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Israel

Donna Saa Alex Garza Laura Payne Courtney McCrea Daniel Brown Religion Fertility Urbanization Health Health Care

Religion in Israel

Statistics of Religion in Israel in 2003

· · · · · · Jewish Muslim Arab Christians Other Christian Druze Unspecified

theisraelproject.com 2003

76.4% 16% 1.7% 0.4% 1.6% 3.9%

Israel/Palestine Arab/Jewish Population

Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics

Israel/Palestine Arab/Jewish Population

Year 1914 1922 1931 1941 1950 1960 1970 1980 1995 2005 Jews 60,000 83,790 174,606 474,102 1,203,000 1,911,300 2,582,000 3,282,700 4,495,100 5,275,700 Arabs 731,000 668,258 858,708 1,111,398 1,172,100 1,340,100 1,045,000 2,100,000 3,506,900 5,139,100 Total 791,000 752,048 1,033,314 1,585,500 2,375,100 3,251,400 3,627,000 5,382,700 8,002,000 7.585%

%Jews/Po p

11.141% 16.897% 29.902% 50.650% 58.783% 71.188% 60.986% 56.173%

10,414,800 50.656%

Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics

Fertility of Israel

"Nearly half of the world's population in 2000 lived in countries with fertility rates at or below replacement level, and nearly all countries will reach low fertility levels in the next two decades." - S. Philip Morgan (2003)

· Israel is an ally to the U.S.

Fertility in Israel

· Israel's fertility has always been lower in than in Palestine · Arab Christians, tend to have the lowest fertility rates among any group in Israel · Muslims tend to have the highest fertility rates in Israel

· Israel's TFR: 2.4 (Weeks 2007) · Births per 1,000 Population: 21 · Infant deaths per 1000 Population: 3.9 · Population Age <15(%): 28

Birth Rates

Women Ages<15, 2005 (%): 26 Women Ages 15-49, 2005 (%): 48 Women Ages 50+, 2005 (%): 25 Maternal Deaths per 100,000 Live Births, 2000: 17 Percent of Literate Women: 99% Percent enrolled in Secondary school: 94%

Women in Israel

Trends

1950 1970 1990 2005 2010 2030

(prb.org)

TFR: 4.5

3.8

2.9 9

2.9 3.9

2.5 5

2.1 4

22 Infant: 41 Mortality Per 1000 births

(Weeks 2008 and www.prb.org)

Trends

· The country is almost completely urbanized · The demographic transition has been underway over the past decades "...a major part of Israel's population is proceeding toward the new European lowfertility pattern"

- Friedlander and Feldmann (1993)

Urbanization of Israel

History of Urbanization

· Israel is apart of the Fertile Crescent, one of the first places on Earth to have cities form and urbanization to begin · Has some of the oldest cities in the world · During ancient times through the fall of Ottoman Empire at the end of WWI protection from outside threats remained the primary cause of urbanization

British Mandate

· The modern Zionist movement, beginning while Israel was still under Ottoman rule at the end of the 19th century, became a cause of mass inimmigration

tmh.floonet.net/articles/halbrook.html

Statehood- Present

· After WWII, in 1948, Israel gained statehood, and inimmigration exploded · The result was a lack of housing and a rise in urbanization to solve the housing problem · As of recent the Israeli government has sought to more equally disperse the cities and citizens across the country because of the presence of mostly either very large cities or smaller towns.

Present

· Currently, Israel has made the important demographic transition from using urban areas as protection from outside threats to centers of economic activities

Conclusion

· Israel is a rather modern nation, with many Western allies and ties in the MENA region but with 91% of the nation already being considered to be living in urban areas, coupled with the high birth rights in the MENA area, second only to Sub-Saharan Africa, the increasing number of urban dwellers might become a substantial problem in Israel's future

· This potential for an urban population explosion can be a large worry for the government and a region known for violence and instability. · History has taught us that large numbers of urban, uprooted, youth are catalyst for social unrest; so the question for Israel's future is whether this will hinder the transition of urban areas from traditional bases of industry to modern service centers

Health In Israel

"Pioneers in Modern Medicine"

Reasons for Success

· · · · · · Extensive medical network High doctor-patient ratio Intense medical training Standardized medical treatment for all Immigrants with high life expectancy Public Health as academic discipline

"Health care for all, from infancy to old age, is ensured by law and the national expenditure on health compares favorably with that of other developed countries."

32,000 Physicians 9,000 Dentists 6,000 Pharmacists

Contemporary Changes

1) Aging of the Population 2) Steeply Rising Cost of Medical Equipment

-Doctors now choose between life and death for population groups suffering from various diseases

3) Holocaust Victim Immigrants

-Many of whom suffering from tuberculosis, malnutrition, heart disease and every type of cancer

Health System

· 1948-Jewish state of Israel created · 1991-Fall of Soviet Union and concurrent influx of Jewish migrants to Israel · 1995-National Health Insurance Law passed

National Health Insurance Law

· Prior to 1995, Israel utilized voluntary health care system · Problems with skimming · 1995-NHIL splits monies among four funds · Compulsory

Effects of new health system

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (Israel)

Tipat Halav ­ Mother Child Clinics

Source: Maternal Mortality in 2000 (WHO)

Information

Israel

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