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CURS 2 ­ LESSON 2 [les()n tu:] 1. FONETICA ­ EXERCITII (PHONETICS ­ EXERCISES) [fnetiks - eksrsaizis] # Cititi urmatoarele cuvinte conform pronuntiei alfabetului englezesc (Spell the following words) [spel flwi wrds] what, engineer, foreigner, afternoon, intelligent, teacher, to study, training, nationality, name, surname, cassette recorder # Cititi urmatoarele nume proprii, conform alfabetului englezesc (Spell the following proper names) [spel flwi propr neims]: White, McDonald, Johnson, McCloud, Leo Jones, Richard Alexander, Michael Swan, Catherine Walter, Val Mercer, Eric Linsell, Steve Hall, Sally Palmer ­ Smith, Neil Howe. 2. VERBUL `TO BE' = A FI (THE VERB `TO BE') [ vrb `tu: bi:'] · Interogativul (The Interrogative) [i introgtiv]

In limba engleza interogativul (intrebarea) se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii de la afirmativ. Daca afirmativul il formam prin Subiect (substantiv/ pronume) + verb, la interogativ vom avea Verb + Subiect Am I........? [em I.....] = Sunt eu......? Are you......? [ar ju:...] = Esti tu........? Is he.........? [iz hi:...] = Este el......? Is she........? [iz I:...] = Este ea.......? Is it............? [iz it....] = Este el/ea....? Are we......? [ar wi:....] = Suntem noi.....? Are you.....? [ar ju:.....] = Sunteti voi......? Are they.....? [ar ei....] = Sunt ei/ele.....? * Negativul (The Negative) [ negtiv] In limba engleza negativul se formeaza prin adaugarea particulei `not' (nu), la forma de afirmativ a verbului. I am not [ai em not] = Eu nu sunt You are not [ju: ar not] = Tu nu esti He is not [hi: iz not] = El nu este She is not [I: iz not] = Ea nu este It is not [it iz not] = El/ea nu este We are not [wi: ar not] = Noi nu suntem You are not [ju: ar not] = Voi nu sunteti They are not [ei ar not] = Ei/ele nu sunt

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* Interogativul negativ (The Interrogative ­ Negative) [i introgtiv - negtiv] In limba engleza, interogativul ­ negativ (intrebarea negativa) se formeaza prin adaugarea particulei `not' formei de interogativ (Vb + Subiect): Am I not.....? [em I not] = Nu sunt eu......? Are you not....? [ar ju: not] = Nu esti tu....? Is he not....? [iz hi: not] = Nu e el.....? Is she not.....? [iz I: not] = Nu e ea....? Is it not.....? [iz it not] = Nu e el/ea.....? Are we not....? [ar wi: not] = Nu suntem noi.....? Are you not....? [ar ju: not] = Nu sunteti voi....? Are they not....? [ar ei not] = Nu sunt ei/ele....? # Exercitii: Alcatuiti propozitii folosind cuvintele urmatoare, conform modelului (Make up sentences using the following prompts, according to the model) [meik p sent()nsiz ju:zi e flwi prompts, kordi tu e mod()l]: wrong/right [ro / rait] = gresit/corect; busy/available [bizi / veilb()l] = ocupat/disponibil; interested/bored [intrstid / bo:rd] = interesat/plictisit; pretty/ugly [priti / gli] = frumos/urat; new/old [nju: / uld] = nou / vechi; ill/healthy [il/ heli] = bolnav/sanatos Model: I.................(not) wrong. I am not wrong. I am right. 1. He ...................(not) busy. 2. We...................(not) interested. 3. They..................(not) pretty. 4. You...................(not) new. 5. She....................(not) ill. ........................................... ........................................... ........................................... .......................................... ...........................................

3. VERBUL `TO BE' ­ FORMELE CONTRASE (THE VERB `TO BE' ­ SHORT FORMS) [ vrb `tu: bi:' - ort forms] Afirmative I'm [aim] You're [ju:r] He's [hi:z] She's [I:z] It's [its] We're [wi:()r] You're [ju:r] They're [ei()r] Negative I'm not [aim not] You're not/ you aren't [arnt] He's not / he isn't [iznt] She's not / she isn't it's not / it isn't We're not / we aren't You're not/ you aren't [arnt] They're not / They aren't Interrogative-Negative -------Aren't you......? Isn't he......? Isn't she....? Isn't it...........? Aren't we........? Aren't you......? Aren't they........?

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# Exercitii: Utilizati formele contrase ale verbului `to be' conform modelului. Traduceti apoi fiecare intrebare. (Practise the short forms of the verb `to be' according to the model. Then translate each question. [præktis ort forms of vrb `tu: bi: kordi tu e mod()l] Model: They are not friends, are they? They aren't friends, are they? (Nu sunt prieteni, nu-I asa?) She is a Romanian, is she not? She's a Romanian, isn't she? (Este romanca, nu-I asa?) 1. My children are not nasty, are they? ................................................. 2. Mr Caren is a translator, is he not? ............................................... 3. We are late this afternoon, are we not? ......................................... 4. I am not a boring person, am I/ ..................................................... 5. He is not an actor, is he? .................................................... 6. They are hard-working students, are they not? ............................................... Alegeti forma verbala corespunzatoare ( Choose the right form of the verb) [tu:z rait form of vrb]: Model: We am/is/are all students at the Hyperion University. We are all students at the Hyperion University. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Harry am / is / are a smart boy. The day after tomorrow am / is / are Saturday. They am/ is / are my best friends. Am / Is / Are I a good student? Is / Are / Am we late? You is / am/ are absent ­ minded.

Completati spatiile libere cu pronumele corespunzator formei verbului `to be'. ( Insert the personal pronoun corresponding to the form of the verb `to be') [ insrt prsn()l prunun korispondi tu form of vrb `tu: bi:]. Model: .....is not American English, ......is British English. It is not American English, it is British English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ......... are in their room. .........am not at the office now. ..........is my boy-friend. ..........aren't an engineer, ......are a banker. ..........is a letter. ..........am a Romanian. .....am not a Spaniard.

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Completati spatiile libere cu formele corespunzatoare ale verbului `to be'. (Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the verb `to be') [fil in blæks wi su:tb()l forms of vrb `tu: bi:] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. We.............students at the Hyperion University. I.............a hard-working type of person. They........not my enemies, they........my friends. She........a very good typist. You........in the seminar room right now. My girl-friend........a good dancer.

Scrieti formele verbale contrase corespunzatoare exemplelor de mai jos (Change the long verbal forms into short ones) [teind lo vrbl forms intu ort wns] Model: He is not my colleague. He's not / He isn't my colleague. They are my colleagues. They're my colleagues. 1. She is my friend. ...................... 2. Are you not an assistant to the General Manager? .................................... 3. They are not interpreters, they are translators. ........................................ 4. I am always early, I am never late for school. ..................................... 5. It is a new college, it is not an old one. ........................................ 6. Are they not your teachers? .................................. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii la forma interogativa (Make these sentences interrogative) [meik i:z sent()nsiz introgtiv]: Model: He is a hard-working student. Is he a hard-working student? 1. They both are famous doctors. .................................... 2. The colour of my pen is blue. ..................................... 3. I am always at home after 8 p.m. ....................................... 4. She is present. ..................................... 5. You are at the office before 9 a.m. ........................................

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6. We aren't guilty. .......................... Dati raspunsuri scurte intrebarilor de mai jos si apoi scrieti traducerea lor (Give short answers to the following questions and translate them into Romanian) [giv ort ansrs tu flwi kwest()ns ænd trænsleit em intu rumeinin]: Model: Are all the students present? (Sunt toti studentii prezenti?) Is the teacher nervous? (Profesoara este emotionata?) 1. Is Betty a good student? 2. Are you at home now? 3. Are you a French citizen? 4. Is this your English book? 5. Is Mrs Sarbu your new neighbour? 6. Are you at home in the afternoon? Yes, they are. (da) No, she is not. (nu) Yes, ............................................... No, ................................................ No, ................................................ Yes, ............................................. Yes, ................................................... No, ...............................................

3. ARTICOLUL NEHOTARAT (THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE) [i indefinit artic()l] In limba engleza articolul nehotarat este `a'[] sau `an' [n] se foloseste in fata substantivelor sau adjectivelor la singular. `A' preceda substantivele sau adjectivele care incep cu o consoana: Ex: a student [ stju:d()nt] = un elev/student A teacher [ ti:tr] = un/o profesor/profesoara Conform atat acestui `Curs de Engleza Generala' cat si manualului pentru examenul Teofl, partea de gramatica, articolul nehotarat `a' = `un/o" se foloseste in fata cuvintelor care incep cu sunet consonantic. Sunetul consonantic este definit ca: "U" [ju:] este considerat vocala in scris, dar consoana in vorbire. In cuvinte ca `use' [ju:z] `utilizare', `universal' [ju:nivrs()l] `universal', `usual' [ju:ul] `de obicei', este considerat sunetul `Y' si deci consoana. Va fi deci precedat de `a'. Un alt exemplu este litera `H', considerata consoana in scris, dar sunet vocalic in cuvinte ca `hour' [aur] `ora', sau `honor' [onr] `premiu, onoare'. Nu insa si in cuvinte ca `history' [histri] `istorie', si `horror' [horr] `groaza', unde sunetul `h' este pronuntat ca atare. Acestea din urma vor fi precedate de articolul nehotarat `a'. Forma `an' preceda substantivele sau adjectivele care incep cu o vocala sau un sunet vocalic. Ex: an economist [n ikonmist] = un economist An intensive course [n intensiv k:s] = un curs intensiv An egg [n eg] = un ou # Exercitii: Care este forma corecta a articolului nehotarat pentru urmatoarele substantive? (What is the right form of the indefinite article for the following nouns? [wt iz rait fo:rm of i indefinit artic()l fr flwi nauns]

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.....brother [brr] (frate), ....economy [ikonmi] (economie), .....record [rekrd] (inregistrare), ....Eskimo [eskimu] (locuitori din N. Canadei, Alaska, Gruenlanda si E. Siberiei), .......picture [piktr] (desen, tablou, pictura), .....dance [da:ns] (dans), .....Australian [ostreilin], .....language [lægwid] (limba, limbaj), ....issue [isju:] (editie, subiect de dezbatere), ....problem [problm] (problema), .....business [biznis] (afacere), ....English [ingli] (englezesc), ....newspaper [nju:speipr] (ziar), ....youth [ju:] (tinerete), ....student [stju:d()nt], .....village [vilid] (sat), ....Italian [itæljn], .....story [st:ri] (poveste), ....family [fæmili] (familie), ....leaf [li:f] (frunza), .....way [wei] (drum, fel) 4. NUMERALUL ­ VARSTA (THE NUMERAL ­ THE AGE) [ nju:mrl ­ i eid] In limba engleza, varsta se poate exprima intr-un mod mai elegant si modern utilizand numeralul cardinal corespunzator zecilor, la plural, insotit de una dintre urmatoarele trei diviziuni: `early -' [rli] (devreme), `mid ­` (mijloc, jumatate), si `late' [leit] (tarziu)" Ex: Am 32 de ani = I am 32 / I am in the early-thirties (early-30ies). El are 48 de ani. = He is 48 / He is in his late-forties (late-40ies). # Exercitii: Exprimati varsta urmatoarelor persoane conform modelului (Express the relative age of the following people, using `early-....', `mid- ...' or `late - ...':) Model: Angela: I'm 25. George: I'm 39. 1. Dan: I'm 29. 2. Grandmother: I'm 71. 3. My boy-friend: I'm 24. 4. Father: I'm 42. 5. Mother: I'm 38. 6. Grandfather: I'm 76. Angela is in her mid-twenties. George is in his late-thirties. ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

5. TARI SI OAMENI - COUNTRIES AND PEOPLE (kntriz ænd pi:pl] Country Denmark [denmark] (Danemarca) Finland [finlnd] (Finlanda) The Netherlands [ nelnds] (Olanda) People the Danes [ deinz] (Danezi) the Finns [ fins] (finlandezi) the Dutch [ dt] (olandezi) Inhabitant a Dane [ dein] ( un danez) a Finn [ fin] (un finlandez) a Dutchman [ dtmæn] (un olandez) Adjective Danish [deini] (danez) Finnish [fini] (finlandez) Dutch [dt] (olandez)

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Norway [norwei] (Norvegia) Peru [pru:] (Peru) Poland [pulnd] (Polonia) Spain [spein] (Spania) Sweden [swi:d()n] (Suedia) Switzerland [switslnd] (Elvetia) Turkey [trki] (Turcia) # Exercitii:

the Norwegians [ norwi:d()nz] (norvegieni) the Peruvians [ pru:vinz] (peruani) the Poles [ pulz] (polonezi) the Spaniards [ spænjrds] (spanioli) the Swedes [ swi:ds] (suedezi) the Swiss [ swis] (elvetieni) the Turks [ trk] (turci)

a Norwegian [ norwi:d()n] (un norvegian) a Peruvian [ pru:vin] (un peruan) a Pole [ pul] (un polonez) a Spaniard [ spænjrd] (un spaniol) a Swede [ swi:d] (un suedez) a Swiss [ swis] (un elevetian) a Turk [ trk] (un turc)

Norwegian [norwi:d()n] (norvegian) Peruvian [pru:vin] (peruan) Polish [puli] (polonez) Spanish [spæni] (spaniol(esc) Swedish [swi:di] (suedez) Swiss [swis] (elvetian) Turkish [trki] (turcesc)

Vorbiti: imaginati-va ca sunteti un patron ce intervieveaza un candidat in vederea angajarii. Dvs trebui sa-I puneti 4 intrebari in legatura cu cunostintele sale geografice, utilizand informatia de mai sus. [Speak: imagine that you are the employer interviewing a job applier. You need to ask him 4 questions about his geographical knowledge, using the information above]: Model: Name the country of a Dane. Name the people of Norway. Name the adjective for Poland. Name the inhabitants of Spain. Traduceti in engleza (Translate into English): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Dumneavoastra sunteti la birou sau acasa? Daca sunteti la birou, puteti sa ma sunati la interior 18, peste 10 minute. Sora mea are 13 ani. Ea este minora. Adultii au varsta peste 18 ani. Cifra 13 poarta ghinion. Noi suntem 15 studenti in aceasta grupa. Tatal meu are 53 de ani. Si mama are 52 de ani.

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8. Sunt casatorit si am 2 copii. 9. John este casatorit. El are treizeci si ceva de ani. 10. Mary este divortata. Ea are aproape patruzeci de ani. 11. El se afla la birou. 12. Ei nu sunt ingineri. Eu sunt bancheri. 13. Ea este profesoara noastra de limba engleza. 14. Cati ani are? 15. Profesoara de engleza are cam 30 de ani. 1. Sunteti de serviciu astazi? 2. Colega mea este o mare iubitoare de animale. 3. Maine dupa-amiaza nu sunt acasa. 4. Sunteti cetateni britanici? 5. Toti prietenii mei sunt romani. 6. Nu sunt sigur de rezultatul eforturilor mele. 7. Daca suntem atenti in clasa, ne este usor sa rezolvam exercitiile acasa. 8. Nu sunteti la scoala? 9. Profesorii nostri sunt foarte exigenti. 10. Imi pare rau, am intarziat.

Teoria si exemplele pentru acest curs au fost luate din Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tanasescu, CURS DE ENGLEZA GENERALA, Teora, 2005, si din volumul de gramatica pentru Teofl. Pentru transcrierea fonetica s-a utilizat THE OXFORD ENCYCLOPEDIC ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

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