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Name .................................................. Total Score School.................................................. Roll No ...........................................

Republic of Somaliland Somaliland National Examination Board Form Four History Examination June 2009 TIME 2 HOURS Plus 10 minutes for reading through the paper

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES This paper consists of 15 printed pages including this one. Count them now and inform the invigilator if there are any missing. PART ONE :(20 questions): Multiple Choice PART TWO:(10 questions): Structured question PART THREE: (Answer two questions only ): TOTAL 20 marks 60 marks 20 marks 100 marks

Answer ALL questions in part 1 and 2 and two questions in part 3 All answers must be written on this paper in the spaces provided immediately after each question.

If you make a mistake cross out the incorrect answer clearly and write your correct answer.

Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

Use this page for rough work. It will NOT be marked. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

PART ONE: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (20 QUESTIONS @ 1 MARK EACH). Instructions: Circle the correct answer for each question Answer all questions 1. The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, an ancient document dating back to approximately A.D. 110 is A. a detailed description of Africa's interior B. a commercial handbook describing the coast of East Africa C. about Greek mythology D. an ancient religious document.

2. The empire of Ghana was destroyed in the late eleventh century by the Almoravids. The Almoravids were A. invaders from East Africa B. Christian Berbers from North Africa C. Muslim invaders of the nomadic Berber tribes D. the Moorish Pashas who owed allegiance to Morocco.

3. The British used force to establish a garrison in Aden in 1839. They used it as a station on the short route to India but Aden was almost entirely dependent on Northern Somaliland for supplies of A. slaves B. water C. gold D. meat 4. The main heroes behind Algerian nationalism were A. Abdal-Qadir, Messah al-Hajji, Ferhat Abbas and Mohammed Ahmed Ben Bella B. Messah al-Hajji, Kwame Nkurumah and Abdal-Qadir C. Mengistu Mariam, Abdal Qadir and Ferhat Abbas D. Mohammed Ben Bella, Kamuzu Banda and Ferhat Abbas.

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

5. Under the terms of the "Versailles Treaty", Germany lost her African colonies. These colonies acquired new status as A. Independent states. B. new colonies for the Allies. C. mandates supervised by the League of Nations. D. holding grounds for war criminals.

6. At the end of the First World War, the International Court of Justice was established at Hague in Netherlands. Its mandate was to A. re-draw the boundaries of Europe. B. revive European economy. C. settle disputes between European nations. D. promote the welfare of the workers.

7. One of the major principles of democracy is "the rule of law". The rule of law means that A. the biggest clan has the right to rule. B. the leaders must be highly educated. C. there is an established system of law adhered to by all. D. Citizens must obey the law without questioning it.

8. The Golden stool in the Asante Kingdom was considered sacred and revered because it A. was of great monetary value to the Kingdom. B. embodied the soul and unity of the Asante people. C. had magical attributes that helped the Asante win wars D. had been inherited for centuries.

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

9. Pan-Africanism was the earliest organization aimed at uniting Africans all over the world. Which of the following was NOT among its aims? A. to fight colonialism and oppression. B. to fight the ideology of white supremacy. C. to maintain international peace and security. D. to restore dignity of the black people eroded by slavery.

10. The twenty-year "Dervish struggle" in British Somaliland was a struggle A. between the clans over watering points B. against the British, Ethiopian and Italian colonizers C. against the French, Ethiopians and Italians D. over religious beliefs.

11. The policy of non-alignment stands for A. political rivalry between USSR and USA B. economic and political co-operation of African states C. neutralism of policy and action in international affairs D. co-operation in cultural affairs.

12. The immediate reason why USA decided to enter the Second World War in 1941 was because A. Mussolini had invaded Egypt. B. The Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor. C. Germany had invaded Russia. D. a nuclear threat had been made on USA. 13. The first Muslim Khalifa after the death of prophet Mohammed in 632 A.D. was A. Abu Bakr. B. Sunni Ali. C. Abi Talib. D. Amir Ali.

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

14. The peace accord between Israel and Palestine in September 1993 agreed on several things. Which among the followed was NOT part of this agreement A. Israel formally recognized PLO. B. PLO recognized Israel's right to exist. C. Palestinians were given limited self-rule on the West Bank. D. Israel gave up the Golan Heights.

15. A citizen of a country is A. a person who belongs to the ruling elite of that country. B. a person with formal education. C. a person legally living in that country with rights, privileges and responsibilities. D. a regular visitor to a country.

16. The term "Homo Erectus" is used in history and archaeology to refer to the A. thinking man B. upright man. C. man with small brain capacity. D. man who moved on all four limbs.

17. A direct consequence of the Industrial Revolution on Africa was that it led to A. development of towns. B. increased population and growth of slums. C. creation of new sources of raw materials and markets. D. the growth of African nationalism.

18. Environmental degradation is a great problem faced by Local Authorities. Which of the following is NOT an environmental concern? A. pollution from industries and motor vehicles. B. water pollution. C. mismanagement of funds. D. garbage collection. 7

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

19. One of the major results of the pan Africanism was the establishment of A. ECA B. ECOWAS C. C.E.A.O D. O.A.U.

20 The word Mesopotamia means A. the land of plenty. B. the gift of Euphrates and Tigris. C. the land between two rivers. D. the land of ancient civilization.

PART TWO: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS (60 MARKS) EACH QUESTION CARRIES 6 MARKS

Instructions: Answer all ten questions 1. Before the First World War, Europe was divided into two rival camps. Explain clearly THREE causes of the friction between the two camps. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ........................... 6 marks 8

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

2. Several factors helped German unification between 1834-1871. Describe THREE factors that helped this unification. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .............................................. (6 marks) 3. The Western Sudanic states of Mali, Ghana , Songhai and Kanem_Bornu enjoyed flourishing trade. State clearly THREE factors that helped the growth of this trade. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ............................ 6 marks 4. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935. Discuss THREE major reasons why Mussolini decided to invade Ethiopia. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... 9

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... 6 marks 5. Briefly give THREE reasons why the Pan_African conferences were held outside Africa. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... 6 marks 6. The Middle East has been a constant battleground since the declaration of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948. Outline clearly THREE major issues of conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................6 marks

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©SLNECB, 2009

Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

7. The League of Nations was a general association of nations formed in 1919 after the First World War. State THREE objectives of the League of Nations. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................. 6 marks 8. The African Union (AU) was born in July 2002 at the summit held in Durban ,South Africa. It replaced the 38 year - old Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Outline briefly THREE objectives of African Union (AU). ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ................... 6 marks

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©SLNECB, 2009

Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

9. Prophet Mohammed waged a long war against the unbelievers in Arabia to establish the Islamic faith. Clearly state THREE reasons why the Prophet seized Makka in A.D 630. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ......... 6 marks 10. Explain THREE major achievements of Sayyid Mohammed Abdulla Hassan in his long struggle against British colonization of Somaliland between 1900 and 1921. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... .................................... 6 marks

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Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

PART THREE:EXTENDED QUESTIONS Each question carries 10 marks

(20 MARKS)

Answer two of the following four questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. The stimulant drug, kat, has created serious economic and social problems in Somaliland. Analyze this issue carefully by outlining FIVE problems caused by kat, and suggest at least FIVE ways in which the problems can be solved.

2. Discuss FIVE major services offered by the Somaliland Central Government to its subjects and show the problems that the government faces in its efforts to deliver these services.

3. Evaluate carefully any FIVE major factors that encouraged the growth of African nationalism after the two world wars.

4. Clearly explain THREE main achievements of the United Nations Organisation and TWO of its failures since its formation in 1945.

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©SLNECB, 2009

Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

Question Number.............. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... 14

©SLNECB, 2009

Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

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Question Number.............. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... 15

©SLNECB, 2009

Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board

Certificate of Secondary Education History, 2009

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