANY LIQUID TO BE DRUNK WHILE EXPERIMENTATION IS BEING CONDUCTED. 2) CAUTION A CHILD NEVERTO HANDLEA CHEMICAL WITH THEIR BARE HANDS. USE A SCOOP OR FOLLOW DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A PLASTIC SCOOP TO MEASURE OUT SOLID CHEMICALS. 3) LIQUID CHEMICALS ARE ALWAYSDISPENSED WITH A SPECIAL PIPETTE. USE ONLY DROPS OF CHEMICAL FROM THIS PIPETTE. DO NOT USE THIS PIPETTE OR ANY OTHER EQUIPMENTIN THIS SET FOR OTHER PURPOSES! 4) ALWAYS WORKWITH GOGGLES.

/

" mA iV A

NONMETALS - ................................... V A ~ WA VI~ A

4.003 \ 0.122 --

0.00018 H.

10.81 0.083 2.34

~-12.011 I 2[0.077 I 210.070 BH2.267

el.J0.001 Nl~10.00, 0l~10002 FJ,0.001

] 130.974

~5 9;9--~~.998-~ I ;10.066 I z10.072

~ I ~ 0.~0

20~

0~.7

IB

29 COPPER

I

]

~

I ~n~5

I . 132.06

I ~10.~04 I q0099 ~-"~" I I ~I I

] I 35 453

I 39948 I~ 0.191

lib 65.38 z8 0.133 7.13

"~

~

~+~+:~

I -

0.125 8.90

.

63.546 0.!28 8.96 Cu

1+2+ 47 SILVER

J2 I I 8l ZnJ ~!J

~A~

°.°°4 "I"I

46 PALLA01U M

5) CHILDREN SHOULD WORKUNDER THE SUPERVISION OF AN ADULTAT ALL TIMES. 6) IF THERE IS A SPILL OF ANY CHEMICAL, THE AREA SHOULD BE CLEANED THOROUGHLY. 7) WASTE CHEMICALS FROM EXPERIMENTS AND MATERIALS USED TO CLEAN AN AREA OF SPILL OR ACCIDENT SHOULD BE DISPOSED OF IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE MANNER. 8) IT IS IMPORTANTTO COVERCLOTHINGWITH A PROTECTIVE LAYER OF CLOTH, PLASTIC OR RUBBER. YOU SHOULDOBTAIN AN APRON (LIKE A WORKSHOP APRON) AND WEAR IT WHILE YOU WORKWITH YOUR CHEMISTRY SET. A PROTECTIVE PIECE OF PLASTIC SHEET SHOULD BE USED UNDER YOUR WORK AREA TO PROTECT THE SURFACE YOU ARE WORKING ON.

106.4 0.138 12.02 Pd

2+.3+4+

107.868 0.144 18 0.149 10 50 ~g 8.65

79 GOLD

Cdl;~

J~l

80 MERCURY

t95.o9 I

0.138

196.967 ; 200.59 28 1,810.!44 0~~ 19.3 Au '8 13.546 Hg

~~

~

0.~

o~.1

~÷"......

1'1

¯ NOTE. Symbols &narnes usedare assignedby IUPAC O, fferent namessymbols frequentlyused/n U.S.& C.I.S. (fom~erly & are the U.S.S.R.)

KEY

ELEMENT NAME 66 DYSPROSIUM 67 HOLMIUM 68 ERBIUM 69 THULIUM 70 YTTERBIUM ATOMIC NUMBER "ATOMIC MASS (AMU)

ELECTRON O,STR,BUT,O

for example,be able

Some the experimentsin this manualare: of QUANTITATIVE This means that youngchemistswill be able to tell, for example, HOW MUCH starch there is in a sample of food.

Prior to the MicroChemistry approach, QUANTITATIVE experiments by youngscientists were not possible. Even though MicroChemistry is safer than the chemistry whichrequires morematerial, it is important to realize that you are STILL handling some potentially harmful materials.

Whileit is fitting that your child learns some ideas andprinciples about chemistry while experimenting with his/her new set, it is important that he/she have FUN while exploring and discovering! Throughout this Laboratory Manual, questions have been provided to help the experimenter "HOME on the IN" principles of chemistry. Some answersare given right in the experiment, while other answerscan be found in the Appendix at the end of the Laboratory Manual. It is hopedthat by providing interesting questions along with the experiments, the young chemist will develop a basic knowledge chemistry along with the workings of chemistry. of

162.50 0.177 8.550 Dy

3+

2 164.930 z 167.26 z 168.934 ~ 2 8 8 8 8 17304 8 '8 0.176 18 0.194 ,8 0.177 ~8 0.175 HO;~1 9.066 Er ~o 9.321 Tm ~ 6.965 Yb 32 8.795 8 8 8 8

2 3+ 2 3+ 2 FERMIUM 3+ 2 2+3+ 2 EINSTEINIUM100 101 MENDELEVIUM NOBELIUM 102

-,'-29

COPPER

-.,~-'- K SHELL

98 CALIFORNIUM 99

251.08

--

2

254.088

--

18 _

~ 257.095

8 2 --

14

Cf 28

--

Es32 29

~ 258 Fm 32

)8 __ 8 2 --

Md 3~

18 32

8 255.093

-8 2 --

2 8

'63.546 "ATOMIC RADIUS (NM), .,.-0.128 "DENSITY ~) (GiCM -- ..-8.96

MAJOR -OXIDATION STATES

Cu

18

OUTERMOST ~SHEI.L

No 32 32

8 2

ELEMENT SYMBOL ¯ Values for atomic mass, etc. rounded to the nearest lO00th. are

Page 1

Page 54

APPENDIX B THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

CHAPTER2

A Word to You live

A WORD TO THE "CHEMIST"

The "Chemist"

SAFETY

No matter what the experiment, equipment, or procedure, one thing should be the first to think about:

IA 1 HYDROGEN 1 008 0 053 0.0001 H IIA

¯

SAFETY

Follow these simple rules to insure that your interest in chemistry will not be stopped by an injury or sickness caused by mishandling your experiment.

in an EXCITINGworld.

METALS

6.941

9 012

2 0.152

0.5341+

0 111

Li

I 21

Be

i~848 U

11

SODIUM 1_~2 MAGNESIUM J I 10 160

TRANSITION ELEMENTS

0.192

I 1,124.3°5

] 1

l

J~'~S~U-Mt '

0.227 0.862 I el0 197 KI e/,.S5 0 16 ~.989

Iv B SC~.=UM

VB

V~ B

V, B

VIIIB

47.90 I ;I 50.942 21 I 51._~96 54 I ;I 55 I ;I 58 I 21 938 847 933

Sc

4540145

C

874~1"1 "1'01 I1' ='1"1Mn{"~ °

~92.906 I ,~1 0 ;43 ~9594 I ,~1 0 136 ~ 96906 I ,~1 0.136 ~101.07 I ,;I 0 133

8.92

co

~ ST.0.TIUM ] 3~ YTTNIUM 91.22 0 160 ~102906 I ,~1 0 135

1.532

R"

2.54

Srl ~14469 ~'~$-~Ei~-6 ......

;8 174 967 ~8 0 173 ; lib

55 CESIUM ....... 132 905 0.265 1 873 Cs

1,*

~

137 33 0.217

~2849 ;I 180.948 I 0.143 I ~1 0.137 0n56 I~1 I

I ~ 0.137

I;I I

I

87

FRANCIUM ~ 226 025

223 02 0.27

0.220

256099

I ~

It is a world full of the latest in TECHNOLOGY use of (the scientific knowhow every day life) and invention. Many of the in things in today's world were never considered to be possible a few years ago. The advancements in technology could only be possible by advancement in the basic sciences. For example, scientists found that by treating silicon wafers with certain chemicals that the electrical conducting ability of the silicon wafers was changed in certain ways. This discovery opened up a whole world of "electronic micro chips" which helped in the development of computers and other electronic devices. Your chemistry set is an excellent starting point to advance your skills as a scientist. The world of science is a world of questions. While you are working on your experiments in this manual, a series of questions will help you understand the hows and whys of what you are seeing. The answers to some questions will be given right after the questions in the experiments. The answers to other questions will be given in the Appendix section at the end of the Laboratory Manual. The world of SCIENCE is the world of OBSERVATION. Scientific Observation means that the experimenter looks for and writes down (records) all the changes which happen that can be seen, and records how much these changes can be measured (quantifies). Everything that scientists do depends on their ability to make careful observations and measurements about their experiences. We call these experiences EXPERIMENTS. experAn iment is a carefully controlled set of situations which allows a scientist to see what effects a change in a single VARIABLE will have on the rest of the experiment. A variable is a single part of the experiment. and the effects of a change of things important to a plant. We would start with two sets of plants. The two sets of

SAFETY RULES

NEVER EAT ANY CHEMICAL OR THE PRODUCTSOF YOUR EXPERIMENT! NEVER EAT FOOD WHEN YOU ARE EXPERIMENTING. DO NOT DRINK ANY LIQUID WHILE YOU ARE EXPERIMENTING.

2)

NEVER HANDLE A CHEMICAL WITH YOUR BARE HANDS. USE A CHEMICAL SCOOP. FOLLOWDIRECTIONS ON PAGE 4 FOR MAKING A PLASTIC SCOOP TQ MEASURE OUT SOLID CHEMICALS. DISPENSE LIQUID CHEMICALS WITH CARE. USE ONLY DROPS OF CHEMICAL FROM A SPECIAL MEDICINE DROPPER CALLED A PIPETTE. THESE PLASTIC PIPETTES ARE PROVIDEDIN YOUR CHEMISTRYSET. USE CHEMISTRY SET EQUIPMENT FOR EXPERIMENTS IN YOURCHEMISTRYLAB MANUALONLY. ALWAYSWORKWITH GOGGLES, IN PLACE, OVER YOUR EYES. YOU SHOULD WORKUNDER THE SUPERVISION OF AN ADULTAT ALL TIMES. IF THERE IS A SPILL OF ANY CHEMICAL, THE AREA SHOULD BE CLEANED THOROUGHLY. MATERIALS USED TO CLEAN THE AREA SHOULD BE DISPOSED OF IN A SAFE MANNER. IT (S 1~4P(~F~TANT ~C')\II=R Y(")l IR WORK T~ ARFA PROTECTIVE NEWSPAPER,LAYER OF CLOTH OR PLASTIC.

3)

4) 5) 6) 7)

RAREEARTH ELEMENTS

57 LANTHANUM CERIUM 58 138.906 LANTHANIDE 0.188 SERIES 6 145

3+

plants have to be identical to each other. They must be of the same species, size, age, etc. One set would be a CONTROL, or standard. The control set would be compared with an EXPERIMENTAL group. The control plants would be treated in a normal manner. An experimental set of plants would have the same treatment as the control, EXCEPTFOR ONE PART. This is the VARIABLE. In our experiment, let's select temperature as the variable. In the experiment, the control and the experimental plants would have the identical soil, receive the sameamount of water, and have the same lighting. The temperature surrounding the experimental plants, however, would be different than the control plants. By making careful observations, the scientist would be able to see what effect temperature has on the growth of plants. He could do this by comparing the experimental plants to the control plants. In this laboratory manual you will always be asked to compare an EXPERIMENTAL to a CONTROL.

9)

140 12 0.183 6.657 Ce

3+ ~+

59PRASEODYMIUM NEOOYMIUM PROMETHIUM SAMARIUM 60 61 62 2 144.24 2 ; 140.908 144 913 8 8 8 150.4 ~e 0.182 0.183 0.181 ~ 0.180 Pr ;~ 6.90 Nd 8' 6.64 7.22 Pm ~ 7.520 Sm 8

63 EURDPIUM 64 GADOLINIUM TERBIUM 65

2 151 96 8 157.25 0. 204 ~8 0 180 5.243 Eu 25 7.900 Gd 2 3+ 2+.3+

DISPOSE OF USED CHEMICALS IN A MANNER WHICH IS ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE. TALK TO YOUR PARENTS OR SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHER ABOUT THE BEST WAY TO DISPOSE OF CHEMICALS.

158.925 0.178

ACTINIUM 90 THORIUM 91 ~ 232038 227.028 ; 231 036 8 8 ACTINIDE 0 188 ~ 0.180 0.161 SERIES 10.07 AC Th 3;:8 1537 ~z~8 11.7 2 4+ 3+ 2 4. 5*

89

2 2 34. 2+ 3+ PROACTINIUMURANIUM 93 NEPTUNIUM 94 PLUTONIUM N5 AMERICIUM 96 CURIUM 92

18.23

13+

Tb

: 97 BERKELIUM

32I Pa ;'~1 1895U

~! 238.029 ~8~0.139

~ 3+4+5+6*

237048 ~ 244.064 ~ 243.061 ~ 0.157 ~8 0.131 32 ~ PU ~! 13.67 Am 9 20.25 Np ~ 19.816 9

3+4+642 3÷4~6~ 2 3..4.~

2 8

247.070 13.51 C~

247.070 14.78 Bk

CHAPTER 3

THE MICROCHEMISTRY SYSTEM

2

The MicroChemistry System Your chemistryis different! set It uses latest methods experimental the in chemistry. These methods developed make were to chemistrysaferscia ence. Page 2

Page53

The MicroChemistry System uses smaller amounts chemiof cals than other chemistry sets. Thehazards glass havebeen of minimized the useof plastic labware.If a chemical by reaction mustbe heated, hot water will provide the needed heat. Open flames or burners are NEVER in MicroChemistry. used By usingMicroChemistry will be able to do more you experiments,get better results in a shorter amount time andhave of a safer environment whichto work. Yourworkin the laborain tory will bemore efficient. Thatmeans will be ableto have you more time to explorechemistryandhavemore doing it! fun Youwill need followingmaterialsto complete series the this of experiments. SECTION - PREPARATION LABORATORY 1 OF EQUIPMENT LIST OF MATERIALS [] -I Microplate (from your chemistry set) Three plastic pipettes(from your chemistry set) [] Smallpieceof cotton (obtain at grocery drugstore) or fl Pair of scissors(from home) Measuring (from your chemistryset) cup [] Distilled water(fromgrocery) --1 Rubbing alcohol or isopropylalcohol (from grocery or drugstore) [] Goggles ~ Storage case YOUR WORKSPACE MicroChemistry two basic tools: uses the microplate the plastic pipette. and

Chapter 8 - TITRATION:A QUANTITATIVE METHOD

SECTION 5 10) Theactivity of a metalpair canbe determined the size by of the movement the compass of needle. Thegreater the swingof the needle,the more active the metalpair. a 11) Inactive metalsare useful in applications where resistanceto corrosionis important.Inactive metalswould have a longeruseful life thanactive metals. SECTION 6

~000000000 ~000000000 cO00000000 o O00000000

0

0 O~ 0 0 O~ 0 0 Oc 0 0 Oo

SECTION 1

5)

A solution of sodium bicarbonate conducts electricity becausesodium bicarbonateionizes in water. If a drop of UniversalIndicator is added sodium to bicarbonate, inthe dicator turns blue to indicate the presence a base. of Sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and potassium carbonate are common bases. Individual tests with Universal Indicator will show which of the salt solutionsin the chemistry are bases. set

7)

Figure #1A BE SURE TO WEARGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! Thetray is divided into two parts. Eachhasa series of rowsand columns. This makes microplatevery orderly. It the also makes groupof experimental a chemicalreactions easyto compare a control group. Changes color, or any other to in changes a reaction can be easily seenwhen in compared the to control. Thebottom row of the microplate contains the various chemicals will be using in your experiments. you Thesechemicals are permanently in this rowof large microwells. kept Thechemicals suppliedin the B wells of your microplate are: B-1: CobaltChloride B-2: Calcium Nitrate B-3: Ferrous Sulfate B-4: Methylene Blue B-5: Phenolphthalein B-6: Universal Indicator Theremainder your chemicals supplied in plastic of are vials (small plastic bottles) contained yourchemistry in set. There are 48 "small wells" or depressions in the MICROPLATE. These are numbered columns #1 through as #12. These also lettered as rowsA, C, D. Duringtesting are B, of reactions,youcanidentify individual reaction"wells" by using the rowand column. example, For "Smallwell A-7 or Smallwell C-10". There are 12 "large wells" or depressions in the MICROPLATE. Theselarge wells are located directly down from the small well section. Thelarge wells are numbered as columns 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 1, Thesecolumn numbers the large wells appearat the for base of the MICROPLATE the bottom edge. The deep near wells are lettered as rowsA andB. Youcanidentify individual large wells by the same method identified the small wells, you for example, "Largewell A-6or Largewell B-2".

SECTION 2

2)

Sodium acetateis the name the salt formed of when sodiumbicarbonate reacts with acetic acid. Thegasformed is carbon dioxide.

The metals which were not coated would be expectedto corrode.Metal whichwaswrapped zinc wire did not corin rode because moreactive zinc metal corrodedbefore the the metalwith whichthe zinc wasin contact.The zinc functioned as a SACRIFICIAL METAL.

SECTION 8 SECTION 4

4)

5)

Household products whichtest positive with UniversalIndicator are acids. Common are citrus juices, vinegar acids and soda water. The amount base in a substancecan of bedetermined the process titration. by of

Themetals corrodedin the expectedmanner.Changes in the solutions wouldalso be noteddue to a change the in pH of the solution as indicated by the changein the Universal Indicator color change.Evidence corrosion of wouldbe seenon the nail similar to previousexperiments onthe activity of metals.

SECTION 5

8)

The of a solution will varywith the substance pH beingtested. ThepHcanbe estimated comparing color in the by the test solution with the indicator with the standard colors of the indicator as determined the previous in series of experiments.

SECTION 6 Basescommonly found in the home are milk of magnesia, household ammonia, milk. and

Chapter 9 - ELECTROCHEMISTRY SECTION 1 7) Thecompass needle moves the left or to the right. The to movement indicates that a current is flowing throughthe wire fromoneendof the battery to the other. 10) When connections the are reversed, the needle moves in the oppositedirection. As electrons move througha wire they createa magnetic field whichaffects the compass. SECTION 2

Figure#1 Microplate Unit THE MICROPLATE

PLASTICPIPETTE (medicinedropper) MicroChemistry a plastic pipette, suchas in Figure#2. uses BULB

6)

STEM

The first is a plastic tray called a microplate. Thistray is very sturdy. Thetray hasshallow wells arranged order of in rows (running across) and columns(running up and down). These wells are usedinsteadof test tubes, flasks andbeakers. SeeFigure #1A.

"-,

Figure #2

_

Theneedle of the galvanometer moves responseto a in flow of electrons. By comparing the movement noted in this experiment the movement the previous experito in ment,the direction of electron flow can be determined in SECTION 3. Electrons flow from the NEGATIVE TERMINAL the batof tery or cell to the POSITIVE TERMINAL the battery or of cell. Page 52

Page 3

SECTION 13 chloride with calcium hydroxide 5) The reaction of ammonium will produce ammonia gas. The ammonia gas dissolves in the moistened filter paper and causes the Universal Indicator to change color.

SECTION 4 3) Electrolytes causethe indicator to glow while non-electrolytes do not causethe indicator to show conductivity.

9) The combinations of chemicals which produce a precipitate

or gas gives an indication that a chemical reaction has taken place.

SECTION 14 4) & 5) The filter paper which had been soaked in Universal Indicator will changecolor as the ammonia reacted with is the vaporsof vinegar.

The pipette is madeof POLYETHYLENE. form of plastic This is soft andis very DUCTILE (flexible). Examine of the pipettes provided in your chemistry set. one Youwill observe that it has an enlarged area called a BULB,a long tubelike section called a STEM.You maywish to form a microtip on one of your pipettes. This can be done by pulling the tubelike portion of the microtip until it stretches into a thinner diameterandthen cutting the lower portion off with scissors, allowing only the very thin tip to be the endof the stem.

The chemicals in your chemistry set will most often be in SOLUTION. This means that the chemical has been DISSOLVED water. Solutions of chemicals react faster and more in evenly than if the chemical were in the powdered solid form. or In fact, many the experiments of which will be donein this manual would not be possible if the chemicalswere not in solution. Your pipettes are kept in the receptacles provided in your lab station stand. Making a Chemical Scoop

SECTION 5 7) & 8) The reactants would be electrolytes since their solutions showed conduction with the conductivity tester. Oneof the productsof the reaction is a precipitate. Precipitates do not dissolve or ionize in water. If no ionization takes place, a solution of a chemical doesnot showconductivity.

6) Thevinegar will eventually tint the Universal Indicator back

to greenand finally to orangeor red. The side of the paper closest to the vinegar vaporswilt change color first. The reaction of householdvinegar (acid) with calcium hydroxide (a base) and ammonium chloride would produce solution which would cause the Universal Indicator to return to its greencolor. SECTION 15

When is necessaryfor you to use a solid in an experiit ment, the chemical solid can be transferred by the use of a CHEMICALSCOOP. We can very easily make a CHEMICAL SCOOP of another pipette. out 1) Hold a plastic pipette by the stem. 2) With scissors, cut through both sides of the pipette at an angle. SeeFigure #3 for a picture of the procedure. The cut pipette makes excellent chemical scoopfor an any solids whichwill be usedin the rest of the experimentsin the laboratory manual.

Chapter 7 - ACID AND BASESOLUTIONS SECTION 1 Figure #2A 3) By diluting the acid by a factor of 10, the amount acid per of unit volumeis decreasedby an equal amount. of 7) By diluting the base by a factor of 10, the amount acid per unit volumeis decreasedby an equal amount. 10) TheUniversal Indicator will turn different colors dependent on the amount acid or basein the solution in eachwell. of The plastic PIPETTE will be used to dispense drops of chemical liquids to the microplate wells where your chemical reactions will take place. The use of the PIPETTE just the is sameas the use of a conventional medicine dropper or eye dropper. When tip is placed below the surface of a liquid the and the bulb squeezed BETWEEN THUMBAND FOREFINGER,and then released, the PIPETTE will draw up liquid into the bulb. The pipette can then be used to deliver drops of liquid or chemicals to your MICROPLATE wells.

7) The Universal Indicator paper would showthat the reaction

would produce a basic gas, ammonia. You would know a reaction occurred by the changein the color of the paper.

/

Figure #3 Makinga Filter Funnel Wecan make filter a funnel from another pipette. 1) Hold a plastic pipette by the stem. 2) With scissors, cut through the entire pipette straight across the bulb of the pipette. 3) Place a small piece of cotton from a cotton swabor cotton ball in the bottomof bulb. SeeFigure #4 for a picture of the procedure.

Chapter 6 - EXPERIMENTS WITH SOLUTIONS PRE-LAB: 1) Any metallic alloy is an example of a solid solution. Stainless steel, carbonsteel, gold jewelry, etc., is a solid solution.

11) Phenolphthalein different than Universal Indicator since it is has only one changeof color. Phenolphthalein is a single chemicalindicator. Universal Indicator is a mixture of several indicators.

SECTION 4 2) Air is a goodexample a solution of a gas in a gas. In the of case ef a!r, nitrogen is the so!vent since it !s in greater amount the air. in Eachindicator changes color at only one concentration of acid or base. Often, a single chemical indicators maybe found in more than one source. Slowlyrelease bulb anddraw liquid upinto pipette

SECTION 2

CUT ~

SOLUTION TO BE

4) Pure water is not an electrolyte.

Tap water is not pure water. Try to detect conduction with distilled water. There should be little or no conductivity. Tap water contains some salts and chemicals addedto prevent bacterial contamination.

SECTION 5

4) Youwill be able to tell if eachproductis acid or baseby the

color of the Universal Indicator. It is very unusualto find a product which is neutral.

To deliver drops, gently squeeze bulb.

which 7) Non-electrolytes are solutions of either compounds have carbon in the molecule or are precipitates. Electrolytes are solutions of inorganic compounds which dissolve and ionize in water to form chargedparticles.

Figure #2B CUT -: SECTION 6 8) An indicator which turns color near the range of pure water would be most useful. Ask your teacher about the normal pHof rain. The pipette can be used over again by simply rinsing the stem and bulb between chemicals. Water and chemical solutions do not "stick" to the plastic inside the pipette the waythey might if the pipette wasmadeof glass or rubber. The plastic surface of the pipette is NON-WETTING. meansthat all This the contents of the pipette can be dispensed with none of the chemicalleft behind. Page 4 Figure #4

TrON

SECTION 3 Conductorsconduct electricity. electricity. Non-conductorsdo not conduct Page ..51

Delicatefiltering of liquids into test tubesor into wells of the MICROPLATE be accomplished using the microfunnel. can Figure #4B shows how a funnel stand is made from a small piece of folded card stock.

\.._../"

Noticehow opens allow the pipette to enter the chemical it to vial. Noticehow closes it back after youtakethe pipette out. up You have usea pencilor ball point pen'spoint to inimay to tially openandwidenthe "H" cuts in the seals so that your pipettecaneasily be inserted into the vial well. Thechemical eachvial well is either on small strips of in special paperor as solids in precisely measured amounts. Lookat oneof the plastic vials (small plastic bottles). Notice that eachhas a screw-on,screw-off cap. Thecap is a safety cap. To get it off, simply pushdown the plastic cap on and unscrew cap. If you turn the cap clockwise it gets the tighter. If youturn the capcounter-clockwise comes it off. Figure #4A& 4B Push Down Push Down

SECTION 9 7) & 8) The Universal Indicatorturns two different colors in the two wells. Thepositive electrode well produces oxygen gas (whichis soluble) andan orange red color is seenwhen or the indicator is present. Thenegativeelectrodeproduces hydrogen is coloredblue. and SECTION 10

SECTION 4 oxygengas is 9) As the hydrogenperoxide is decomposed, generated.As the oxygen gas bubblesthrough the methyleneblue solution the methylene is decolorized. blue SECTION 5

8) As air goes into the methyleneblue solution, a small 1) Thelast or control well is left aloneto show original the

color of the copper sulfate solution beforethe reactionhas occurred. SECTION 6 2) & 3) The copper solution did not change the control or copper in wire well. Thewell which containedthe zinc wire faded when zinc was the left in the solution. 4) & 5) Asthe zinc wire reacted with the copper in solution, the ion zinc metal in the wire became ion and dissolvedinto zinc the solution. Zinc in aqueous solution is colorless. The copperwire in the coppersolution showed change. no amount oxygen the air causes methylene of in the blue to de-color in the same as in SECTION part 9. Oxygen way 4, gas is the only gaswhichdecolorizesmethylene blue.

A Measuring Cup Oftensolid material will be requiredin your experimentation. In order to weigh correct amounts solid materials, out of youwill need usethe plastic measuring SeeFigure#5. to cup.

3) Liver andpotatocontainthe natural catalyst catalasewhich

aids in the decomposition hydrogen of peroxideto water and oxygen.Thegas, oxygen,can be identified by oxygen'sability to decolorize methylene blue. SECTION 8

Turn

6) When leaf is exposed light, photosynthesis the to occurs.

Photosynthesis produces oxygen one of its products. as Theoxygen decolorizesthe methylene blue solution. SECTION9

To Open Figure #6 Figure #5 - Plastic Measuring Cup These measuring cupsare providedin your chemistryset andare printed on their sides with different lines andmeasurements. Thereare measurement lines for teaspoons (tsp) and tablespoons (tbs) andalso measurement for fluid ounces lines (fl. oz.). There measurement for cubiccentimeters are lines (cc) and milliliters (ml). for Always keepthe plastic measuring cupscleanand dry. PART TWO Preparing Chemical the Vial Well BE SURE TO WEARGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SECTION! All of the chemical vial wells andchemical vials in this chemistry will produce chemical set the solutionsyouwill usein your experiments. These special vial wells are actually the large microplate wells in the "B" rowof your microplate. Each the chemical of wells is capped with an "H" seal, and is labeled as to what chemical contains. it The other separate vials in your chemistry will produce set other chemicalswhich you will needin experiments.Eachof the chemical vials are also capped with an "H" seal. Eachvial is labeled to what as chemical contains. it Affixedto the top of the vial well is the vial sealingdisk. Lookclosely at the sealingdisk. Youwill observe that thereis a small"H" shaped in the top of the seal. Thisis the "H" sepcut turn sealingdisk. The"H" cut in the seal is a specialopening the stem for and tip of your pipette. Try pushingthe tip end of your pipette through "H" cut in the seal. the Page 5

To Close

Chapter 5 - THEGASEOUS PHASE MATTER OF SECTION 1

5) Thecarbondioxidereacts with the calciumhydroxidesolu8) Asthe pressure the gasis increased,the volume the on of

gas trapped in the column decreases.Pressure and volume INVERSELY are related. Thehigher the pressure, the smaller the volume. SECTION 2 tion to formcalcium carbonate, whiteprecipitate. Thefora mation a white precipitate when gasis bubbled of a through calciumhydroxidesolution provesthe presence carbon of dioxide. SECTION 10 with an acid pro9) Thereaction of the calciumcarbonate ducescarbondioxide gas. hydroxide reacts with carbondioxide to produce a 10) Calcium whiteprecipitate of calciumcarbonate. of 11) Theprecipitation reaction hasbeenthe method testing for carbon dioxide in SECTION also this section. 9 and

When solvent is added the vial, the chemicals a to dissolve uponshakingthe microplate, and formsthe chemicalsolution whichyouwill usein your experiments. Thechemical's name printed on the label on the exterior is portion of eachvial well. Specialreceptacles providedin are yourlab station standto holdthe microplate its contents. and IMPORTANT NOTE: READ THESE DIRECTIONS BEFOREADDINGANYLIQUID TO YOURCHEMICALS! ADDING SOLVENT Youare now readyto activate your chemical vial wells and your separatechemical vials with either wateror alcohol. Be sureto follow the directionsexactlyso that youwill put the correct liquid into thecorrectchemical vial. You will need gatherthe followingmaterialsto complete to this procedure: MATERIALS --I Observethat someof the chemicalvial wells in your microplate and your separate vials have YELLOW TOPS. Observe that some the chemical vials wells in your of microplate and your separatevials have BLUE TOPS Two plastic pipettes (medicine droppers) fromyour set. One plastic measuring from your set cup Sharp pointedpencil or ball point pen Alcohol- either isopropyl alcohol(rubbing alcohol)or ethyl alcohol, fromyour local pharmacy grocerystore. or Distilled waterfrom your local supermarket pharmacy. or

6) Asthe gasin the bulbof the pipette is decreased, volthe

umeof the gas decreases. Weknow that the volume decreases because liquid level goes into the pipette. the up Thevolume a gas is DIRECTLY of related to the temperature of the gas. the of 10) As the air in the bulb is warmed, volume the gas increases. Theair whichis heatedexpands is forced and out into the well of water. Asthe temperature the gasis on increased, volume the gasincreases. the of SECTION 3

SECTION 11

5) The reaction of an acid with sodiumhydrogencarbonate 7) Asthe ammonia vaporsleavethe well, the UniversalIndicator changes from green to blue. As the vinegar vapors leavethe well, the UniversalIndicator changes green from to orange red. or vapor 8) Theammonia travels faster than the vinegar vapor. Theammonia molecule smaller and travels faster than is the vinegar(acetic acid) molecule. produces carbondioxide. Precipitation of calciumhydroxide solution is a good test for the presence carbon of dioxide. SECTION 12 ~ 3) Alka-Seltzeris a solid mixtureof anacid anda carbonate. When Alka-Seltzer® dissolves, the acid and the carthe bonateproduces carbondioxide. Thereaction of this gas with calcium hydroxide wouldshowthe gas to be carbon dioxide. Page 50

APPENDIX A Answers to Experiment Questions Chapter 3 - BASICS

12) The nail which showsthe most changeis the nail which is in a salt solution. In order for nails to change into rust, the iron mustbe able to react with oxygenin the water or oxygenin the air.

SECTION 3A SECTION 2 10) The liquid which has beenaddedto the well remainsin the well. The force of cohesionof water (surface tension) and adhesion the plastic is greater than the force of gravity. to Waterin the large welts has greater mass a larger surand face area. Thewaterin the large wells falls out of the wells. The surface tension of the water is not great enoughto keepthe water in the wells. SECTION 3 11) The nails which were covered with solution showgreater changethan the nails which were only coveredwith water. 12) Copper and aluminum nails are resistant to chemical change. A discoloration shows which chemicals tend to change copper and aluminum.

NOTE:In the top of each of the YELLOW BLUEcaps of or the chemical vial wells or separate chemical vials, there can be seen an "H" shaped letter. This "H" is the place where you will puncture, or makea hole, in the chemical vial well. Youshoulduse a pencil point or a ball point pen to break through this "H", and thereby open up the chemical vial so that you mayadd liquid or take out liquid. The "H" cut will actually seal itself betweenuses. For now, however, go ahead and proceed with the steps outlined next. DIRECTIONS (1) II,~ing the point of a pencil or ball point pen. pokethroughthe plastic inner seal of all the chemicalvial wells which havethe small "H" cut on the inner seals. This will allow you to insert the pipette into these vials and will make easier to fill anduselater. it

3) Youare nowready to fill some the other vials with alcohol. of You may use Isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol or Ethyl alcohol. (Obtain the alcohol from the local pharmacy grocery store.) or Using the same technique as you did in step 2, place 5 ML(live milliliters) of alcohol into the measuring cup. Thenusing your pipette, draw up the 5 MLof alcohol into a pipette and then insert the pipette into ONLY the following vials. PUTTHE ALCOHOL ONLY INTO THE VIALS WHICH HAVE YELLOW COLORED SEALS: Phenolphthalein (#65) Universal Indicator (#70) IMPORTANT: After activation of the chemicals, always keep the microplate flat on its base. Donot store it on edgeor on its side, as the chemicalsmayleak out over time. Be sure to keep the microplate in its pouchwhennot using.

SECTION 5 9) The oxygenion has a negative (-) charge. 10) The hydrogenion has a positive (+) charge. 11) The possible products formed at the positive wire of the battery are: gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen. The gas released is gaseousoxygen. 12) The positive electrode is producing oxygen gas. Hydrogen gas is being producedat the negative electrode. 17) The formula for water gives us the clue. H20tells us that a molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms for every one oxygen. Whenwe decompose water, two times as much hydrogen is produced than oxygen. This is why twice as manybubbles of hydrogencomeout of the solution at the cathode as do oxygenbubbles comeout of the solution at the anode.

Reviewof Terms

MICROPLATE plastic plate containing a series of small - A and large wells in which chemicalsare tested and reactions observed. The wells are arranged in numberedcolumns and lettered rows. PLASTICPIPETTE- A plastic one-piece dropper. The microtip endof the pipette is used1o deliver small droplets of liquids for reactions in the microplate. Enlarge sealswith ball point penso pipette canbeused. "H" Figure #7 2) Find the plastic measuring in your set. Youwill see it is cup marked with various measurements.Using the "ML" measurementscale ("ML" stands for milliliter), fill the cup to the 5 markwith distilled water.

"H" CUTIN RED SEAL //~ L~SERTED "H" CUT RESEALS/

7)

Dish detergent destroys the surface tension of water. The water falls out of the wells. The "wetting" powerof detergent is what makesdetergent a valuable cleaning agent.

SECTION 4

5)

The water once again falls out of the wells. Alcohol also destroys the surface tension of water. The results of this part are similar to SECTION 2.

SECTION 5

5)

The baby powderor flour coated the surface of the water. When the detergent was addedthe surface tension of the water was destroyed and the powder or flour was forced toward the walls of the well. The flour or powdersunk to the bottomof the well.

~ / "HIROUGH ],-J'H" CUT

SECTION 7 Chapter 4 - MODELS A chargedatom is Called an ion. SECTION1 7)

/

Figure #9 Youmay haveto use a pencil or ball point pen's point to initially open and widen the "H" cuts in the seals so that your pipette can easily be inserted into the vials. Each chemical vial contains a few small plastic "mixing beads" which themselves do not dissolve. The "chemical" in eachvial is either on small strips of special paperor as solids in precisely measured amounts. The "miring beads" he~l~ the chemicalsdissolve. When solvent is addedto the vial, the chemicalsdissolve a upon shaking the vial, and form the chemical _solution which you will use in your experiments. The chemical's name printed or~ the label on the exterior is of eachvial.

6)

The electrolysis of aqueouspotassiumiodine produceselementaliodine (12) at the positive electrode. Hydrogen nroducedat the neaative electrode, Iodine is producedat the red electrode. Hydrogen prois ducedat the black electrode. Adding waterto the chemical wells. vial Figure #8 Using your plastic pipettes, and your measuringcup with distilled water in it, drawup (sucking up into the pipette) 5 (five milliliters) of DISTILLED WATER. Now pushthe tip of the pipette through the inner seals with the "H" cut on themand squeeze 5 MLof distilled water into out only the vial wells with the BLUEtops. ADDTHEDISTILLED WATER ONLY TO THE VIAL WELLS WHICH HAVE BLUE COLORED SEALS!These vials which will get the 5 ML of distilled waterare listed below: Methylene Blue(#47) CobaltChloride (#8) Ferrous Sulfate(#44) Calcium Nitrate (#41) Copper Sulfate (#11) Sodium Silicate (#18) Calcium Hydroxide (#40) Citric Acid(#42) Potassium Iodide (#49) Sodium Sulfate (#53) Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate (#57) Ammonium Chloride (#58) Magnesium Sulfate (#64) Sodium Carbonate (#67) Page 6

6)

A 3-D modelis better than a paper or 2-D model since the 3-D modelgives a clearer, moreuseful picture of what the actual molecule believed to look like. The 3-13 modellets is you look at the structure of the molecule.

SECTION 2

11) & 12) The positive electrode producedthe iodine whichtests positive with starch or paperas the indicator. A black color indicates iodine. SECTION 8 7) & 8) The Universal Indicator turns two different colors in the two wells. The positive electrode well produces oxygen gas (which is soluble) and an orange or red color is seen when the indicator is present. The negative electrode produces hydrogenand is colored blue.

4)

The combinatioq of iron and oxygenrequires that the iron and oxygenform an alternating structure of oxygen-ironoxygen-iron-oxygen. The paper model may show this but the 3-D model is moreinformative.

-- SAIq'.'TY CAP C){EMICALI~AI)ER OR POWDER (IN-~IDE VIAL) CItEMICAL MIXING BEADS (INSIDE VIAL)

SECTION 3 11) The nails which were covered with solution showgreater rusting than nails which were only covered with water. The nails tend to be rusty ABOVE line of the solution. The the red-browncolor of the nail is due to the formation of iron oxide or rust.

Figure #10

Page 49

REVIEW: A_D__D_.!.N_G SOLVEN_T_._T_O. THE VIALS IMPORTANT READ THESE DIRECTIONS BEFORE ADDING ANY LIQUID TO YOUR CHEMICALS!

You now are readyto activate your chemical vials or vial wells with either wateror alcohol. Besure to follow the directionsexactly so that youwill put the correctliquid into the correctchemical vial. You will need gatherthe followingmaterialsto complete to this procedure: All of the YELLOW chemicalvial(s) from your chemistryset TOP All of the BLUE chemical TOP vials from your chemistryset All of the plastic seal top envelopes wiresor othermaterial with Two plastic pipettes (medicine droppers) fromyour set Oneplastic measuring (measuring with measurement on it) from your set cup cup marks Sharp pointedpencil or ball point pen Alcohol- either isopropylalcohol(rubbingalcohol)or ethyl alcohol. (Obtainfromyourlocal pharmacy grocery or store) Distilled water(Obtainfrom your local supermarket pharmacy) or NOTE: vials andinside inner tops maybe sealedwith clear tape for added Some protection. Remove tape on the inner top and the puncture with pencil point or ball point penandproceed the instructions below. "H" with STEP - Using point of a pencil or ball point pen,pokethroughthe plastic inner seal of all the chemical 1 the vials whichhavethe small"H" cut onthe innerseals. Thiswill allowyouto insert the pipetteinto thesevials andwill make easierto fill anduselater. it Make sure youput the safety screw-on backonto eachvial after you puncture seal. cap the STEP - Find the plastic measuring in your set. Youwil~ seeit is marked 2 cup with various measurements. Usingthe "ML"measurement ("ML" scale stands milliliter), fill thecupto the ML ma wih distilled wa of _ rk t ter. Using yourplastic pipettes,andyourmeasuring with distilled waterin it, draw (suckup into the pipette) 5 ML(five milliliters) cup up of DISTILLED WATER. pushthe tip of the pipette throughthe inner seals with the "H" cut on themand squeeze 5 MLof Now out distilled water into only the vials with the BLUE tops. ADD THEDISTILLED WATER TOTHE ONLY VIALSWHICH HAVE BLUE TOPS BLUE AND COLORED SEALS! Thesevials whichwill get the 5 MLof distilled water are listed below: ¯ Methylene Blue (#47) ¯ Ferrous Sulfate (#44) ¯ Potassium Iodide (#49) ¯ Citric Acid(#42) ¯ Calcium Nitrate (#41) ¯ Calcium Hydroxide (#40) ¯ Sodium Silicate (#18) ¯ Copper Sulfate (#11) ¯ CobaltChloride(#8) ¯ Sodium Sulfate (#53) ¯ Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate (#57) ¯ Ammonium Chloride (#58)

Repeatthe experimentin SECTIONusing aluminum cop6 or per nails insteadof common nails. iron SECTION - A CORROSION 8 PAIR In this experiment canactually seethe change you occur, just overnight,when different metalsare in close contactwith two one another a salt solution. By useof an indicatorwecansee in if a change occurred the solution,andalso if a change has in hasoccurred the different metals. to Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Aniron nail (or a 3 cm.lengthof iron wire) Analuminum (or a 3 cm.length of aluminum nail wire) Sodium chloride solution. (Prepareyour ownsodium chloridesolution by mixing1/2 teaspoon table salt of with10ml. of water. Stir until all salt is dissolved.) Universal Indicatorsolution Wirewith springclips Microplate Plasticpipette Goggles

BE SURETO WEAR GO.._G_GLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

chloride solution. Place 1/2 1) Fill a plastic pipettewith sodium pipettefull of sodium chloridesolutionin each twolarge of wells in the microplate. 2) 3) 4) 5) Adda few dropsof UniversalIndicator to both wells with thesodium chloridesolution. Join an aluminum nail or wire and a common nail or iron iron wire at their ends with a springclip. Placethe joined nails or wire in oneof the wells with the sodium chloridesolution. Leave nails in the solutionovernight. the

What happens eachof the nails? to What happens the UniversalIndicator? to ls there evidence corrosion? of

¯ Magnesium Sulfate (#64) ¯ Sodium Carbonate(#67)

STEP - Youare nowreadyto fill some the other vials with alcohol. Youmay Isopropyl (rubbing)alcohol or Ethyl alcohol. 3 of use Obtainthe alcohol from the local pharmacy grocerystore. Usingthe same or technique youdid in STEP place5 ML(five milas 2, liliters) of alcohol into the measuring Then cup. usingyour pipette, suckupthe 5 MLof alcoholinto a pipette andtheninsert the pipette into ._only the vials with the YELLOW tops. PUTTHE ALCOHOL INTOTHEVIALSWHICH ONLY HAVE YELLOW COLORED CAPSAND YELLOW COLORED SEALS: ¯ Phenolphthalein (#65) ¯ Universal Indicator(#70)

STEP - DONOT 4 ADD ANYTHING the following plastic envelopes: TO ¯ Copper Wire(#61) ¯ Iron Wire(#63) ¯ Aluminum Wire (#38) ¯ ZincWire(#54) NOTE: Wireused this set is pureandwill rust. Rustwill not affect your experiments. wipeoff as much as possible Iron in Just rust with a cleanpapertowel andsand iron wire with a smallpieceof sandpaper needed. wire does the if The havea light coatingof oil to reduce rusting. STEP - Now 5 replace all of the capsbackon to the vials which they came of. Screwthe capson securely. Make off sure you ALWAYS the SAME backon the SAME it came of eachtime you use a chemical.Finally, placeall of the vials and put cap vial off all of the plastic envelopes into the properplacein your chemistry back set. ................ R~view of Te~S ............... MICFIOPLATEplastic plate containinga series of small - A tip endof the pipetteis used deliver smalldroplets liqto of uids for reactions the microplate. in andlarge wells in whichchemicals tested andreactions are FILTER FUNNEL altered pipette whichcontains cotton - An observed.The wells are arrangedin numbered columns and as thefilter element. lettered rows. CHEMICAL SCOOPA pipette which has had its bulb end PLASTIC PIPEI-FE - A plastic one-piece dropper. The cut off and is used as a chemicalspoon deliver solid to microchemicals. Page 7 Page 48

1)

Obtain 15 small iron nails (check with magnetto see that they are iron). Make sure the 15 nails are the samesize. Sandthe iron nails with fine sandpaper remove to any oxidation or coating. Youmayalso use 3 cm. lengths of iron wire from your chemistry set. Paint the "point half" of 5 nails or wire with oil paint, nail polish or modelpaint. Allow the coating time to dry. Cut 5 lengths of zinc wire (from your chemistry set) into lengths of 3 cm. each. Wrapeachof the five nails with zinc wire. See Figure #44.

7)

Add 7 drops of each of the following solutions in the microplate columnas directed.

SECT!.ON 2_.-. PROPERTIES THE__ _OF MICROCHEMISTRY SYSTEM Are you ready to do your first experiment?

COLUMN 1 2 3 4 5 8)

CHEMICAL SOLUTION Sodium Chloride Ferrous Sulfate Citric Acid Sodium Carbonate Tap Water

WELLS USED A-l, A-2, A-3, A-4, A-5, B-l, B-2, B-3, B-4, B-5, C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 It is a good thing to know the properties of your equipment BEFOREYOU USE IT. Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Plastic cup (from your chemistry set) Water Methylene Blue Dye Solution Plastic pipette Microplate IJ Goggles BE SURETO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN .D_._OIN(~ EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTI~_Y_ IN SET.!

2) 3)

Normally, you would expect the solution to fall out of the wells. This does not happenbecausethe solution holds onto itself and the surface of the plastic well by SURFACE TENSION. Surface tension is the force which binds water to itself and the surface of the container in which it is stored. The surface tension of the water(a force) is greater than gravity (another force). Sothe water stays in the plate. place someof the blue dye/water mixture in three of 11) Now the LARGE WELLS. Large well B-l, A-3 and B-6. Use moreliquid since the large wells can hold moreliquid. 12) Lookat the color of the large wells w=ththe drops of coloring. Turn the plate and look at the drops from the side of the plate. PERFORM THE NEXT STEP #13 OVER THE SINK! DO NOT TRY THIS UPSIDE DOWNOVER YOUR HEAD! to 13) Carry the microplate CAREFULLY the sink. Turn the microplate upside down over the sink. What happened? 14) Nowwashthe microplate out with water, being careful to clean andrinse all of the wells of the water/dyemixture. Thewater/dyemixture acts differently in the large wells than it did in the small wells. Why? Answer: Waterin the large wells has greater massand a larger surface area. The water in the large wells falls out of the wells. Thesurface tension of the water is not great enough keep the to waterin the large wells. SECTION 3 - HOWTO DESTROYSURFACE TENSION

Cover the microplate with a piece of plastic wrap. Leave the nails in the solutions in a safe place overnight.

Which nails did you expect to be protected? Why? Look up the word GALVANIZED your dictionary. in is associated with GALVANIZED steel? Whichmetal

SECTION 7 - CORROSION DIFFERENT METAL.$ OF Different metals often corrode whenthey comein contact with each other. This is a problem if the two different metals are used in ships or boats wheresalt water is present or sometimes in plumbing systems in houses where water or steam makes contact with both metals. Sometimes prevent this corrosion to problem, one of the metals is coated to protect it. Sometimes non-corrosive metals must be used in certain applications...such as stainless steel or platinum which do not tend to corrode. Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Fifteen (15) small copper nails OR15 lengths of copper wire cut into 3 cm. lengths Piece of fine sandpaper Moaei paint or [i~gu~,,aii puli~l~ Sodium chloride solution Ferroussulfate solution Wire Citric acid solution Sodiumcarbonate solution Tap water Zinc wire cut into 3 cm. lengths (from your chemistry set) Microplate Plastic wrap Plastic Pipette Goggles Solutions Figure #45 BE SURE TO WEAR. GOGGLESWHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRYSET! IN Figure #11 Lookat the color of the wells with the dropsof the coloring. Turn the plate and look at the drops from the side of the plate. Hold the plate up to a light source. Observe color of the the wells through the bottomof the plate. turn the plate upside downover the white paper. Does anything unexpected happen? Page 8 f I1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .~ 9 ~ O 1 1 1 2~ DIRECTIONS 1) Place your microplate on several pieces of white paper. 2) 3) Fill a small plastic cup about1/2 full of water. Add two drops of methylene blue dye to the water in the cup. Be sure to use your MICROTIP pipette for this experiment. Return the blue dye which you have not used back to its original container. Stir the water with the stemof the pipette. Drawup someof the water/dye mixture into the MICROTIP pipette. Place 7 or 8 drops of the water/dyemixture into small wells A-l, A-2, A-3, A-12, B-12, C-12. SeeFigure #11.

Figure #44

4)

Place the 5 painted nails in the first five small wells of Row 1 in the microplate. Thepainted nails will be in small wells A-l, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5. SeeFigure #45. Place the 5 nails wrapped with zinc wire in the first five small wells of RowB in the microplate. The zinc wire wrapped nails will be in small wells B-l, B-2, B-3, B-4 and B-5. See Figure #45. Place the 5 other nails in the next row of small wells in the microplate. Use small wells C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4 and C-5. See Figure #45.

4)

Howto Destroy Surface Tension Surface tension, as you have learned, is the property of a liquid's surface to form a thin layer of particles or molecules the at surface of the liquid whichpull on oneanother so that a "surface layer" is formed. This tends to "hold in" the liquid below. On water, for instance, the surface tension is strong enough supto port the weight of small insects whichlive on the surface of the water in ponds and lakes. You can see how surface tension fnrm¢ m~.ha laver bv carefully "floatine" a needle on the top surface of a container of water. There are chemicals which will destroy or lessen the effect of surface tension. Just think how difficult it would be to wash yourself or other things if the surface tension of the water was so strong that it would not penetrate dirt or cloth or whatever you are trying to wash! In this experiment will destroy or lessen the effect of surface we tension by the use of something that makeswater more wet. A dishwashing soap has the property of a "wetting agent," or in other words, it will make water wetter! You will need the following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Plastic cup (from your chemistry set) Methylene Blue DyeSolution (from your chemistry set) Liquid dishwashingsoap (obtain from grocery or kitchen) Microplate (from your chemistry set) Goggles

5)

5) 6)

6)

7)

~~000000 ~000000000 cO00000000 o:000000000

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

~ Dc Oo

~:OOOOOO

8)

9)

10) Finally,

Page 47

BE.SU_R_.E__T_O WEAR GOGGLES DOING WHEN EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRy IN SET.! any blue 1) If youhave methylene dyesolution left in your cup fromthe last experiment, may it here. If not, mixa you use little more methylene dye solution with waterin the blue plastic cup.(seeSection steps2 and3). 2, 2) 3) Add one drop of dishwashing soap to the methylene blue/water mixture.Stir andmix thoroughly. Drawup someof the water/dye/soapmixture into the MICROTIP pipette. wells of the microplate.Usethe same wells as before: A1, A-2, A-3, A-12,B-12andC-12. at in Turn 5) Look the color of the wells with the mixture them. the plate and look at the wells from the side of the microplate. 6) 7) Finally, carry the microplateCAREFULLY sink. Turn to the the microplateupsidedown over the sink. Whathappens? What does the dishwashing soapdo to the water?Why this propertyof detergent is valuable?

1) Throw away water/dye/detergent the mixturefrom the previous experiment. 2) 3) Rinse plastic cupandadd40 dropsof waterto the cup. the Adda few dropsof methylene dye solution as youdid blue previously. the plastic cup.

ACTIVITY CHART ACTIVITY SERIES METALS WHICHWILL TENDTO LOSE ELECTRONS K Ba Ca Na Mg AI Zn Cr Fe Co Hydrogen sometimes acts like Ni a metalby giving off anelectron. Sn Hydrogen shown is here in the Pb ACTIVITYSERIES. H Cu LEAST ACTIVE METAL Ag (Those which DONOT Pt lose electronsveryeasily) Au MOSTACTIVE METALS (Those which lose electronsmosteasily) Potassium Metal BariumMetal CalciumMetal SodiumMetal Magnesium Metal Aluminum Metal Zinc Metal Chromium Metal Iron Metal CobaltMetal Nickel Metal Tin Metal LeadMetal HYDROGEN--CopperMetal Silver Metal PlatinumMetal GoldMetal

4) Add20 dropsof ethyl or isopropylalcoholto the waterin 5) Repeat steps6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 fromSection2 Experiment.

How the result similar to either Section or Section is 2 3? Figure #42 SECTION - A VISIBLE ILLUSTRATION 5 OF SURFACE TENSION As in many experiments chemistry, eventhoughchanges in go on at the atomicor molecular level, weoften cannot the see effects with our eyes. Sometimes needto usesomething we we CAN to show things wecannotsee. In this experiment see us weare using fine powders, which wecan see, to help us observe changes the taking placewith the surfacetensionlayer of a liquid. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Microplate Ethyl or isopropylalcohol(obtain fromdrugstore) Water Liquid dishwashing detergent Plasticpipette Babypowder,talcumpowder flour or Goggles the chloride solution. Make 6) Soak filter paperwith sodium your ownsodiumchloride solution by addingsome table salt to waterin yourplastic measuring anddissolvingit cup thoroughly. 7) Insert the filter paper out into thethreewells containing cut the three different solutions. See Figure#43.

4) Place7 or 8 dropsof the water/dye/soap mixtureinto small

SECTION - OTHER 6 ELECTROCHEMICAL RE.A_C_]-IONS

Answer:Dishwashing soap destroys the surface tension of water. Thewaterfalls out of the wells. The"wetting" power of the detergent whatmakes a valuablecleaningagent. is it Extension: Try this same experiment using a drop of hair shampoo. TM'' liquid. Try this same experiment usingdishwasher Dry "Jet Try this same experiment usinga dropof liquid hand soap. SECTION - A_I,-COHOL._.AND..SURFACE 4 TENSION Other chemicals besidessoapproductshave the property of destroying lessening or surfacetension. Thisexperiment explores thesechemicals. WARNING: alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and rubbingalcohol Ethyl are flammable liquids. Keep these liquids and their vapors away from any open flame. Usethesechemicals only in a wellventilatedarea. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Plastic cup Water Methylene Blue DyeSolution Isopropyl "rubbingalcohol,"or ethyl alcohol(from the drugstore) Plastic pipette Microplate Goggles BE SURETO WEARGOGGLE_S WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! Page 9

~000000000 ~~000000000 ~lO00000000

ooloo_~oo_.~o~xoooo oo

0 0 0 0 00c

Themost common of electrochemistryof metals does not form occur in a battery. Metalsgive up electronsto non-metals and other metals in chemicalreactions. Oneof the mostcommon electrochemicalreactions is the processof CORROSION. In a previoussection youexperimented iron wire or nails with whichwereplaced salt solutions. These in salt solutions helped the processof corrosion. Some processes help PREVENT corrosion. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Fifteen (15) smalliron nails or 3 cmlengths iron w~re of Pieceof fine sandpaper Model paint or fingernail polish Sodium chloride solution Ferrous sulfate solution Citric acidsolution Sodium carbonatesolution Tap water Zinc wire (from your chemistry set) Microplate Plastic wrap Plastic Pipette Goggles BESURE WEAR TO GOGGLES W_H_E_N_._D_ OI._NG EXPERIMENTS C__H__EMIS__T_R_Y_S_E_.T_.! IN .T__HI.S_

~OOG!

,_ 0,0,

Figure #43 to 8) Touchthe endsof the galvanometer two metalsin the solutions.

Oil

BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

1) Fill two large wells of the microplate water.Uselarge with

wells A-1 andB-I.

2) Fill two other wells with ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. Use

large wells A-3 andB-3.

9) Repeatthe processof testing with eachcombinationof

metals. Whichmetal pair gave the greatest movement of the compass needle? Whichmetal pair gave the least movement the compass of needle? Whichpair of metals would make best battery or cell? the 10) Which metal of the three is the mostactive? How you do know? Which metalis the least active? 11) What wouldbe a gooduse for metals which are not very active? 12) Compare results of the metals you tested with the your Activity Chartabove.

3) Dust the surfaceof eachof the four wells with babypowder, talcumpowder flour. or

4) Add1 dropof dishwashing detergent onewell with alcoto

hol (A-3) andonewell with water(A-l). 5) Describethe result. What caused change? the

Notes:

Page 46

4) 5) 6)

Attach the wires to the galvanometeryou built in SECTION 1. Wetall the pieces of paper towel with a solution of sodium chloride (salt water). Test this electrolytic cell by touchingthe wires in an "off-onoff-on" method. Watch the needle on your galvanometer moveback and forth. What happens to the needle of the galvanometer? Which direction does the needle move?Which metal gives up electrons? Which metal receives them? Which electrode was the NEGATIVEELECTRODE? Which electrode was the POSITIVE ELECTRODE? SECTION 4 - ANOTHERBATTERY

SECTION - _A.C_T_IylTY._O~" 5 METALS Thereare several different kinds of cells, but they all haveone thing in common. Each cell converts STORED CHEMICAL ENERGY into ELECTRICAL ENERGY. As you may have guessed by now, chemists have a good idea which metals on the Periodic Chart are best for cells or batteries. Their ideas about activity are based on experiments. The experiment below is an example of how these activities were determined. You will needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS ~J Compassgalvanometer from SECTION 1 i_~ Ferroussulfate solution ~J I1 ~1 Iron nail or a 3 cm. length of iron wire from your chemistry set Aluminumammonium sulfate solution Aluminum nail or a 3 cm. length of aluminum wire ELECTRON particle outside the nucleus of an atom which - The carries a negative (--) charge. ELEMENT A substance which contains only ONEKIND of atom. Example: iron, sulfur or carbon are each ELEMENTS. EQUATION A statement showing the way chemicals combine or break up. An equation shows how reactants become products in a chemicalreaction. ION - An atom or a group of atoms which are NOT electrically neutral. Ions will either be POSITIVEcharged or NEGATIVE charged. METAL A chemical elementwhich tends to lose electrons in a chemical reaction. Example: SodiumMetal (Na) will give off one electron per atom during a chemical reaction. Sodium metal atom will then become sodium metal ion (Na+). a MODEL A representation of something else. -

CHAPTER 4

CHEMICAL MODELS CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Chemical Models and Chemical Reactions TERMS TO KNOW ATOM The smallest particle of an element. CHEMICAL MEANS Methods of treating material which separate pure substances into new compounds elements. or COMPOUNDA chemical combination of two or more elements. A compound different properties from the elements has which makeit up. Compounds cannot be separated into their elements by physical means. ELECTRODEA wire which is placed in an electrolyte through whichan electrical chargeflows. ELECTROLYTE solution which conducts an electric - A and

7)

You can makea simple battery by connecting several cells together. A battery is a series of cells. You will needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS ~,J Compass galvanometer (ELECTRON FLOW DETECTOR) which you made in SECTION 10 nickels 10 pennies Cleanser or scouring powder, or fine sandpaper Insulated wire with spring clips ® Papertowel or tissue like Kleenex Sodiumchloride solution (salt water). Prepare your own sodiumchloride solution by mixing 1/2 teaspoontable salt with 10ml. of water. Stir until all salt is dissolved. Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTSTHIS CH_E.MIST_B.Y.,SET! IN

current.

from your chemistry set ~.~ Coppersulfate solution [...J Sodium chloride solution (salt water) ~J Insulated wire ~J ~.J ~ ~J ~J [,.J ;I ~J Coppernail or a 3 cm. length of copper wire from your chemistry set Filter paper(from your chemistry set) Plastic pipette Ruler Pencil Scissors Goggles Microplate BE SURETO WEAR GO_GG_LE$__WHEN _DOIN(~ EXPERIMEN_T$_.J.N .T..HIS C_HEMISTRY S..E~

It is important to knowhow chemicalsreact before you experiment. An explanation of the workings of chemical reactions means that a MODELshould be used. Models are used becausethe atoms and molecules which makea chemical reaction are far too small to be seen even with the most powerful microscope. A MODEL an imitation of the real thing. Modelsare useis ful in trying to understand things work. Scientists often use how models to explain unseen forces, Weuse models to makean idea easier to understand. The advantageof a modelis in its ease of use. For example, it is certainly easier to showsomeone MODEL a plane, a of rather than a full size one. A MODEL airplane is an imitation. A model plane is not a real plane. It is a smaller representationof a real plane. It can be used to imitate the workings of a real plane. A model can help to picture something real but unseen unfamiliar. or In the samemanner, models of chemicals can be used to scale down, represent or MODEL the functioning of REAL chemicals. Whenchemicals combine they are said to REACT. Reactions can be of several types involving few or many chemicals. By using cut-out model ions you can see how different chemicals can combine to form the manycompounds which chemists find so interesting. In addition to the papercut-out atomsandions, your chemistry set contains three-dimen._sional (3-D) modelsof atoms. Thesemodelsgive a 3-D view of the structure of some the of chemical compounds which you will use in your set. It is interesting to see if you can build both the papermodel and the 3-D model of molecules for comparison. The paper model is useful only to showhow manyions combinewith others to form compounds.The method of telling how manyIONS of one chemical reacts with howmany ions of another is called STOICHIOMETRY 'key ah ma tree). The 3-D models give (sto you a better picture of what chemists think these molecules would look like if we could see them. The 3-D modelsstill can showthe stoichiometry of a reaction.

Experiments with Model Elements and Ions An ELEMENT a chemical which has only one kind of is

~tnrn Th~a ~tr~m~ ~r~ n~ltr~l in nh~r~a~.

1) Clean the coins with scouring powder or sandpaper. 2) Attach a copperwire to one of eachkind of coin with spring

clips. These will Figure #41. be the TI=RMINAL ELECTROD~=$. See

1) 2)

Place1/2 pipette full of ferrous sulfate solution in large well A-1. Rinse the pipette with rinse (tap) water. Place 1/2 pipette full of Aluminum ammonium sulfate solution in large well A-2. Rinse the pipette with rinse (tap) water. Place1/2 pipette full of coppersulfate solution in large well A-3. Rinsethe pipette with rinse (tap) water. Place a piece of metal wire or nail in each well which has the same in solution. Put the iron nail or wire in the ferion rous sulfate solution (large well A-l). Put the piece Aluminumwire or nail in the Aluminumammonium sulfate solution (large well A-2). Put the piece of copper wire nail in the coppersulfate solution (large well A-3). Mark the filter paper with ruler and pencil to the shape shown Figure #42. Eachleg of the filter paper should be in 1 cm apart. See Figure #43. Fold the filter paper on the dotted line.

NON-METALA chemical element which tends to gain electrons. Example: A Chlorine atom will accept an electron to become Chlorine Ion (CI-). a PERIODIC TABLE A list their properties. of the different elements and some of

3)

Place a piece of folded paper towel, alternating between pennies and nickels. See Figure #41. Makesure that the spring clips touch the coins at eachend of the stack. Attach the wires to the galvanometeryou built in SECTION 1. Wetall the pieces of paper towel with a solution of sodium chloride. What happens to the needle of the galvanometer? Which direction does the needle move?Which metal gives up electrons? Which metal receives them? Which electrode was the NEGATIVEELECTRODE? Which electrode was the POSITIVE ELECTRODE? How do you know?

4)

5)

3) 4)

PRODUCTA substance which is produced in a chemical reaction. PROTONThe particle in the nucleus center of an atomwhich carries a positive (+) charge. REACTANT A substance which combines with another in a chemicalreaction. REACTION The chemical combination or change of two or more elements or compounds. STOICHIOMETRYThe combining ratios chemical reaction. of chemicals in a

6)

5)

An IONis an atomor group ol atoms which is NOT electrically neutral. Some ions are positive in charge. Other ions are negative in charge. A MOLECULE a chemically combined unit of two or is more atoms. The atoms maybe of the sameelements (such as two hydrogens) in order to makea molecule of hydrogen gas, H20or the molecule maybe of two or more different elements, such as NaCL, or table salt, which is made of an atom of Sodium (Na) and an atomof Chlorine (Cl). A moleculeis of tral charge. Chemists experiment with elements, ions, and molecules. Atoms, though very small, are madeup of parts. These parts makethe atom what it is. Atomsare the basic building blocks of all chemicals. In order to talk about the atom, scientists have devised a MODEL what an atom looks like. This model is called the of PLANETARY BOHR or model of the atom. The model is named after a scientist, Niels Bohr, who cameup with the idea. Further, based on the reactions of atoms, they have an idea (MODEL) what the molecules of chemical compoundslook of like. Page 10

Page 45

Thenucleus the centerof the atom hasalmost the is and all WEIGHT MASS the atom. Eachelement has a DIFFERor of ENT NUMBER positive chargesin the center of the atom. of Thesecharges are called PROTONS. numberof positive The chargesin the center of the atomis called the ATOMIC NUMBER. Eachelementhas a distinct atomic number. The positive particles or protons,alongwith neutral particles, called NEUTRONS, up the NUCLEUS an atom. make of SeeFigure #12. Theatomalso contains negative charges, called ELECTRONS, are locatedat different distances which fromthe nucleus in ORBITS ENERGY or LEVELS. Thenumber electrons in an element the same the of is as number protons in the same of element. Thenumber elecof trons (-) must equalthe number protons in a neutral atom. of (+) Theelectrons are NOT locatedin the nucleus.

+2.

What as chemists, "see" in our mind'seye, are the we, can representations, or MODELS, atomsand molecules! of Youare urgedto complete this experiment fully because each the models will seeandstudy, will represent you of you for the "picture" of unseenatomsand moleculesand howthese very small building blocks of our world combine form new and substances! Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS I,~ Paperions and atoms(pink and blue sheet of cardboard ions fromyour chemistry set) Pair of scissors 3-Dplastic models (from your chemistryset) Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) Cut out or separate the paperatoms all whichare metals.

8) Detach wire going to the "D" cell. Wh~t one happens the to

needle?Whichdirection did the needlemove? Note the movement the needleon a piece of paper. BESURE of TO NOTEBOTHTHE MOVEMENT TH~ WIRE ATTACHAND MENT. 9) Touch wires to the OPPOSITE of the "D" cell. the ENDS 10) What happens to the needle? NOTE_THE NEEDLE MOVEMENT THE WIRE ATTACHM!~NT. AND This deviceis called a GALVANOMETER. It detects the flow of electricity through wires. It also tells the DIRECTION flow of the of electrons! How? DO NOTDISASSEMBLE THIS DEVICE!! IT WILL BE USED IN THE FOLLOWING SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS. SECTION - A SIMPLECELL 2 Thefirst electrical cell ever made the voltaic cell. It was was first made the Italian scientist Alessandro by Volta. We percan forma similar experiment whichVolta did backin the 18th century. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LISTOF MATERIALS Compassgalvanometer (ELECTRON FLOW DETECTOR) which you madein SECTION A nickel A penny SpringClips Cleanser scouringpowder, fine sandpaper or or Insulatedwire ® Papertowel or tissue like Kleenex Salt water('sodium chloride solution) Prepare your ownsodium chloride solution by mixing1/2 teaspoon of table salt with10ml. of water. until all salt Stir is dissolved. Go gles B~: SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 7) Figure #40 ELECTRONS ALWAYSFLOWFROM NEGATIVE POS.._TJ._VE! TO Disassemble cell. Rinseoff the coins. Discardthe your papertowel. SECTION - A SIMPLE BATTERY 3 Youcan make simple battery by connecting several cells a together. batteryis a seriesof cells. A Youwill needthe following materialsto complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [~ Compass galvanometer(from SECTION 1) ~ 5 nickels I-I 5 pennies ~,1 SpringClips ~1 Cleanser scouringpowder, fine sandpaper or or ~ Insulatedwire ® Papertowel or tissue like Kleenex ~ I--I Sodium chloride solution (salt water) ~ Goggles BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS -[HIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

SpringClip

Figure #12

Figure #13

Noticethat the metalatoms havelittle triangles on oneside. These triangles represent(are MODELS the electrons which of) metals lose whenthey form compounds. EachELEMENT has a SYMBOL. A SYMBOL like a special initial or name is (model) which written insteadof usingthe whole is word the element. for The SYMBOL used by chemistsas a shorthandwayof talkis ing aboutchemical elements chemical or ions. For example,sodium a metal element. Sodium a SYMis has BOL.Thesymbol sodium Na. TheNastandsfor the origfor is inal name sodiumwhich wasNATRIUM. symbolNa is for The still used today. Sodium acts alone as a chemicalelement. Many the elements the Periodic Tablehavesymbols of on taken fromtheir original names Greek Latin. Iron was in or originally called ferrum. Thesymbolfor iron is Fe. Gold wascalled aurum. symbol gold is Au. The for Usually,thesymbol the element thefirst letter or first two for is letters in its Englishname. Oxygen's symbol O, hydrogen's is is H, nitrogen's N, helium's He,etc. is is 2) Cutout or...s_._e..garate the paper all atoms are which non-metals.

If the number electrons DOES EQUAL number of NOT the of protons, the atomhas a charge. Whatis a chargedatom called? SeeFigure #13. Figure #13 is an example a posiof tively charged ion. Eventhoughthe electrons are located at a distance from the nucleus, ELECTRONS MAKECHEMICAL REACTIONS HAPPEN. Chemists haveorganized the known all atoms into an organized list they call the PERIODIC TABLE. Appendix at See B the end of your manual. Each ELEMENT only the sametype of atoms. By has organizingthe known atoms,or elements into a table, chemists havebeen able to predict the propertiesof many other elements and the chemical compounds they form. The most important organization all elements the division of the elements of is into two generalclasses. Thetwo generalclassesof elements are: Metals and Non-Metals Metals tend to GIVE or release electrons. Non-metals UP tend to GAIN take on electrons. or The paper and plastic modelsof atomshave beenorganizedinto thesetwo groups.

1) Clean the pennies and nickels with scouring powderor 1) Cleana pennyanda nickel with scouringpowder sandor

paper.These the two different metals. are sandpaper.

2) Attach a copper wire to one pennyandone nickel with

spring clips. Thesewill be the TERMINAL ELECTRODES.

2) Attacha springclip andwire to the penny.Attachthe other

springclip andwireto the nickel. the 3) Placea pieceof folded papertowel between two coins. SeeFigure #40.

Noticethat the non-metal atoms have little notches oneside. on These notchesrepresent(are MODELS the sites whichnonof) metals use whenthey form compounds. There a set of 3-Dmodels the elements your chemistry is of in set. Thesemodels give you another wayof seeing howchemicals combine. plastic models also color coded.(See The are Table#1 on page12.)

3) Placea piece of folded papertowel, alternating between

penniesand nickels. SeeFigure #41. Make sure that the coinswith the wires are locatedat the ends the stack. of Towel Spring Clip Nickel

4) Attach the wires to the galvanometer built in SECTION you

1.

5) Wetthe papertowelwith a solution of sodium chloride(salt

water). Sodium chloride solution is the electrolyte. (Remember use the "off-on-off" technique testing this to for "electrolytic cell").

3) Chlorineis a non-metal.Thesymbol an atomof chlofor

SECTION PAPER 1CHE._MI_.S~_R__Y. LAmB 1 Most of the time chemistsnever actually SEE atomsand the moleculeswhich make the chemical reactions they study up and experiment with. Page 11 rine is CI. Chlorineexists in natureas a gasmade two of atoms joined together. Chlorine is DIATOMIC ah tom (die' ik). This means atoms a particular element two of joined togetherto forma molecule.

~

Figure#41

Sprin,~lip

Penny I

6) Whathappensto the galvanometer?Whichwaydid the

needlemove? Which metal do you think is giving up the electrons? Which taking the electrons? is Page44

4)

If you wish, you maytape the compass face into its round depressionwith a loop of transparent cellophane tape just to secure it from turning in the round depression. See Figure #38.

Youwill needthe following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS IJ Compass assembly D-Cell battery Permanent fine tip marker [J Insul~a_te~d wire (the clear lacqueron the outsideof the wire acts as insulation) Goggles BE SURE TO WEARGOGGLES W_H..EN DOING_ EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SE..T..!

4) Select two paper atomsof chlorine. 5) Slide the two atomstogether in such a waythat the side tab

andnotch of one chlorine fill other. SeeFigure #14. the side notch and tab of the

10) Makea 3-D model of sodium chloride. Use the colorcode given in Table #1 to identify the different atoms.SeeFigure #16. SODIUM

CO~VIPASS NEEDLE COMPASS FACE TAPE ~ PLASTIC B~ ~UMB ¯ TACK

CHLORINE Figure #16 Sodium metal is a silvery substance.It is an active element whichwill react violently with water. Chlorine is a green-yellow gas. Chlorine wasused in war as a poison. Sodiumchloride is a substancewhich is essential to life. Sodium chloride is also kr~owr~ as table sa(t. Weuse tab(e sa{t to seasonour food. Sodiumchloride is a simple compound which has the properties of neither sodium nor chlorine. THE REACTION OF TWO OR MORE SUBSTANCES PRODUCES NEW SET OF SUBSTANCES A WHICH ARE DIFFERENT THAN THE ORIGINAL CHEMICALS. Twoor more elements can react with each other to form a new chemical called a COMPOUND. The process of forming a compound from the elements is called SYNTHESIS (sin' the sis). SECTION.2__-..PAPER CHEMISTRY II LAB Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Chlorine, Fluorine Sodium, potassium Iron +2 Iron +3 Aluminum Sulfur Nitrogen Iron is a metal. Iron can combinewith manynon-metals. The most common compound formed by iron is iron oxide. The oxide of iron is knownas RUST. Some elements, you may remember, are diatomic. Oxygen diatomic like chlorine. Iron is not diatomic. is You will needthe following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Papermodelso1 iron (Fe+2) and Ch(orir~e {C(-1) 3-D modelsof the atomsof Iron (Fe+2) and Chlorine (C1-1) Goggles _RF,£URETOWEAR GOGGLES .W..H__E_N__D_O!.N~G E .X.PE_RIMENTS IN THISCHE__M._.,.,STRY ,,SET! 1) 2) Select two paper iron atoms. Select three oxygenions. Rearrangethe atomsto form a molecules of iron oxide, or rust. Rust has 'the formula Fe20 3. Try to makea 3-D model of iron oxide. Howdo the atoms arrange themselves? Does the paper model show this? See Figure #17.

[J

Figure #14

1)

CARDBOARD RECTA~E

Locate the magnetic compasspacked in your chemistry set, whichyou built in the previous section. Measure out about 2 ft. wire. (60 cm.) of #24 insulated copper

This is a MODEL a MOLECULE CHLORINE.A chlorine of OF molecule would have the symbol CI 2.

2) 3)

6)

Figure #38

5)

Press thumbtackup through the bottom of the black plastic base and up through the very center of the compass face so that the sharp point of the tack comesout right in the center of the 8-pointed star of the compass face.

Strip the insulation awayfrom about 1" (2.5 cm.) of each end of a wire. Label one end of the wire negative (-) and the other endof the wire positive (+). Useyour transparent tape to label the ends of the wire. (The wire is insulated with clear lacquer. This coat of lacquer is whatyou "strip" awayat the ends of the wire.) Wrapthe wire around the compass shownin Figure #39. as BE SURE TO HAVE THE COMPASS NEEDLE AT AN ANGLE WITH THE WRAPPED WIRE.

Using your plastic molecule models now makea 3-D model of chlorine. Usethe following color codeto identify the different atoms. See Figure #15. TABLE #1 Color code for plastic molecule models COLOR Number of Arms 4 arms 1 arm 2 arms 1 arm 1 arm 2 arms 3 arms 3 arms 4 & 6 arms 4 arms Atomthis represents

6) Tape a small length of plastic cellophane tape over the headof the thumbtackunderneathso that the tack doesn't fall out. SeeFigure #38. 7) Gently sit the compass needle with its one end dyed blue onto the sharp, pointed end of the thumbtack.

4)

8)

Youwill notice that the compass needlewill move freely on top of the thumbtackand the needle will eventually become still andpoint to magnetic North.

Black White Red Green Gray Orange Orange Silver Yellow Blue

sure that neither of the points of the compass needle 9) Make scrape on the cardboard compass face. 10) Youmayturn the whole compass unit so that the blue end of the compass needle and the "N" printed on the compass face line up. This particular orientation of the compass unit will tell you whichwayis North (N), or South (S), or (E), or West (W). You can even read off the "degrees" ° ° for the compass,like 90 for EAST,or 180 ° SOUTH 270 or ° for WEST, finally, Zero, or 360 for NORTH. or, 11) The white piece of cardboard with the notches on each end is the base of your compass. You should tape the cardboard onto the underside of the compassplastic frame. Tapeif to the long sides of the plastic base. This will give your compass assemblymore rigidity. See Figure #38.

CHLORINE Figure #15 Figure #39 7) Select a sodiummetal atom and a chlorine non-metal molecule from your supply. Slide the sodium metal atom's triangles into the notch in the chlorine atom. Oncethe sodiummetal has been placed into contact with the chlorine, the side tie to the other chlorine is broken. Pull awaythe combinedchlorine with the attached sodium from the uncombined chlorine.

3) 4)

5) 6)

8) Lay the compass and wire on a flat surface. Be sure that the needle can movefreely.

9)

Touchthe ends of the wire to the ends of a "D" cell. (The best method using your electron flow detector is to just for touch the wire ends to whatever you are testing. An "onoff-on-off" techniqueis best. When touch wire for "on," you quickly look for movement compassneedle. Then take of wire "off" and observe compassneedle return to normal direction.) What happens to the compassneedle? Which way did the needle move?

/ ,,,

OXYGEN ATOMS

_SECTION 1A_-. D._E._T.ECTING THE FLOW ELECTRONS OF When electrons flow through a wire, a magneticfield is formed. Wecan detect the flow of electrons through a wire by detecting the magneticfield which is formed.

7)

What do you think happens to the uncombinedchlorine atom? The combination of sodium, a metal, with chlorine, a non-metal, has formed a new substance, a compound. This compound sodium chloride. The FORMULA is (model) for sodiumchloride is NaCI. Page 12

~.ON ATOMS

Figure #17 This is another synthesis reaction.

Page 43

SECTION - SYNTHESIS 3 Synthesis oneof the most is importantandinteresting areasof chemistry.You,as a chemist,are putting together, perhaps the for FIRSTTIMEEVER, chemicalswhich have never beenput together before! Even though reactionsyouare doingare "known"...you the will be making"brand new"chemicalsand compounds which were not present the materialsyouare working in with beforeyoustarted your experiment! As a goodchemist,you mustobserve closely and you must recordor write down your results. Thechart andtables are provided for your NEW data! Youwill need followingmaterialsto complete experiment: the this LIST OF MATERIALS Sodium chloride solution (make your ownsodium chloride solutionby adding ml. of table salt to 10 ml. of water) one Calcium nitrate solution Ferrous sulfate solution Cobaltchloridesolution Ammonium chloride solution Microplate Plasticpipettes (6) Short(1 cm)lengthsof iron wire (fromyour chemistry set) Water Smalltest tube Goggles

4) Place1 cmlengthof iron wire in each the wells containof

ing a solution.

SECTION- BUI_L_D. 1 ING..__YOUR DETECTO.R

CHAPTER9

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

5) Place another 1 cmlength of iron wire in an adjoining

empty well. This is a control. E/ectrochemistry 6) 7) Fill a smalltest tubewithwater. Ptace 1 cmlengthof iron wire in the test tubeso that the a wire is totally UNDER water's surface. the SeeFigure #19.

IRON WIRES

8) Stand smalltest tubein a large well in the microplate. the

When turn on a portable radio, TVremote you control or any other device which uses electrical energyawayfrom a wall socket, you are using chemical energyprovidedby batteries. BATTERIES simple machines, A battery is a simple are machine because machine a changesone form of energy into another.Batterieschange chemical energy into electrical energy. Electrical energy carriedby electrons motion. is in A battery is composed CELLS. cell contains two metals of A and an electrolyte. Onemetal in the battery GIVES elecUP trons, the other metalTAKES electrons. If the flow of elecON trons goesthrougha wire, the electrons can do work! This is the waya cell provides electrical power. TWO DIFFERENT METALS, an ELECTROLYTE, a cell. A battery is a in form seriesof cells linkedtogether.

Thefollowing experiment shows how build a detector or you to instrument detectingthe "flow of electrons"through wire. for a This flow of electronshappens an electrical currentis prowhen duced a chemical in reaction andby using the instrumentthat you will make, can actually see evidence the electrons you of produced your chemical in reaction. Theelectron detector is a compass device which changes "deflection," or movement the of the compass needle,when electronsflow in a series of loops of wire near the compass. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Compass (from your chemistryset) whichcontains unit the plastic base, compass face, thumbtack,compass needle,andcardboard backplate with the notches cut into its ends ~ Transparent cellophanetape Goggles BE SURE_..__TOWEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! Layall of the materialsout in front of you andlook them over carefully. Thethumbtack stuck into the top of the is plastic caseso it won't get lost duringshipping.Take the thumbtack of where hasbeenstuck, and lay it with out it yourotherparts in front of you.

Figure #19 for 9) Let all the iron wiresremain,undisturbed, twodays. 10) Observe iron wire over the next two days. the 11) How the iron wire change? did Where haveyou seenthis color before?What chemicaldo you think has formed from the iron wire? the most change? Whichwire showed 12) Whichwire showed no sign of change? What other chemicalis necessary for iron wire to change wayit did? the TERMS TO KNOW ACTIVITY SERIES list of elements orderof their ability to -A in give up or take onelectrons. BATTERY series of cells connected - A together. BONDA force whichholds molecules together. CELL A chemical devicecomposed two different metalsin of an electrolyte. Cells convertchemical energyinto electrical energy. CHEMICAL ENERGYEnergy stored in the bonds of chemicals. COMPASSdevicefor the detection of magnetic - A fields. CORROSION - The chemical combination of a metal with anotherchemical usually resulting in the destruction of the metal. ELECTRICAL ENERGYThe energy carried by electrons in motion. ELECTRODE - A piece of metal surrounded an electrolyte. by ELECTROLYTE - A solution which conducts electricity. GALVANOMETER - A device which detects the flow of electronsor electricity. TERMINAL - The part of a battery which provides or draws electrons. BUILDING_Y...O_UR .CO_M__PASS/ E_L..ECTRO_N _D..ET__EC~TO~R _F__/_O_W.. In your next section (SECTION you will use a compass 1) which is wiredin a certain way detectthe flow of electrons to through a wire. You must first assembleyour COMPASS - ELECTRON FLOW DETECTOR the materials provided in your chemfrom istry set. First, find the plastic bag yourchemistry containin set ing the parts for your compass. Pace42

2) Youshouldhavethe following parts ready:

Thumbtack Blackplastic case with a round depression its center in Compass needle, one end of which is dyedblue Compass face, or roundcardboard disc with N, E, S and W printedonit Cardboard backplatewhichgoes on the undersideof your compass.

BE SURETQ..WEAI~..GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIM_ENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

1) Using your MICROTIP pipette, place ten drops of sodium

chloridesolutionto oneof the smallwells in the microplate. Rinse plastic pipette. Place drops calcium the ten of nitrate solutionin another smallwell. Repeat process ferthis with rous sulfate, cobalt chloride andammonium chloride solution. Be sure to rinse the pipette between eachchemical solution. 2) 3) Addfour dropsof waterto eachsolution. Placefourteen microdrops water in an adjacentwell. of SeeFigure #18. SMALL WELLS LARGE WELL

SECTION3A- SYNTHESIS In this experiment will go evenfurther in making you "new materials". Themaintasks of the chemistare (1) experimenting, (2) observing, (3) recording results so that the and the thesis of new materials andnewsubstances be provenand can done again by anotherchemistin anotherlab! If a friend also hasa chemistryset, compare andresults with your friend data as you eachdo the same experiment separately! Youwill need following materialsto complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS ~,] Sodium chloride solution (make your ownsodium chloride solution by adding ml. of table salt to 10 ml. of water) one ~ Calcium nitrate solution F_.] Ferrous sulfate solution I~ Cobaltchloridesolution ~ Ammonium chloride solution ~ Microplate L.] Plasticpipettes (6) ~ Copper wire lengths (1 cm)from your chemistryset [~] Aluminum lengths (1 cm) from your chemistryset wire

3) Place the cardboarddisc (compass face) into the round

depression the plastic base.Youwant Northor N letof the ter of the compass to point toward endof the recface the tangular case. SeeFigure #37.

Figure #18

Figure #37

Page 13

1) Obtain as manysample tablets of different brands of antacid as you can. Askfriends or relatives for one or two tablets for youto test. 2) Place onetablet of each brandto be tested in each of your plastic measuringcups. You maywant to crush the tablet into smaller pieces just as you did in the previous experiment. 3) Add enough water with your pipette to EACH measuring cup to bring the level of the waterAND antacid tablet in the the, wate,r up to the 10 ml or 10 cc markon the side of the cup. 4) Stir each samplewith a toothpick and then allow the cups to sit undisturbedfor 30 minutes. 5) Carefully draw up someof the liquid from the top of the measuring cup into your pipette. 6) Place 20 drops of each sampleinto separate large wells of the microplate. Uselarge wells B-l, B-2, B-3, etc.

ANTACID SOLUBILITY COMPARISONCHART Color of Universal Indicator compared with chart from Chapter7, Section 1 Antacid Tablet #1 brand Antacid Tablet #2 brand

Water Small test tube Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLESWHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMI$._T_RY IN SETI. NOTE:Copper wire is copper colored (like a new penny) and will NOTbe attracted by a magnet. Aluminumwire will seem very light in weight and will be shiny silver in color. Aluminum wire will NOT attracted by a magnet. be

12) Comparingreactions of the iron wire from Section 3 and the aluminum and copper wire from Section 3A, which wire showed change? Which wire showed no change? What can you predict about the use of copper and aluminum wire instead of iron wire? Recordyour results on Data Table #2. DATA TABLE #2 CHEMICALS USED SODIUM CHLORIDE CALCIUM NITRA1~ FERROUS SULFATE COLBALT CHLORIDE AMMONIUM CHLORIDE WATER IRON NAILS COPPER NAILS ALUMINUM NAILS

1)

Antacid Tablet #3 brand ....................... Antacid Tablet #4 brand ............. Antacid Tablet #5 brand Antacid Tablet #6 brand Antacid Tablet #7 brand Antacid Tablet #8 2)

Usingyour microtip pipette, place ten drops of sodiumchloride solution in small wells A-1 andA-12. Rinsethe pipette. Place ten drops of sodiumchloride solution in small wells A-1 and A-12. Rinse the pipette. Place ten drops of calciumnitrate solution in small well B-1 and B-12. Repeatthis process placing ferrous sulfate solution in C-1 and C-12, cobalt chloride in small wells D-1 and D-12, ammonium chloride in D-3 and D-10. Be sure to rinse the pipette betweeneach chemical solution. Addfour drops of water to eachsolution. Place fourteen drops of water in small wells D-4 and D-9. See Figure #20.

7)

Note on a piece of paperwhich brand of antacid is in large well B-l, which is in large well B-2, etc. Wash out your pipette with water betweensamples.

3)

8) Usingyour pipette, place 3 drops of Universal Indicator solution into eachwell containing the samples. 9) Stir each well with the toothpick and observe the color change. the 10) Compare color changeof the Universal Indicator solution with the comparison color chart you preparedin CHAPTER 7, SECTION 1. 11) Which sample showed the stronger base? The sample which showedthe stronger base will be the brand which has the most soluble base. In other words, the moresoluble basewill go into the water solution moreeasily andproduce more base for use as an antacid.

SECTION4 - PAPERCHEMISTRY LAB Ill Youwill need the following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS ~ Paper models of atoms A 3-D models of atoms BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRYSET! IN Now that you have seen the way chemicals can combine to form a newsubstance, let's take the samechemical apart. The compound, sodium chloride can be separated into the original elements by adding the correct amountof energy. The process of makinga compound return to the elements Tromwmcn was ~t formed is called DECOMPOSITION (dee' kom po zi shun) ANALYSIS al' lee sis). (an

brand ................ B LOW MEDIUM HIGH concentrationconcentrationconcentration thus of basethus of basethus of base less soluble medium solu- high soluble

h~e in t=hlet

Figure #20

parison Chart. What other household products do you think have base? Look at the results of your experiments the part of this lab bookon in pH.

tablet

I, D-I,D-3andD-4. wire in small wells A-12, B5) Place 1 cmlength of aluminum 12, C-12, D-12, D-9 and D-10.

6) Place 1

cmlength of copper wire in empty small well A-4. Place 1 cmlength of aluminum wire in small empty well A9. Theseare control wells.

1)

Join one sodiumatomto one chlorine atom to form a sodium chloride molecule. Maketwo paper molecules of sodium chloride. This is the process of SYNTHESIS. DECOMPOSE two molecules of sodium chloride by the breaking the two chlorine atoms away from the sodium atoms. The two atoms of chlorine combinewith each other to form a MOLECULE chlorine. This molecule of chlorine has of the 2. symbolCI Each of the two atoms of sodium remain individual of sodium. atoms

7) Fill two small test tubeswith water.

2)

8) Place 1 cm length of

copper wire in one test tube so that the wire is completely under water's surface. Stand this test tube in large well A-I.

3)

9) Let the wire remain undisturbed for two days. 10) Observe the wire for the next two days. 11) Did the wire change?

4) 5)

Page 14

The compound sodium chloride has been DECOMPOSED into the elements sodiumand chlorine.

Page 4 !

SECTION4A -. U._S.ING MOLECULAR MODELS

OXYGEN

Repeat the building of the moleculeslisted in Section 4 by using the 3-D molecular modelsprovided in your chemistry set. Usethe color code found in SECTION to identify the differ1:6 ent atoms. S__E.._C-[JO_N_4B__-__U_SING _MOLECULAR II MODELS Lookat the labels on the vials of chemicals providedin your chemistry set. There is listed on each label the nameof the chemical as well as the FORMULA the chemical compound of which that namerepresents. Write down on the chad below the nameof the chemical compound, and next to it, the chemical FORMULA that of compound.The chad has started a few entries for you. Now you completethe rest. DATA TABLE #3 Chemical Name onlabel o! vial CALCIUM NITRATE SODIUM SILICATE SODIUM CARBONATE Chemical Formula of the compund Ca(NO3)2 Na2SiO3.5 H20 Na2CO3

SECTION 5 - HOWMUCHBASE IS IN ANTACID TABLETS Antacid tablets are sources of mild base. These tablets are used to settle upset (sour or acid) stomachs. Whyshould the base used to settle upset stomachs be a mild base? A mild base does not dissolve completely in a water solution. A solution of household vinegar is about 5%acetic acid. This acid can be used as a standard (control) for the determination of the amount basein a solution of antacid tablets. of Youwill need the following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Vinegar [] [] [] [] [] IJ

~4YDROGEN

5)

Transfer the remaining solution in the large test tube for storage. Fill another microtip pipette with STANDARD SOLUACID ® White Distilled Vinegar). TION(Heinz Add2 drops of Universal Indicator to the acid solution in the large well. What the pH of the solution? is Be sure to COUNTTHE NUMBER OF DROPSOF ACID USED the next steps below. in

8ULFUR~

6) 7)

CARBONOlOXlO[ MOLECULE

Figure21-b

¯ HYDROGEN (~" CHLORINE

Figure21-c

(~ HYDROGEN .~.

HYDROGEN CHLORID~ MOLECULE

Figure21-d

NYDROG[CN PEROXIDE MOLECULE

8)

Figure 21-e

HYDROGEN CARBON

Using a toothpick to constantly stir, add the standard acid solution to the well with the antacid solution. SeeFigure #35. When antacid solution has beenneutralized, (how will the you know?) enter the numberof drops of acid used in the Data Table below. ANTACID NEUTRALIZATION TABLE Antacid Tablet #1 A) Mass(weight) of hydroxide one antacid tablet B) Numberof drops of vinegar used

CHLORNE MOLECL LE

HYDROGEN OXYGEN--~f~=~ METHANOL ECUI MOL

Figure21-f

Antacid tablets (as many different brands as you want to sample) Microplate Plastic pipette Toothpick Universal Indicator solution Metal tablespoon Metal teaspoon Small test tube Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRYSET! IN

9)

Figure 21-g

HYDROGFN

__

~

[] []

mg dr

ACETONE MOLECJLE

Figure 21-h

HYDROGEN

Antacid Tablet #2 A) Mass (weight) of hydroxide one antacid tablet B) Numberof drops of vinegar used

__

mg dr

After you have listed all of the names and formulas, and using your paper models, construct as manyof the compounds as you can with the papermodels. This will let you think of the "making" (COMPOSITION) chemical compoundsin the same of waychemists think of them. Now try to put together your plastic 3-D modelsof these samechemical compounds which you were able to put together your paper models. Usethe proper color code for different elements of your compounds shown in SECTION as 1:6. SOME FORMULAS be too long or complex to do with may your models, so don't worry if you don't get all of them. You should, however,be careful with most of the chemicals. At right are included someexamples of simple and complex molecular models. As you do the various experiments this set, try building in modelsof the reactions. This will help you to understandwhat is happeningin each reaction. For example, reacting hydrogen with oxygenwill result in the formation of water. The reaction lookslike this:

HYDROGFN OXYC,[N WATER OXYGEN

1)

{,~=~SHLO

NINE CARBON

~.

CARBON

CARBCN TETRACHLORIDE MOLECULE

METHANE MOLECULE

Figure 21-i

Using the large tablespoon as a base, place the antacid tablet into the large tablespoon. Takethe smaller teaspoon and use the teaspoonto crush the antacid tablet into powder in the large tablespoonby putting your thumbinto the curved inside of the teaspoon. See Figure #36. Be sure not to lose any of the particles of the antacid tablet.

Antacid Tablet #3 A) Mass(weight) of hydroxide one antacid tablet B) Numberof drops of vinegar used

mg dr

Figure 21-j SECTION 6 - DIFFERENT BRANDSOF ANTACID

TEASPOON ~',~.l ~ ~ CRUSH TABLET

®, Test different brands of antacid (Rolaids®, Tums etc.) to determine which antacid has the most soluble base. Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment:

EI"HANE ~4OLECULE Figure21-k

TABLESPOON

Figure #36

YDROGEN HYDROGE~~c~RBO~

LIST OF MATERIALS ® IJ Samplesof different

brands of antacid (example: Rolaids

2)

ETHYLENE MOLECULE

Figure21-I

Figure21-a Youmight look around your housefor things like styrofoam balls, modeling clay, toothpicks, pipe cleaners, and straws. Thesemakeexcellent materials for building larger molecular models. Gumdrop candies and toothpicks makegreat molecular models! Page 15 3)

PROPYLENE MOLECULE

The weight or mass amountin milligrams of the active ingredient in antacid tablets is printed on the label of the antacid containers. Readon your various antacid bottles under the heading of ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Listed there will be the amountin rag. (milligrams) chemicals which have hydroxide as pad of their chemical name, such as AluminumHydroxide or MagnesiumHydroxide. Add these amountstogether to obtain the total number milligrams of (mg.) of the hydroxides listed, PERTABLET. Record this weight on your data table provided. Dissolve the crushed antacid tablet in 10 ml of distilled water in a large plastic cup. Transfer 20 drops of antacid tablet solution to a large well in the microplate.

[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

®) Tums or Twoplastic measuring cups Water Toothpick Plastic pipette White paper Tablespoonand teaspoon for crushing tablets Color chart from CHAPTER SECTION 7, 1 Universal Indicator solution Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTSIN THIS CHEMISTRYSET!

Figure 21-m

4)

Page 40

SECT_~ON DECOM_P_._.O._SlTIQN__Q~-WAT~ 5A CHEMICAL CHANGE

1)

ARIN-G I-~-E~-E-R SECTION 4 - COMP T~~L~

oE_W._N E_5~_&~-

Usingyour pipette, place 10 drops of each brand or type of vinegar in a large well of the microplate. Start with large ontinue putting 10 drops of EACH DIFFER_ well A 1, a_n,?.c...... ~n ~. ch different large we~l. Keep track a ENT kind ~f v,-~u ..... o! whichtype of vinegar is in whichlarge well. Add10 drops of water to each large well whichcontains different types of vinegar. Fill another pipette SECTION1. with CONTROL BASEprepared in

Youwill need the following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Plastic pipette 9-volt battery 9-volt battery clip Microplate A strip of filter paperandscissors Vinegar(acetic acid) - obtain from your kitchen Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES _W~ EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEM! IN T,~_T_~Y..~S-~. +) 15) Since hydrogen IONSare positive (H these will be attracted to the NEGATIVE (negative electrode). Since wire the oxygen(0") ions are negative, they will be attracted the POSITIVE wire (positive electrode). 16) The acetic acid (vinegar) was used only to makethe water conductelectricity better. The vinegar helpedthe water be an ELECTROLYTE. 1"7) Look closely at the positive electrode and at the negative electrode. Which electrode seems to be producing more bubbles than the other? 18) Since water is made of t_wo_hydrogens up for every o__n__e oxygen (H20), there will be twice as muchhydrogen gas produced as oxygen gas. 19) More bubbles wil~ be produced at the negative electrode (wherehydrogengas is produced)than at the positive electrode (where oxygen is produced).

Try to collect samples of as manyDIFFERENT brands of vinegar, both white vinegar and ambercolored vinegar, Apple Cider Vinegar, Tarragon Vinegar, and yes, even vinegar madefrom pineapple juice! You should try to get as manyDIFFERENT brand makesof vinegar as you can. Ask neighbors and relatives for samplesof their vinegar and be sure to record the name type of the vinegar collected. and Youwill need the following materials to completethis experiment: UST OF MATERIALS ~ Samples of vinegar (as manyas possible) ~,.I ~ ~ '~ ~ Control base (prepared in SECTION 1) Microplate Plastic pipette Your color chart for Universal Indicator andvinegar (Chapter 7 - Sections 1, 1A) Universal Indicator solution Toothpick Goggles

2) 3) 4) 5)

Figure #22

Add2 drops of Universal Indicator solution to each of the large wells whereyou are testing the different vinegars. Using your pipette with the CONTROL BASE, add the Control Base, drop by drop, to the vinegar test wells. BE SURE TO COUNTTHE DROPSOF BASE USED IN EACH LARGE WELL.

6)

7)

Use the toothpick to constantly stir as you add the STANDARD (CONTROL BASE) solution. See Figure #35. When the acid (vinegar) solution has been neutralized, enter the numberof drops of base used in the data table provided below. Determinethe %acid of each of the diflerent types of vinegar tested.

1) Place1/4 pipette full of vinegar in a small plastic cup. 2) Add3 pipettes of tap water to the vinegar andstir with the

pipette by drawingthe solution up into the pipette and then squirting it backin the cup. Dothis several times to insure a goodmixing of the vinegar (acetic acid) andwater. Place one pipette of the water-vinegar solution in each o! three large wells of your microplate. Usewells A-l, A-2 and A-3. Twoadjoining wells are lor the experiment. The third well is a control.

Test different brands of vinegar to determinewhich vinegar has the most acid. Whatother household products do you think have acid? If the substanceis a base, howwould you find out _H_. WMO_~ ~ is present?

3)

BE SURE WEAR TO GOGGLES W.H._E._N_ P.QI~LG -T..-R-~'.-~ IN THIS -~-T~ EXPERIMENTS CHE--MI-~

4) 5)

Cut a piece of filter paper 6 mmx ram. Wet the entire 60 strip of filter paperwith vinegarsolution. Place oneend of the filter paper in ~argewell A-1 and the other endof the filter paperstrip in large well A-2. Connect battery clip to a 9-V battery. a Place the red coated wire (+ charge) in one o! the wells containing the paper and the black wire (- charge) in the wull ~u,~,~i~&~u~i,~ ut', ,e, end tt;c p~pcr. ,rLGurc o; Ccc ,,#22. 8) Observe the bubbling from each of the wells. 9) Whatcharge is on the oxygenion? (See your paper ion collection for the answer,if necessary). Whatcharge is on the hydrogen ion? (See your paper ion collection for the answer,if necessary).

20) The wet filter paper betweenthe we~ls not only conducts electricity between the wells but it also lets any ions go back and forth to get to the electrode to which they are attracted.

Percentageof Acetic Acid in Different Vinegars - DATA TABLE #11 COLUMN A No.of Dropsof Base for 5% Acetic Ac{d

(He~nZ~ D~$tfiled

TYPE/BRAND OF VINEGAR TESTED White Vinegar -- Amber Vinegar Apple Cider Vinegar

% ACID IN THIS BRAND/ TYPE OF VINEGAR / COLUMN ~ No of Drops of Base | (Column divided by A) B ~ for this brand/tyPe vinegar of % Wh~e Vinegar) drops~ drops / drops drop.~_ drops drops drops % %

6)

SECTION pAP_E__R 6CH__~_EM_IST.F~¥_.I--V ~ja.~, yuu ,-j~, ,~' ~'"~" ..... "~ .- ~._~ ~n~l moecu~ar level somethingthat is happening the atuH, ...... on which you cannot actually see with your eye. Remember the "way" in which the hydrogen and oxygengo together and come apart. This is an important reaction to knowabout. Hydrogen and oxygenonly go together in a very certain wayto makewater molecules. Water only decomposes a very carin rain way to produce hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. Can you see the simple mathematica~ way that this happens? Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS ~3 Paper models of hydrogen Paper models of oxygen 3-D models of hydrogen 3-D models of oxygen Onered pencil Oneb~ackpencil

drops Pineapple Vinegar drops Tarragon Vinegar Brand Brand Vinegar Brand Vinegar Brand Vinegar --Brand Page 39 drops drops drops Vinegar Vinegar drops drops

10)

11) If unlike chargesattract eachother, what possible gaseous elementsare being given off at the positive chargedwire? 12) What gaseous products are given off at the negative charged wire? You are decomposing water (H20) into its two basic elements. These two basic e~ementsare oxygen and hydrogen.

drops drops drops ~rop;

% % % %

13)

Since hydrogen and oxygen are both gaseous at normal 14) conditions, you should see bubbles forming at the wires, and bubbles movingup the wires to the surface of the liq- Page 16 uid.

BE SURE TO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) Build two papermodels water (H20). of Place two pencils downon the table top. These pentwo cils representthe red andblack wires in the waterelectrolyte. the negative wire (negative electrode). Remember hydrogenis diatomicgas(H2).

A circle of filter paper Smallamount corn starch (obtain fromkitchen) of Goggles

BE SURE WEAR TO GOGGLES W .H.E.~N_ DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMIST_RY IN SET! Acidsreact with bases. reactionof an acid with a base The producesa SALT water. Common sodium and salt, chloride (NaCI), is the salt resulting froma reaction between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) hydrogen and chloride (HCI). Thereaction which duces sodium chloride is:

2)

[]

Yourcolor chart for UniversalIndicator andvinegar (Chapter - Sections 1A) 7 1, Universal Indicatorsolution Microplate Goggles

3) Breakthe moleculesof water up to form hydrogen at gas

BE SURE -EO W~E.A.RGO_GGLES DOING WHEN EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

NaOH HCI + (base) (acid)

BE SURETO WEAR.GOGGLES WHE_N DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! A standard solution of acetic acid is a solution of household 5% whitedistilled vinegar! 1) 2) 3) Usinga microtip pipette, place10 dropsof oneindividual brand aceticacid in a large well of the microplate. of Add10 drops waterto the acetic acid solution. of Fill another microtip pipette with CONTROL preBASE pared in SECTION 1. large well. What the pHof the acid?(Consultthe chart is youcolored in.) Be sure to COUNT THE NUMBER DROPS BASE OF OF USED the next step (5). in 5) Using toothpickto constantly a stir, addthe standard base to the acid solution. See Figure#35. know?) enter the number dropsof baseusedin the Data of Tablebelow.Determine %acetic acid in vinegar. the Pipette Base with Solution

~> NaCI + H20 (a salt) (water)

4) Breakthe molecules water up to form oxygen at the of gas

positive wire (positive electrode). Remember oxygen diatomic (02). gas

1) Place1/2 pipette of potassium iodide (KI) solution in each 5) Nowcan you see whytwice as many bubbles are formed

at the electrode where hydrogen is produced? gas SECTION 6A- USING 3-D MODELS Repeat building of the molecules the listed above usingthe by 3-D molecular models providedin your chemistryset. Usethe color codefound SECTION to identify the different atoms. in 1:6 CHEMICALCOMPOUNDS CHEMICALSEPARATIONS AND Isolation of Elements from Compounds Compounds NOT are mixtures. A mixture can be separatedby physical means. Examples physical means of include: boiling, condensing, melting, thawing,etc. Thesubstances a mixture in keep their ownphysical properties. Compounds only be can separated into elements by CHEMICAL MEANS. compound A is a chemically DIFFERENT SUBSTANCE the reactants from whichformed it. THE SEPARATION ELEMENTS OF FROM THEIR COMPOUNDS ALWAYSREQUIRESTHE USE OF ENERGY FROMSOMEOUTSIDE SOURCE. Elementscan be isolated or separated from compounds by using electrical, chemical heat energy.Thecompound or containing the element be isolated mustreceive enough to energy to allow the splitting of the compound elements. the into For experiments below,attention will be focused the isolation of on a single element the useof electrical energy. by of 3 large wells of the microplate.Usewells A-l, A-2 and A-3. Remember well A-3 is a control. large

Household (salad) vinegar is acidic. Theacid in vinegar acetic acid (CH3COOH). acid dissolvesin waterandionAcetic izeslike this: Acetic acid ionizes to produce hydrogen and an acetate a ion ion. CH3COOH(aq) / H+(aq) CH 3COO-(aq)

2) Cut a piece of filter paper6 mm 60 mm scissors. x with

Wet strip of filter paper the with potassium iodidesolution.

3) Placeoneendof the filter paperin onewell A-1 andthe

otherendin the otherwell A-2. Bothwells containsolution of potassium iodide.

1) Place7 dropsof vinegarin a smallwell of the microplate.

Does vinegar conductelectricity? Whatwouldyou use to check conductivity? for 2) Testa solutionof household vinegar seeif it is anacid. to What would useto test it? you When acetic acid (vinegar) reacts with sodium bicarbonate, a salt, waterand a gas is formed.Thereaction is given below: Vinegarreacts with sodium bicarbonate produce to sodium acetate, water and ???????. CH3COOH NaHCO + CH3COONa H20 + ???? + 3 (vinegar) (sodiumbicarbonate) ( ) + ( ) + What the name the salt produced this reaction?Lookat is of in the SECTION NAMING ON COMPOUNDS check the name to of the salt. What is produced this reaction?Lookat the gas in SECTION GASES check your guess. ON to If you use your CONTROL to titrate household BASE vinegar, you can determine howmuchacid is in commercialvinegar preparations. SECTION - HOW 3 MUCH__ACETIC IS IN VINEGAR? ACID Some household vinegars measure to have a 3%solution out ® of acetic acid in them.Othervinegars, like Heinz Distilled WhiteVinegar,measure to have5% out acetic acid in them. Youwill need following materialsto complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [] Twoplastic pipettes [] Toothpick [] Water Control base (prepared in SECTION 1) Page 38

2 Indicatorto the acid solutionin the 4) Add dropsof Universal

4) Connect 9-volt batteryto a batteryclip. a 5) Placethe red wire fromthe battery clip into onewell with

the paperconnector the blackfromthe battery clip into and the well whichis connected the other endof the paper. to SeeFigure #22.

6) Waitabout5 minutesfor the reaction to take place. What

do you observe eachwell? in do at 7) What you think is produced eachelectrode connected to the battery?What element produced the red (+) is at electrode? What element produced the black (-) elecis at trode?

the 6) When acid solution hasbeenneutralized,(howwill you

8) Cut a roundpieceof filter paperabout2 inchesin diameter. Wetthe filter paperwith tap waterand rub the corn starchontothe wetpieceof round filter paper.

9) Cutthe round starchrubbed filter paper circle in four parts.

(Likefourslicesof pie). Place slice of the round one filter paper smallwell A-l, in placeanother slice of the round starchfilter paper small in well B-1. some 11) Remove of the liquid fromthe well with the (-) electrode. Placea few dropsof the liquid in two small wells. Place pieceof filter paperinto onewell. Theappearance a of a blackstainis a positivetest for iodine. 12) Using anotherpipette, remove some liquid from the well with the (+) electrode. Place fewdrops the liquid in two a of small wells. Adda pieceof paperto onewell. Theappearance a black complex the paper a positive test for of on is iodine. Whichelectrode producedthe iodine? How you know? do

\ acid solution

SECTION ELEC'ERICA.L 7SE_P_A...R_.ATION ELEMENTS OF FROM....A...CQM N.D POU Youwill need following materialsto complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Solutionof potassium iodide Plasticpipette Microplate 9-volt battery 9-volt batteryclip Filter paper strip (See Section 5) Page 17

Figure #35 DATATABLE#10

A) Number drops of base of

(for 5% acetic acid) of B) Number drops of base (for anothervinegarsample) drops drops

C) %acetic acid in vinegarsample.

(B divided by A)

SECTION 8 - ANOTHER E_ E~_ICAL SEPARATION Plastic scoop

SECTION9 - ELECTR_O_L_Y_$1S FERROUS OF SULFATE The secret in understanding this experiment and the unseenreactions taking place at the molecular level is in the positive andnegative chargeat the endsof the wire (electrodes) which are in different wells. Also rememberthat when compoundsdissolve in water the molecules break up into positive charged and negative charged ions (in this case Fe++and S04-). The negative electrodes attract the positive chemical ions. The positive electrodes attract the negative chemicalions. Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS I I Ferroussulfate solution id J Universal Indicator solution Plastic pipette (,J Microplate ;_~ 9-volt battery 'J IJ J 9-volt battery clip Paperstrip (See Section 5) Goggles

CHAPTER

Titration:

TITRATION: A QUANTITATIVE METHOD iJ I,J

Plastic wrap (,Saran® wrap or other plastic wrap) Transparent cellophane tape Fine point marker (Sharpie® brand by Sanford or one like it) Goggles

A Quantitative Method

Again you are able to separate a compound using a small by amountof electrical energy. Andagain you can see if the separation has taken place by using an "individual," or in other words, somethingthat will let your eye "see" a reaction which otherwise you could not see! Youwill need the following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Sodium sulfate solution Universal Indicator Plastic pipette Microplate 9-volt battery 9-volt battery clip Filter paperstrip (SeeSection5) Goggles

Using your chemistry set, you have beenable to test manydifferent materials to see if they were ACIDICor BASIC. Chemists sometimes want to know HOW MUCH acid or base is in a + substance. While pH tells the general amountof H in a solution, a more exacting methodused to determine the amountof acid or base is the process called TITRATION. Titration is the Odest method of QUANTIFYING chemistry. in By comparing a standard solution (a control) to an unknown solution, we can determinethe exact amount acid or base in of solution. This is the process titration. of Titration is a very common scientific procedure. Perhaps you have seen advertisements which say something like... "our product contains 47 times as much BrandX." This statement as is basedon comparisons made using titration. by TERMS TO KNOW

BE SURE WEAR TO GOGGLES ~_H_.._E...N_...D_OLN_~ EXPERIMENTS IN TH.!$..CHE_M._L~T__.R...Y.__.SE~TJ Sodiumbicarbonate is a base. In water, sodium bicarbonate breaks up into sodium ions and hydrogen carbonate ions. NaHCO3(s) 1) ~ Na+ (aq) HC ) O-3(aq

Place 1/2 scoopof sodiumbicarbonatesolid in a small test tube. Addthree pipettes of water to the solid in the tube. Stir the solid in the liquid until the solid totally dissolves. Cover the tube with a piece of plastic wrap and label the tube "Control Base" with cellophane tape and your fine point marker. P~ace7 drops of sodium bicarbonate solution which you madein a small well of the microplate. What would you use to seeif it conducts electricity? Doesa solution of sodiumbicarbonate conduct electricity? Whattest will showif sodiumbicarbonate is a base? What other bases do you know? What other compounds your chemistry set are bases? in (Refer to Chapter7 - Section 7.) SECTION- TESTIN.G.V.!_N._E,G.,~R 2 ,~O_.L_._~ONS

2) 3) 4)

+ ACID A chemical which ionizes in water to form H ions. ACIDIC A solution which has a pH less than 7. ALKALINE A solution which has a pH greater than 7. BASE A chemical that ionizes in water to form OH"ions. NEUTRALIZATION reaction of H+ ions with another ion - The to form water. A BASENEUTRALIZES A__N_..ACID TO FORM WATER. QUANTIFYING - Telling b_o_YY much there is. SALT The chemical produced whenan acid and a base react. TITRATION A process of determining the amountof acid or base In a sample. SECTION 1 .-...I~__R._.E_PARATION O~-.._A._ STANDARD.I~A~E SOLUTION It is important to always have a "standard" solution which can be used to compare other solutions which you are testing. This comparisonof a "known" (`standard) to an "unknown"(thing be tested) is what TITRATION all about. With a standard is base solution you can test acids. With a standard acid solution you can test bases. Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [] Sodiumbicarbonate solid (baking soda) obtain from [] kitchen or grocery Test tube, small Water Electrolyte detector (from Chapter6) [] 9-volt battery Page 37 5)

BE SURE TO WEARGOGGL_E.~ WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS.C.H_E_MISTRY IN SET! BE SURE TO WEAR GOG._G__L__ES ~ EXPERIMENTS THIS.CHEMISTRY SET! IN

1)

Place 1/2 pipette of sodiumsulfate (Na2S04)solution each of 3 wells of the microplate. Be sure that the wells selected are next to each other for comparison. (Remember third well is the control!). the

1)

Using your pipette, place 10 drops of ferrous sulfate solution in each of 3 large wells of the microplate. Uselarge wells A-l, A-2 and A-3. Next, pipette 30 drops of water into eachof the ferrous sulfate wel~s, A-l, A-2 and A-3. Place one drop of Universal Indicator in each of the wells.

2)

Place one drop of Universal Indicator in eachof the wells. Cut a piece of filter Wetthe strip of filter paper 6 mm 60 mm x with scissors. paperwith sodium sulfate solution.

2)

It maybe a surprise that not ALLvinegars which are sold have the sameacid concentration. Manytimes the makers of the vinegar will put on their label howmuch acid (the concentration of acetic acid) is in their product. Youwill need the following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Household vinegar (white vinegar) Plastic pipette Control base (prepared previously in SECTION 1) Microplate Universal Indicator Solution Toothpick Electrolyte detector (`from Chapter6) 9-volt battery Goggles

Wetthe strip of filter paperwith ferrous sulfate solution.

4)

Place one end of the filter paper in one well and place the other end of the paper in an adjoining well which contains the sodium sulfate solution.

4)

P~aceone end of the filter paper in one large well A-1 and place the other end of the paper in an adjoining large well A-2 which also contains the ferrous sulfate solution. Connect 9-volt battery to a battery clip. a Place the red wire from the battery clip into one well with the paper connectorand the black wire from the battery clip into the well which is connectedto the other end of the paper connector. Wait for about 3 minutes for the reaction to take place. What do you observe in each well? Whatdo you think is producedat each electrode connected to the battery? Whatis produced at the red (+) electrode? Whatis producedat the black (-) electrode?

a 5) Connect 9-volt battery to a battery clip.

5) 6)

6) Place the red wire from the battery clip into onewell with

the paper connectorandthe black wire from the battery clip into the well which is connected to the other end of the paper connector.

7) 8)

Wait for about 3 minutes for the reaction to take place. Whatdo you observe in each well? Whatdo you think is produced at each electrode connected to the battery? Whatelementis producedat the red (+) e~ectrode?Whatelementis producedat the black (-) electrode?

7)

8)

Page 18

SECTION : A CH._E___M./CAL 10 SEPARATION Sometimes make separation of a compound to a happen, chemists not need rely on an outsideelectrical force, such do to as a battery, but candepend the "activity" of different metals on to do the job for us. In this experiment depend the difwe on ferent "activity" of zinc andcopper metals helpus in separatto ing the copper sulfate molecule. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [] Copper sulfate solution Plastic pipette Microplate Zinc wire [] Copperwire [] Goggles BE SUBE TO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) Place1/2 pipette of copper sulfate solution into eachof 3 large wells in the microplate. with scissors or wire cutter. Cut the piece about1 inch long. Placethis wire into oneof the large wells where you haveadded copper the sulfate solution.

CHAPTER5

THE GASEOUS PHASE OF MATTER

_BESURE_TO GOGGLES WEAR ..W_HE~..N_.DOING EXPERIMENTS TH_IS.CHEMISTRY IN SET! a of 1) Obtain sample rain waterin a plastic cup.

[]

The GaseousPhase of Matter Gasmolecules free to move are about. Theyare not limited by other molecules.Sincegas molecules farther apart from are eachotherthanmolecules the solid state or the liquid state, in gasmolecules fill the shape their container. Gases of change their volume with temperature changes pressurechanges. and Since most gasesare colorless, odorless and tasteless, we tendto forgetthat: A GASIS MATTER. Sometimesis easy forget that a gasis a formof matter.For it to us the mostcommon is air. Air is not a single gas. It is a gas MIXTURE gases. Is there any wayto separatethe gasesin of air? Mostof air is nitrogen. Animportant part of air is oxygen. Withoutoxygen,life on earth wouldbe impossible. Canyou think of any other gasesin the air whichare important?Can youthink of other gases whichare important? Gases not easily packed your chemistryset. Some the are in of gaseswhichwewill use in experiments will be made from the chemicals the set. Gases in whichwewill usefor our experiments will be made chemical by reactions.

of 2) Transferten dropsof the rain waterto each 4 smallwells in the microplate. 3) 4) 5) Adda dropof UniversalIndicator to ONE the wells with of rain water. Addphenolphthalein indicator to the nextwell. Finally, test some yournatural indicatorswith your rain of sample. with the control UniversalIndicator wells youprepared in SECTION 1.

Calcium hydroxide solution (from your chemistry set) Aluminum ammonium sulfate solution (from yourchemistry set) Magnesium sulfate solution (from your chemistryset) Universal Indicatorsolution (as an indicator) Phenolphthalein solution (as an indicator) Goggles

BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

the well 6) Compare color of the indicator in the rain sample

1) Using the small well rows C-1 through C-12 and D-1

through D-12,place9 drops waterinto eachsmallwell in of rowC and rowD of your microplate. 2) 3) Place drops waterin large well A-1andlarge well B-I. 9 of Pipette one drop of eachsolution listed abovein small wells C-1 throughC-12 and large well A-I. Againdo the same small wells D-1throughD-12andlarge well B-I. for DONOT the phenolphthaleinor Universal Indicator use yet. wells C-1throughC-12and large well A-I.

7) 8)

Compare color of the indicator in the phenolphthalein the control with the rain sample phenolphthalein. and Finally, compare "natural indicators" andrain sample the with the colors notedin SECTION 2. Which indicator wasthe best for telling the pHof rain water? Which indicator wouldbe the worst? Whatwould you expect the pH of rain to be? Are your results different than whatyouexpected? Extend the spaceson your RECORD #8 to include CHART the rainwater sampleyou tested. Color in any changes noticed. SECTION7 - TESTINGTHE pH OF OTHER CHEMICALS

4) Pipette onedropof UniversalIndicator solution to small

indicator to each the of 5) Pipetteonedropof phenolphthalein small wells D-1throughD-12andto large well B-I. any in 6) Observe color change all of the wells tested. (A piece of white paperunderyour microplatemayhelp show the colors.)

2) Cut a pieceof zinc wire (providedin your chemistryset)

TERMSTO KNOW wire in set) 3) Cut a pieceof copper (provided your chemistry with scissors or wire cutter. Cut the piece about1 inch long. Placethis wire into the other ~argewe~where you haveadded coppersulfate solution. the CATALYST chemical which either speeds or slows down - A up a reactionwithoutbeingusedupin the reaction. DECOMPOSE - Break up into parts. INVERSELY RELATEDIf one variable goes up in value, anothergoesdown.Inversesare opposites. PRECIPITATEsolid whichdoesnot dissolve in a solution. - A PhysicalPropertiesof Gases Anexample this chemistry of fact canbequite startling! Gases respond changes the temperature the pressure to in and which surroundthem. A gas changes volume its when the temperature and/or the pressureon the gas changes.When scientists talk aboutgases,they are alwayscareful to note the temperature the pressuresurrounding gas. and the SECTION - THE..EFFECTOF PRESSURE 1 ON THE VOLUME__OFGAS A Did youever try to squeeze balloon without bursting it? Did a youwonder whatwashappening the air inside the balloonas to you squeezed? Scientists have very carefully measured this experiment with all types of gasesand havefoundinteresting things which happen to gases (like air) whenthey are "squeezed"or put under pressure. Squeezed expanded and gases the cylinder in Page 19

4) Donot addanymetalwire to the last well. Thisis the control well. What the purpose the control well? See is of Figure#23. in 5) Allowthe wire to remain the wells for at least ten minutes. Observeany changein the wells. Which well changes?Whydoes the other well NOT change?Leave the wire in solution for 3-4 hours. What changes you do notice? Whathappened the zinc wire? Whathappened the copto to 3er solution?Compare experimental the solution to the control ~nlI~tinn

Nowthat you know that an INDICATOR such as Universal Indicator Solution or Phenolphthalein Solution maybe usedto tell thechemist a solution anacidor base, is timeto deterif is it minethe acidity and basicity of the other chemicals your in chemistry set. Youwill needthe following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [~ Microplate of indicators from SECTION 1 (with indicator colors in small well rowsA andB) [] Plastic pipette [] Water Colored pencil set Calcium nitrate solution (from yourchemistry set) Ferrous sulfate solution (fromyour chemistry set) [] Cobaltchloridesolution (fromyour chemistry set) [] Ammonium chloride solution (from your chemistryset) Potassium iodide solution (from your chemistryset) Sodium sulfate solution (from yourchemistry set) [] Copper sulfate solution (from your chemistry set) Sodium carbonate solution (from your chemistryset) [] Citric acid solution(fromyourchemistry set) [] Sodium silicate solution (fromyour chemistry set)

7) Usingyour coloredpencil set, record anycolor change on

RECORD CHART #9. of 8) Some your chemical solutions will showno change. Some be acids. Some be bases.Witha black pen, will will put an "A" by the oneswhichshow acid color present. an Put a "B" by the oneswhichshow basepresent. Put an a "N" (neutral) by the oneswhichappear haveno change. to

SOLUTIONS TESTED UNIVERSAL INDICATOR SOLUTION TEST PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR SOLUTION TEST

MAGNESIUM SULFATE SOLUTION ALUMINUM AMMONIUM SULFATE SOLUTION CALCIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION SODIUM SILICATE SOLUTION CITRIC ACID SOLUTION SODIUM CARBONATE SOLUTION COPPER SULFATE SOLUTION : SODIUM SULFATE ~OLUTION POTASSIUM SOLUTION IODIDE ~ ~-HI~ORIDE SOLI.)TION COBALT CHLORIDE sOLUTION -~RROUS SULFATE SOLUTION CALCIUM NITRATE SOLUTI[~RECORD CHART#9 Page 36

Figure #23

Put the correct name the endof the rowyou are recordat ing as to what indicator youusedandthe colors indicated. Note: Youmayhaveto repeatedly clean out the wells in rowsC andD and re-usethemafter eachrecordingandexperiment with different indicators. Try to find as many colored"natural indicators" possible.Always recordthe color changes on RECORD CHART #7. SECTION4 - OTHER NATURAL INDICATORS Repeat procedure SECTION the in 3 until youhavetested all of yournatural indicators. What youtell about the indicators? can all What similar or different abouteach the indicators? is of BE SURE RECORD, RECORD TO on CHART#7 with your coloredpencils, all of the color changes observed the testing from of yournaturalindicators.

1) Placea small sample eachof the liquids mentioned of in

the materials list microplate. ples. a 3) Add fewdropsof UniversalIndicator to eachof the large wells containingsamples. the to 4) Compare colors of the wells with samples the control wells with UniversalIndicator youprepared SECTION in 1. Record the sululions yuu test un RECORD CHA_RT #8. Useyour coloredpencils to show changes. Whichproductsare acids? Which are bases? Wereany of the materials ,ou testedneutral? SOLUTIONS TESTED Shampoo Dishwashing detergent Laundry detergent Pet Shampoo Vinegar Clear Soda Toothpaste Milk Lemon juic~ Grapefruit jui¢~ Rain water COLOR BEFORE UNIVERSAL INDICATOR ADDED COLOR AFTER UNIVERSAL INDICATOR AODED separately in large wells of your

2) Add some water to each large well containing your sam-

of an automobile engine is what makesthe engine run. Scientistswho fill up large heliumweather balloons NOT do fill themup all the waybecause heliumexpands the balloon the as goes higherandhigher. If the balloons were filled full at ground level, it would burst at higheraltitudes where atmospheric the pressureis less and the helium gas volume becomes much so greater. Thefollowingexperiment youtest for the effect of pressure lets onthe volume a gas. The of blue solution is usedin this experimentso that youcan"see"the change the volume the gas in of you are testing. When add weight (books) on top of the you bulb, youare exertingforce (pressure) the gasto "reduce" on its volume.., just like squeezing balloon. a Gases expandand contract with changes the pressure of in their surroundings.Gases expand whenthe pressuredecreases. Theycontract when pressuresurrounding the them increases. Gasvolumeand pressure are INVERSELY related. Youwill needthe following materialsto complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Metricruler [-I A newplastic pipette Methylene solution (from your chemistry blue set) Plastic measuring cup .1 Water Several heavybooks [J Goggles BE SURE TO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS. THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

3) Graspthe pipette stemin onehandand the end of the

pipettestem the other. Pull until the pipettetubestretchin es verythin. Tie a knotin the stretched part of the pipette tube. SeeFigure #25. book heavy or weight knot In pipelts~ "stretch~ pipette metric ruler

Figure #25

4) Accuratelymeasure length of the trappedair column the in

the stemof the pipette usingyour metric ruler. SeeFigure #25. 5) 6) Place book top of the bulbof the pipette. a on Measure length of trappedair in the column the with the bookin place. What happened the length of the column? to Measure length of the column the after eachbookhasbeen added.

SECTION - TESTING 5 FORA(,31D$ ANDBASES Now using the tests and the color changes by whichyou recorded in previousexperiments whichtold you the color changes occurring at specific acid or baseconcentrations, cannow you test for the acid and basechanges concentrations and with some unknown solutions. Againcompare color changes any with whatyou alreadyrecordedfrom previousexperiments color changes. and Youwill need following the materials complete experiment: to this LIST OF MATERIALS Microplateof indicators from SECTION 1 (small rowsA & B) Household solution (example: ® liquid soapor soap Dial dishwashing liquid soap) Shampoo solutions Liquid laundrydetergent Pet shampoo Vinegar Clearsoda(sparkling water) Toothpaste Milk Lemon juice Grapefruit juice Universal Indicator solution Plastic pipettes Colored pencil set Goggles

to on 7) Continue stack books top of the bulb of the pipette.

8) Whatstatement can you makeabout the way pressure

effects the volume a gas? of

SECTION2 - THE EFFECTOF TEMPERATURE ON A VOLUME GAS OF Temperature also will "change volume a gas." This is the of why, instance, tires ona carneed beinflatedwith a litfor the to tle moreair than normalin very cold weather, and whyyou should a little air out of the tires in veryhot weather ona let or long trip on hot highway surfaces. In this experiment will cool a gas(air) andwatch the volwe as umeof a gas changes reduced). Againweuse the methyl(is eneblue dyesolution just to be able to "see"the gasvolume as it changes. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Methylene dyesolution (from your chemistry blue set) A new plastic pipette Crushedice Microplate Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

RECORDCHART SECTION - TESTINGRAIN WATER 6 FORpH VALUE Rainwateris not purewater.As rain falls fromthe sky, it picks up particles and chemicals. Theparticles maybe pieces of dust, dirt or smoke.Thechemicalsmaybe gaseswhich have been releasedfroma factory or home. any case, rain water In may absorbthis material andchange pHof rain water. the Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS I_,1 Microplateof indicators from SECTION 1 F~ Rain water I~1 Plastic cup ~ Plastic pipette i~ Universal Indicator solution [~ Goggles

t) Place2 dropsof methylene dyein a smallplastic cup. blue

Fill the cup about full with water. 1/2

2) Fill ONLY bulb of a plastic pipette with methylene the blue

solution. SeeFigure #24. After it is filled, DONOT SQUEEZE bulb, but hold the pipette tube and bulb as the shown Figure #24. in

BE SURE TO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! As stated above,many the products of which in your home are are acidsandbases.Youcantest home products acid, base for or neutral pHin the followingway.

Figure #24 I'age 20

Page 35

Gases expand and contract with changes temperature. The in expansion contraction of a gas varies DIRECTLY the or with temperature a gas. of 1) Start with a new pipette. dropsof methylene blue dye solution. Thedye will allow youto observe level of waterin the stem the pipette. the of 3) Place bulbof the plastic pipettein a plastic cup. the the microplate. Hold the stem of the pipette belowthe water line by using some tape to securethe stemto the plate. SeeFigure #26.

Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Microplate [] Vinegar (from kitchen or grocerystore) [] Household Ammonia (from kitchen or grocerystore) Id Universal Indicator Solution(from yourchemistry set) [] Plastic pipette Plastic sandwich bag Water --I Goggles BE SURETO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) Selectonerowof small wells in your microplate. Place10 drops of water in eachwell in the row, EXCEPT for the first and last well in therow. Addonedropof Universal Indicator to eachwell containing waterin the row. Place dropsof vinegarin oneof the empty 10 wells. Place10 dropsof ammonia the other empty in well. QUICKLY place the microplatein a plastic sandwich bag. Whathappens the Universal Indicator? A changein to color is dueto the diffusion of vinegarandammonia.blue A color indicates ammonia;red color indicate vinegar. a Which diffused faster? Which lighter? is

11) Addonedropof phenolphthalein solution (anotherindicator) to each thewellsin this row. of Compare results of your experiments. is phenolthe How phthaleindifferent fromUniversal Indicator? 12) OnRECORD #7, using your colored pencils, fill in CHART the colors which the phenolphthalein Indicator Solution changed in eachof the small wells B-2 throughB-11. to Markthis row on your RECORD #7 (B-2 through BCHART 10) Phenolphthalein Indicator Row. DO NOTDISCARD YOURINDICATORS!! Youcan savethe UniversalIndicator and phenolphthalein for use as CONTROLSexperiments will do later. Seal the for you indicators in their wells by coveringthe wells with a pieceof transparenttape. Covereachrow of wells with a long, single piece of tape. Run your finger over eachwell to seal the contents in thewell. SECTION2 - NATURAL INDICATORS One the mostfascinatingdiscoveries that many of is plants also havenatural "indicators" included in the flowers, leavesor stems the plant. We usetheseas indicators for our acid of can and base changeexperiments. Youwill needthe following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS ~ Flowerpetals (obtain from plant flowers with colored petals) --I Plant fruit skin (example: cherries,blueberries,etc.) Redcabbage leaves(obtain from your grocery) Large test tube with cap Household (from tea bag) tea Isopropylalcohol (rubbingalcohol)(obtain fromdrugstore or grocery) Microplate Household vinegar(acetic acid) Householdammonia (ammonium hydroxide) Plastic pipette Plastic sodastraw Scissors Goggles BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! WARNING: or isopropylalcohol andtheir vapors highEthyl are ly flammable. not use alcohol in the presence an open Do of flame. Usealcohol in an areawith good ventilation. Some naturally occurring chemicals indicators. Theymust are be separated from natural sourcesin order to see themwork. Wewill EXTRACT natural indicators with ethyl alcohol or the with isopropyl alcohol(rubbing alcohol). Page 34

2) Fill a large well of the microplatewith water. Adda few

Almost plant colors (pigments) indicators. Usethe skin, all are rind, or petal of a plant. Theindicatorwill be in the colored or tinted part of the plant. Green leaves contain CHLOROPHYLL. Chlorophyll not an indicator. The is petals of flowers,even white flowers, contain indicators. Thefollowing is a list of plant sources indicators. Red of cabbage, cherryskins, tea, blueberry skins, blackberryskins or flower petals are good sources of naturalindicators. TO EXTRACTTHE INDICATOR, FOLLOW THESEDIRECTIONS: sure to usea microtip pipette for this experiment. Be DO NOTMIX SKINS OR FLOWERS! BE SURETO EXTRACT EACHPLANTOR FLOWER INDIVIDUALLY 1 Placea 5-6 gram sample the plant or flower into a test of tube. Crush petals with a plastic sodastrawto squeeze the alcohol throughout sample. the

4) Direct the stemof the pipette into the waterin the well of

2) Add1/2 pipette of ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. Mix well.

cru.shsd

~

_

Figure #26

tapestem into deep well

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

3) Allowthe plantmaterialto stay in the alcoholfor at least 5

minutes.

4) Pour the liquid into a largewell of the microplate. off 5) Save liquid as your"naturalindicatorsolution"in further this

experiments. youwish, youmayalso savethe indicator If in same plastic pipette whichyouusedfor extracting or drawing the indicator solution out of the test tube. Be up sureto label yourplastic pipette, which indicatorit holds. SECTION - NATURAL 3 INDICATORS Youwill need following materialsto complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS II Flowerpetals, plant skin, or red cabbage extraction (from previousexperiment) Largetest tube Isopropylalcohol(rubbingalcohol) [] Microplate [,J Household vinegar(acetic acid) [] Householdammonia (ammonium hydroxide) / Plasticpipette Colored pencils [] Water [] Goggles BE SURE TO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

5) Placean ice cubeor some crushed into a plastic cup ice withthe pipette. happens the water/methylene solution level in to blue 6) What the stem? the temperature the air in the bulb deAs of creased,what happened the volume the air? How to of do you know? the 7) Remove pipette fromcontactwith the ice. Allowthe air in the pipette to come room to temperature.What happens to volume air as the bulb warms? of the 8) When trappedair has returned to roomtemperature. pour some warm waterinto the plastic cup. 9) Placethe bulb of the plastic pipette in contact with the warm water, by pouring warm water into the plastic measuring cup. 10) What happened the level of water in the stem of the to pipette as the bulb of air is warmed? happens a What to gasif the temperature the gasincreases? of

8)

SE~C.TtO_N_ 3_.A.......:...G.A.,~...I~.!_EE~__S_.!ON II Repeat the previous SECTIONin exactly the same 3 way, but this time insteadof usingvinegar(acetic acid) try usinglemon juice(citric acid). SECTION4 - PREPARATION OXYGEN OF Hydrogen peroxide (H202) is a common household antiseptic which can be found as a 3%solution in many drug or grocery stores. Hydrogenperoxide can be DECOMPOSED water into the oxygen. The compound a formula similar to water has (H20). Theextra oxygen peroxidecanbe freed by the reaction of in hydrogen peroxide with a CATALYST. reaction looks like The this: (steel wool) hydrogen peroxide ~ water and oxygen

[] [] [] [] [] []

SECTION - GASDIFFUSION 3 Of all states of matter,gases have greatestability to move the from place to place and the greatest freedomof movement. Theability of gases move to throughother gases called DIFis FUSION. lighter the gas (the smaller the molecule), the The faster its molecules move. can

1) Repeat SECTION 1 Steps1-9 in anotherrow of small wells

(Rows and D). C

2) Add6-8 dropsof your indicator to each the wells in the of

row.

The steel woolis the catalystfor the reaction.It is writtenabove the arrowfor the equation. Page 21

CHART 3) Record the color changeon RECORD #7 by coloring in the correct well circles with yourcolored pencils.

1) Place 9 drops of water in each of the small wells A-3 and A-10in the microplate. 2) Place 10 drops of vinegar (acetic acid) in well A-2. 3) Takeone drop out from small well A-2 and drop it into the water in small well A-3. You have just madethe acid in small well A-3 ten times LESS THAN the acid solution in small well A-2. Why? See Figure #34. ~t 4) lake onedrop out ot small well A-3 andm~x w~ththe water in small well A-4. 5) Repeat the above process with well 5 and 6. DONOTADD ANYTHING TO WELL 7. Why? (Hint: small well A-7 will be used as neutral or just plain water which is neutral pH.) 6) Place 10 drops of household ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) in small well A-11. 7) Takeone drop out of small well A-11 andadd it to the water in small well A-10. You have just madethe base in small well A-10 ten times LESS THAN (weaker than) the basic solution in small well A-11. Why? 8) Takeone drop out of small well A-IO and mix it with the water in small well A-9. 9) Takeonedrop out of small well A-9 andmix it with the water in small well A-8. 10) DO NOT ADD ANYTHING TO SMALL WELL A-7. Why?

~ we~Uw~i weUw~ weUwell we~wr.U 2 3 4 $ 6 ? 8 9 10 UNIVERSAL INDICATOR ROW PHENOPHTHALEIN INDICATOR ROW NATURAl INDICATOR ROW NATURAL, INDICATOR ROW NATURAL INDIGATOR ROW NATURAL INDICATOR ROW NATURAL INDICATOR ROW NATURAL INDICATOR ROW NATURAL INDICATOR ROW

Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS IJ Fine steel wool (obtain from hardwarestore or grocery) DONOT use the steel wool with soap embedded it! in ~ Hydrogen peroxide (3%) (obtain from drugstore or cery) Ij Methyleneblue solution ~J I1 [,_] ~1 Microplate Plastic pipette Water Goggles

SECTION 5 - DOES AIR CONTAIN OXYGEN? You probably have already heard that air contains oxygen. Oxygen a gas which we breathe and which sustains life. How is can we measurewhether air actually does contain oxygen?By using methylene blue dye solution, we can measurefor the presence of oxygen. Methylene blue dye solution will change color if it is in contact with oxygen. We can use this change of color to test for the presence oxygen. of You will needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [] A newplastic pipette

000000000 000000000 0000000©0 000000000 000000000 0 0000 QO0000000 000000000

°000 08888

RECORDCHART #7

$.EC_T.!_ON - DILUT.I,O_N_,O_E_A.CJD 1A

1)

In this experimentyou will see howto dilute an acid, moreand more, and to showhow the dilution can be seen by the use of an "indicator." The indicator usedin this experimentis Phenolphthalein which will changecolor in a basic solution and NOT in an acid solution. Youwill needthe color changeinformation to compare with acid and base experiments later. Usea microtip pipette for these experiments.

2)

[_.1 Methyleneblue solution B_.E.. SU__R_E TO .W___E_A__R_...G.QGG.LE__S____W_HEN___POJ.NPa ._E__X_I M .S... ...T_I~C_H__E_._M__! T! ..P.E_ E_N~F R !..N_ I $, _S. _R_ _T.. _y ._~_.E :J Microplate II Water Cut the round end of a pipette off with scissors. (If you "~ Goggles have already madea filer funnel out of a pipette, you may BE SUR_E_TO WEAR G,OGGLES WHEN_D_.QIN~ use that.) .I~X..I~E!~IMENT~ IN. THIS_.. CHEMI _S.T__R_Y. SET.!. Packsteel wool into the bulb of the pipette so that it will not fall out the openend you just cut. Make sure the steel wool 1) Place 1/2 pipette of water in a large well in the microplate. is close to the cut end but not sticking OUT the openend of you have cut. 2) Addone drop of methyleneblue to the water in the well. With anotherpipette, addonepipette full of water to a large well of your microplate. Add1 drop of methylene blue solution to the waterin this large well. Rinse out the pipette you have used with the water and the methyleneblue solution. Now place 1/2 pipette full into anotherlarge well. of hydrogenperoxide solution 3) Direct the stem of a plastic pipette into the methylene blue solution. Squeeze air out of the plastic pipette into the waterconthe taining the methylene blue solution. Withdrawthe tube from the methyleneblue solution. Allow the bulb to expand fill and with air.

3)

BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLESWHEN DOING EXPERIMENTSIN THIS CHEMISTRYSETI 4) 1) Place 9 drops of water in small wells B-3 and B-10 in the microplate. 2) Place 10 drops of vinegar (acetic acid) in small well B-2. 3) Take one drop out of small well B-2 and mix it with the water in small well B-3. You have just madethe acid in small well B-3 ten times LESSTHAN small well B-2 by a factor of 10. Why?See Figure #34. 4) Take one drop out of small well B-3 and mix it with the water in small well B-4. 5) Repeat the above process with small wells B-5 and Be6. DO NOT DO ANYTHING TO WELL 7. Why? 6) Place 10 drops of household ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) in small well B-11. 7) Take one drop out of small well B-11 and mix it with the water in small well B-10. You have just madethe base in small well B-10, ten times LESSTHAN small well B-11. Why? 8) Take one drop out of small well B-10 and mix it with the water in small well B-9.

4)

5)

5) 6)

6)

11) Addone drop of Universal Indicator to all the wells. What happensin each of the wells?

highest Acetic /v:~d concentration

HEU .-rI:L&L -'=~

highest Ammonia (Base concentration I

Takethe cut pipette with the steel wool and place the cut end into the well containing the hydrogen peroxide. Hold the pipette with the steel wool downward the wayto the all bottom of the well of hydrogenperoxide. Hold the cut end of the pipette tightly against the bottomof the well containing hydrogenperoxide. Oxygen gas will now be producedby the action of the catalyst (steel wool) and the hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen gas will go up the tube of the pipette. Direct the stemof the pipette into the methylene blue solution. See Figure #27.

pipette with steel wool and peroxide / in large well

7)

Repeatthe bubbling of air into the well as often as necessary until a color changeis noted. Be sure to removethe tube from the well before allowing the bulb to return to the full position.

~^lh~t h~t_n,_ngn £ tm thn rnr~th~,~l#n~ hh ~p ~ml, lfi~n9

, , , , , , ,o-,.,, ,, r

~0~~000~ c~O00000000 o~O00000000 ¯ 0 0 ¯ 0 0 0 0 0

7)

S~E_.C_.~E!.ON 6 - NATURAL .. OXYGEN PRODUCTI,ON: .T__H_.E ACTI,ON ENZYMES OF Oxygenis produced all the time by natural processes. The enzymes the cells in liver will causeoxygento be produced. in Natural enzymes raw potato will cause oxygen to be proin duced. In this experiment see if you can use the enzymes to release the oxygenfrom the hydrogen peroxide. Youwill needthe following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS I-I Hydrogen peroxide (3%) (obtain from drugstore or cery) Raw liver or raw potato (obtain from your kitchen) '1 Microplate Plastic pipette [] [] Water Goggles

8)

"'000000 -~OOOOOO,

Figure #34 12) On RECORD CHART using your colored pencils, fill in #7, the colors whichthe Universal Indicator solution changed to in each of the small wells A-2 through A-11. Markthis row (A-2 through A-10) the UniversalIndicator

9) Take one drop out of small well B-9 and mix it with the water in small well B-8. 10) DO NOT ADD ANYTHING TO SMALL WELL B-7. Why?

methylene blue solution

9)

Figure #27 Observethe color of the methylene blue solution as the hydrogen peroxide decomposes. What happens? What gas is formed? Page 22

Page 33

BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) 2) Place smallpieceof rawliver or crushed a potatoin a large well in the microplate. Add pipette full of hydrogen a peroxide the liver or potato to.

3) Cut a small sample(about 1 g) of plant leaf into small

pieces with scissors. Usea plastic cup to collect the pieces.

ACID AND BASE SOLUTIONS Acid and Base Solutions Acidsandbases are two types of chemicalswhich youhave contactwith every day. Common can be foundin many acids man-made natural products. Acidswhichyoumay and have seen include ascorbic (vitaminC), aceticacid(vinegar), acid auto battery acid(sulfuric acid),tea (tannic acid), and sour and yogurt (lactic acid). Bases are also quite common. Milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide), lye (sodium hydroxide) andhousehold ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) are some common bases. ACIDS AND BASESARE WATER SOLUTIONS. TERMS TO KNOW + ACID A chemical whichionizes in water to formH ions. ACIDIC A solution whichhasa pHless than 7. ALKALINE solution whichhas a pHgreater than 7. - A BASE A chemical that ionizes in waterto form OHions. EXTRACT use a solvent to isolate an individual chemical - To from a source. INDICATOR chemical - A whichturns color at a particular pH. ION- A charged atomor groupof atoms. IONIZATION breakingapart of a molecule - The into parts which havea positive (+) or negative charge. (-) NEUTRAL - Neither acid nor base. pHSCALEA scale whichtells the relative amount acid or of base a solution. in SALT Thechemical which results when acid reacts with a an base. Water(H20)contains different chemical two parts. These parts are called IONS.Thehydrogen (H+) whichhas a positive ion charge and the hydroxide ion (OH) which has a negative + charge.Acids add extra H ions to water, bases extra OHadd ionsto water. In pure water the amount H ion exactly equalsthe amount of + of OH" ion. + When chemical is addedto water the balanceof H and any OHin the solution changes. example, For when sulfuric acid is added waterto make solution for a car battery, the amount to a + of H increaseswhile the amount OH"decreases. of This solution is said to be ACIDIC. Page 32

4) Usinga chemical scoop, transfer the cut leaf to oneof the

wells in the microplate containingthe methylene solublue tion. 5) 6) Place plate in the sunlightor under light for a fewminthe a utes. What happens? SECTION - TESTING GASFORCARBON 9 A DIOXID~E A test for the presence carbon of dioxide in a gasis to bubble the gas into a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide. (Saturated calciumhydroxidesolution is also known lime as water.) Youwill needthe following materialsto complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [] Calcium hydroxide solution (from your chemistryset) ~1 Scissors .7-1 Microplate I~ Plasticpipette [] Goggles BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTI~Y IN SET! NOTE: To obtainlime water(saturated calciumhydroxide solution) you mayhaveto see your pharmacistat your local drugstore, or use the calciumhydroxide solution from your chemistry set. in 1) Cut a plastic pipette as shown Figure#28. Usethe cutoff stemas the blowstraw. Save bulbportion for anoththe er experiment. SAVE THIS STEMFORUSE IN OTHER EXPERIMENTS save end this cut here

When calcium oxide,unslaked lime, (CaO) added water is to form slaked lime, the amountof OH" increases while the amount H+decreases. of This solution is said to be BASIC or ALKALINE. Almost ALLsolutions are either ACIDIC ALKALINE. or Very few solutionsare NEUTRAL. Scientists measure amount acidity or alkalinity by usinga the of specialscale called the pHSCALE. pHscale rates soluThe tions from 1 to 14 based the amount H or OHion in the on of + solution. solution A which a rating of between to 6 is conhas 1 sideredACIDIC is the highestamount acid, 6 is the least). (1 of A solution whichis rated 8 to 14 is ALKALINE BASIC soluor (a tion whichhas a 14 pHhas the highest amount base,while 8 of is the least basic). A solution whichis exactly 7 is NEUTRAL. The chart below mayhelp you to understand this important scale. pH(1 - 2 . 3- 4 . 5 - 6) 7 (8.9.10 -11 -12 .13 .14) < -, STRONGER STRONGER ACID BASE n STRONGEST WEAKEST U ACID AC/D t WEAKEST STRONGEST BASE BASE

3) What gas is produced? could you identify this gas? How SECTION - METHYLENE 7 BLUEAS AN.!NDICATOR Using the materials listed above,andmethylene blue, repeat the experiment. BE SURE WEAR TO GOGGLES _D..E)J_N..G WHEN. EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) 2) 3) Adda pipette of hydrogen peroxide two other large wells to in the microplate. Adda few dropsof methylene blue to the hydrogen peroxide in bothwells. Place smallpieceof liver or crushed a potatoin ONE the of wells. SECTION8 - PLANTSAND OXYGEN Plantsnaturally produce oxygen they are exposed light. when to Plants take carbondioxide from the atmosphere produce and oxygen. The next time you have FRESH spinach or a FRESH leafy greenvegetable dinner, savea few leavesof the vegfor etable for this experiment. canusea plant leaf or a blade You of grassinsteadof fresh spinach. Youwill needthe following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [] Source sunlightor bright light of Scissors [] Microplate [] Plasticpipette [] Plastic measuring cup Grass plant leaf or [] Methylene solution blue [] Goggles BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! CUTTING LEAVES SHOULD DONEWITH BE YOURPARENTS'ASSISTANCE 1) Place 1/2 pipette of water into two large wells in the microplate. taining the water. Page 23

r I

SECTION1 - THE pH SCALEANDINDICATORS Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [] Household vinegar(acetic acid) obtain from kitchen grocery Household ammonia (ammonium hydroxide solution) obtain fromkitchen or grocery Microplate [] Plastic pipette [] Water [] Universal Indicator solution (fromyour chemistry set) Phenolphthalein solution (from your chemistry set) [] [] Transparent tape [] Set of coloredpencils Goggles BE SURETO WEAR GOGGLES WH__EN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! This experiment show the characteristicsof both the pH will you scale and the wayINDICATORS work. Usea microtip pipette for theseexperiments.

usethis end Figure #28 solution (lime 2) Fill anotherpipette with calciumhydroxide water).

3) Place1/2 the calciumhydroxide solution in onelarge well

of the microplate.Place other1/2 of the solution in an the adjoining well. 4) Placethe large endof the plastic straw into your mouth. Direct a stream breath of gently into the solution.

2) Addonedropof methylene to eachof the wells conblue

7)

Is there any difference between the products and the reactants which formed them? Whatdo you think happenedto give the results you have noticed? Which combination of chemicals produced a reaction? Which chemical product is a PRECIPITATE? Which chemical productis a gas?

Youwill need the following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Microplate with the solutions from SECTION 4 (wells A, B, C, D- 8-12) I-I Electrolyte Detector Water Plastic pipettes Goggles

5)

8)

Watchthe solution carefully. A PRECIPITATE should form. A precipitate is a solid which is formed whena reaction occurs in solution. A precipitate formedin this experiment is an indication that carbon dioxide is in your exhaled breath. How could you tell if air has carbon dioxide? Thereactionfor this precipitation is:

draw up somevinegar into the pipette with the 6) QUICKLY sodiumbicarbonate. 7) Direct the stem of the pipette into the calcium hydroxide solution.

6)

calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide .... ~ calcium carbonate + water Ca(OH) + CO 2 2 CaCO + H20 3

SECTION 6 - TESTING THE REMAINING SOLUTION OFA CHEMICAL REACTION Just as you tested the precipitates (the wet and dry products of a chemical reaction), you nowneedto test the solutions which were formedin the chemical reactions. Many these solutions of carry dissolved in themthe salts from a chemicalreaction. Your electrolyte detector will show the ones whichconduct electrical current, in other words, the solutions whichhavedissolved salts and which are ELECTROLYTES!

BE SURE TO WE__ARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS IN. THIS CHEMISTRY SET! Test the solutions saved from SECTION in the small wells A, 5 B, C, D - 8 - 12, for conductivity using the ELECTROLYTE DETECTOR. Prepare another table like Table #6 and record which solutions conduct electricity (these are ELECTROLYTES). SECTION 10 - PREPARATIONOF CARBONDIOXIDE Carbon dioxide gas is produced when compoundscontaining carbonate react with acids. Carbondioxide is also producedby living things. Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Calciumhydroxide solution (lime water) Scissors NATE Lu..M_ E! '..C..A_~_~P_ I ~~

~ ..... ~I~!D. VINEGAR I~ HYDROXIDE

Figure #30

SampleElectrolyte Table Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6

[] [] [] --I

Microplate Plastic pipette Cellophane tape Sodiumbicarbonate (baking soda from your kitchen) Vinegar (from your kitchen) Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLESWHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS. _T_HIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

8) Standthe plastic pipette combinationin the microplate next to the well containing the calciumhydroxidesolution, allowing the pipette end to bubble CO gas into the calcium 2 hydroxidesolution. 9) Whatcompound generated by this reaction? is calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide ) ???? + H20

ROW1

[]

10) Whathappensto the calcium hydroxide solution when the gas generated bubbles through the solution? 11) Wherehave you seen this reaction of calcium hydroxide before?

1) ROW 2

Cut a plastic pipette with scissors as indicated in Figure #29. Place a 1/4 scoop of sodium bicarbonate in the pipette through the slit you havejust formed. Coverthe slit tape. with a piece of transparent tape or electrical SECTION - A REACTION 11 WH!.C_H PR_O__D.IJC..E_S CARBON__DIOXIDE Youwill needthe following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS [J Baking soda solution (Sodiumbicarbonate solution) [1 Plastic pipette Microplate [] scissorcut clear tape Figure #29 Plastic pipette Citric acid solution Water Goggles

2)

3)

SAVE THIS PIPETTE FOR USE IN OTHER EXPERIMENTS pipette ROW 3

ROW 4

4) 5)

Page 31

With anotherpipette, fill a large well of the microplate with calcium hydroxide solution. With another clean pipette, fill gar. an adjoining well with vinePage 24

BE SURE 3"_0 WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

Make your ownsodium bicarbonate(baking soda) solution placing 1/4 scoopof bakingsoda(obtain from your kitchen or grocery) in your plastic measuring andaddinga pipette of cup water.Stir this mixtureuntil all baking soda dissolved. has 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Place20 dropsof sodium bicarbonate solution in a large well of the microplate. Add pipette of waterto the well. 1/2 Add pipetteof citric acidto thewell. 1/2 Watch whathappens acid is added the sodium as to bicarbonate. How couldyoutell that the gasproduced carbon is dioxide?

Youwill need following materialsto complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Ammonium chloride solution (from your chemistryset) Calcium hydroxide solution (from your chemistryset) Microplate Plasticpipette Filter paper Universal Indicator solution Q Goggles BE SURETO WE&._RGOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Place1/2 of a pipette of ammonium chloride solution into a well of yourmicroplate. Moisten small(1 inch x 1 inch) pieceof filter paperwith a Universal Indicatorsolution. Add1/2 plastic pipette of calciumhydroxide solution to the well containing ammonium chloride. Holdthe moistened filter paper over the well containing the mixture of ammonium chloride and calciumhydroxide. What the result? What caused color change, is gas the if any? A color change with Universal Indicator indicatesthe presence of ammonia vapor. Remember that ammonia a is base! SECTION14 - NEUTRALIZATION GASES OF Magnesium Sulfate + Potassium Iodide ROW3 Calcium Nitrate + Potassium Iodide Column 1 Copper Sulfate ROW 1

+

Table #6 - REACTION RECORDING TABLE Column2 Copper Sulfate + Sodium Chloride Column3 Copper Sulfate + Sodium Sulfate Column4 Copper Sulfate + Sodium Bicarbonate Column5 Copper Sulfate + Sodium Carbonate Column6 Copper Sulfate + Ammonium Chloride

Potassium Iodide

ROW2

SECTION 12.- PBO_DU.C_.!NG CARBON DIOXIDE IN ANOTHER WAY Youwill need following materialsto complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS @ Seltzer -3 Alka -1 Scissors Microplate Plasticpipette Cellophane tape Vinegar Goggles BE SURETO WEARGOGGLES WHENDOING EXPERIMI~NTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! 1) Clean,rinse and dry the pipette you prepared SECTION in 10, Figure#30. @ Break a pieceof AIka Seltzer whichwill fit into the off pipette. Repeat procedure SECTION Parts 3-11. the of 10, What gas was produced by this reaction? Howdo you know? What chemicals youthink caused productionof this do the gas?

Ferrous Sulfate + Potassium Iodide

Ferrous Sulfate

+

Ferrous Sulfate

+

Sodium Chloride

Sodium Sulfate

Ferrous Sulfate + Sodium Bicarbonate

Ferrous Sulfate

+

Sodium Carbonate

Ferrous Sulfate + Ammonium Chloride

Calcium Nitrate + Sodium Chloride

Calcium Nitrate + Sodium Sulfate

Calcium Nitrate + Sodium Bicarbonate

Calcium Nitrate + Sodium Carbonate

Calcium Nitrate

+

Ammonium Chloride

ROW4

Magnesium Sulfate + Sodium Chloride

Magnesium Sulfate + Sodium Sulfate

Magnesium Sulfate

+

Magnesium Sulfate

+

Sodium Bicarbonate

Sodium Carbonate

Magnesium Sulfate + Ammonium Chloride

2) 3)

Sometimes may "acidic"... like the pollution gasesin gases be the atmosphere dissolvein rainwater cause which to "acid rain." Sometimes gasesare "basic" or alkaline. And, as you might expect, the acid gases and the base gases can be mixed to neutralize oneanother.In the following experiment will see you howsome gases are acidic by the waygaseswill change the color of a special "UniversalIndicator" test paper. Thetest paper will change color to show only if an acid is present not but the color change also give youan idea of "howstrong" the can acidis. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Microplate Plastic pipette [] Universal Indicatorsolutionona smallpieceof filter paper [] Vinegar Goggles BE SURETO WEAR _GO.GGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

SECTION - TESTING 5 THEPRODUCTS A RE,~.CTION OF Even though havealreadytested solutionsandsolids in the you previous experiments, nowyou can test the PRODUCTS of a reaction with your electrolyte detector. Remember: this exin perimentyou are testing to see whetherthe PRODUCTS of a chemicalreaction will behave differently than the chemicals which wereusedto form them.Observe carefully, and you may wantto test some the products of after youhavedried them out to seeif the dry powder products react differently thanthe "wet" products. Youwill need following materials to complete the this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS ~ Microplate with the completed reactions from SECTION 4 I~ Electrolyte Detector made SECTION in 1 [] Water [...] Plastic pipettes -I Goggles BE SURETO WEAR_GO_GGL_ES_WHEN QOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET! Page 30

1) Allowall the reactionsto finish. (Waitabout minutes 15 for the reactions settle out.) to pipette just belowthe liquid 2) Placethe tip of a MICROTIP level in a well. Remove LIQUID the ONLY eachof the from wells where a reaction has occurred. DONOT DISCARD THESE SOLUTIONS! Place each solution removed in anotherunused well on the right side of your microplate. Example: solution fromA-1 shouldbe put in well A-7, and so on. Rinsethe pipette with water between each chemical solution. Theliquids whichyouare savingin microwells A, B, C, D-7-12will be usedin SECTION 6 experiments.

3) Add10dropsof rinse water(tap water)to eachof the wells

whichshowed chemical a reaction and allow the precipitate to settle to the bottom the well. of Remove discard the rinse water which is abovethe and precipitate the well. in Add8 dropsof fresh water to each of the wells wherea reaction has occurred. a reaction has occurred with the ELECTROLYTE DETECTOR.

SECTION - TH_E PRODUCTION AMMONIA 13 OF Ammonia (NH3)is a gaseouscompound which, in water solution is foundin the household preparationcalled "household ammonia." Ammonia its solutions have a piercing odor. and Ammonia also commonly is found in a medicinal preparation called smellingsalts. Ammonia important useas a fertilis for izer. Ammonia often a product protein decay. is of

4) 5)

in 6) Testthe solution of the products eachof the wells where

Page 25

SECTION4.-__REACTIONS O.F SOLUT_IONS

[1 2 3 4 5 8 7 8 9 10 1.1 121

1)

~

Place 1/2 pipette of household vinegar in a well. Place the filter paper which wasmade SECTION Part in 13, 4 over the well with the vinegar. Allow the paper to stay abovethe well for a few minutes. Whathappensto the color of the paper?Whichside of the paperturns color first? Addhouseholdammonia the well drop by drop. Mix after to each addition. Cover with the paper again after each addition. What do you think happenedto the ammonia? What gas do you think caused the change in the filter paper?

Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS II Solutions of the chemicals listed below in Table #5 (Two Groups: Group 1 Chemicals and Group 2 Chemicals) Electrolyte Detector Microplate IJ Plastic pipettes Goggles BE SURETO WEAR GOGGLES .W_H_E..N O.OING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN S.E._T_!

~000000000 0 ~000000000 0 c OOOOOOOOO 0 ~000000000 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2)

EXPERIMENTS WITH SOLUTIONS

3) 4)

Experiments with Solutions TERMS TO KNOW AQUEOUSA water solution. ANION A negatively chargedion. FxamplP.: CICATION A positively charged ion. Example: Na+ to flow through

~000000 -~O0000O

,.__L!.__ Z ;] 4 Figure #32

5)

-~ 8 I ~

CONDUCTIVITY ability to allow electricity - The a substance.

Chemical compounds whendissolved in a water solution often break up into charged particles called IONS. The presence of these chargedparticles or IONS,allow the solution to conduct electricity. The experiment above showedwhich compounds contain ions. Ions react with each other in solution. Cations react with anions to form new compounds.As in any chemical reaction, when two chemicals react, the reaction sometimes producesproducts which have totally different properties from the beginning compounds.

5) 6)

Place 4 drops of ferrous sulfate solution in the secondrow of small wells across the microplate. Continueto put 4 drops of each chemical solution in Group 1 chemicals in an individual ROW wells across the of microplate. See Figure #32. Add 4 drops of potassium iodide solution (Group 2 chemicals) to each of the wells in the first COLUMN the of microplate. See Figure #33.

What would happen if you mixed the household vinegar with a mixture of ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide? SECTION 15 - REACTION OF AMMONIUM_CHLORIDE ANDCALC_J.U_MHYDROXIDE Youwill need the following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Ammonium chloride solution (from your chemistry set) Calcium hydroxide solution (from your chemistry set) Microplate Plastic pipette

CONDUCTORsolid or solution which allows electric current - A to flow throughit. DISSOLVE To become part of a solution. ELECTROLYTEsolution which conducts an electric - A current.

7)

ELECTRODE wire in an electrolyte which carries an electri- A cal charge. HOMOGENEOUS - The same throughout. ION- A positively chargedor negatively chargedatomor group of atoms. NONELECTROLYTE solution - A electric current. which does not conduct an

t)

Divide the chemical compoundswhich have been made into solutions into two groups of chemicals as shownin Table #5.

TABLE #5 Group 1 Copper Sulfate Ferrous Sulfate Calcium Nitrate Group 2 PotassiumIodide SodiumChloride SodiumSulfate RndiumBicarbonate Sodium Carbonate Ammonium Chloride

000000000 000000000 C 000000000 O 000000000

B

A

O000OO

Figure #33

0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0

Filter paper Universal Indicator solution Goggles

PRECIPITATEA solid which does not dissolve in water. -

BE SURETO WEAR GOGGLES_W_H._I~.N..DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRY IN SET!

Solutions are mixtures. Solutions are most often a mixture of a solid dissolvedin a liquid or a liquid dissolvedin anotherliquid. The material which DOES the dissolving is called the SOLVENT. The material which is DISSOLVEDis called the SOLUTE. solutions, the mostplentiful material in the mixture In is called the solvent, while the material dissolved is the solute. A solution is a special kind of mixture because solution cona tains the same amountof solute throughout the solvent. Since a solute is evenly distributed throughoutthe solvent, a solution is often referred to as a HOMOGENEOUS mixture. A mixture (solution) of sugar dissolved in water is an example a homoof geneous mixture or a solution.

~t_u....

1) 2)

Place 1/2 of a pipette of ammonium chloride solution into a well of your microplate. Moistena piece of filter lution. paperwith Universal Indicator so-

2)

8)

Remembering how you used the ELECTROLYTE DETECTOR from Section 2, write a small "e" for electrolyte after each chemical you tested. Also write a small "n" for nonelectrolyte after the chemicalswhich you tested which were non-electrolyte. Remember which of the chemicals in Table #5 are Electrolytes. Place 4 drops of coppersulfate solution in eachwell in the first ROW small wells across the microplate. SeeFigure of #32.

Continueto put 4 drops of each chemical solution in Group 2 chemicals in an individual COLUMN wells. of Whichcombination of chemicals gave a chemical reaction? Howdo you know that a chemical reaction has taken place? DO NOT DISCARD THIS MICROPLATE OF REACTIONS!

3)

9)

Add1/2 of a pipette of calcium hydroxide solution to the well containing ammonium chloride. Place 1/2 pipette of household vinegar in the samewell. Whatis the nameof the acid in householdvinegar? Mix the two solutions together. Wait a few moments the for two liquids to react together. Allow the paper to stay abovethe well for a few minutes. What happens to the paper? What is the compound formed when the acid reacts with the ammonia?Howdo you knowthat a reaction occurred? Page 26

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10) Preparea chart whichrecords all of these reactions similar to Table #6 - REACTION RECORDING TABLE. 11) Recordeach reaction (or non-reaction) in the blank spaces in your table.

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Canyou think of a solution of a solid dissolved in solid? (These solutions are called ALLOYS.) Canyou think of a solution of a gas dissolved in a gas? Whichgas is the solvent, which is the solute? (Air is such a solution.)

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SECTION 1 -&N ELECTROLYTE DETECTOR LED An electrolyte detector is easily made.The detector will allow you to determineif a solution conductsan electric current. You will be able to find out if a solution is an electrolyte._ or a nonelectrolyte. Youwill need the following materials to complete this experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS LED (light emitting diode) --I 9-volt battery [] 9-volt battery clip 1-K ohmresistor [] Spring clips (2) Insulated wire (red length andblack length) Goggles BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS THIS CHEMISTRYSET! IN Figure #31 The chemicalsmost used in your chemistry set are solutions in which a solid or liquid chemicalis dissolved in water. Solutions of chemicals dissolved in water are called AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS. Some aqueous water solutions conduct electricity. Theseare or called ELECTROLYTES. Other solutions DO NOTconduct electricity. These solutions are called NON-ELECTROLYTES. The ability of a water solution of dissolved chemicalto conduct or not conduct electricity tells something about the way the chemicalitself is held together in a molecule. SECTION 2 - ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES It is importantto know whether solution is an electrolyte or not. a Usually, electrolyte solutions are made a chemicalsalt which of is dissolved in water. These WILL conduct small or large amounts electrical current. The "Electrolyte Detector" which of you made will allow you to determineif a solution is conducting evena small amount electrical current...the detector will even of tell you if a solid will conduct electrical current. an You will needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS --I Solutions of all the chemicalsin the chemistry set Water [] Microplate Electrolyte Detector (madein SECTION 1) Pipette [] Usingyour other spring clip as a connector,carefully insert between coils of this spring clip, the free endwire of the the 1-K ohmresistor and the stripped wire end of the black length of wire. The free end of this black wire is the other ELECTRODE. See Figure #31 for a picture of the completedElectrolyte Detector. BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLESWHEN DOING EXPERIM._E_._N_.T_S CHE_.M.ISTR.Y IN THIS S__ET! Goggles I I /~,,.~. II I II I ~ ./"/" ,, ,~ SpringClips ~,\ I} ]1 // insulation ]/ kk fromends /~)of wire

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Using a pipette, place 7 drops of _EACH CHEMICAL SOLUTION IN YOURCHEMISTRYSET SEPARATELYin the small wells in the microplate. Rinse the pipette with clean water betweeneach chemical which your pipette touches. Usesmall wells A-1 through A-12, and B-1 through B-4. Place a pipette of water in one of the large wells in your microplate. This well is used to rinse off the electrodes betweeneach test. Place 7 drops of water in one of the small wells in the microplate. Usewell B-12. Place the two electrodes in the well containing 7 drops of water. Doespure water conduct? Remember, tap water is NOTpure water. If your parents have DISTILLEDWATER, try the experiment again using distilled water. Distilled water is used in electric steamirons. Why? Place the two electrodes in each of the solutions and rate themaccordingto the ability to conductelectricity. Be sure not to let the two electrodes touch eachother while they are in the solution. (The glow of the LEDis a goodindication of the solution being an ELECTROLYTE. more the The LED glows, the better the electrolyte.) As you do your experiment, group the ELECTROLYTES together. Group the NON-ELECTROLYTES together. Makea Data Table on a separate sheet of paper similar to the Data Table shown, with Electrolytes separated from Non-electrolytes.

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Whatis common about the non-electrolytes? Whatis true about electrolytes? Test somecommon household solutions to see if they are electrolytes or non-electrolytes. For example,test household bleach, ammonia, detergent, milk, etc. Use small wells D-1 through D-12for these tests. Try testing somesamplesof food for conductivity. DONOT EAT THE FOODAFTER YOU HAVE TESTED IT!

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SECTION 3 - ANOTHERUSE FOR THE ELECTROLYTE DETECTOR Youwill needthe following materials to completethis experiment: LIST OF MATERIALS Electrolyte Detector Household solids (see list below) Goggles

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Fromyour chemistry set, obtain the LED(light emitting diode), 1-K ohm resistor, battery clip, andspring clips, and the pair of red and black wires. Fromthe store, obtain a 9volt battery. Attach the battery clip to the battery. The LEDhas two wires, one of which is longer than the other. Attach the LONG wire of the LEDto the positive (red) wire of the battery clip. To connect them, carefully twist the bare metal endof the wires together. Attach oneof the resistor wire endsto the negative (black) wire of the battery clip. Connectthese two wires by carefully twisting the bare endsof the metal wires together. Next, find the two lengths of wire supplied in your set. One has black insulation, one has red insulation. Carefully strip the insulation from the endsof these wires so that you have both ends of the black wire stripped back about 1/2" (one half inch) and both ends of the red wire stripped backabout 1/2" (onehalf inch). Using a spring clip as a connector, carefully insert between the coils of the spring clip, the free endwire of the LED and the stripped wire endof the red length of wire. The free end of this red wire is one ELECTRODE.

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DATATABLE #4 DataTablefor Conductivity Substance CobaltChlorideSolution Copper Sulfate Solution Sodium Silicate Solution Calcium Hydroxide Solution Calcium Nitrate Solution Citric AcidSolution Ferrous Sulfate Solution Potassium Iodide Solution Sodium Sulfate Solution Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate Solution Ammonium Chloride Solution Magnesium Sulfate Solution Sodium Carbonate Solution Phenolphthalein Solution Universal Indicator Solution Conductor/Non Conductor

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BE SURE TO WEAR GOGGLES WHEN DOING EXPERIMENTS E_H../_S. CHEMISTRY IN SET!

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Your electrolyte detector will tell you if a solid is a CONDUCTOR. Place the two electrodes from the tester on a piece of copper wire from your chemistry set. Whathappens?Try this test on a copper penny. Test several solids in your home see if they are conductors. to Some solids to test: A tissue, a pencil (try the "lead" in the pencil; it isn't really lead), a teaspoon, toothbrush, window, pen, wooden plastic ruler, or etc. List all the conductors. Whatwas common about all the conductors? List all the non-conductors. What was common about all the non-conductors? Enter all tests you makeinto the Data Table you prepared in Section 2.

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