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SOKHUMI STATE UNIVERSITY

EDUCATION

ISSN 1987-782X International periodical edition

#1, 2009 - Tbilisi - Sukhumi

UDC (uak) 37 g-20

mTavari redaqtori: EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: redaqtorebi: lia axalaZe LIA AKHALADZE Tamar zarandia rusudan fifia Tamar SinjiaSvili TAMAR ZARANDIA RUSUDAN PIPIA TAMAR SHINJIASHVILI

EDITORS:

sarecenzio sabWo: joni afaqiZe (soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti saqarTvelo), SoTa axalaia (soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), inga belouza (daugavas universiteti, latvia), stiven gudsmiTi (niu iorki, aSS), omar ardaSelia (soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), romeo galdava (soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), iStvan gzioveki (budapeSti, ungreTi), eka dadiani (quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), daviT zurabaSvili (fsiqiatriis instituti, saqarTvelo), alberto de oliveira (rio de-Janeiros universiteti, brazilia), daviT malazonia (ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), Teimuraz papasqiri (Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), vlada stankuniene (litvis socialuri kvlevebis instituti, litva), nana fiCxaia (niu iorki, aSS), tariel futkaraZe (quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), hans ioakim Srami (bremenis universiteti, germania), beJan xorava (soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), marine xubua (Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo), jemal jinjixaZe (soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, saqarTvelo) REFEREE BOARD: JONI APAKIDZE (Sokhumi State University, Georgia), SHOTA AKHALAIA (Sokhumi State University, Georgia), INGA BELOUSA (Daugavpils University, Latvia), STIVEN GOUDSMITT (New York, USA), OMAR ARDASHELIA (Sokhumi State University, Georgia), ROMEO GALDAVA (Sokhumi State University, Georgia), ISHTVAN GZOVEC (Budapesht, Hungary), EKA DADIANI (Kutaisi State University, Georgia), DAVID ZURABASHVILI (Institute of Phsychiastry, Georgia), ALBERTO DE OLIVEIRA (Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), DAVID MALAZONIA (Ilia Chavchavadze University, Georgia), TEIMURAZ PAPASKIRI (Tbilisi State University, Georgia), VLADA STANKUNIENE (Institute of Social Researches of Lithuania, Lithuania), NANA PHICHKHAIA (USA, New York), TARIEL PUTKARADZE (Kutaisi State University, Georgia), HANS ­ JOACHIM SHRAMM (University of Bremen, Germany), BEJAN KHORAVA (Sokhumi State University, Georgia), MARINE KHUBUA (Tbilisi State University, Georgia), DJEMAL DJINJIKHADZE (Sokhumi State University, Georgia)

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ (ISSN 1987-782X) gamodis weliwadSi orjer soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis ganaTlebis fakultetis iniciativiT, saqarTvelo Journal "Education" (ISSN 1987-782X) is published biannually by Sokhumi State University, Faculty of Education, Georgia menejerebi: omar ardaSelia, brolisa wulaia Managers: Omar Ardashelia, Brolisa Tsulaia

Sinaarsi = CONTENT ganaTlebis filosofia = PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

inga belouza, alnis stakle.................................................................................................6 ganaTlebis mimdinare perspeqtivebi latviaSi Inga Belousa, Alnis Stakle ...............................................................................................................20 Current Perspectives on Education in Latvia nino CixlaZe, nato ficxelauri .........................................................................................34 umaRlesi samedicino ganaTleba saerTaSoriso moTxovnebis konteqstSi Nino Chikhladze, Nato Pitskhelauri ..............................................................................................39 Higher Medical Education in the Context of International Standards Tamar SinjiaSvili ....................................................................................................................42 saganmanaTleblo sistemis transformacia Tanamedrove globalizaciis pirobebSi Tamar Shinjiashvili ........................................................................................................................46 Transformation of Education System in the Modern Conditions of Globalization Salva Wkadua ................................................................................................................................48 saqarTvelosa da saberZneTis TanamSromloba ganaTlebis sferoSi Shalva Chkadua ...............................................................................................................................51 Georgian-Greek Collaboration in the Sphere of Education

pedagogika ­ fsiqologia = PEDAGOGY - PSYCHOLOGY

kaxi kopaliani, lali nakaSiZe .............................................................................................52 pirovnebaTaSorisi urTierTobebis ganmsazRvreli fsiqo-socialuri faqtorebi studentur jgufebSi Kakhi Kopaliani, Lali Nakashidze ................................................................................................57 Determinative Psycho-social Factors in the Interpersonal Relation in the Students' Group Tamar javaxiSvili ....................................................................................................................59 swavla da fsiqikuri janmrTeloba Tamar Javakhishvili .......................................................................................................................63 Studying and Psychical Health rusudan fifia ............................................................................................................................65 siaxle ganaTlebis dargis profesiul leqsikaSi Rusudan Pipia ..................................................................................................................................67 Novelty in Professional Vocabulary of Education Branch leila Serozia ............................................................................................................................69 piradi magaliTi, rogorc zneobrivi aRzrdis ZiriTadi faqtori Leila Sherozia ..................................................................................................................................72 Personal Example as the main Factor of Moral Education maia firCxaZe, lia axalaZe ...................................................................................................74 bruneris kognituri zrdis Teoria da codnis gamoxatvis formebi Maya Pirchkhadze, Lia Akhaladze ...............................................................................................80 Cognitive Growth Theory of Bruner and Knowledge Expression Forms

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brolisa wulaia .........................................................................................................................83 iakob gogebaSvili ­ bunebismetyveli Brolisa Tsulaia..................................................................................................................................87 Iakob Gogebashvili ­ a Naturalist Tamar javaxiSvili ....................................................................................................................88 Sexedulebebi fsiqikur janmrTelobaze Tamar Javakhishvili ........................................................................................................................92 Views of Psychical Health Temur ormocaZe ........................................................................................................................94 maTematikis swavlebis zogierTi sakiTxisaTvis Tanamedrove saganmanaTleblo reformis pirobebSi Teimuraz Ormotsadze .....................................................................................................................97 To Some Issues of Mathematics Teaching in the Modern Conditions of Educational Reform maka doliZe .................................................................................................................................99 swavla-aRzrdis sakiTxebi petre surgulaZis SemoqmedebaSi Maka Dolidze....................................................................................................................................103 Teaching Aspects in the Works of Petre Surguladze

samarTali, ekonomika = LAW, ECONOMICS

Tamar zarandia ...........................................................................................................................105 garigebis formis problema qarTul samarTalSi Tamar Zarandia ..............................................................................................................................114 The Problem of the Form of a Transaction in Georgian Law alberto de oliveira .............................................................................................................133 brazilia: ekonomika, uTanasworoba da antagonizmi Alberto de Oliveira ..........................................................................................................................116 Brazil: economy, inequality and antagonisms devi Sonia......................................................................................................................................136 marketinguli investiciebi da kompaniis momgebianoba Devi Shonia .......................................................................................................................................145 Marketing Investments and Profit of the Company

istoria, politikuri mecnierebani = HISTORY, POLITICAL SCIENCES

dazmir jojua ............................................................................................................................147 globalizacia da saerTaSoriso sistemis struqturuli transformacia Dazmir Jojua ....................................................................................................................................152 Globalization and Structural Transformation of International Systems qeTevan mania ................................................................................................................................153 osmaluri dokumentebis wyaroTmcodneobiTi kvleva saqarTveloSi XX s-is 60-iani wlebidan dRemde Ketevan Mania ................................................................................................................................164 Study of Ottoman sources in Georgia during the period from 1960s until today kaxaber fifia...............................................................................................................................166 elius spartianes erTi cnobis dazustebisaTvis

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Kakhaber Pipia ...........................................................................................................................................................175 For Spesifying the Data of Elius Spartiane

omar ardaSelia .....................................................................................................................................................177 Sarl de golis politikis transformacia indoCineTis qveynebis mimarT XX saukunis 50-60-ian wlebSi Omar Ardashelia .........................................................................................................................................................185 Policy Transformation of Charles de Gaulle towards the Countries of Indochina in the 50-60-ies of the XX Century Tamar paiWaZe, nino mindiaSvili ...................................................................................................................187

akademiuri TanamSromloba-konfliqtebis winaaRmdeg: realoba da perspeqtivebi Tamar Paichadze, Nino Mindiashvili ....................................................................................................................... 190 Academic Collaboration Against Confl icts: Reality and Perspectives

filologia = PHILOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................................192 Liliana Janashia ..........................................................................................................................................................196 Postmodernism in Russian literature

Tamila zviadaZe ....................................................................................................................................................199

zogierTi andazis gaazrebisaTvis Tamila Zviadadze........................................................................................................................................................204 Definition of Some Proverbs

sociologia = SOCIOLOGY nestan lomaia ........................................................................................................................................................206 globalizaciis genderuli aspeqtebi Nestan Lomaia .............................................................................................................................................................214 Gender Aspects of Globalization

Tamar SinjiaSvili ...............................................................................................................................................216

ganaTleba da uTanasworoba Tamar Shinjiashvili ....................................................................................................................................................219 Education and Inequality

koba noniaSvili ....................................................................................................................................................221 ganaTlebis sociologiis sakiTxebi da sociologiuri gamokvlevebis SesaZleblobebi Koba Noniashvili .........................................................................................................................................................224 Issues of Education of Sociology and the Possibilities of Sociological Researches Cveni interviu - interviu saqarTvelos ganaTlebis liderTa ligis prezidentTan, b-n gia murRuliasTan ..........................................................................................................226 Zvirfaso avtorebo .............................................................................................................................................230

Dear Authors ............................................................................................................................................................. 231

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ganaTlebis filosofia = Philosophy of Education

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

inga belouza, alnis stakle

daugavas universiteti, latvia

ganaTlebis mimdinare perspeqtivebi latviaSi

1991 wels latviis damoukideblobis aRdgenas latviis saganmanaTleblo sistemis mniSvnelovani transformacia moyva. ganaTlebis transformacia anu reforma moicavs ara mxolod ganaTlebis ganviTarebis gadafasebas, `demokratiuli saxelmwifosa da axali ekonomikuri viTarebis fundamentalur principebs~ da mis saganmanaTleblo kanonmdeblobasTan Sewyobas, aramed gulisxmobs 1918 wlidan 1940 wlamde damoukideblobis periodSi erovnuli pedagogikis sibrZnis ayvavebas, romelic jer kidev `eris sulieri kulturis mniSvnelovan nawils Seicavs~. pirvel rigSi mocemuli reformis gamarjvebis didi imedi arsebobs, magram saganmanaTleblo procesze misi zegavlena jer kidev mcirea. saganmanaTleblo kvlevas, romelic amJamad inteleqtualur, teqnologiur doneze tardeba, mosalodneli Sedegebis miRwevisaTvis efeqturoba aklia. mecnierebi Seusabamobas xedaven ganaTlebis sferoSi: saganmanaTleblo samarTalSi, koncefciebSi, strategiebsa da saswavlo dawesebulebebSi arsebul realobebs Soris, specifiuri sagnebis codnis ganviTarebasa da sulieri, moraluri, socialuri, emociuri, fsiqologiuri sferos (rogoricaa cxovrebiseuli unarebi da faseulobebi) ganviTarebas Soris. mocemuli viTareba ganaTlebis Teorias da praqtikas Tanamedroveobis fundamentaluri sakiTxebis: saqmianobasa da faseulobebs Soris balansis, ganaTlebisa da aRzrdis kavSiris, ganaTlebis WeSmariti miznis gansazRvris sakiTxebis mogvarebis saSualebas ar aZlevs is qolistikuri codnis, unarebis, da gamocdilebis saWiroebaze miuTiTebs, rac tradiciuli faqtorebis aqtualurobas aRemateba. miuxedavad amisa, saswavlo Sinaarsis reforma gauqmda. ganaTlebaSi gardamavali procesi ramdenime problemasTan aris dakavSirebuli. umaRles ganaTlebaSi miRebuli gamocdileba cxadyofs, rom zogierTi cvlileba sxvebTan SedarebiT ufro warmatebiT mimdinareobs. sajaro diskusia iseT sakiTxebs Seexo, rogoricaa maswavleblis saxelfaso skala, axali bazris moTxovnebze pasuxi, ekonomikuri garemo, codnis kapitali, saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis adaptaciis unari da sxv. balansis naklebobis mTavar mizezad dasaxelda is, rom socialuri kavSiris da ekonomikuri konkurenciis sirTuleebi, maT Soris sainovacio da saadaptacio teqnologiebi ufro didi siCqariT viTardeba, vidre mocemuli sirTuleebis dasaZlevad ganaTlebis SesaZlo cvlilebebi ukeTesisken. miuxedavad amisa, latviis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi mocemuli Tanamedrove sirTuleebis filosofiuri ganxilva palmeris pozicias amyarebs, rom `reformis miRweva

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SeuZlebelia Taviseburebebis modernizaciis, skolebis restruqturizaciis, saswavlo gegmis axleburad Sedgenis da teqstebSi cvlilebis Setanis saSualebiT. yovelive es ver gardaqmnis ganaTlebas Tu Cven ver SevZlebT adamianis gulis STagonebas da mis win gamowvevebis dayenebas, gulisa, romelic kargi swavlebis safuZvelia~. palmeri im ganzomilebebs gamoyofs, romlebic ganaTlebisaTvis fundamentalur sakiTxebs moicavs. mocemuli ganzomileba dafuZnebulia saganmanaTleblo filosofiaze, romelic warmoaCens racionalurobis Sesaxeb codnas da ganaTlebas racionaluri ganviTarebisaTvis.

ganaTlebis Tanamedrove sistema: Teoria da gamowvevebi samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi latviis saxelmwifos, kulturis, mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis ZiriTadi principebi gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi Camoyalibda. miuxedavad amisa, sabWoTa okupaciis periodSi bevri ram ganadgurda. amitom 1991 wels latviis respublikis damoukideblobis aRdgenam ganaTlebis ganviTarebis gadafasebisa da Tanamedrove azrovnebasa da maxasiaTeblebTan dakavSirebiT misi gamoyenebis saWiroeba moitana. saWiro gaxda ganaTlebis saxelmwifo sistemis gardaqmna. 1991 wels miiRes `ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanoni~, romelSic mocemuli iyo latviis saganmanaTleblo sistemis pirveli principebi. 1996 wels gamoica `latviis ganaTlebis koncefcia~ (ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro, 1996 w), romelmac uzrunvelyo ganaTlebis strategiis SemuSavebisa da danergvis ZiriTadi principebi. 1998-99 wlebi aRiniSna saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi Semdgomi mniSvnelovani cvlilebebiT: 1998 wels miRebuli iqna `ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonis~ axali versia. es kanoni amJamad warmoadgens sajaro ganaTlebis sferos ZiriTad samarTlebriv dokuments, romlis mizania: `uzrunvelyos latviis TiToeuli moqalaqis sulieri, gonebrivi da fizikuri potencialis ganviTarebis saSualeba imisaTvis, rom gaxdes damoukidebeli da sruliad ganviTarebuli pirovneba, latviis demokratiuli saxelmwifos da sazogadoebis wevri. pirovnebas saSualeba unda mieces wlovanebidan da ganaTlebis moTxovnebidan gamomdinare: 1) SeiZinos codna da unarebi humanitarul, socialur, sabunebismetyvelo da teqnikuri mecnierebis sferoSi. 2) SeiZinos codna, unarebi da gamocdileba urTierTobebSi saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi monawileobisaTvis. 3) moraluri, esTetikuri, inteleqtualuri da fizikuri ganviTarebisaTvis ganaTlebuli, unariani da sazogadoebaSi integrirebuli pirovnebis Camoyalibebis xelSewyobiT. 1999 wels miRebul iqna `zogadi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanoni~ da `profesiuli ganaTlebis kanoni~. mocemuli kanonebi amJamad gansazRvravs zogadi da profesiuli saganmanaTleblo programebis saswavlo dawesebulebebSi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas. 2000 wels Sesworebebi iqna Setanili 1995 wels damtkicebul `umaRle-

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si ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ kanonSi. is Seexeba programebs, mandatebs, umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis statuss, saxelmwifosa da umaRles ganaTlebas Soris damokidebulebas. mocemuli Sesworebuli kanoni iTvaliswinebs umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis avtonomiurobas saorganizacio procedurasTan, saganmanaTleblo procesis danergvasTan, Sida wesebTan da normebTan, saganmanaTleblo da teqnikuri personalis daqiravebasa da samuSaodan ganTavisuflebasTan, gamoyofili dafinansebis ganawilebasTan dakavSirebiT. umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebisa da programebis aRiareba dafuZnebulia xarisxis Sefasebaze, romelSic Sedis dawesebulebis TviTSefaseba rasac moyveba Sefasebis viziti konkretul sferoSi ucxoeli specialistebis monawileobiT. latviis sainformacio centris statistikis Sesabamisad, 2004/2005 akademiur saswavlo wels arsebobda rva umaRlesi saswavlebeli, romelic uzrunvelyofda latviis skoladamTavrebulTa da umaRlesdamTavrebulTa 140 pedagogiur da maswavlebelTa programas. 19982000 wlebSi latviis saganmanaTleblo sistema daukavSirda evropis saganmanaTleblo sistemas, romelic sabWoTa periodSi ar arsebobda. latviis saganmanaTleblo sistema gamoiyeneba sam doneze _ erovnul, municipalur da institucionalurze. parlamenti (seimi), ministrTa kabineti, ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro warmoadgenen gadawyvetilebis mimReb organoebs erovnul doneze. ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro saganmanaTleblo politikis gamtarebel dawesebulebas warmoadgens, romelic agreTve saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis gaxsnis licenziebs gascems, aseve ayalibebs saganmanaTleblo standartebs da maswavleblebis ganaTlebis Sinaarssa da procedurebs. mniSvnelovan faqtors warmoadgens sazogadoebis survilis zrda monawileoba miiRos ganaTlebis sferoSi gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi. reformebis politikis swrafi cvlilebebis procesma saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi konfliqti gamoiwvia. miuxedavad imisa, rom sirTuleebis daZlevaSi mniSvnelovani progresi SeimCneva `mTavari susti mxarea erovnuli koncefciebisa da direqtivebis praqtikuli gamoyeneba ganaTlebis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis~. arsebobs latviis ekonomikur realobasa da kulturul TaviseburebebTan politikuri erTgvarovnebisa da konsensusis miRwevis saWiroeba. upiratesoba unda mieniWos kulturuli pirobebis xelSewyobas, romlebic xels uwyoben mravalferovnebisa da erTgvarovnebis ganviTarebas. es miuTiTebs sazogadoebaSi, saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi, swavlebis procesSi da TiToeul pirovnebaSi harmoniis miRwevis xelSewyobis aucileblobaze.

umaRlesi ganaTlebis reformebi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb da umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis Sesaxeb (seimi 1995, Sesworebuli 2000 w.) kanonis miRebis Semdeg bevri cvlileba gatarda umaRlesi ganaTlebis iseTi sistemis Sesaqmnelad, romelic demokratiuli saxelmwifosa da misi axali ekonomikuri viTarebis ZiriTad

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principebs Seesabameba. mocemuli zogadi ganacxadi miuTiTebs imaze, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis ZiriTadi transformaciis procesi dasrulda. miRweuli iqna `sabWoTa epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebebidan, principebidan, poziciebidan...dasavluri tipis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaze gadasvla, romelic dafuZnebulia umaRlesi ganaTlebis miRwevebis ufro farTo avtonomiaze da, romelic, miuxedavad amisa, dakavSirebulia saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebis mocemuli institutebis pasuxismgeblobasTan~. saxelmwifos evrokavSirSi Sesvlis miswrafeba warmoadgens tendencias, romelic 1991 wlidan gamokveTilia saganmanaTleblo kanonmdeblobaSi. melnisi miuTiTebs, rom mocemulma miswrafebam gamoiwvia `radikaluri cvlilebebi saxelmwifo politikaSi, ekonomikasa da kulturaSi, romlebmac warmoqmnes sruliad gansaxvavebuli garemo da winapirobebi umaRlesi ganaTlebis ganviTarebisaTvis.~ 2004 wlis 1 maiss evrokavSirSi Sesvlis Semdegac latviis umaRlesi ganaTleba jer kidev gardaqmnas ganicdis. mimdinare reformebi dakavSirebulia boloniis deklaraciis principebisken umaRlesi ganaTlebis orientaciis SecvliT da `evropis harmoniuli da erTiani umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo sivrcis~ SeqmnisaTvis saqmianobasTan. is, rasac latviaSi `boloniis process~ uwodeben axali saganmanaTleblo reformebi ki ar aris, aramed gagrZelebaa imisa, rac `mimdinare reformebs evropis umaRlesi ganaTlebis reformebis erTian nakadad ayalibebs da xSirad afarToebs maT axali an Secvlili SinaarsiT~. saqmianobis mimarTulebebi, romlebsac boloniis deklaracia moicavs, warmoadgens erTobliv miznebs da ganuyofel sferoebs, romlebic mniSvnelovania umaRlesi ganaTlebis uwyveti ganviTarebisaTvis. `evropis umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo sivrcis~ tendenciebisa Seqmnis procesis Sesaxeb deklaracia aris angariSi imis Taobaze, rom `umaRlesi ganaTleba aris keTili saqme sazogadoebisaTvis da sajaro pasuxismgebloba~. `evropis codnis safuZvlis~ Camoyalibebis mniSvnelovani movlenaa `umaRlesi ganaTlebis evropuli ganzomilebis xelSewyoba~ da `sicocxlis manZilze swavlis~ gafarToeba. amitom evropis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sivrcis Seqmnis garda misi mizania `daicvas evropis kulturuli simdidre da enobrivi gansxvaveba, romelic dafuZnebulia sxvadasxva tradiciebis memkvidreobaze, raTa xeli Seuwyos inovaciisa da socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis potencials evropis umaRlesi ganaTlebis institutebs Soris gazrdili TanamSromlobis saSualebiT~. latviis umaRlesi ganaTlebis ganviTarebisa da umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis Sesaxeb erovnuli koncefcia 2010 wlamde periodisTvis (umaRlesi ganaTlebis sabWo 2001) moicavs monitorings boloniis deklaraciis samoqmedo gegmebis mizanmimarTuli ganxorcielebisaTvis. am koncefciis strategiuli mizania ganaviTaros latviis umaRlesi ganaTleba ise, rom erTis mxriv, SenarCundes misi erovnuli ganviTarebis xasiaTi, da meore mxriv, moxdes latviis xarisxebis da diplomebis aRiareba, rogorc

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evropis Sromis bazarze dasaqmebisTvis, aseve evropaSi Semdgomi ganaTlebis miRebisTvis. mizani legitimur imeds iZleva, rom dainteresebuli mxareebi, romlebic latviaSi boloniis process koordinacias uweven: ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro, masze damokidebuli organizacia/dawesebulebebi _ reqtorTa sabWo, umaRlesi ganaTlebis sabWo, umaRlesi ganaTlebis xarisxis Sefasebis centri (HEQEC), akademiuri informaciis centri (AIC), akademiuri programebis saagento, da umaRlesi saganmaTleblo dawesebulebebi xels Seuwyoben ganaTlebis gavrcelebas. cvlilebebi maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis sferoSi ,,maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis miRebis Sesaxeb saxelmZRvanelos~ Tanaxmad (umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo sabWo 1996), maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis saerTo struqtura oTxi nawilisgan Sedgeba: 1. kursebi pedagogikasa da fsiqologiaSi; 2. kursebi romlebic uzrunvelyofen im konkretuli sagnebis/gakveTilebis Sinaarss, romlebic skolaSi iswavleba; 3. saerTo saganmanaTleblo kursebi, rogoricaa enis, kompiuteris, teqnologiebis, xelovnebis, fizikuri aRzrdis/sportis kursebi; 4. pedagogiuri praqtika da sakvalifikacio naSromi. maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis yvelaze rTuli sferoebi aris pedagogika da fsiqologia. SesaZlebelia mocemuli kursebis Sinaarsis xelaxali Sefaseba da saganmanaTleblo fsiqologiis, garemos dacvis swavlebis, ganaTlebisadmi qolistikuri midgomis, moswavleze koncentrirebuli swavlebisa da interaqtiuri swavlebis Tanamedrove miRwevebTan Serwyma. miuxedavad imisa, rom saswavlo gegmis, saswavlo meTodebis da resursebis gadafasebis procesi ukve daiwyo, jer kidev bevri samuSaoa Sesasrulebeli. maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis struqturis Sesaxeb msjeloba maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis reformis ZiriTadi aspeqtia. aRniSnaven, rom es struqtura maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis Semadgeneli nawilia. isini maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis meTodebs Semdegnairad moiazreben: `kompleqsuri modeli, romelic niSnavs imas, rom mis CarCoebSi gaerTianebulia akademiuri (sagnebTan dakavSirebuli), pedagogiuri, fsiqologiuri, profesiuli praqtika da swavlebis sxva komponentebi. Tanamimdevruli modeli Tavidan moicavs raime sferoSi bakalavris diplomis miRebas....da mxolod amis Semdeg ­ swavlebis procesis Semdegi etapis ganmavlobaSi (SeiZleba es iyos magistris wodebis mopoveba) - keTdeba arCevani, raTa gaxde maswavlebeli da xdeba maswavleblisTvis saWiro unarebis SeZena (pedagogika, swavlebis meTodebi, saskolo praqtika da sxv.)~. maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis ori ZiriTadi modeli- kompleqsuri da Tanamimdevruli - garkveul upiratesobebsa da naklovanebebs Seicavs. Tanamimdevruli modeli praqtikulad Zalze mcired aris dakavSirebuli maswavleblis profesiasTan [da] ar Seesabameba maswavleblis amocanebs Tanamedrove an momaval sazogadoebaSi. ase rom maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis gardaqmna kompleqsuri modelis mixedviT SeiZleba niSnavdes qolistikur swavlebasa da swavlas.

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maswavlebelTa ganaTlebis struqturis siaxleebma saganmanaTleblo Sinaarsis reformis saWiroebac ganapirobes. bolo dros SeiniSneba SeZenili codnis da unarebis fragmentacia, masalis Sereva, SeZenil codnasa da unarebs Soris sistematuri urTierTqmedebis nakleboba. ase rom, grinumas (2005) Tanaxmad, skolebSi ganaTlebis Sinaarsis reforma, romelic 2005 wlis 1 seqtembers daiwyo, iTvaliswinebda informaciis praqtikuli SeZenis unarebs, SeZenili informaciis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis gamoyenebis gaazrebis unars. amgvari reforma saWiroa agreTve maswavlebelTa ganaTlebisTvis. geske, grinfildsi, kangro da zakisi aRniSnaven, rom latviaSi mawavlebelTa momzadebis xasiaTi `jer kidev dafuZnebulia sabWoTa epoqaSi warmoqmnil zedmetad viwro specializaciis moZvelebul tradiciebze~. isini miuTiTeben rom ganaTleba aRar unda iyos moqceuli erTi qveynis an erTi eris perspeqtivis CarCoebSi. ganaTleba `damyarebuli unda iyos msoflio Rirsebebze, romlebic adamianis saqmianobis nebismieri sferos globalur konteqstSi analizisa da Seswavlis saSualebas iZleva.~ es aris ganaTlebis warsulis da awmyos Sefasebis da misi globaluri ganzomilebis kvlevis winadadeba. sabWoTa sistemidan Tanamedrove sistemaze gadasvlis sirTule mniSvnelovanwilad dakavSirebuli iyo maswavleblebis samuSaosTan da ara ganaTlebis politikosebsa an TeoretikosebTan. miuxedavad amisa, maswavleblebi kvlavac ekonomikuri mxardaWeris da profesiuli aRiarebis gareSe rCebian, radgan maswavleblebi uSualod ar monawileoben ganaTlebis sistemis ganviTarebaSi. maTi xma jer kidev sustad ismis. albaT, mocemuli faqtorebi ganpirobebulia maswavleblis profesiis naklebi popularobiT. sazogadoeba ukmayofiloa maswavleblebis, skolebisa da swavlebis doniT. Tavis mxriv, maswavleblebi ar arian kmayofilni sakuTari samuSaoTi da profesiiT. adamianTa gulebSi arsebuli idealebi gansxvavdeba ganaTlebaSi arsebuli realobisagan. sazogadoebaSi adgilis dabrunebisTvis ganaTleba unda daubrundes globaluri mniSvnelobis miRwevis moTxovnas da adamianebisTvis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs Seexos, maT Soris rogoricaa arsebobis mniSvneloba, adamianis buneba, suliereba da a. S.

ganaTleba sxvadasxva cnebaTa konteqstSi es rTuli periodia. ganaTlebis reformebi jer kidev grZeldeba da SeiZleba davaxasiaToT, rogorc cnebebis gadanacvlebis procesi. miuxedavad saimedoobisa, mocemuli procesi ara mxolod daucvelobis grZnobas warmoSobs, aramed maswavleblebs aiZulebs, moaxdinon maTi profesiuli saqmianobis gadafaseba da gardaqmnan TavianTi saganmanaTleblo praqtika axali azrovnebis konteqstSi. warmatebisTvis igulisxmeba maswavleblis saganmanaTleblo filosofiis kritikuli ganxilva. arsebobs axali informaciis simravleSi dabnevis safrTxe. am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyvetia imis dadgena, Tu ra saxis informaciis, saqmianobis, midgomis da Teoriebis arCevaa saWiro da rogor unda aswavlo im viTarebaSi, rodesac ar aris erTi WeSmariteba,

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erTi zusti, an saqmianobiT dadasturebuli pasuxi. swavlebis tradiciul cnebaSi, romelic latviaSi sabWoTa epoqaSi Warbobda, zedmeti yuradReba eniWeboda codnis SeZenas yoveldRiuri cxovrebisagan mowyvetiT. mis safuZvelze Warbobda konceptualuri codna, SeiniSneboda moswavleTa depersonalizacia da dabali TviTSefasebis kompleqsi, SemoqmedebiTobis dacema da interesis da TviTaqtualizaciis nakleboba. ganaTlebis tradiciuli cnebis mizani iyo instruqtaJis uzrunvelyofa. saswavlo garemo maswavlebelze iyo koncentrirebuli da iTvleboda, rom mis mier imarTeboda. saswavlo masalis wardgena xdeboda obieqturad, sadac inteleqtis Rirebuleba iyo xazgasmuli codnis povna `sadRac iq~ xdeboda. tesi aRniSnavs, rom `codnis Zveli cneba. ganmanaTleblobidan momdinareobs [da warmoadgens] racionaluri konspiraciisa da sulierebis wminda mniSvnelobis dapirispirebas. is avtoritarizmzea dafuZnebuli, `romelSic suli da suliereba datyvevebulia da verasodes ver afrindeba.~ latviaSi mimdinare periodi tradiciuli swavlebis cnebidan humanisturi swavlebis cnebaze gadasvliT xasiaTdeba. mocemuli cvlilebis ZiriTadi elementia sabWoTa epoqis pasiuri, induqtiuri, normaze orientirebuli saganmanaTleblo procesis aqtiur, konstruqciul, studentze orientirebul procesze gadasvla, rac Serwymulia Sesabamisi sferos Tanamedrove miRwevebTan, sazogadoebis Tanamedrove struqturasTan, Tanamedrove azrovnebis modelTan. SeiZleba gamovyoT 21-e saukunis ganaTlebis ori ZiriTadi saWiroeba: codnisa da unarebis momdevno Taobisadmi gadacema da maTi nayofieri gamoyenebis instruqcia. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ganaTleba unda iyos rogorc rTuli da dinamiuri samyaros ruka, aseve studentebisTvis gzamkvlevi kompasi. mocemuli miznebis miRweva saWiroebs axal azrovnebaze damyarebul filosofias. tradiciuli (individualisturi, obieqturi, racionaluri, normaze orientirebuli filosofia unda gardaiqmnas axal filosofiad, romelic ganaTlebis oTxi svetis ­ codnis mizniT swavlis, gakeTebis mizniT swavlis, yofnis mizniT swavlis da erTad cxovrebis mizniT swavlis oTx svets eyrdnoba. mocemuli koncefciebi moyvanilia iuneskosadmi `21-e saukunis ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso komisiis~ mier wardgenil angariSSi. swavlis mocemuli oTxi gza erT mTlianobad warmodgeba da pirvelad ganaTlebis cneba saimedo momavlisaTvis aris gaTvaliswinebuli. mocemuli cneba SesabamisobaSia ganaTlebis gardaqmnil mniSvnelobasTan, romelSic xazgasmulia, rom ganaTlebis daniSnulebaa ara mxolod kacobriobis gamocdilebis da miRwevebis gaziareba, aramed ganaTlebis axali cnebis Camoyalibeba. saganmanaTleblo azrovnebaSi warmoqmnili cnebis mizania demokratiuli sazogadoebis Seqmna rogorc skolaSi, aseve mis gareT, socialuri da ekonomikuri problemebis globaluri da ekologiuri perspeqtivis, kacobriobis arsebobis sulieri ganzomilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. rogorc geske aRniSnavs: `...swavlebis mizani Seicvala. dRes maswavleblis amocana aRar aris moswa-

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vlisaTvis garkveul saganSi codnis gaziareba da imis Semowmeba Tu rogor iswavla. dRes maswavleblis mizania ganaviTaros moswavlis swavlis unari, skolaSi da Semdeg mTeli cxovrebis manZilze `swavla aswavlos~, misi profesiuli saqmianobisaTvis saWiro codna miaRebinos~. swavlis cnebaSi codnis miRebis saSualebebi icvleba da instruqtaJs, romliTac yvelaferi kontroldeba da miRebuli Sedegebis Sedareba xdeba, Secvlis studentze koncentrirebuli saswavlo garemos organizacia da uzrunvelyofa, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia imisaTvis, rom piradad moxiblos da daainteresos studentebi imisaTvis, rom isini gaxdnen codnis aRmomCenebi da Semqmnelebi. moswavleebi swavlis cnebaSi aRiqmebian rogorc pirovnebebi, romlebsac Canergili aqvT zrdisken, miRwevebisa da warmatebisken swrafva. Tu mocemuli tendenciis dakmayofileba ar xdeba, maSin safrTxe eqmneba swavlas. maswavleblis rolia uxelmZRvanelos moswavleebs da gauZRves maT cxovrebis centrisken, samyaros sxva sulier arsebebTan urTierTobisken. rogorc sleteri aRniSnavs, `maswavleblebi arian xelmZRvanelebi, romlebic axdenen TviTSemecnebiTi swavlis gamocdilebis orkestrirebas... magram isini procesze ar dominireben da ar axdenen mis manipulacias~. tesi gvTavazobs, rom codnis axalma cnebam adamianebi `racionalurobis rkinis galiidan ufro farTo kategoriebSi unda gamoiyvanos, rodesac poezia, saidumloeba da simbolika axleburad moiazreba~. mocemul axal cnebaSi suliereba `Tavisi Zveli sapyrobiledan gamodis da kacobriobis saqmianobis gacilebiT ufro farTo sfero xdeba.~ tesi acxadebs, rom mocemuli axali cnebis saSualebiT warmodgenili axali azrovneba `wmindisken mimaval karebs aRebs da msofliosTan axal kavSirs amyarebs~. mocemuli saganmanaTleblo cneba ra Tqma unda ar gvTavazobs ganaTlebis problemebis amoxsnas. misi mTavari wvlilia ganaTlebis gadafaseba da axali sakiTxebis da saSualebebis aRiareba, rogoricaa adamianis bunebis Semecnebis gafarToeba. cnebis cvlilebis Sesaxeb msjelobam latviaSi ramdenime meta-saswavlo gegmis sakiTxiT daintereseba gamoiwvia, mag. rogoricaa suliereba rogorc ganaTlebis ganzomileba, romelic Tavidanve amoRebuli iqna sabWoTa epoqis ganaTlebis muSakTa azrovnebidan da praqtikidan. racionaluri ganaTlebis institutis gamocdileba daugavas universitetSi ganaTlebisa da menejmentis fakultetis mier Sesrulebuli samuSaos meti wili orientirebuli iyo maswavleblis ganaTlebisa da momzadebis ganviTarebaze. ganaTlebisa da menejmentis fakultetis konceptualuri safuZvlis Sesaxeb msjelobisas SeiZleba Semdegi stadiebis gamoyofa: pirveli stadia misi (1993 w) daarsebidan moicavs ganaTlebis normaze orientirebulidan holistikuramde midgomas, asaxavs evropis ganaTlebis Sesaxeb msjelobaSi monawileobas ZiriTadad TEMPUS proeqtebis konteqstSi. mocemuli msjelobisas gamoikveTa socialuri TanamSromlobis ganzomileba da ganaTlebis sferoSi garemos dacvis sakiTxebis Setana. meore stadiis saganmanaTleblo da kvleviTi saqmianoba, romelic 1995 wels daiw-

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yo, moicavs integraciis aspeqtis kvlevas ganaTlebis sferos holistikuri midgomis konteqstSi. is moicavs monawileobas kvleviT saqmianobaSi, romelsac mxars uWerda latviis sorosis fondi, ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro, saswavlo gegmis SemuSavebis da sagamocdo centri da sxv. mesame stadia, romelic 1998 wels daiwyo, moicavs ganaTlebis meta-saswavlo gegmis ganzomilebas, romlisTvisac yvelaze ufro damaxasiaTebelia sulierebis sakiTxi kulturuli da holistikuri midgomis konteqstSi. meoTxe stadia, romelic 1999 wels daiwyo, moicavda holistikuri damokidebulebis ekologiur, integrirebul da sulier aspeqtebs Soris kavSiris kvleviT saqmianobas da ganaTlebis racionaluri ganviTarebis cnebas. zogadad ganaTlebisa da menejmentis fakultetis ganviTarebas bevri gamowveva da kiTxva xvda wilad. is moicavda miznebis, Sinaarsis da ganviTarebis gafarToebis saWiroebebs, ris safuZvelzec daarsda racionaluri ganaTlebis instituti. racionaluri ganaTlebis instituti (www.ise.du.lv) romelic 2003 wels daarsda, warmoadgens ganaTlebisa da menejmentis fakultetis struqturul erTeuls pedagogikis, saganmanaTleblo da evoluciuri fsiqologiis kvleviTi saqmianobisaTvis, iseve rogorc ganaTlebis da menejmentis kompleqsuri kvlevisaTvis. racionaluri ganaTlebis instituti sami ganyofilebisagan Sedgeba. esenia: kvlevis, saerTaSoriso da akademiuri gamomcemlobis ganyofilebebi. racionaluri ganaTlebis institutis strategiuli mizania ganaTlebis meta-saswavlo gegmis, ganaTlebis mimarT holistikuri damokidebulebisa da racionaluri ganaTlebis principebis erTguleba. mocemuli miznis misaRwevad gamoyenebuli ZiriTadi principebi erTvis swavlebasa da kvleviT saqmianobas, ganaTlebis meta-saswavlo gegmis, jvaredini saswavlo gegmis da saswavlo gegmis Sinaarsis erTianobas, racionalurobis sakiTxis ganaTlebis sferoSi danergvas, regionaluri saganmanaTleblo sakiTxebis kvlevas, koleqtiuri da individualuri kriteriumebis erTobliobas, kreatiuli saqmianobis stimulirebas, TanamSromlobas da saadaptacio mmarTvelobas. racionaluri ganaTlebis institutis mocemuli kvleviTi saqmianoba warmoadgens latviis ganaTlebis racionalurobisken axlebur orientacias. racionaluri ganaTlebis institutis ZiriTadi saqmianoba Semdegnairad SeiZleba davaxasiaToT: 1. 2002-2004 wlebSi iuneskos proeqtis `maswavleblebis ganaTlebis racionaluri ganviTarebisaken axali orientacia~ pirvel stadiaSi monawileobis dros SeZenili gamocdilebis Sefaseba; 2. 2002 wels `maswavleblebis ganaTlebis da treningis Sesaxeb Jurnalis~ (JTET) daarseba, 2002 wels ganaTlebis sferos racionaluri ganviTarebis Sesaxeb msjelobis xelSewyobisaTvis; 3. 2003 wels `maswavleblebis ganaTlebis da treningis Sesaxeb Jurnalis~ JTET-is yovelwliuri saerTaSoriso konferenciis `racionaluri ganviTareba. kultura. ganaTleba~ da 1999 wels konferenciis `pirovneba, feri, buneba, musika~ dafuZneba; 4. latviis ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministrosa da latviis mecnierTa sabWos mier dafinansebuli proeqtebis

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ganxorcieleba; 5. monawileoba ramdenime saerTaSoriso proeqtSi, romlebic dakavSirebulia meta-saswavlo gegmis sakiTxebTan (mag. sulierebasTan, tolerantobasTan, genderul TanasworobasTan), holistikur damokidebulebasTan da ganaTlebis sferos racionalur ganviTarebasTan da maTi gamoyeneba; 6. maswavlebelTa racionaluri midgomisaken axleburi orientaciisaTvis miTiTebebisa da rekomendaciebis SemuSavebaSi monawileoba (iunesko, 2005); 7. maswavlebelTa ganaTlebaSi racionaluri midgomis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT saerTaSoriso qselis Seqmna. 2005 wels mocemuli qselis koncefcia gafarTovda da mas daerqva `baltikis da Savi zRvis jgufis konsorciumi ganaTlebis kvlevis sferoSi (BBCC)~; 8. ramdenime saerTaSoriso kvleviT proeqtSi monawileoba (mag. wynari okeanis jgufis ganaTlebis kvlevis sferoSi konsorciumis iniciativiT Semdgari SedarebiTi kvlevis proeqti `maswavleblebis ganaTleba momavlisaTvis~, kvleviTi asociaciebi (mag `sruliad indoeTis ganaTlebis kvlevis asociacia~, `fsiqologiis asociaciis saerTaSoriso skola~, `saerTaSoriso seminari religiuri ganaTlebis da Rirebulebebis Sesaxeb~, da sxv.), kvleviTi qselebi (mag. `racionaluri universitetebis garemos dacva~, `maRali unarebis evropuli sabWo~ da sxv.); 9. racionaluri ganviTarebisaTvis saganmanaTleblo kvlevis strategiis SemuSavebaSi monawileoba 2005 wels; 10. 2006 wels iuneskos proeqtis `maswavleblebis ganaTlebis racionaluri ganviTarebisaken reorientacia~ meore stadiaSi monawileoba; 11. ganaTlebisa da menejmentis fakultetis mier SemoTavazebuli profesiuli, bakalavriatis, magistraturis, doqtoranturis saswavlo programebSi xarisxobrivi cvlilebebisa da gardaqmnis dawyebaSi monawileoba. saswavlo procesSi xarisxobrivi cvlilebebis Setanis magaliTia akademiuri samagistro programa pedagogikaSi, romelic Tanamedrove ganaTlebisTvis mniSvnelovani ramdenime aspeqtis Sesabamisad gardaiqmna. gardaqmnebi sam doneze iqna gamoyenebuli: 1) programis struqtura, 2) kursis Sinaarsi da 3) swavlebis formebi. ramdenime saswavlo kursi erTeulebad aris dajgufebuli (mag, `holistikuri pedagogikis~ moduli Sedgeba sami kursisgan: `ganaTleba garemos dacvis dargSi~, `pedagogikis suliereba~ da `ganaTlebaSi kompleqsuri midgoma~; moduli `saganmanaTleblo fsiqologia~ Sedgeba sami kursisgan: `saganmanaTleblo filosofiis Teoriuli principebi da Tanamedrove sakiTxebi~, `ganaTleba racionaluri ganviTarebisaTvis~ da `sainovacio da momavali ganaTleba~). TiToeuli modulis swavleba xdeba saerTo perspeqtividan gamomdinare da dafuZnebulia im socialur cvlilebebze, romlebic xels uwyoben studentis Semecnebas da damokidebulebis Camoyalibebas globalur cvlilebebTan, msoflios kulturul da biomravalferovnebasTan dakavSirebiT. holistikuri midgoma warmoadgens ganaTlebis racionaluri ganviTarebisaken axali orientaciis perspeqtivas. am midgomis Tanaxmad, samyaro aris erTianoba da masSi yvelaferi dakavSirebulia ramdenime - pirovnul, sazogadoebriv, erovnul da globalur aspeqtebTan urTierTobis gziT.

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hoslitikuri midgomis mixedviT, mecnierebis sxvadasxva dargi da qvedargi ganixileba rogorc sicocxlis Seswavlis sxvadasxva perspeqtiva. mocemuli midgomis konteqstSi igulisxmeba, rom studentis gamocdileba an gamocdilebaze damyarebuli swavla warmoadgens saswavlo procesis Semadgenel komponents. gamocdilebaze damyarebuli swavlis gamoyeneba iseT sirTulesTan aris dakavSirebuli, rogorc individualuri swavlis upiratesi sferoebis dadgena da saswavlis konteqstualuri Sinaarsis amocnoba. mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes, rom saganmanaTleblo procesi aris cvlilebebis dinamiuri procesi, romelic miesalmeba pirovnebis TviTSemecnebas da orientirebulia, rogorc pirovnebis Sida, aseve mis gare samyaroze. qolistikuri perspeqtivis Sesabamisad, saganmanaTleblo procesi dafuZnebulia TiToeuli studentis arCevansa da pasuxismgeblobaze. amgvari saganmanaTleblo procesi racionaluria, vinaidan xels uwyobs students ganaviTaros sakuTari individualuroba, iswavlos da miiRos sxvaTa mxardaWera maSin, rodesac CarTulia saganmanaTleblo, socialur da kulturul procesSi. samagistro programis transformacia ganaTlebisa da menejmentis fakultetze im imedebs emyareba, rom is xels Seuwyobs xarisxobrivi cvlilebebis Setanas ara mxolod saswavlo programis Tu universitetis konteqstSi, aramed sazogadoebis ufro farTo seqtorSi.

gezi gardaqmnili umaRlesi ganaTlebisken me-20 saukunis universitetis models warmoadgenda is dawesebuleba, romelic me-19 saukuneSi Seqmnili socialuri da samrewvelo progresis miTSi da modernistuli msoflmxedvelobis meTodologiaSi arsebul problemebze iyo dafuZnebuli. Tanamedrove araekologiur sazogadoebaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis da universitetis roli srulebiT ar Secvlila. is cdilobs SeinarCunos Cveuli tendencia da es roli ar ganaviTaros, `radgan emxroba Tanamedrove azrovnebas da miRebuli aqvs codnis is disciplinaruli struqtura, romelic xelovnurad axdens zogierTi aspeqtis realobis sxva aspeqtebisagan izolacias~. salivani aRniSnavs, rom amJamad universiteti xSirad funqcionirebs, rogorc `ramdenime organizebuli disciplinis holdinguri kompania, romelsac ar gaaCnia filosofia~. amJamad universitetebi didi korporaciebi gaxdnen, romlebic waradgenen da yidian codnas. miuxedavad amisa, umaRlesi ganaTlebis mizani aris ara mxolod kacobriobis miRwevebis da gamocdilebis gaziareba, aramed gascildes tradiciul normebze orientirebul midgomas da modernistul msoflmxedvelobas. holistikuri midgoma universitets ara mxolos biznes proeqtis rols aniWebs, aramed warmoaCens universitetis, rogorc socialuri dawesebulebis kavSirs pirovnebasa da sazogadoebasTan regionalur, erovnul da globalur doneze. universitets, rogorc dawesebulebas, da kerZod, mis saswavlo programebs mniSvnelovani roli gaaCnia sazogadoebasa da mTeli evrokavSiris gerTianebaSi. universiteti, rogorc socialuri dawesebuleba, ar aris dakavSirebuli RirebulebaTa, ideologiis an realobis erT konkretul si-

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stemasTan. istoriulad universitetebi radikaluri cvlilebebis mowmeni gaxdnen dawyebuli Suasaukuneobrivi azrovnebidan, modernistuli msoflmxedvelobiT damTavrebuli. amJamad universiteti, rogorc socialuri dawesebuleba, kvlav cvlilebebis mijnazea, radgan is filosofia, romelic amJamindel saswavlo programebs safuZvlad udevT, SezRudulia, Tu isini warmoadgenen modernizmis meqanikur damokidebulebas. is warmodgena, TiTqos Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi sazogadoebis samoqalaqo da inteleqtualuri ganviTarebis xelSewyoba universitetis ZiriTadi da erTaderTi rolia, eWvs badebs. fordis azriT, postmodernistuli universitetis msoflmxedveloba unda iTvaliswinebdes, rom `msoflios uzarmazari Rirebuleba gaaCnia da kacobrioba valdebulia SeinarCunos da gazardos es Rirebuleba.~ samyaros, rogorc sazogadoebis socialuri institutis gansazRvra, Semdegia: `moraluri danaSaulia dedamiwis ganadgureba, moralurad miuRebelia rom zogierTi gaWirvebulia, xolo danarCenebi fufunebasa da fulis xarjvaSi atareben dros, moralurad miuRebelia nebismieri im tipis socialuri organizaciis ganviTareba, romelic amcirebs adamianis Tavisuflebas da usafuZvlod amcirebs kulturaTa sxvaobas.~ im saswavlo programebis Seqmnisas, romlebic xels Seuwyoben racionaluri universitetisa da sazogadoebis formirebas, ganmanaTleblebma unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom mis centrSi iyos pirovneba, romelsac eqneba socialur, kulturul, sulier da ekonomikur garemosTan urTierToba. umaRlesi ganaTleba, romelic miesalmeba pirovnebis holistikur gagebas da sazogadoebis racionalur ganviTarebas, Semoitans ganaTlebis gardaqmnil mniSvnelobas. zogadad sazogadoebaSi universitetis roli yovelTvis transformaciuli iyo da ganviTarebis socialur saWiroebasa da xedvasTan SeTanxmebaSi arsebobda. universitetis Seqmna da struqturizacia SeuZlebelia mxolod rogorc didi biznes proeqtisa, romelic codnas yidis. `momavlis universitetebs, romlebic SeZleben Seasrulon transformaciis agentebis funqcia, agreTve dasWirdebaT ufro intensiuri da mravalmxrivi kosmologia - codnis dasabuTebuli sistema, romelic imdenad yovlismomcvelia, rom mniSvnelobas SeiZens Cvens mier uneblied da siZunwiT Seqmnil rTul globalur problemebSi da agreTve mniSvnelobas mianiWebs am globalur problemebs~. Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi ganaTlebis mizania industrializaciis xelSewyoba da iseTi specialistebis gamoSveba romlebic unda moergon Tanamedrove ekonomikas. postmodernistuli ganaTlebisaTvis aqtualuri unda iyos sxva sakiTxi, romlis daniSnulebaa gankurnva, dakavSireba, ganTavisufleba, uflebamosilebiT aRWurva, Seqmna da zeimi. postmodernistuli ganaTleba sicocxleze unda iyos koncentrirebuli~, radgan postmodernistul sazogadoebaSi cxovreba niSnavs imis aRiarebas, rom `Cven gvaiZuleben gavakeToT arCevani da vmarToT cxovreba memkvidreobiT danatovari nimuSebis, damkvidrebuli codnis an xelisuflebis trafaretebis gareSe.~ postmodernistuli msoflmxedveloba damyarebulia yvelafris erT-

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maneTTan urTierTkavSiris gagebaze. am epoqaSi mecnierebis akademiuri disciplinebis rolze msjelobisas malpasi aRniSnavs, rom `erT-erTi ufro damaxasiaTebeli niSania Tu rogor moxda am msoflmxedvelobis saSualebiT bolo ramdenime dekadaSi akademiuri swavlebis sferoebs Soris zRudeebis moSla, ramac maTi TanamSromlobis Tu dapirispirebis axali formebi Seqmna~. universiteti rogorc dawesebuleba aris arsebul da momaval faseulobaTa sistemis unikaluri sarke. universitetis faseulobaTa sistemis da misi samecniero disciplinebis Sida struqturis cvlileba aris socialuri azrovnebis anarekli da aseve misi struqturis da Semadgenlobis cvlilebis saWiroebis mtkicebuleba. fords miaCnia, rom `postmodernistuli universiteti ar iqneba neitraluri garemosaTvis mavne saqmianobisa da ekonomikuri sistemebis mimarT, udidesi nawilisTvis zaralis miyenebis xarjze. namdvili postmodrnistuli universiteti xels Seuwyobs samyaroSi yofnas an, ufro swored, samyaroSi yofnis mraval meTods, romelic pativiscemiT ekideba msoflio bunebas da romelic xels Seuwyobs adamianis arsebobis xarisxis amaRlebas.~ universitetisa da zogadad, ganaTlebis koncefciaSi axal holistikur RirebulebaTa sistemis warmodgenisas da universitetis, rogorc socialurad transformirebadi dawesebulebis aRqmisas, ganmanaTleblebma unda gaiTvaliswinon is rom `saWiroa vaRiaroT, rom pirovnuli Tu politikuri cvlilebis gzaze unda movelodeT Zlier, SemecnebiT, emociur da egzistencialur sapasuxo reaqcias.~ universitetma, rogorc socialurma dawesebulebam, Tavis Tavze unda aiRos istoriuli pasuxismgebloba dasavlur modernistul samyaroze, romelzedac zegavlenas axdens socialuri, kulturuli konfliqtebi da ekologiuri problemebi, radgan es iyo is universiteti, romelmac daiwyo da gaagrZela dasavluri samrewvelo mecnierebis da Sesabamis faseulobaTa sistemis ganviTareba. Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi universitetis gardamavali rolis aRwerisas mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes: `mTavari amocanaa studentebis gardaqmna ise, rom maT esmodeT samyaroSi sakuTari roli. swavlebis warmatebuli programebi moicavs studentebis aqtiur monawileobas sakuTari da sxvaTa koncefciis SemuSavebaSi, risi meSveobiTac TviTSemecnebisa da samyaroSi yofnis axal gzebs pouloben~. hiqsi xazs usvams, rom Tanamedrove epoqaSi ganaTleba unda moicavdes globalur sakiTxebs da swavlis SemecnebiT, emociur, egzistencialur, potencialis moqmedebis ganzomilebebs, romlebic mniSvnelovania transformirebis gamocdilebis SeZenisaTvis. SemecnebiTi ganzomileba aris pirveli nabiji `mimdinare globaluri viTarebis Sesaxeb axali faqtebis, ideebis, koncefciebis SesaZenad da mas momavalSi Sedegebic eqneba~. emociuri ganzomileba aris emociuri gamocdilebis SeZenis saSualeba `rodesac codna raRac inteleqtualuridan da calke myofidan pirovnulsa da dakavSirebul codnaze gadainacvlebs~. egzistencialur ganzomilebaSi studentebi CarTulebi arian Sida realobis transformaciul procesSi, romelic maTi faseulobebis, sicocxlis miznebis, mrwamsis

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da cxovrebis wesis sakiTxebTan aris dakavSirebuli. swavlis mocemul ganzomilebaSi studentebs uxdebaT `sakuTari me~-s aRdgena, rasac xSiras aqvs adgili rodesac iwyeb cxovrebis ufro Rrma mniSvnelobis Ziebas.~ rodesac studentebi ganaTlebis procesSi aRweven potencialis ganzomilebas, `maT SesaZlebelia gauCndeT piradi potencialis zrdis SegrZneba. es SeiZleba gamomdinareobdes piradi pasuxismgeblobis ufro mkafio grZnobidan da raimes keTebis survilidan. es koncentrirebulia sakiTxis pirad gadawyvetaze~. saswavlo procesSi potencialis ganzomilebis uzrunvelsayofad `studentebs unda SeeZloT momavlis dadebiTi scenarebis gansazRvra da iswavlon warmatebebis im istoriebidan, romlebSic pirebis da jgufebis monawileobam namdvilad Seitana cvlilebebi.~ moqmedebis ganzomilebas adgili SeiZleba hqondes, rodesac masSi monawileoben studentebi da miRweulia transformaciuli gamocdileba pirvel oTx ganzomilebaSi da `globaluri Tvisebebis Seswavlam sabolood moitana maTi sicocxlis, piradi da/an profesionaluri orientaciis cvlileba~. Sesabamisad, moqmedebis ganzomileba umniSvnelovania transformaciul saganmanaTleblo procesSi, radgan am stadiaze studentebisTvis nacnobia ara marto socialuri, kulturuli, ekonomikuri da sulieri urTierTkavSirebi, aramed isini agreTve mzad arian aiRon pasuxismgebloba sakuTar TavTan da sakuTar qmedebebTan dakavSirebiT rogorc individualur, aseve globalur konteqstSi, riTac wvlils Seitanen racionaluri sazogadoebis formirebaSi.

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ganaTlebis filosofia = Philosophy of Education

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

INGA BELOUSA, ALNIS STAKLE

Daugavpils University, Latvia

CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION IN LATVIA

Re-establishment of Latvia as an independent country in 1991 has generated a considerable transformation in Latvia's system of Education. This transformation or reform of Education includes not only reevaluation of the development of Education, establishment of "a system ... that corresponds to fundamental principles of a democratic state and the new economic situation" (Melnis, Cakste, Vikmane, Gaigule & Meksa, 2003:12), and its adjustment to European educational legislation (Haugh &Tauch, 2001; Rauhvargers, 2003), but also the revival of national pedagogical wisdom that was fostered during the period of the first independence from 1918 to 1940 (Anspaks, 2003; Kopelovica &Zukovs, 1999, 2004; Zukovs &Kopelovica, 1997) and that still "comprises significant part of nation's spiritual culture" (Anspaks, 2003:6). Initially there was much hope for the success of this reform (Catlaks, 2001), yet its impact on the educational process in general still is rather poor (Birzkops, 2003); Eglitis, 2004). Educational research that is currently conducted on intellectual, technological ground lacks the efficiency to provide the expected outcomes (Anspaks, 2003: 447-448). Scholars discern the discrepancy within the field of education between educational laws, conceptions, strategies, and reality in classrooms (Catlaks, 2001, Dedze, 2002; Eglitis, 2004, Vitins, 2004, between the development of knowledge in specific subjects and development of spiritual, moral, social, emotional, psychological sphere, life skills, and values (Anspaks, 2003). This situation "prevents the education theory and practice to approach fundamental issues of the present days: balance between activity and values, unity of education and nurture, revelation of genuine purpose of education" (Anspaks, 2003: 433). It indicates that there is a need of holistic knowledge, skills, and experience that exceeds the importance of traditional factors. However the reform of the teaching content has been cancelled (PROVIDUS, 2004:9). The transition process in education has several concerns. Experience in higher education shows that some changes are introduced more successfully than others. Public discussion has turned to reforming the criteria underlying teacher's pay scales, response to new labor market demands, economic environment, knowledge capital, adaptability of education institutions, etc. The main reason for the lack of balance has stated emphasizing that "the challenges of social cohesion and economic competition including the skills necessary for innovation and adaptation of technologies have been shifting at a speed faster than the improvements can be made in education to meet those challenges" (PROVIDUS, 2003:6). However, philosophical consideration of these current challenges in higher education of Latvia echoes Palmer's (1998a) preposition that "reform will never be achieved be renewing appropriates, restructuring schools, rewriting curricula, and revising texts . . . None of that will transform education if we fail to cherish ­ and challenge ­ the human heart that is the source of good teaching" (p.3). Palmer highlights a dimension that incorporates issues fundamental for education. This dimension is based on educational philoso-

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phy that introduces awareness about sustainability and education for sustainable development. Present System of Education: Theory and Challenges Legal foundations Fundamental of state, culture, science, and education of Latvia were shaped at the beginning of that last century. However, during the period of the Soviet occupation much was destroyed. Therefore, the renewal of the independence of the Republic of Latvia in 1991 brought about the need to reevaluate the development of education and to apply it in conjunction with the thinking and characteristics of the present time. The reestablishment of the state system of education was necessary. It started with an attempt to amend the legislation that governs education. In 1991, the first version of the Law on Education (Saeima, 1991) was adopted which set the first principles for an independent educational system in Latvia. In 1996, the Conception of Education in Latvia was issued (Ministry of Education and Science, 1996), which provided the main philosophical principles for designing and implementing the strategy of education. The years 1998 and 1999 witnessed further significant changes in educational system. In 1998, the new version of Law on Education (Saeima, 1999a) was adopted. It is currently the major legal document of public education aimed to: Ensure that every resident of Latvia has the opportunity to develop his or her spiritual/ mental and physical potential, in order to become an independent and fully developed individual, a member of the democratic State and society of Latvia. Corresponding to the age and the needs of an individual to be educated, he or she shall be ensured an opportunity. 1) to acquire knowledge and skills in the field of humanities, social, natural, and technical sciences; 2) to acquire knowledge, skills, skills, and experience in relationships, in order to participate in the life of the State and Society; and 3) for moral, aesthetic, intellectual, and physical development, by promoting the development of a knowledgeable, skillful, and socialized individual (Saeima, 1999a). In 1999, The Law on General Education (Saeima, 1999a) and The law on Professional Education (Saeima, 1999c) were accepted. These laws currently guide the application of general education and vocational education programs in educational institutions. In 2000, the Law on Higher Education Institutions ratified in 1995 (Saeima, 1995) was amended. It concerns programs, credentials, status of higher education institution, and the relation between state and higher education. This amended law asserts that a higher educational institution is autonomous in regard to organizational procedure, implementation of the educational process, internal rules and regulations, hiring and discharge of educational and technical personnel, and distribution of allocated funding (Saeima, 1995). Recognition of higher education institutions and programs is based upon a quality assessment, which implies a self-assessment of the institution and is followed by an evaluation visit with the participation of foreign experts in the particular field. According to the statistics of the Latvian Academic Information centre, in the academic year 2004/2005 there were eight higher education institutions that provide 140 undergraduate and graduate pedagogy and teacher education programs in Latvia. The laws of 1998-2000 link the Latvian educational system with European educational system and provide the connection that was missing during the Soviet period.

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The educational system in Latvia is administered at three levels ­ national, municipal, and institutional. The Parliament (Saeima), the Cabinet of Ministers, and the Ministry of Education and Science are the main decision-making bodies at the national level. The Ministry of Education and Science is the education policy-making institution that also issues licenses for opening comprehensive education institutions, and which sets educational standards and teacher education content and procedures. A significant factor is the growing desire of society to society to participate in the decision-making process in education (Dedze, 2002). The process of rapid changes and conservatism in reform politics (Catlaks, 2002) has created a conflict in the educational system (Catlaks, 2001). Although there is significant progress in overcoming new challenges, the major weakness is the practical implementation of national concepts and guidelines for further development of education (Catlaks, 2001, 2002; Dedze, 2002). There is a need to achieve political homogeneity and consensus with economic realities and cultural peculiarities in Latvia. Priority should be given to facilitating the cultural conditions that promote diversity and equality. This highlights the necessity for strategies that promote harmony (Catlaks, 2001)within society, educational institution, teaching process, and within each person. These needs point to the urgency of addressing issues of sustainable development in education. Reforms in higher education Since the adoption of the Law on Education (Saeima, 1998) and the Law on Higher Education Institutions (Saeima, 1995, amended in 2000) many changes have been managed to create a system of higher education that corresponds to fundamental principles of a democratic state and the new economic situation" (p. 12). This general statement affirms that the essential transformation of the structure of higher education has been completed. The reorientation has been accomplished from "Soviet-era-inherited features, principles and positions . . . towards the Western-type higher education system, which is based on wide autonomy of higher education establishments and nevertheless is linked with high responsibility of these institutions to the state and society" (Melnis, et al., 2003:17). The commitment of the state to join the European Union reflects the tendency that was emphasized in educational legislature since 1991. Melnis (2003) highlights that this commitment initiated "radical changes that have taken place in state politics, economy, and culture [which] have created completely different environment and preconditions for the development of higher education" (p. 17). After entering the European Union in May 1, 2004, higher education in Latvia is still in the process of reconstruction. The ongoing reforms are connected with the reorientation of higher education towards the principles of the Bologna declaration and activities for creation of "coherent and cohesive European Higher Educational Area" (Realising the European Higher Education Area, 2003). The activities entitled as Bologna process in Latvia are not the beginning of new higher education reforms but rather it is a continuation that "shapes the ongoing ones turning them into the overall stream of higher education reforms in Europe and often filling them with a new or changed content" (Rauhvargers, 2003: 19). The action lines included in the Bologna declaration introduce joint objectives and constitutive areas that are crucial for the continuing advancement of higher education. The declaration and main reports on trends, the process of creating European Higher Education Area acknowledge that "higher education is a public good and a public responsibility" (Realising the European

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Higher Education Area, 2003: 1) ­ a constitutive area of shaping "the basis of the Europe of knowledge" (p.2), "promotion of the European dimension in higher education" (p. 6), and enhancement of "the possibilities of lifelong learning" (p. 6). So, the aim besides the creation of European Higher Education Area is" to preserve Europe's cultural richness and linguistic diversity, based on its heritage of diversified traditions, and to foster its potential of innovation and social and economic development through enhanced co-operation among European Higher Education Institutions" (p. 2) The national Conception on the development of Latvian Higher Education and Higher Education Institutions for the Period until 2010 (higher Education Council, 2001) is mandated to monitor the purposeful implementation of the action lines of the Bologna declaration. The strategic objective of this conception is To develop Latvian Higher education system with a view of, on the one hand, preserving its national development spirit, on the other hand, readability and recognition of Latvian degrees and diplomas both for employment in European labor market and further studies in Europe (quoted in Rauhvarger, 2003: 24-25). The objective gives a legitimate hope that the stakeholders who coordinate the Bologna process in Latvia: Ministry of education and Science with its dependent organizations/institutions ­ Rector's Council, Higher Education Council, Higher Education Quality Evaluation Centre (HEQEC), Academic Information Centre (AIC), Academic Program Agency, and higher education Institutions will foster the dimension of education that assured the survival of the Latvian nation during the long period of occupations so that its uniqueness can enrich the European higher education area. Changes in teacher education According to the Instruction of Acquiring Teacher Education (Higher Education Council, 1996), the general structure of teacher education is composed of four sections: 1) courses on podagogy and psychology: 2) courses that provide content of particular subjects/classes that will be taught at school; 3) general education courses like languages, computer technologies, arts, physical education/ sport; and (4) pedagogical practice and qualification thesis. The most challenges and difficult areas in teacher education are the courses on pedagogy and psychology. The content of these courses has no reevaluated and infused with the current accomplishments in the fields of educational psychology, environment studies, holistic approaches to education, child-centered learning, and interactive leaning strategies. Although the process of reevaluating curricula, teaching methods and resources already begun, much work is still needed. Discussion about the structure of teacher education is a key aspect of teacher reform. Geske et.al. (2003) point out that the structure is a constitutive agent of teacher education. They suggest the following understanding, of the models for teacher education: "The integrated model means that within its framework the academic (subject-related), pedagogic, psychological, professional internship and other components of the learning process are combined. The consecutive model at first comprises at first comprises the obtaining of the bachelor's degree in a certain field . . . and only after that ­ during the next step of the learning process (it could also be studied for a master's degree) ­ the choice to become a teacher is made and the knowledge and skills necessary for a teacher (pedagogy, teaching methods, internship at

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school, etc.) are required" (PP. 77-78). According to them, two main models of teacher education ­ the integrated and the consecutive ­ generate certain advantages and disadvantages. The consecutive model "basically has very limited relation to the profession of a teacher ... [and] no more corresponds to the tasks of the teacher in the present and future society" [p.78]. Thus, the challenge of restructuring teacher education according to the integrated model could imply the possibility of holistic and learning performance. The renovations of the structure of teacher education have necessitated the reforms of education content. Recently, it has been suggested that there is a fragmentation of acquired knowledge and skills, overlapping of material, and lack of systemic interaction between the acquired knowledge and skills (Eglitis, 2004). Thus, according to Grinuma (2005), the reform of education content in schools beginning at September 1, 2005, acknowledge skills of practical application of information, ability to comprehend the use of acquired information for further development. Same kind of reform would be needed also in teacher education. Geske, Grinfelds, Kangaro, and Zakis (2003) assert: "The nature of teacher training in Latvia . . . is [still] based on outdated traditions of overspecialization stemming from the Soviet era" (p.74). They suggest that one-nation perspective can no longer be a comprehensive framework for education. Education is "expected to be on global values, which enable analyzing and assessing any field of human activities in global context" (p. 75). This is a strong suggestions to explore the past and present of education and to acknowledge its global dimension. The complicated shift from the Soviet system to the current system has largely been accomplished through the work of teachers (Catlaks, 2001), not education politicians or theories. Yet teachers are still not economically supported or professionally recognized. Also teachers are not directly involved in educational development (Catlaks, 2001). Their voice is still weak. Presumably these factors result in the lack of popularity of the teacher profession (Avotins, 2004). There is a high level of dissatisfaction with schools, teaching, and teachers in society. Teachers, in their turn, are not satisfied with their work and profession (Geske et al., 2003: 82). Ideals that are in people's hearts and minds differ from the reality of education. To recover its position in society, education has to reclaim a global aim of education (Whitehead, 1929) and address issues that are meaningful to people, such as the meaning of existence, the nature of the human being, and spirituality, to mention but a few. Education through the context of different paradigms This is a complicated period. Reforms in education still continue and can be described as a process of paradigm shift. Although promising, this process not only causes feelings of insecurity, but it also challenges teachers to reevaluate their professional activity and to reconstruct a model of their own educational practice within the light of a different way of thinking. To be successful, it implies critical reflection on teacher's educational philosophy. There is a risk of getting lost in the immense set of new information. The most crucial issues are to determine what kind of information, activities, approaches and theories to choose and how to teach in a situation where there is no one truth, one right answer, or one approved way of performance. In the traditional paradigm of teaching (Barr & Tagg, 1995) dominant in Latvia in the Soviet period there was over- concentration on knowledge acquisition without connection to every life. It caused a dominance of conceptual knowledge, depersonalization of students, and

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feelings of low self-esteem/inferiority, exhaustion of creativity, and lack of interest and selfactualization. The goal of the traditional paradigm in education was to provide instruction. The learning environment was identified as teacher-centered and controlled. Teaching materials were presented in an objectified way emphasizing the value of the intellect. knowledge being found `out there~. Tasey (2004) explains that the old `paradigm of knowledge ... derives from the Enlightenment [and introduces] a rationalist conspiracy against spirituality and sacred meaning" (p.62). It is based on authoritarianism, "in which the soul and spirit are imprisoned and never allowed to take flight" (p.73). The current period in Latvia can be characterized as the shift in education from the traditional teaching paradigm to the humanistic learning paradigm. The key element of this change is a transition from a passive, inductive novm-oriendet educational process established in the Soviet tims to active constructive, learner-centered education (Belickis,1995)that agrees with current achievements in related fields, contemporary structures of society, and modes of presentday thinking. Two needs for 21st century education can be especially highlighted: transference of the knowledge and skills to the next generation, and guidance in fruitful usage of them. In other words, education should be both, a map of a complicated and dynamic world, and a compass helping students to find their way. Accomplishment of these objectives requires a philosophy based on new ways of thinking. The traditional ( individualistic, objective, rational, norm-oriented) philosophy should be transformed to a new one that interprets education in terms of four pillars ­ learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together. These concepts are introduced by the report to UNESCO from the International Commission on Education for the 21st century (Delors, 1996). These four ways of learning act as an integrated unity, facing, covering, and interacting with one other, and for the first time, initiating the notion of education for a sustainable future. Such a notion is consistent with a transformed meaning of education which emphasizes the assumption that the aim of education is not simply to hand on the experience and achievements of humanity but to generate a new understanding of education. Thus, the goal of the emerging paradigm in educational thinking is to create a democratic community both inside and outside the school taking into consideration the global and ecological perspective of social and economic problems while recognizing the spiritual dimensions of human existence. As Geske et al. (2003) contend, ... the task of teaching has changed. Today the task of the teacher no longer lies in providing students with certain knowledge in a given subject-area and testing how accurately they have mastered it. Today the aim of the teacher is to develop the students' ability to learn, ` to teach learning~ at school and later on during the rest of life, to acquire the competences required for their professional activities (p.78). Thus, in a paradigm of learning (Barr & Tagg, 1995) the means of knowledge acquisition change from instruction where everything is controlled and the acquired results are compared, to the organizing and providing of a student-centered learning environment aimed at personally involving the learners so that they can be discoverers and creators of knowledge. Students in a learning paradigm are understood as personalities with their inborn striving towards growth, achievements, and success. If this tendency is not satiated, the learning endangers growth. The

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role of a teacher is to guide students to the center of their lives and their relationships with other human beings and the world. As Slattery (1995 ) suggests, "teachers are guides and mentors who orchestrate self-reflective learning experiences ... but not dominating and manipulating the process" (p.179). Tacey (2004) proposes that the new paradigm of knowledge leads humans `out of the iron-cage of rationality into broader categories of trough in which poetry, mystery and symbolic thinking are reaffirmed and experienced anew" (p.95). In this new paradigm spirituality "bursts free from its former confinement, and becomes a much larger field of human activity" (p.38). Tacey claims that the new kind of consciousness introduced by this new paradigm `opens the door to the sacred and expands to a new communion with the world" (p.123). This educational paradigm certainly does not suggest how to solve educational problems. Rather, its main contributions are re-evaluation of education and acknowledgment of new questions and possibilities, such as widening the understanding of human nature. Discussion about paradigm change in education in Latvia (Belickis, 1995) has initiated awareness of several meta-curricular issues, e.g., spirituality as a dimension of education (Belousa, 2002) that was intentionally driven out of educators' thinking and practice in the Soviet system. Experience of the Institute of Sustainable Education Since its establishment the majority of activities performed by Faculty of Education and Management (FEM) at the Daugavpils University has been oriented to the development of teacher education and training. Development of FEM's conceptual background can be discussed according to the following stages. The first stage, since its establishment in 1993, highlighted as a transition from norm-oriented to holistic approach in education, features the participation in European education discourse mainly in the context of TEMPUS projects. This discourse has introduced social, cooperative dimension and awareness of environmental issues in education. Educational and research activities of the second stage, beginning in 1995, imply investigation of an aspect of integration in the context oh holistic approach to education. It is represented by participation in applied research activities supported by Soros Foundation-Latvia, Ministry of Education and Science, Center for Curriculum Development and Examinations, etc. The third stage since 1998 is devoted to investigation of meta-curricular dimension of education where an issue of spirituality in cultural context and in context of holistic approach is the most characteristic concern. The fourth stage since 1999 introduced research activities on complementarily between ecological, integrated, and spiritual aspects of holistic approach and awareness of sustainable development of education. In general, FEM's development has been proceeding through challenges and inquiry. It included changes or broadening of goals, content, and needs of development from which new structural unit-the Institute of Sustainable Education-has been established. The institute of Sustainable Education ( ISE:www.ise.du.lv), founded in 2003, is a structural unit of FEM for research activities in pedagogy, educational and developmental psychology as well as integrative research in the field of education and management. ISE consists of three departments; Department of Research, Department of International Projects, and Department of Academic Publishing. The strategic aim of ISE is the commitment to meta-curricular content of education, holistic approach to education, and sustainable education. The fundamental principles to achieve this aim complement teaching and research activities, integration of meta-curricular,

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cross-curricular, and curricular content, implementation of the issue of sustainability within education, research of regional educational issues, integration of collective and individual frames of reference, encouragement of creative activities, cooperation, and adaptive management. Research activities of ISE that imply these principles represent Latvian case of reorienting education towards sustainability. The main activates of ISE can be listed as (1) evaluation of experience acquired by participation in the first stage of UNESCO/UNITWIN project Reorientation of Teacher Education towards Sustainable Development in 2000-2004; (2) foundation of Journal of Teacher Education and Training (JTET) in 2002 to facilitate international discussions on education for sustainable development in a field of teacher education and training; (3) foundation of annual international JTET conference Sustainable Development. Culture. Education in 2003 and international conference "Person. Color. Nature. Music" in 1999; (4) implementation of projects financed by Latvian Ministry of Education and Science and Latvian Council of Science; (5) participation and implementation of several international projects that contribute to issues of meta-curricular content (e.g., spirituality, tolerance, gender equality), holistic approach and sustainable development within education; (6) contribution in creation of guidelines and recommendations for reorienting teacher education to address sustainability (UNESCO, 2005); (7) foundation of the international network on addressing issues of sustainable development within teacher education. In 2005 this network expanded its conceptual foundation and was named as Baltic and Black Sea Circle Consortium in Educational Research (BBCC); (8) participation in several international research projects (e.g., comparative research project Teacher Education for Future initiated by Pacific Circle Consortium in Educational Research), research associations (e.g. All India Association for Educational Research, International Seminar on Religious Education and Values, etc.) and research networks (e.g. Environmental Management of Sustainable Universities, European Council for High Ability, etc.); (9) participation in development of strategy of educational research for sustainable development in 2005; (10) engagement in UNESCO/UNITWIN project's Reorientation of Teacher Education towards Sustainable Development second stage in 2006; (11) contribution to initiation of qualitative changes and transformation of professional, bachelor, master, and doctoral study programs in education offered by FEM (Salite, 2006). An example of how qualitative changes are introduced in study process is an academic Master study program in Pedagogy that has been transformed according to several aspects that are critical to contemporary education. The transformations have been implemented on three levels: (1) program structure, (2) course content, and (3) study forms. Several study courses are integrated in units (e.g., unit Holistic Pedagogy consists of three courses: Environmental Education, Spirituality of Pedagogy, and Integrated Approach in Education; unit Educational Philosophy consists of three courses: Theoretical Foundations and Contemporary Issues of Educational Philosophy, Education for Sustainable Development, and Innovative and Future Education). Each unit is taught from common perspective and for evaluation of students` academic performance an integrated paper has to be submitted. The challenge of these new study courses has been and still is to create learning environment that is problem-based, ecocentric, and based on social changes, that encourages learners` understanding and attitude development about global changes, cultural, and biological diversity in the world.

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A holistic approach as a perspective of reorienting education towards sustainable development reflects the assumption that the universe is a unified whole, and that everything is connected in constant interaction within several aspects - personal, communal, national, and global simultaneously. Different branches and sub-branches of science according, to holistic approach are observed as diverse perspectives to study the phenomenon of life. The context of this approach implies learners` experience or experience-based learning as a constitutive component of a study process. The challenge of implementing experience-based learning is to recognize individual learning preferences and contextualized content of what is being taught. It is important to consider that educational process is a dynamic process of changes that welcomes person`s selfreflection and is both inwards and interaction oriented. The educational process according to a holistic perspective is based on choice and responsibility of each learner. Such an educational process is sustainable as it encourages each learner to develop their own identity, to learn and to receive support from others while being involved in educational, social, and cultural processes (Davies, 2007; Dimmock & Walker, 2005; Fullan, 2005; Hoyle & Wallace, 2005; Tomlinson, 2004). Transformation of the Master study program at Faculty of Education and Management is based on the hope that it will foster qualitative changes not only in the context of study program or university, but also in wider section of a society. Towards Transformed Higher Education In 20th century the of model of university as an institution was based on problem solving that was rooted in the myth of industrial and social progress created in 19th century and in methodologies of modernist worldview. The role of higher education and the university in current non-ecological society generally has not changed a lot. It strives to maintain the habitual development not to improve it "because of its commitment to modern ways of thinking and its adoption of a disciplinary structure of knowledge that artificially isolates certain aspects of reality from other aspects of reality" (Ford, 2002: 75). As Sullivan notes, at the moment the university often functions as "a holding company for the set of organized disciplines, empty of philosophy" (2003:131). Currently, universities have become large corporations that produce and sell knowledge (Inayatullah & Cidley, 2000: 188). Nevertheless, the aim of higher education is not simply to hand on the experience and achievements of humanity but to rise to rise beyond the traditional norm-oriented approach and modernist worldview. Holistic approach assigns not only the role of a business project to university but also highlights the connection of university as a social institution with an individual and society in regional, national, and global level. The university as an institution and its` study programs in particular have a crucial role in development of society and whole EU community. As a social institution, the university is not connected with one particular system of values, ideology, or reality. Historically universities have witnessed radical changes moving from medieval to modernistic worldview. Nowadays the university as a social institution is at the threshold of changes again because philosophies that ground the current study programs are limited if they represent mechanical approach of modernism. Assumption that the main and the only role of the university in current society is the development of civic and intellectual development of society has become questionable. Ford suggests that the postmodern university should encourage understanding that `the world is of immense value and that human beings have a duty to preserve and enhance this value" (2002: 96).

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The definition of university as social institution in society is `morally wrong to destroy the earth, morally wrong for some human beings to live degraded lives while others lead lives of great luxury and waste, and morally wrong to promote any type of social organization that diminishes human freedom or needlessly reduces the diversity of human cultures" (Ford, 2002: 96). Creating study programs that contribute to formation of sustainable university and society, educators should structure their content so that a person and her/his interaction with social, cultural, natural, spiritual, and economical environment are in the center. Higher education that welcomes holistic understanding of person and sustainable development of society brings a transformed meaning of education. In general, the role of the university in society has been transformative one, in agreement with social needs and vision of development. A university cannot be created and structured only as a big bus business project to sell knowledge but `universities of the future, which will be able to rise to the challenge of being agents of transformation, will also need a more extensive, inclusive cosmology-an underpinning system of knowledge comprehensive enough to take in and give meaning to the complex global problems we have unwittingly, and through our greed, created" (Inayatullah & Gidley, 2000:237). The aim of education in modernity is to foster industrialization and tended to "produce unbalanced people tailored to fit the modern economy. Postmodern must have a different agenda, one designed to heal, connect, liberate, empower, create and celebrate. Postmodern education must be life-centered" (Orr, 1992:X). Because to live in a postmodern world is to acknowledge that we "are forced to make choices, and to compose a life, without confident reference to inherited templates, established knowledge or undisputed authority" (West, 2004: 141). The postmodern worldview is based on understanding about interconnectedness of all things (Ford, 2002:76). Discussing the role of academic disciplines of science in post-modernity Malpas emphasizes that "one of its most radical characteristics has been the way in which during the past few decades it has often broken down the barriers between areas of academic study, bringing them into new forms of collaboration or conflict" (2005:6). The university as an institution is a mirror of existent and future value system in a rather unique way. Changes in university value system and its inner structure of scientific disciplines is both a reflection of a social thought and an evidence of the necessity for radical changes in its structure and content. Ford assures that `the postmodern university will not be neutral with regard to environmentally destructive activities or economic systems that benefit a few at the expense of many. A truly postmodern university will promote a way of being in the world or, more exactly, many ways of being in the world, that are deeply respectful of the natural world and that enhance the quality of human existence" (Ford, 2002:97). Introducing postmodern awareness of holistic value system in the concept of the university and education in general, and perceiving the university as a socially transformative institution, educators should consider that "strong cognitive, affective and existential responses need to be recognized and acknowledged as part of any journey towards personal and political change" (Hicks,2002:98). The university as a social institution must accept historical responsibility about the Western modernist world that is affected by social, cultural conflicts, and ecological problems, for it has been the university that has initiated and fostered the development of Western industrial science and the corresponding value system.

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Describing the transformative role of university in a current society it is crucial to consider that "an overriding goal is the transformation of students understanding of themselves and their world. Successful programs of study engage students in actively developing their conception of themselves and others by providing access to new insights and new ways of acting in the world"(Andrea &Gosling, 2005;34). Hicks emphasizes that education in contemporary times should imply global issues and dimensions of learning: cognitive, affective, existential, empowerment, action (2002:101) that are important in obtaining transformative experience. The cognitive dimension is the first step to acquire `new facts, ideas and concepts about the current global situation and its likely future consequences" (p.100). The affective dimension enables obtaining emotional experience "when knowing shifts from being something intellectual and detached to a personal and connected knowing" (p.101). In the existential dimension learners are involved in transformative process of their inner reality that is connected with questioning of their values, life purposes, faith and ways of living. In this learning dimension students are "faced with a reconstruction of their own sense of self, something which often occurs when embarking on a quest for deeper meaning and purpose in life" (p. 101). Reaching the empowerment dimension in educational process students "can begin to feel a sense of personal empowerment. This arises from a clearer sense of personal responsibility and a commitment to do something. It centers on individual resolution of the question, can one person make a difference" (p.101). To enable the empowerment dimension in educational process "students need to be able to envision positive scenarios for the future end to learn about success stories in which individuals and groups have clearly made a difference"(p. 101). The action dimension can occur when learners are involved and obtained transformative experience in first four learning dimensions and "learning about global futures had eventually led to a significant reorientation of their lives, personally and/or professionally" (p.101). Thus, the action dimension is the most important in transformative educational process, because learners in this stage are not only aware of social, cultural, economical, and spiritual interconnections, but also become ready to take responsibility about themselves and their own activities both in individual and global context making a contribution to shape sustainable society. References: Anspaks, J. (2003) Pedagogical ideas in Latvia. Riga, Latvia: Raka. Avontins, V. (2004) Good teacher as a rarity. Independent Morning Newspaper, July 26, 6. Barr, R. & Tagg, J. (1995) From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, 27(6), 12-25. Belousa, I. (2002) Sustainable education and spirituality in the university: Looking for a way of complementation. Journal of Teacher Education and Training, 1, 3-12. Belickis, I. (1995) Human paradigm of education and education reform in Latvia. Riga, Latvia: Centre of support for Teacher Education. Birzkops, J. (2003) With what kind of education ­ in future? Education and Culture, 27 November, 12-13. Catlaks, G. G. (2001). Democratic changes in education: Summary of state education politics 1991-2001. Report in conference Shaping Civic Culture in Countries of Central and

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Eastern Europe, Riga, Latvia, November 19-21. Retrieved April 12, 2006 http://www. politika.lv/index.php?id=101968&lang=lv Catlaks, G. (2002) Conservatism in reform politics. Retrieved March 22, 2006 from http://www. politika.lv/idex.php?id=102728&lang=lv D'Andrea, V. & Gosling, D. (2005) Improving Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Whole Institution Approach. New York, NY: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open UNIVERSITY Press. Davies, B. (Ed.) (2007) Developing Sustainable Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Paul Chapman. Dedze, I. (2002) Conception or program of work? Critical review on the project "Conception of Education Development for 2002-2005. Retrieved April 13, 2006 from http://www. Politika.lv/index.php?id=102727&lang=lv Delors, J. (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on education for the 21st Century. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Dimmock, C. & Walker, A. (2005) Educational Leadership: Culture and Diversity. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Eglitis, D. (2004) Imagining the Nation: History, Modernity, and Revolution in Latvia. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University press. Eglitis, Z. (2004) Where are you going?, the system of Latvian education? Day, 10 July, 2. Ford, M. P. (2002) Beyond the Modern University: Toward a Constructive Postmodern University, Westport, CT: Praeger. Fullan, M. (2005) Leadership and Sustainability: System Thinkers in Action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corvin Press. Geske, A., Grinfields, A., KAngo, A. & Zakis, J. (2003) Pre-service training in higher education, in Dedze, I., Heyneman, S. & Catlaks, G. (Eds.) Education in Latvia's Transitio : The Challenge of Management. Report on Education in Latvia 2001/2002. Riga, Latvia: AGB, 74-87. Grinuma, I. (2005) The promised end for the definition memorizing. Day, 27 January, 4. Haugh, G. & Tauch, C. (2001) Trends and learning structures in higher education II. Academic Convention in Salamanca and Prague Higher Education Summit. Retrieved June 1, 2006 from http://www.aic.lv.ace Hicks, D. (2002) Lessons for the Future: The Missing Dimension in Education. London: Routledge Falmer. Higher Education Council (1996) Instruction of Acquiring Teacher Education. Retrieved March 27, 2006 from http://www.aip.lv Higher Education Council (2001) National Conception on the Development of Latvian Higher Education and Higher Educational Institutions for the Period until 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2006 from http://aip.lv/koncept doc_nac_koncept.htm Hoyle, E & Wallace, M. (2005) Educational Leadership: Ambiguity, Professional. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Inayatullah, S. & Gidley, J. (Eds.) (2000) The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Futures of the University. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

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Kopelovica, A. & Zukovs, L. (1999) Teacher education in Latvia. Teacher, 5, 22-25. Kopelovica, A. & Zukovs, L. (2004) Teacher education in Latvia 1940-2000. Riga, Latvia: Raka. Malpas, S. (2005) The Postmodern. London: Routledge. Melnis, A., Cakste, J., Vikmane, V., GAigule, I. & Meksa, M. (Eds.) (2003) Higher Education in Latvia. Riga, Latvia: Perse. Ministry of education and Science (1996) Conception of Education in Latvia. Education and Culture, February 1, 13-20. Orr, D. (1992) Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World. Albany, NY: State University of New York. Palmer, P. (1998) The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher's Life .San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. PROVIDUS (2003) Education in Latvia's Transition: The Challenge of Management, Report on Education in Latvia 2001/2002. Riga, Latvia: Publishing House AGB. PROVIDUS (2004) Educational Reforms in Latvia: Underpinning Integration and Prosperity, Annual Report on Education 2003/2004. Riga, Latvia. Preses Nams RAuhvargers, a. (2003) Latvia in Bologna Process: Report on the Reforms in Latvia's Higher Education on the way towards European Higher Education Area. Riga, Latvia: Latvian Rector's council, Academic Information Centre. Retrieved May 27, 2006 from http:// www.aic.lv/rec/Eng/new_d_en/bologna/default.htm Realising the European Higher Education Area (2003) Communique of the conference of ministers responsible for higher education, Berlin, September 19. Retrieved March 20, 2006 from http://www.aic.lv/rec/Eng/new_d_enbologna/Berlcomm_fina.pdf, also http:// www.bologna-berlin2003.doc Saeima (1991) Law on Education, ratified on July 1. Retrieved May 18, 2006 from http://wwwlikumi.lv Saeima (1995) Law on Higher Education Institution, ratified on November 11. Retrieved May 18, 2006 from http://www.izm.gov.lv Saeima (1999a) Law on Education, ratified on June 1. Retrieved May 18, 2006 from http:// www.izm.gov.lv Saeima (1999a) Law on Education, ratified on September 1. Retrieved May 18, 2006 from http:// www.izm.gov.lv Saeima (1999a) Law on Professional Education. ratified on September 1. Retrieved May 18, 2006 from http://www.izm.gov.lv Salite I (Ed. (2006) Report on Scientific Activities of Institute of Sustainable Education year 2005, Daugavpils, Latvia: Saule. Slattery, P. (1995) Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era. New York, NY, and London, UK: Garland. Sullivan, J. (2003) Scholarship and spirituality, in Carr, D. & Haldane, J. (Eds.) Spirituality, Philosophy and Education. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 127-140. Tacey, D. (2004) The Spirituality Revolution: The Emergence of Contemporary Spirituality, New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.

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Tolminson, H. (2004) Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage UNESCO (2005) Guidelines and Recommendations for Reorienting Teacher Education to address Sustainability. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved April 22, 2006 from http://enesdoc. unesco.org/images/0014/001433/143370E.pdf Vitins, I. (2004) Agony with heritage of Soviet school. Latvia Messenger. Retrieved April 8, 2006 from http://www.apollo.lv/portal/articles /26730 West, L. (2004) The trouble with lifelong learning, in Hayes, D. (Ed.) RoutledgeFalmer Guide to Key Debates in Education. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 138-142 Whitehead, A. (1929) The aims of Education and Other Essays. New York: The Free Press. Zukovs, L. & Kopelovica, A. (1997) Teacher education and pedagogical thought in Latvia, Part I. Riga, Latvia: Raka. Education and Sustainable Development: First Steps Toward Changes; Volume 2, 2007.

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ganaTlebis filosofia = Philosophy of Education

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

nino CixlaZe, nato ficxelauri

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

umaRlesi samedicino ganaTleba saerTaSoriso moTxovnebis konteqstSi

jandacvis msoflio organizaciis umniSvnelovanes prioritets warmoadgens relevanturi da efeqturi umaRlesi samedicino ganaTleba da zogadad jandacvis seqtorSi dakavebuli samedicino personalis postdiplomuri ganaTleba. mocemuli prioritetebi ganxiluli iqna jer kidev 1986 wels tokioSi, xolo 1988 wels lisabonis konferenciaze miRebul rekomendaciebSi miTiTebulia, rom diplomamdeli da diplomisSemdgomi samedicino ganaTleba ufro metad mgrZnobiare unda iyos sazogadoebis moTxovnilebebis mimarT. 1988 wels edinburgSi Catarda samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciis mier organizebuli saerTaSoriso konferencia, romlis Sedegad miRebul iqna e. w. edinburgis deklaracia, romelSic ganisazRvra samedicino ganaTlebis reformirebis Tormeti principi, maT Soris rva exeba uSualod saganmanaTleblo process, xolo oTxi scildeba umaRles samedicino saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebas. edinburgis deklaraciis Tanaxmad samedicino ganaTlebis reformirebis principebia [edinburgis deklaracia, 1988]: - swavlebis relevanturi garemo; - jandacvis erovnuli prioritetebis Sesabamisi samedicino ganaTleba; - aqcentebi daavadebaTa profilaqtikasa da janmrTelobis SenarCunebis stimulirebaze; - mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi aqtiuri swavlebis xelSewyoba; - profesiuli kompetenciis miRweva - profesiuli swavlebis mizani; - umaRlesi samedicino saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis maswavlebelTa momzadeba, rogorc pedagogebis, ise saganmanaTleblo misiis Sesasruleblad; - mecnierebisa da klinikuri praqtikis Serwyma; - abiturientTa SerCeva rogorc inteleqtualuri, ise profesiuli Tvisebebis mixedviT; - saqmianobis koordinacia: samedicino ganaTlebasa da praqtikuli jandacvis momsaxurebas Soris kavSiris uzrunvelyofa; - erovnuli moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad sxvadasxva profesiis eqimTa momzadeba da balansis uzrunvelyofa; - jandacvis sistemaSi dakavebul samedicino personals Soris kooperaciis uzrunvelyofa, multiprofesiuli ganaTleba;

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- profesiuli diplomisSemdgomi samedicino ganaTleba, swavla mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi. edinburgSi ganisazRvra samedicino ganaTlebis organizaciuli struqtura, rac mimarTulia samedicino ganaTlebis xarisxis amaRlebisaken da moicavs oTx dones: globaluri; regionaluri; erovnuli; institucionaluri 1993 wels Catarda samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio samiti, romelSic monawileoba miiRo 80 qveynis delegatma. samitze aRiniSna, rom msoflioSi mimdinare globaluri movlenebi (resursebis Semcireba, omebi da Zaladoba, Sidsis gavrceleba, samedicino momsaxurebis SezRudva, samedicino momsaxurebis Rirebulebis zrda) ar aris adekvaturad asaxuli saganmanaTleblo programebSi. samitze momzadebuli iqna samedicino ganaTlebis globaluri reformis 23 rekomendacia. TiToeuli rekomendaciisaTvis momzadda SesaZlo qmedebaTa da mosalodneli Sedegebis sqema. 6 rekomendacia ganekuTvneba kategorias `praqtika da politika,~ 8-kategorias `saganmanaTleblo strategiebi umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis doneze,~ 2-kategorias `samedicino ganaTlebis kontiniumi,~ 4-kategorias `saswavlo procesis partniori,~ 2-kategorias `swavlebis garemo da pirobebi~ da erTi rekomendacia exeba saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobas. 1994 wels ilinoisSi (aSS) Catarda jandacvis msoflio organizaciis mier organizebuli samedicino ganaTlebisa da praqtikis sferoSi saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis pirveli globaluri konferencia, sadac aseve deklarirebuli iqna samedicino ganaTlebaSi reformirebis aucilebloba. saerTaSoriso Sexvedrebze miRebuli deklaraciebi, ZiriTadad, sarekomendacio xasiaTisaa, Tumca isini garkveulwilad moqmedeben regionalur da erovnul kanonmdeblobaze. am aspeqtSi SesaniSnav magaliTs warmoadgens evrosabWos kanonmdebloba, rogorc samedicino ganaTlebis regionaluri sakanonmdeblo regulaciis TvalsaCino nimuSi. 1993 wels evrosabWos sakonsultacio komitetis mier momzadebuli iqna rekomendaciebi diplomamdeli samedicino ganaTlebisaTvis: diplomamdeli samedicino ganaTlebis pirveladi mizania codnis, unarCvevebis, damokidebulebebisa da eTikuri faseulobebis Camoyalibebis uzrunvelyofa; · sabaziso samedicino ganaTlebis periodis xangrZlivoba jandacvis sferos specialistebisaTvis ar unda iyos 6 welze da Teoriuli da praqtikuli momzadebis 5500 saaTze naklebi; · diplomamdeli samedicino ganaTlebis periodSi studentma unda iswavlos adaptacia samedicino praqtikis cvlilebebisadi, romelic mas

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SeiZleba Sexvdes diplomis Semdgom, an uwyveti samedicino ganaTlebis periodSi; · saswavlo gegma SeiZleba Sedgebodes ori nawilisagan: bazisuri da klinikuri mecnierebebisagan, romlebic SeiZleba iyos erTmaneTSi integrirebuli; bazisur mecnierebebs ganekuTvneba fsiqologia da mecniereba adamianis qcevis Sesaxeb; · sabaziso mecnierebebi unda iyos medicinaze orientirebuli, ufro metad praqtikul da klinikur momzadebaze orientirebuli; · samedicino ganaTlebis gegma ar unda iyos gadatvirTuli; · pasiuri swavleba unda Seicvalos aqtiuri swavlebiT; · saswavlo gegma mudmivad unda gadaisinjos; · klinikuri swavleba unda gaizardos maswavlebelsa da students, pacientsa da students Soris urTierTobis xarjze; · swavlebisa da Sefasebis meTodebi unda Seesabamebodes swavlebis process; · saswavlo gegmis Sefasebis procesSi unda monawileobdnen studentebi; · rekomendirebulia klinikuri swavleba hospitlisa da palatis gareSe; · samedicino ganaTleba fokusirebuli unda iyos studentebze, da ara disciplinebze; · gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda daeTmos konkretuli fundamentaluri, klinikuri problemis, Ziebis, Camoyalibebisa da gadaWris meTodebis swavlebas, multidisciplinuri midgomis gaTvaliswinebiT; · mniSvnelovania klinikuri meTodologiis Teoriuli da praqtikuli damuSaveba; · saWiroa evropuli samedicino gamosaSvebi gamocdis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis sistemis Seqmna; gansazRvrulia aseve diplomis Semdgomi samedicino ganaTlebis xangrZlivoba (3-dan 12 wlamde) gansazRvruli specialobebisaTvis. mocemuli rekomendaciebi damtkicebulia evrosabWos 93/16 direqtiviT, romelic moqmedebs dResac. samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciis ZiriTad misias warmoadgens samedicino ganaTlebis umaRlesi samecniero da eTikuri standartebis uzrunvelyofa. samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciam sawesdebo dokumentiT dasabami misca samedicino ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso standartebis Seqmnas. mocemuli proeqti mowonebuli iqna jandacvis msoflio organizaciisa da msoflio samedicino asociaciis mier. samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciisa da jandacvis msoflio organizaciis partniorobis strategiul mimarTulebebs warmoadgens: samedicino skolebSi mimdinare procesebis gaumjobesebis mizniT monacemTa erTiani bazis Seqmna; skolebs Soris partniorobis xelSewyoba inovaciuri meTodebis gavrcelebis mizniT; samedicino skolebis marTvis gaumjobeseba;

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dawesebulebebis an erovnuli (regionaluri) organizaciebis daxmareba programebis reformirebisa an aRiarebis akreditaciis sistemebis Seqmnis mizniT. 2003 wels samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciam gamoaqveyna saerTaSoriso standartis sami paketi: bazisuri samedicino ganaTleba; diplomisSemdgomi samedicino ganaTleba; eqimTa uwyveti profesiuli ganaTleba. bazisuri samedicino ganaTlebis standartebis dokumenti gadaTargmnilia da aprobirebulia pilotur kvlevebSi aTeul qveyanaSi da is ukve gavlenas axdens samedicino ganaTlebis licenzirebisa da akreditaciis erovnul da regionalur sistemebze. standartebi ar Seicaven specialur miTiTebebs saganmanaTleblo procesis raodenobrivi maCveneblebis Sesaxeb. standartebi mniSvnelovania umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo samedicino dawesebulebis Sida Sefasebisa da muSaobis xarisxis amaRlebisaTvis. amave dros standartebi warmoadgenen mniSvnelovan instruments saganmanaTleblo samedicino dawesebulebis gare Sefasebis, licenzirebisa da akreditaciisaTvis. samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciis Sefasebis Tanaxmad bazisuri samedicino ganaTlebis standartebis dokumenti SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuli iqnas agreTve globalur doneze bazisuri samedicino ganaTlebis xarisxis uzrunvelyofisa da srulyofisaTvis. samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciis bazisuri samedicino ganaTlebis standartebi warmoadgenen moTxovnaTa kompleqss, romlebic mimarTulia cxra kategoriis Sefasebaze, maT Soris: samedicino saganmanaTleblo programaze, profesorebze, saganmanaTleblo resursebze, studentebze. kategoriebi qvekategoriebadaa dayofili da qvekategoriis TiToeul standarts gaaCnia miRwevadobis ori done: bazisuri satandarti; xarisxis gaumjobesebis standarti. bazisuri standarti: mas unda akmayofilebdes yvela samedicino instituti; miRwevadoba unda iyos demonstrirebuli Sefasebisas; sabaziso standartebisaTvis gamoiyeneba sityva `aucilebelia~ (ust) xarisxis gaumjobesebis standarti: saerTaSoriso konsesusiT dadgenili bazisuri saganmanaTlebo programis swavlebis optimaluri praqtikis maCvenebelia; Sesruleba an Sesrulebis iniciativa dokumentirebuli unda iyos; ixmareba sityva `saWiroa~ (Should) magaliTisaTvis ganvixilavT kategorias - saswavlo programa. mocemuli kategoria rva qvekategoriad aris dayofili: kategoria ­ saswavlo programa. qvekategoriebi:

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saswavlo programis modelebi da meToduri midgomebi; samecniero meTodi; bazisuri biosamedicino dargebi; qceviTi da socialuri mecnierebebi da samecniero eTika; klinikuri mecnierebebi da unar-Cvevebi; saswavlo gegmis struqtura, Sinaarsi da xangrZlivoba; programis marTva; samedicino praqtikis da jandacvis sistemis urTierTkavSiri. qvekategoriebidan ki ganvixiloT ramdenime qvekategoria. bazisuri biosamedicino mecnierebebi bazisuri standarti: saswavlo gegmaSi asaxuli unda iyos klinikuri mecnierebis SeswavlisTvis aucilebeli bazisuri biosamedicino mecnierebebi (anatomia, bioqimia, fiziologia, biofizika, molekuluri biologia, genetika, imunologia, farmakologia, paTologiuri anatomia, paT.fiziologia da sxv.) xarisxis gaumjobesebis standarti: bazisuri biosamedicino mecnierebebis adgili da mniSvneloba saswavlo gegmaSi ganisazRvros teqnologiuri da klinikuri mecnierebebis miRwevis gaTvaliswinebiT; qceviTi, socialuri mecnierebebi da samedicino eTika bazisuri standarti - moxdes identificireba da saswavlo gegmaSi qceviTi da socialuri mecnierebebis (samedicino fsiqologia, biostatistika, higiena, sazogadoebrivi jandacva da komunaluri medicina) safuZvlebis Setana. moxdes identificireba da saswavlo gegmaSi samedicino eTikisa da samedicino iurisprudenciis safuZvlebis Setana. xarisxis gaumjobesebis standarti - qceviTi da socialuri mecnierebebis adgili da mniSvneloba saswavlo gegmaSi ganisazRvros teqnologiuri da klinikuri mecnierebebis miRwevis gaTvaliswinebiT. klinikuri mecnierebebi da unar-Cvevebi bazisuri standarti - uzrunvelyos studentebsa da pacientebs Soris kontaqti, raTa moxdes klinikuri codnis, azrovnebisa da unar-Cvevebis Camoyalibeba -klinikuri dargebi (Terapia, qirurgia, anesTeziologia, dermatologia, venerologia, gadaudebeli medicina, zogadi praqt./ojaxis eqimi, geriartria, mean-ginekologia, laboratoriuli medicina, nevrologia, neiroqirurgia, onkologia da sxivuri Terapia, ofTalmologia, orTopediuli qirurgia, otolaringologia, pediatria, fizioTerapia da reabilitacia, fsiqiatria da sxv.) unar-Cvevebi - anamnezis Sekreba, fizikaluri gamokvleva, klinikuri procedurebi da gamokvlevebi, gadaudebeli samedicino daxmareba, gundSi monawileoba da xelmZRvaneloba. klinikuri pasuxismgebloba - janmrTelobis ganmtkiceba, daavadebaTa profilaqtika. pacientTa daxmarebaSi monawileobis miReba - sxvadasxva warmomadgen-

38

lebTan (paramedikebi) erTad gundur muSaobaSi monawileobis miReba. xarisxis gaumjobesebis standarti: -uzrunvelyos studentebsa da pacientebs Soris kontaqti rac SeiZleba swavlis adreul etapze; -unar-Cvevebis swavleba unda iyos struqtuirebuli programaSi codnis miRebis sinqronulad. -jandacvis msoflio organizaciis monacemebis Tanaxmad, msoflioSi 1600-ze meti umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo samedicino dawesebulebaa, maTgan mxolod mcire nawils aqvs gavlili gare Sefasebisa da akreditaciis procesi. saqarTveloSi umaRles samedicino skolebs gavlili aqvT instituciuri akreditacia da dRis wesrigSia programuli akreditacia. vfiqrobT, samedicino ganaTlebis msoflio federaciis saerTaSoriso standartebi SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuli iqnas saqarTvelos umaRlesi samedicino skolebis muSaobis Sefasebis efeqtur instrumentad, amava dros, rogorc erovnuli da regionaluri licenzirebisa da akreditaciis safuZvlad.

NINO CHIKHLADZE, NATO PITSKHELAURI

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

HIGHER MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

The most important priority of the World Health Organization is a relevant and effective higher medical education and the Post Diploma education of medical personnel generally employed in medical sector. The principles of reformation of medical education are: (Edinburg declaration, 1988) · Relevant environment for studying; · Medical education relevant to health national priorities; · Accents of disease prophylaxis and stimulation of health preserve. · Facilitation of active sustainable teaching; · Achievement of professional competence ­ aim of professional education; · Preparation of teachers of higher medical educational institutions; · Combination of science and clinical practice; · Selection of university entrants according to the intellectual and professional characters. · Coordination of activity ­ contact guarantee between medical education and a practical health service. · Preparation of doctors of different professions relevant to national requirements and balance assurance. · Ensuring cooperation among medical staff employed in health system, multi-professional education; · After diploma professional Medical education, lifelong study;

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In 1993 recommendations for pre-diploma medical education were prepared by consultative committee of the European Council: the primary aim of pre-diploma medical education is assurance of knowledge, abilities and formation of ethical values: · The duration of basic medical education for the specialists of health sphere must not be less than 6 years and no less than 5500 hours of theoretical and practical preparation; · During the period of pre-diploma medical education a student must adapt to the changes of medical practice that may be met in post diploma or lifelong medical education period; · Curriculum may be consisted of two parts: basic and clinical sciences, which may be integrated with each other; Psychology and the science of human behavior belong to basic sciences; · Basic sciences must be medical oriented, more practical and oriented toward clinical preparation. · Medical curriculum must not be loaded; · Passive studying must be changed into active studying; · Curricula must be checked constantly; · Clinical study must be developed on the basis of a relation between a teacher and a student, a patient and a student; · Teaching and assessment methods should be relevant to teaching process; · Students must be actively involved in the evaluation of curriculum; · Teaching clinical training is recommended without a hospital and a ward; · Medical education must be focused on students and not on disciplines; · Particular attention should be paid to teaching of concrete fundamental, clinical problems, searching, formation and solving methods taking into the consideration of multidisciplinary approaches. · Importance of theoretical and practical elaboration of clinical methodology; · Significance of quality assurance system formation and an European medical final exam. There is also defined a duration of after diploma medical education (from 3 till 12 years) for definite specialties. The given recommendations are attested by the European Council directives 93/16 that function even today. The main mission of the world federation of medical education is ensuring higher scientific and ethical standards of medical education. With the regulation document of the world federation began the development of international standards of medical education. The given project was approved by the World Health Organization and the World Medical Association. In 2003 the World Federation of Medical Education published three packets of international standards: · Basic medical education; · After-diploma medical education; · Doctors' lifelong professional education. Standard document of basic medical education is translated and approbated in the pilotage surveys in many countries, and it has already impacted licensing of medical education and na-

40

tional and regional systems of accreditation. Standards do not comprise special directions of numerical indicators of educational process. Standards are important for inter assessment of higher educational medical institutions and for the increase of work quality. At the same time standards are important instruments for out estimation of educational medical institutions, licensing and accreditation. According to the evaluation of the world federation of the medical education, the standard document of basic medical education may be also used at the global level for a quality guarantee and the improvement of basic medical education. Basic medical education standards of the world federation of medical education are complex requirements which are directed towards the estimation of nine categories, including: towards medical educational program, professors, educational recourses, students. Categories are divided into the sub-categories and each standard of sub-category has two levels of achievement: · Basic standard; · Quality improvement standard. Basic standard: · It should be approved by every medical institute; · Achievement must be demonstrated during the evaluation; · For basic standards the word `must" is used. Quality assurance standard: · Is the indicator of optimal practice of teaching of the basic educational program established by the international consensus; · Realization or the initiative of realization must be documented; · The word "should" is used. On the basis of the World Health Organization, there are more than 1600 higher educational medical institutions, only a few of them have passed through an assessment and accreditation process. In Georgia higher medical schools have passed institutional accreditation, and program accreditation is to be implemented. We believe international standards of the world federation of medical education may be used as an effective instrument for the evaluation of the work by higher medical schools, and at the same time as the basis of national and regional licensing and accreditation.

41

ganaTlebis filosofia = Philosophy of Education

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Tamar SinjiaSvili

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

saganmanaTleblo sistemis transformacia Tanamedrove globalizaciis pirobebSi

globalizaciis epoqam umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaze msoflios yvela qveyanaSi sakmaod didi gavlena moaxdina da saqarTveloc am mxriv gamonakliss ar warmoadgens. amJamad universiteti, rogorc socialuri dawesebuleba, kvlav cvlilebebis mijnazea. qveynebis umravlesobaSi sauniversiteto ganaTlebis paradigmebi mTlianad Seicvala, kerZod Seicvala saswavlo normebi, orientirebi da motivaciebi. sauniversiteto ganaTlebis axalma tipma sauniversiteto struqturis yvela Semadgeneli komponenti Secvala. Tu uwin codna, saerTod mecniereba ganixileboda rogorc absoluturi da usazRvro faseuloba, axla gadawona cnebam `sasargeblo codna~, es aris codna, fokusirebuli erT konkretul sferoze da mizanmimarTulia Sedegze, romelsac moaqvs dauyovneblivi ekonomikuri sargebeli. zogadad sazogadoebaSi universitetis roli yovelTvis transformaciuli iyo da ganviTarebis socialur saWiroebasa da xedvasTan SeTanxmebaSi arsebobda. universiteti, rogorc dawesebuleba iyo da aris arsebul da momaval faseulobaTa sistemis unikaluri sarke. universitetis faseulobaTa sistemis da misi samecniero disciplinebis Sida struqturis cvlileba aris socialuri azrovnebis anarekli da aseve misi struqturisa da Semadgenlobis cvlilebis saWiroebis mtkicebuleba [Belousa 2007: 109]. sauniversiteto sistemis Secvlam xeli Seuwyo codnisa da ganaTlebis sxvadasxva saxis virtualuri formebis aRmocenebas, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba fundamentur codnas am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT. fundamenturi codna ukana planze gadadis da umravlesobis interesebs aRar warmoadgens. globalizaciis epoqaSi universitetebi gadaiqcnen ekonomikur korporaciebad da isini imarTebian, rogorc warmoebasa da codnis gavrcelebasTan dakavSirebuli korporaciebi. Cveulebriv saubarSic sauniversiteto leqsikonSi Semovida iseTi gamoTqmebi, rogoricaa `korporatizacia~, `akademiuri/samecniero warmoeba~, `studentebi rogorc klientebi~. fakultetebi, laboratoriebi, samecniero centrebi da garkveuli profesorebic ki ganixilebian im TvalsazrisiT, Tu ramdeni studentis mozidva SeZles, ramdeni saerTaSoriso granti moipoves. SemoaqvT winadadeba, rom universitetebs moexsnaT gansakuTrebuli statusi da isini gauTanabron sabazro urTierTobebis nebismier sxva subieqts Semdegi principiT: is, rac ar iyideba, ar iwarmoeba [ 2004: 153]. bevr qveyanaSi saswavlo dawesebuleba saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis bazarze

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damoukidebeli moTamaSis rangSi gamodis. saxelmwifo finansuri daxmareba xarjebis mxolod nawils faravs, danarCeni Tanxa TviTon universitetma unda moiZios sxva wyaroebidan. es arsebiTad cvlis umaRlesi ganaTlebis xasiaTs, romelic bazarze ukve gamodis rogorc moTamaSe. sauniversiteto sferoSi udavod liderebi xdebian isini, vinc nebismieri saSualebiT (rac xSirad akademiur saqciels scildeba) izidaven studentebs, fondebidan da kerZo donorebidan grantis mozidvas axerxeben. aseve mudmivad muSaoben sakuTar imijze saerTaSoriso masStabiT, prestiJuli premiis, xmauriani publikaciebis CaTvliT, aseve masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis gamoyenebiT da a. S. sauniversiteto sistemaSi gadarCeba is, visac ara marto axali codnis Seqmna SeuZlia, aramed visac aqvs unari xelsayrel pirobebSi moaxdinos am codnis realizacia. am TvalsazrisiT aucilebelia, rom TiToeul pedagogs hqondes minimaluri niWi menejmentis sferoSi. ikveTeba studentebis axali rolic. Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi universitetis gardamavali rolis aRwerisas mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes, rom `mTavari amocanaa studentebis gardaqmna ise, rom maT esmodeT samyaroSi sakuTari roli. swavlebis warmatebuli programebi moicaven studentebis aqtiur monawileobas sakuTari da sxvaTa koncefciis SemuSavebaSi, ris meSveobiTac TviTSemecnebisa da samyaroSi yofnis axal gzebs pouloben~ [Belousa 2007: 110]. isini aseve ukve korporaciis `klientebis~ rolSi gamodian, universitetebis mier SemoTavazebul saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis bazarze myidvelebis saxiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom studentobasTan dakavSirebuli cnobili disciplinaruri SezRudvebi kvlavindeburad arsebobs, studentis statusi mainc Seicvala. korporacia anu universiteti, rogorc arasdros damokidebuli xdeba Tavis klientebze, maT moTxovnebze, survilebze, sasicocxlo miznebsa da pretenziebzec ki. amitomac, profesuridan da saswavlo procesis administrirebis mmarTvlebidanac moiTxoveba arakonfliqturoba studenti-klientebis mimarTebaSi. saswavlo procesSi aRmocenebuli nebismieri problemuri situacia studentis sasargeblod unda gadawydes Semdegi principis mixedviT _ `ise unda gavakeToT, rom konfliqti saerTod ar warmoiSvas~. studentis garicxva ukidures mdgomareobad ganixileba, radgan am dros xdeba klientis dakargva. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu studenti ama Tu im mizeziT saswavlo programas ver iTvisebs, misTvis adgenen samuSao reJims, Semsubuqebul programas da a. S. magram students yvela SesaZlo meTodebiT inarCuneben, rasac xels uwyobs Tanamedrove saganmanaTleblo formatebi [ 2004: 29]. Tumca es yvelaferi ar mimdinareobs saerTo moTxovnaTa donis Semcirebis da saganmanaTleblo standartebis Semcirebis xarjze. saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis xarisxi sakmaod maRal doneze narCundeba, Tumca SesaZloa es xdeba sxva saSualebebis gamoyenebiT - upirveles yovlisa, saswavlo procesis dinamiurobisa da codnis miRebis mravalgvari formatis arsebobiT.

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universiteti - korporacia did yuradRebas uTmobs im studentebTan kontaqts, romlebmac ama Tu im mizezis gamo datoves universiteti, magram SeZles kvlav CarTuliyvnen mis programaSi saboloo xarisxis misaRebad. aseTi studentebisaTvis dasavleTis wamyvan qveynebSi arsebobs mTeli rigi SeRavaTebi. xels uwyoben aratradiciul studentebsac - eseni ZiriTadad arian pensionerebi, romlebsac garkveuli sfero ainteresebT da surT codnis miReba xarisxis miRebis gareSe. aSS-s universitetebis mniSvnelovan nawilSi aratradiciuli studentebis ricxvi ganuxrelad izrdeba [ 2004:155]. amJamad msoflioSi universitetebi da kolejebi imarTebian namdvili menejerebis mier, marTalia maT akademiuri xarisxi da codna gaaCniaT, Tumca isini profesionalurad asruleben sakmaod gansxvavebul rols. magram amas mivyavarT codnis sferoSi did danakargebTan, romelsac ar gaaCnia pirdapiri sabazro brunva. sauniversiteto sistemis cvlilebis erT erTi ZiriTadi niSania: saganTa kavSiri, radgan tradiciuli saswavlo sagnebis, tradiciuli specialobebis umravlesoba studentebs aRar izidavs. rogorc ukve aRiniSna fundamenturi codna sul ufro da ufro naklebad mimzidveli xdeba studentebisa da sauniversiteto struqturisaTvis. magaliTad, cota vinmes Tu surs daeuflos tradiciul fundamentur sociologias. igi ver agrovebs specializirebuli studentebis saWiro ricxvs. ucxoeTSic da saqarTveloSic socialuri mecnierebis fakultetebs miziduli studentebis raodenobiT ukve aRar SeuZliaT konkurencia gauwion sxva fakultetebs. amitom am universitetebSi tradiciulma fakulteturma struqturam Tavis gadasarCenad gamosavali saerTo sauniversiteto da fakultetTaSorisi programebis gaxsnaSi hpova. am sakmaod warmatebul programaSi fundamentaluri sociologiis tradiciuli disciplinebi transformirdnen im sagnebSi, romlebic studentebisaTvis ufro mimzidvelia da maT momaval dasaqmebasac uzrunvelyofs. mravali sabunebismetyvelo, sainJinro da samedicino specialoba erTiandeba konkretul sazogadoebaTmcodne specialobebTan ganaTlebis erTiani programis CarCoebSi. zogierTi mecnieri varaudobs (magaliTad rusi profesori pokrovski), rom ar aris gamoricxuli uaxloes momavalSi fakultetebi, rogorc damoukidebeli struqturuli erTeulebi gauqmdes da adgili dauTmon dinamiur disciplinaTaSoris programebs, romlebic Sida bazris moTxovnis Sesabamisad gaixsneba da daixureba. mTlianobaSi, Tanamedrove pirobebSi universitetebis umravlesoba Tavidan ixsnian pasuxismgeblobas profesorebis saStato Semadgenlobis winaSe, iwveven ra profesuras droebiT saganTaSoris programebSi, sadac yvelaferi damokidebulia am programebis sabazro efeqturobaze. es moiTxovs profesorebis axali tipis arsebobas, romelTac unari aqvT advilad gadaewyon swavlebis axal meTodze da Tavisuflad flobden Tanamedrove teqnologiebs [ 2004:157].

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damaxasiaTebelia, rom Tanamedrove pirobebSi perspeqtiuli damsaqmeblebi xSir SemTxvevaSi ar saWiroeben universitetis kursdamTavrebulebs, romlebsac miRebuli aqvT fundamenturi ganaTleba. Tanamedrove firmaSi an korporaciaSi es sulac ar moiTxoveba. saWiroa sxva: SeeZlos dinamiurad gardaiqmnas sxva programaze, flobdes garkveul sabaziso codnas da kulturis saerTo dones. sauniversiteto ganaTlebaSi didi gamoyeneba SeiZina distanciuri swavlebis programebma, telekonferenciebma, ganaTlebis miRebam internetis saSualebiT [ 2004:15] TviT swavlebis tradiciuli formebic ki uazroba iqneboda internetisa da virtualuri biblioTekebis gamoyenebis gareSe. Tanamedrove saganmanaTlebo sistema internetis gareSe warmoudgenelia. kompiuterizaciam metad STambeWdav masStabebs miaRwia. universitetebisa da fakultetebis serverebi mravalmiznobriv sainformacio portalebadaa qceuli da uzrunvelyofs momxmarebels saTanado informaciiT. gansakuTrebiT efeqturia auditoriaSi multimediuri saSualebebis gamoyeneba. dReisaTvis msoflios ganviTarebul qveynebSi, iseve rogorc naklebad ganviTarebuli qveynebis umravlesobaSi arc erTi kursi ar ikiTxeba programa Power Point-is teqnologiis gareSe. misi gamoyeneba cvlis leqciis mTel specifikas da struqturas, masalis gadmocemis Tezisur xasiaTs, maT Soris xmisa da videos gamoyenebas da sxv. kursis mTeli masala profesoris saitzea ganTavsebuli da studentebs saSualeba aqvT 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi isargeblon am saitiT, daukavSirdnen TavianT profesors da dautovon Setyobinebebi. gansakuTrebiT popularobiT sargebloben is leqtorebi, romlebic vizualurad ukeTesad warmoaCenen TavianT kurss. amrigad, universiteti unda iyos teqnikuri da teqnologiuri progresis mesaWe, romelic studentebs saswavlo processa da studentur cxovrebaSi arsebul axal miRwevebs miawvdis. aseve holistikuri midgomis mixedviT, universitets ara mxolos biznes proeqtis roli gaaCnia, aramed es midgoma aseve warmoaCens universitetis, rogorc socialuri dawesebulebis kavSirs pirovnebasa da sazogadoebasTan regionalur, erovnul da globalur doneze [Belousa:109]. globalizaciis epoqam safuZvlianad Secvala saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo sistema. 1990-iani wlebidan daiwyo universitetebis gadawyoba axal sistemaze. daarsda uamravi kerZo universiteti, romelTa umravlesobam Sromis bazris da evropuli saganmanaTleblo standartebis moTxovnebs ver gauZlo da daixura. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi moqmedebs 61 akreditirebuli umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebuleba, romelTac instituciuri akreditacia aqvT gavlili [http://www.nea.ge]. rogorc msoflioSi, ise saqarTveloSic Secvlilia saswavlo normebi, orientirebi da motivaciebi da sauniversiteto struqturis yvela Semadgeneli komponenti. saswavlo procesi xorcieldeba kreditebis dagegmvis evropul sistemasTan SesabamisobaSi. yovelwliurad ixveweba saswavlo geg-

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mebi da programebi, rac universitetebis Semdgomi ganviTarebis saSualebas iZleva. Tumca xarvezebisgan dazRveulni ar varT. studentebisTvis iqmneba mimzidveli pirobebi swavlisTvis, samecniero muSaobisTvis da damoukidebeli ganviTarebisTvis. qarTuli universitetebi metnaklebi warmatebiT axorcieleben dasaxul miznebs da imedia, momavalSi TandaTanobiT daixveweba da ufro moqnili gaxdeba sauniversiteto ganaTleba. literatura: Belousa 2007: Belousa, I. & and Stalke, A. (2007). Development and Reorientation of Education towards ustainability in Latvia after 1991, Education & Sustainable Development: Fisrts Steps Toward Changes, Volume 2, 2007, Daugavpils University. 2004: , . ., , . 2004. .4.VII. 2004: ., ., ., ., ., , , , 2004 . http://www.nea.ge: http://www.nea.ge/?action=page&page_id=39&lang=geo

TAMAR SHINJIASHVILI

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

TRANSFORMATION OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE MODERN CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

The epoch of globalization has greatly influenced higher education system in every country of the world, and Georgia is not an exception. In the most of these countries the paradigms of university education have been completely changed, especially teaching norms, guidelines and motivations. The new type of university education has changed every component of the education structure. If before knowledge, science in general was considered as absolute and boundless value; now prevails the notion "useful knowledge". This is the knowledge focused on one concrete sphere and is oriented towards the result, which brings the immediate economic profit. Changing of the university system facilitates the creation of different virtual forms of education, that resist fundamental knowledge. Fundamental knowledge is becoming inferior and does not represent the interest of the majority. In the epoch of globalization universities have turned into economic corporations and are managed as corporations connected to the spread of production and knowledge. Every branch of the university structure is self-determined according to the competitive ability and incomes. In many countries the teaching institution is considered as an independent player on education service market. State financial support covers only a part of the expenses, the rest amount has to be collected by the universities from other relevant sources. In university sphere the leaders become the persons who attract students by any means, who manage to receive grants from different funds and private donors. In the university system

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only those, who can not only develop a new kind of knowledge but also have the abilities to implement this knowledge into practice, will survive. From this point of view, it is necessary each teacher to have some skills in management. Nowadays, there is a certain new explicit role of students. They are considered as the corporation `clients~ in the status of buyers on an education service market offered by universities. And though some famous disciplinary restrictions connected to students still exist, the status of a student has been however changed. The university, as never before, is dependent on its student "clients", thier demands, desires, living aims and even claims. Nowadays, universities and colleges in the world are managed by real managers. It is true that they have no academic degrees and knowledge, although they professionally perform somewhat different role. Nevertheless it leads us to greater losses in the knowledge sphere without any direct market circulation. One of the main signs of the university system change is a subject-connection ­ the majority of traditional specialties don't attract the students any more. As it was mentioned before, the fundamental knowledge is no more attractive for the students and the university structure. In many universities the traditional faculty structure has opened university and interfaculty programs in order to stay alive. Nowadays perspective employers often don't need the graduates of the universities who have received fundamental education. It is not required in modern companies and corporations. Necessary is the following: he/she must be able to adjust into another program, to gain some basic knowledge and a general level of culture. Distant teaching programs, teleconferences and internet-based knowledge have acquired a great usage in the university education. Even traditional forms of teaching would become uninteresting without Internet and virtual libraries. Modern education system is unimaginable without internet. Computerization has reached quite impressive levels. University and faculty servers have become multi-purpose information portals and provide a user with relevant information. Thus, universities must be leaders in technique and technological progress that inform students about innovations existing in the teaching process and a student life. The epoch of globalization has also changed the education system of Georgia. Transfer of universities into a new system has begun since 1990-ies. Many private universities were established at that time, but the majority could not satisfy the requirements of labour market and the European education standards and therefore were closed. Today 61 accredited higher education institutions, which have passed the institutional accreditation, function in Georgia. Teaching norms, guidelines, motivations and every comprising component of the university structure have been completely changed in Georgia. Teaching process is implemented according to the European system of credit transfers. The curricula and programs are being improved annually; that as a result gives the possibilities to the universities for further improvement, although, there still exist certain risks. There've been created new favorable teaching conditions for students, scientific work as well as independent development. Of course, Georgian universities try to achieve goals somehow successfully. We hope the university education will be gradually improved and become flexible in the future.

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ganaTlebis filosofia = Philosophy of Education

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Salva Wkadua

Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti

saqarTvelosa da saberZneTis TanamSromloba ganaTlebis sferoSi

saqarTvelosa da saberZneTs gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebi gaaCniaT saganmanaTleblo sferoSi. qarTveli da berZeni studentebis ricxvi, romlebic saqarTvelosa da saberZneTis umaRles saswavleblebSi swavloben, yovelwliurad matulobs. ukanaskneli wlebis manZilze gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebi Camoyalibda Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetsa da aTenis kabodistrias saxelobis universitets Soris, romelic aqtiurad viTardeba sxvadasxva doneze. aseve nayofierad TanamSromlobs aTenis teqnikuri universiteti saqarTvelos saxelmwifo teqnikur universitetTan [masalebi 2005: 29.12]. Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis bazaze 1997 wels Seiqmna klasikuri filologiis bizantinistikisa da neogrecistikis instituti, romelic Tavisi profiliT umsxviles saswavlo-samecniero centrs warmoadgens saqarTveloSi. institutis funqcionirebas xeli Seuwyo saberZneTis saelCom saqarTveloSi, saberZneTis kulturis, sagareo saqmeTa da ganaTlebisa da religiis saministroebma, berZnuli kulturis `aleqsandros onasisis~ da i. f. kostopulosis fondebma. instituti studentebs amzadebs bakalavriatsa da magistraturaSi Semdegi specialobebiT: klasikuri filologia; bizantinistika; axali berZnuli ena da literatura [masalebi 2005. 15. 11]. klasikuri filologiis bizantinistikisa da neogrecistikis instituti sistematiurad atarebs respublikuri da saerTaSoriso masStabis konferenciebs da gamoscems samecniero saxis Jurnalebsa da wignebs. garda amisa, aqtiur muSaobas eweva berZnul-qarTuli urTierTobebis gafarToebisa da ganmtkicebis mimarTulebiT, xels uwyobs saqarTveloSi berZnuli kulturis, xolo saberZneTSi qarTuli kulturis popularizaciis saqmes. instituti eweva mTargmnelobiT saqmianobasac. 2006 wlis 24 Tebervals aRniSnul institutSi saberZneTis saelCosa da neogrecistTa asociaciis iniciativiT Catarda saRamo, romelic miZRvnili iyo didi berZeni poetis kostantinos kavafis xsovnisadmi. amavdroulad moxda misi leqsebis krebulis qarTuli Targmanis prezentacia (Targmani ekuTvnoda iza orjonikiZes). saRamoze sityviT gamovida saberZneTis elCi saqarTveloSi elefTerios angelopulosi, romelmac maRali Sefaseba misca institutis saqmianobas da xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom ori qveynis urTierTobebSi kulturul-saganmanaTleblo TanamSromlobas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs da `Cveni qveynebis urTierTobebis

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sawyisic swored kultura da ganaTleba aris~. saberZneTisa da saqarTvelos urTierTTanamSromloba upirveles yovlisa saberZneTis mTavrobis mier qarTveli studentebisaTvis sxvadasxva saxis stipendiebis gamoyofiT gamoixateba. saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministrosa da saberZneTis ganviTarebis saministros mecnierebisa da teqnologiebis generaluri samdivnos mier 2003 wlidan ganxorcielda samwliani bilateraluri programa, romlis farglebSi sakonkurso principiT SerCeuli iqna xuTi erToblivi proeqti sami prioritetuli mimarTulebiT. 2004 wlis monacemebiT saberZneTis sxvadasxva akademiebSi swavlobda 25 qarTveli kursanti, maT Soris: ori sazRvao oficerTa akademiaSi, 14 sazRvao miCmanTa akademiaSi, 8 armiis oficerTa akademiaSi da 1 armiis serJantTa akademiaSi. 2005 wlisaTvis saberZneTis sxvadasxva universitetebSi, mimRebi qveynis absolituri dafinansebiT, saqarTvelodan mravali studenti gaigzavna swavlis gasagrZeleblad. maTi stipendiebi 400-dan 800 evromde ganisazRvreboda [masalebi 2005. 1-31. 03. 4]. berZeni studentebis miReba saqarTveloSi, romelic dadebuli xelSekrulebis farglebSi qarTul mxares evaleba, samwuxarod 2006 wlamde ar ganxorcielebula. 2006 wlisaTvis ki es SesaZlebeli gaxda da saqarTvelos mTavrobam gamonaxa finansebi, raTa daefinansebina berZeni studentebis miReba qarTul universitetebSi. dRes isini gadanawilebuli arian saqarTvelos sxvadasxva umaRles saswavleblebSi [masalebi 2005. 15. 11. ­ 2]. aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom qarTul skolebSi dainerga berZnuli enis swavleba, rogorc savaldebulo ucxo ena. es programa xorcieldeba baTumSi, gorSi, axalcixeSi, rusTavSi, walkaSi da Tbilisis 44-e da 91-e skolebSi. 2004 wlis april-maisSi Catarda olimpiada - `elinizmi da olimpiada~, romelic mieZRvna olimpiur TamaSebs `aTeni 2004~-s. olimpiadis organizatorebi iyvnen saqarTveloSi saberZneTis saelCo, saqarTvelos berZenTa sazogadoebis kavSiri, saberZneTis sagareo saqmeTa saministro, saqarTvelosa da saberZneTis ganaTlebis saministroebi, saqarTvelosa da saberZneTis kulturis saministroebi, msoflio berZenTa diasporis generaluri samdivno, saqarTvelos olimpiuri komiteti, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis klasikuri filologiis bizantinistikisa da neogrecistikis instituti, saqarTvelos berZenTa diasporis bavSvTa fondi, o. dimitriadis saxelobis berZnuli kulturis centri [saTvistomos masalebi]. olimpiada miznad isaxavda saqarTvelosa da saberZneTs Soris urTierTobebis gamyarebas, berZen da qarTvel xalxTa Soris kulturuli urTierTkavSiris gafarToebas, elinisturi suliskveTebis popularizacias, berZnuli enis Seswavlis stimulirebas, msoflio civilizaciis akvnis - saberZneTis, istoriisa da kulturis, agreTve misi ganuyofeli nawilis olimpiuri TamaSebis mimarT codnisa da interesis gazrdas. olimpiada Catarda saqarTvelos sxvadasxva qalaqebSi: TbilisSi, baTumSi, quTaisSi, qobuleTSi, walkaSi, rusTavSi, bolnisSi, marneulSi, axalcixeSi, TelavSi, dmanisSi, TeT-

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riwyaroSi, gorSi da borjomSi. olimpiadaSi monawileobas iRebdnen 12-dan 17 wlamde sxvadasxva erovnebisa da sarwmunoebis moswavle-axalgazrdebi. olimpiadis CarCoebSi Catarda Semdegi RonisZiebebi: - olimpiadis gaxsna saqarTveloSi saberZneTis elCis, saberZneTidan stumrebis, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebisa da saqarTvelos berZenTa saTvistomos Tavmjdomaris mier; - olimpiadis sazeimo daxurva, olimpiadis gamarjvebulTa dajildoeba. olimpiadis monawileTaTvis gaimarTa koncerti berZnuli kulturis centris samxatvro koleqtivis sazogadoeba `aTinas~, rusTavisa da baTumis sazogadoebebisa da mowveuli ansamblebis monawileobiT; - olimpiadis daxurvis dRes sakoncerto darbazis misaRebSi moewyo 20 axalgazrda mxatvris namuSevrebis gamofena, Temaze - `elinizmi da olimpiuri TamaSebi~ [saTvistomos masalebi]. amrigad, or qveyanas Soris arsebuli urTierTobebi saganmanaTleblo sferoSi dRiTidRe ufro dinamiuri xdeba. am saqmeSi didi wvlili SeaqvT diplomatiur warmomadgenlobebs, saberZneTis saelCos saqarTveloSi da piriqiT, saqarTvelos saelCos saberZneTSi. isini aqtiurad muSaoben, raTa ufro daaxlovdes ori qveyana da ori eri, radgan ganaTleba da kultura iseTi sferoebia, romelTa nayofieri gamoyeneba xSirad dadebiT politikur da ekonomikur Sedegs aRwevs.

literatura: masalebi 2005. 29. 12. - saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministros pirveli evropuli sammarTvelos masalebidan - elCis werili ministrs (2/274-05). 29.12.05 masalebi 2005. 15. 11. - ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros werili sagareo saqmeTa ministrs, (2/13473) 15.11.2005 saTvistomos masalebi - saqarTveloSi saberZneTis saTvistomos masalebi masalebi 2005. 1-31. 03. -saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministros pirveli evropuli sammarTvelos masalebidan, saberZneTSi saqarTvelos saelCos mier gaweuli muSaoba ekonomikuri kuTxiT (2005 wlis 1 ianvridan 31 martamde)

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ganaTlebis filosofia = Philosophy of Education

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

SHALVA CHKADUA

Telavi State University, Georgia

GEORGIAN-GREEK COLLABORATION IN THE SPHERE OF EDUCATION

Georgia and Greece has special relations in the educational sphere. The number of Georgian and Greek students studying in the universities of Georgia and Greece increases year by year. In the article `The Collaboration of Georgia and Greece in the sphere of Education at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century" are discussed the relations between two states in the educational sector. The article reviews several examples of the above-mentioned collaboration. The chapter describes the foundation of the Institute of Classical Philology, Byzantinistic and New Hellenistic on the basis of Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University in 1997. It depicts the action of the Institute and its active work with the purpose of expansion and reinforcement of Georgian-Greek relations. This Institute is the largest teaching-scientific centre in Georgia. It prepares the students with Bachelor's and Master's degrees in the following specialties: 1. Classical Philology; 2. Byzantinistic; 3. New Greek language and literature. The article extensively reviews a triennial bilateral program, that was put into execution in 2003 by the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia and the General Secretariat of Science and Technologies of the Ministry of Development of Greece. Herewith, the chapter briefly discusses another program. In the frame of it the Greek language was introduced as a compulsory language in several Georgian schools. The collaboration is also expressed by granting the Georgian students with different scholarships by the Greek government. The article also surveys the Olympiad "Hellenism and Olympiad" which was held in AprilMay in 2004. It was dedicated to the Olympic Games "Athens 2004" and was organized in thirteen different Georgian cities. The purpose of the Olympiad was to reinforce the relations between Georgia and Greece, to expand the cultural interconnection of Georgians and Greeks, to popularize Hellenistic aspiration, to stimulate learning of the Greek language, to give knowledge and information about the history and culture of Greece - the cradle of world's civilization. The existing relations in educational sphere between two countries gradually become more dynamic. To this regard the great contribution is done by the diplomatic representatives, the Embassy of Greece in Georgia and the Embassy of Georgia in Greece. They actively work in becoming close partners in the educational sphere because education and culture are one of the most important spheres and their prolific usage often gives us positive political and economic results. The above mentioned article gives an opportunity to the readers to have an idea about the relations of Georgia and Greece in the sphere of education.

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pedagogika, fsiqologia = Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

kaxi kopaliani, lali nakaSiZe

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti

pirovnebaTaSorisi urTierTobebis ganmsazRvreli fsiqo-socialuri faqtorebi studentur jgufebSi

pirovnuli ganviTarebis mniSvnelovan faqtors socialuri aqtivoba warmoadgens, romelSic, upirveles yovlisa, xazi unda gaesvas socialuri prestiJis moTxovnilebaTa gansakuTrebul aqtualizacias. adamianebi gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas aniWeben imas, Tu ras fiqroben masze sxvebi da ramdenad aRiareben mis Rirsebebs. am dros maT did sixaruls aniWebs imis gacnobiereba, rom irgvliv myofi adamianebi mis pirovnebas aRiareben, socialur Zalad miiCneven da sazogadoebaSi garkveul, amaRlebul adgils uTmoben [ 2000: 352]. adamianebis moTxovnilebis sagans warmoadgens socialuri statusi _ survili imisa, rom hqondeT didi socialuri wona, rom maT pirovnebas, im socialur wreSi, romelSic maT cxovreba da moqmedeba uxdebaT, cnobdnen, aRiarebdnen, angariSs uwevdnen. prestiJis moTxovnileba asaxvas povebs pretenziebis doneSi, romelic fsiqologiuri avtoportretis RerZs warmoadgens [imedaZe 2005: 94]. fsiqologiuri avtoportreti aris SexedulebaTa sistema sakuTar Tavze, kerZod sakuTar socialur poziciaze sxvebis TvalSi. arian maRali (romlebsac sakuTar Tavze gadaWarbebuli warmodgena aqvT), dabali (romlebsac sakuTar Tavze realurze naklebi warmodgena aqvT) da realurTan miaxloebuli pretenziebis mqone adamianebi. pretenziis doneSi igulisxmeba gadawyvetilebis mimRebi piris mier iseTi sirTulis dasaxuli mizani, anu standarti, romlis miRwevas is SesaZleblad Tvlis. pretenziebidan gamomdinare yalibdeba adamianTa miRwevis moTxovnilebac [Carkviani 2001: 127. Carkviani: 2004. 211]. miRwevis moTxovnilebaSi maRali standartebis Sesabamisad saqmianoba da konkretul viTarebaSi warmatebis miRwevis survili igulisxmeba. miRwevaze orientirebul pirovnebas Semdegi ZiriTadi Tvisebebi aqvs: mas miznebis dasaxvis kargi unari gaaCnia. is cxovrebis dinebas pasiurad ar miyveba da yovelTvis raRacis keTebaSia. miznebis ganxorcielebaSi did pirovnul pasuxismgeblobas grZnobs. Zalze rTuli miznebis dasaxvas erideba, xolo advili saqmianoba, romelSic warmatebis miRwevis Sansi Zalze maRali aqvs, mas naklebad ainteresebs. miRwevaze orientirebuli pirovnebisaTvis mizani didi Rirebulebis mqonea, amitom misTvis saqmianobis Sedegs didi mniSvneloba gaaCnia [Carkviani: 2001. 132.] mcire socialur jgufebSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva `miRwe-

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vis motivaciis~ Seswavlas. miRwevis motivacia _ swrafva Sedegebis gaumjobesebisaken, daukmayofilebloba miRweuliT, sakuTar mizanTa miRwevis Jini, swrafva, miaRwio sakuTar miznebs radac ar unda dagijdes _ warmoadgens pirovnebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan Tvisebas. adamianis qcevebs Soris erT-erT mniSvnelovan da didi socialuri Rirebulebis mqone qcevas swavla warmoadgens. swavla yovelTvis aucileblad mizandasaxul xasiaTs atarebs da Sesabamisad, iseT ganviTarebul subieqts gulisxmobs, romelsac miznis Segnebulad dasaxva da misi realizaciisaTvis saWiro moqmedebebis ganxorcieleba SeuZlia (saqmiani sfero) [maRraZe 2008: gv. 75]. saswavlo qcevis warmateba, aseve damokidebulia saswavlo jgufis wevrebs Soris arsebul urTierTobebze (social-emociuri sfero) da jgufis wevrebisa da maswavleblebis urTierTobebze. Tanamedrove viTareba gansakuTrebul moTxovnebs uyenebs maswavlebels. erTis mxriv, is kargad unda flobdes Tavis sagans, rac mis profesiul dones uzrunvelyofs, da meores mxriv, mas unda SeeZlos sakuTar aRsazrdelebTan kargi urTierTobis damyareba, rac bunebrivia xels uwyobs maTTan, rogorc dadebiTi saswavlo atmosferos Seqmnas, aseve maTi (aRsazrdelebis) kmayofilebis xarisxis amaRlebas [Charkviani, Kopaliani. 2003: 92]. d. uznaZis azriT, ufskruli aRmzrdelisa da aRsazrdelis miswrafebaTa Soris Cndeba imitom, rom aRmzrdeli, rogorc socialuri miznebis matarebeli yuradRebas ar aqcevs aRsazrdelis survilebs, ar iTvaliswinebs moswavleTa individualur Taviseburebebs da xelmZRvanelobs sakuTari motivebiT. aRniSnuli problemis gadalaxvaSi, ueWvelia, gadamwyvet rols unda asrulebdes maswavlebeli. pedagogiuri procesis ZiriTad pirobas warmoadgens swored aRsazrdelis bunebis wvdoma, misi grZnobebisadmi, `sulieri mRelvarebisadmi~ TanagrZnoba [janaSia, imedaZe, gorgoZe 2008: 32. jafariZe 2005: 34]. zemoT mocemuli literaturuli masalis gaTvaliswinebiT kvlevis interesis sferos aRsazrdelis pretenziis donesa da maT saqmian da saurTierTobo statuss, aseve aRniSnul cvladebsa da aRmzrdelis profesiuli saqmianobiT da maTTan urTierTobebiT aRsazrdelTa kmayofilebis dones Soris kavSiris garkveva warmoadgenda. · kvlevis meTodi kvleva Catarda quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetSi. sul respondentTa raodenoba Seadgenda humanitaruli fakultetis 127 pirvelkursel students. aRniSnul jgufebSi gamokvleuli iqna: 1. pretenziis done. 2. studentTa statusi saqmiani (instrumentuli) da saurTierTobo (eqspresiuli) ganzomilebis mixedviT. 3. studentTa kmayofileba leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobiTa da studentebTan maTi urTierTobis mixedviT. pretenziis donis gazomva xdeboda jgufSi studentTa mier Semdeg SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacemiT _ romeli Sefaseba dagakmayofilebs ? (A) friadi

53

(B) Zalian kargi (C) kargi (D) damakmayofilebeli (E) sakmarisi friadis dasaxelebis SemTxvevaSi iwereboda 5 qula, Zalian kargis dasaxelebis SemTxvevaSi 4 qula, kargis dasaxelebis SemTxvevaSi _ 3 da a. S. Sesabamisad, rac ufro maRali qula miiReboda, miT ufro maRali iyo studentis pretenziis done. statusis garkveva xdeboda ranJirebis meSveobiT. studentebi pasuxobdnen or SekiTxvas. pirveli maTgani miekuTvneboda saqmian statuss: jgufis romel wevrs daayenebdi Sen pirvel adgilze, rogorc saukeTeso students swavlaSi, vis meore adgilze, vis mesameze ? meore kiTxva warmoadgenda social-emociuri statusis maxasiaTebels: jgufis romel wevrs daayenebdi pirvel adgilze, rogorc megobars, meoreze romels, mesameze romels ? TiToeuli jgufis studentebis gvarebi Camoiwera anbanis mixedviT da dainomra. vinc pirvel adgilze iqna dasaxelebuli miewera sami qula, vinc meoreze ori qula, vinc mesameze erTi qula. liderobis Sefaseba TiToeul saqmianobaSi xdeboda jgufis TiToeuli wevris mier miRebuli qulebis SejamebiT, romelsac isini iRebdnen TavianTi partniorebisagan ranJirebis dros. studentTa kmayofilebis gamovlena leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobisa da studentebTan maTi urTierTobebis mixedviT xdeboda Semdegi msjelobebiT: saqmiani sfero _ leqtorebi maRalprofesiulad gadmogvcemen saswavlo masalas. saurTierTobo sfero _ kmayofili var im urTierTobebiT, romelic Cemi jgufis wevrebs da leqtorebs Soris arsebobs. TiToeul msjelobas gaaCnda sami alternativa _`diax~, `arc ise~, `ara~. respodents evaleboda erTi arCevanis gakeTeba. pasuxze `diax~ iwereboda ori qula, `arc ise~ erTi qula, `ara~ noli qula. respodentTa pasuxebi saqmiani da saurTierTobo statusis gamosavlenad, aseve leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobisa da maTTan studentebis urTierTobiT kmayofilebis donis Sefaseba atarebda mkacr anonimur xasiaTs. ·

miRebuli Sedegebis ganxilva. Catarebuli kvlevebis korelaciuri analizis mixedviT gairkva, rom arsebobs mWidro kavSiri studentTa pretenziis donesa da umaRles saswavlebelSi miRebul Sefasebebs Soris. amas mowmobs maRali, dadebiTi korelacia saganSi miRebul Sefasebebsa da pretenziis donis mixedviT dagrovil qulaTa Soris (cxrili 1).

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cxrili 1 korelaciuri monacemebi studentTa pretenziis donesa da statuss Soris saqmiani da saurTierTobo ganzomilebis mixedviT

pretenziis done r = 0,732 ; p < 0,01 r = 0,231 ; p > 0,05 instrumentuli sfero eqspresiuli sfero statusi

garda amisa, pretenziis done saganSi miRebuli Sefasebebis proporciulad izrdeba. calkeul saganSi rac ufro maRali niSani aqvs students, miT ufro maRalia misi pretenziis done da piriqiT. es gansxvaveba aisaxa ToToeul saganSi sxvadasxva Sefasebis (A, B, C, D, E) mqone studentTa pretenziis donis monacemebis erTmaneTTan SedarebiT. yvela saganSi dadasturda rom, rac ufro izrdeba gansxvaveba Sefasebebs Soris miT metia gansxvaveba pretenziis doneSi. es gvaZlevs SesaZleblobas vifiqroT am or cvlads Soris mWidro kavSiris Sesaxeb. aseve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Catarebuli kvlevebis monacemebis mixedviT adgili hqonda liderobis rolur diferenciacias. e. i. saqmiani da saurTierTobo lideris roli, yvela jgufSi, sxvadasxva pirTa mier ganxorcielda. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom saqmianma liderebma eqspresiuli ganzomilebis mixedviT, dabali Sefasebebi miiRes. miRebuli monacemebi gvaZleven imis fiqris saSualebas, rom studentTa jgufebSi, saqmiani liderebi pirad urTierTobebSi, arc Tu ise didi avtoritetiT sargebloben. cxrili 2 korelaciuri monacemebi studentTa pretenziis donesa da maT kmayofilebas Soris leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobisa da maTTan urTierTobebis mixedviT

r = 0,727 ; p < 0,01 pretenziis done r = 0,623 ; p <0,05 leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianoba leqtorebTan urTierTobebi

studentTa kmayofileba

kvlevebis analizis mixedviT aseve gairkva, rom maRalpretenziuli studentebi kmayofilni arian, rogorc leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobiT, aseve maTTan urTierTobebiT (cxrili 2), xolo rac Seexeba studentTa statussa da maT kmayofilebas Soris korelacias, aq Semdegi suraTi gamoikveTa: kerZod, swavlaSi warmatebuli studentebi kmayofilebas gamoTqvamen, rogorc leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobiT, aseve maTTan urTierTobiT, xolo saurTierTobo sferoSi yvelaze ufro aRiarebuli studentebi mxolod leqtorebTan urTierTobebiT arian kmayofilni da ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamen maTi profesiuli saqmianobiT (cxrili 3, 4).

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savaraudod, amiT isini saqmian sferoSi TavianT arc Tu ise maRali Sefasebis gamarTlebas cdiloben. cxrili 3 korelaciuri monacemebi studentTa saqmian statussa da maT kmayofilebas Soris leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobisa da maTTan urTierTobebis mixedviT

r = 0,701 ; p < 0,01 saqmiani statusi leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianoba leqtorebTan urTierTobebi

r = 0,604 ; p < 0,05

studentTa kmayofileba

cxrili 4 korelaciuri monacemebi studentTa saurTierTobo statussa da maT kmayofilebas Soris leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobisa da maTTan urTierTobebis mixedviT

socialemociuri statusi r = 0,205 ; p > 0,05 leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianoba leqtorebTan urTierTobebi

studentTa kmayofileba

r = 0,741 ; p < 0,01

miRebuli Sedegebi gvaZleven Semdegi daskvnis gakeTebis saSualebas: 1. rac ufro maRalia studentTa saqmiani statusi miT ufro maRalia maTi pretenziis done, xolo am ukanasknel cvladsa da social-emociur statuss Soris korelacia ar aris statistikurad sando. 2. rac ufro maRalia studentTa pretenziis done miT ufro maRalia maTi kmayofilebis xarisxi, rogorc leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobiT, aseve maTTan urTierTobis mixedviT. 3. leqtorTa profesiuli saqmianobisa da maTTan urTierTobis mixedviT kmayofilebis done damokidebulia studentTa saqmian statusze, xolo social-emociur statussa da aRniSnul cvladebs Soris kavSiri ar aris statistikurad sando. 4. rac ufro maRalia studentTa saurTierTobo statusi miT ufro maRalia maTTan, leqtorebTan urTierTobiT kmayofilebis done, xolo leqtorTa profesiul saqmianobasa da studentTa social-emociur statuss Soris kavSiri ar aris statistikurad sando.

literatura:

imedaZe 2005: i. imedaZe. fsiqologiis safuZvlebi. Tbilisi. 2005. maRraZe 2008: m. maRraZe. ganwyobis Teoria da ganaTlebis fsiqologiis zoga-

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di sakiTxebi. quTaisi. 2008. Carkviani 2001: d. Carkviani. fsiqologia industriul organizaciebSi. Tbilisi. 2001. Carkviani 2004. d. Carkviani. eqsperimentuli socialuri fsiqologiis safuZvlebi. Tbilisi. 2004. janaSia, imedaZe, gorgoZe 2008: janaSia n., imedaZe n., gorgoZe s. ganviTarebisa da swavlebis Teoriebi. maswavlebelTa profesiuli ganviTarebis centri. Tbilisi. 2008. jafariZe 2005. m. jafariZe. ganaTlebis fsiqologia. Tbilisi. 2005. 2000: . . 2000. Charkviani, Kopaliani 2003: D. Charkviani, K. kopaliani. Peculiarities of the Motivation of Achievement in Adolescents. Bulletin of the Georgian Akademy of Sciens, 168, #3, 2003.

KAKHI KOPALIANI, LALI NAKASHIDZE

Sokhumi State University Akaki Tsereteli State University, Geoergia

DETERMINATIVE PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS IN THE INTERPERSONAL RELATION IN THE STUDENTS' GROUP

The present article touches upon to the peculiarities of social perception in small social groups, namely in the students' group. In the article there are discussed the following psychosocial factors requirement of prestige, social status, psychological self-portrait, level of prestige, requirement of achievement. In the article is also told about behaviour of such important and great social value of the person as studying. It is said that studying always has essential aimed characteristic and correspondingly it means such developed subject, which can consciously set as an object and fulfill necessary actions for its realization (business sphere). Successfulness of instruction is also depended on the relation among the members of the instructive group (social and emotional sphere) and relation between the teacher and members of the group. Modern situation makes special demands to the teacher. On the one hand he/she must know subject very well that will provide his/her professional level and on the other hand he/she can establish good relation with his/her pupils that will support to have positive atmosphere with them as well as increasing of the quality of satisfaction. According to D. Uznadze, the author of the theory of mood, Georgian psychologist, the abyss between aspirations of the pupil and the teacher is made as the teacher bearer of the social aims doesn't pay attention to pupils' individual characteristics and directs to own motives. In resolving of the mentioned problem a teacher should have the important role. The main condition of pedagogical process is just penetration into the nature of the pupil, sympathy of his feelings "spiritual emotion". According to given literary materials the interest of researching was the level of pretension of the pupil and their business and relationship status, also clearing up of the level of satisfaction

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of the pupil with professional activity the teacher and relationship with them. The research was made at a high school. Total amount of respondents was 127 students of the fist academic year of the Faculty of Arts. Correspondingly in the mentioned groups were researched: 1. Level of pretension. 2. Students' status according to business (instrumental) and social-emotional (expressional) measurement. 3. Students' satisfaction with lecturers' professional activity and their relationships with the students. The research was made by sociometric methods and a questionnaire. For displaying the status of relation, the answers of respondents and evaluation of the level of satisfaction of the professional activity of lecturers and their relation with the students had a strict anonymous character. The result of researches was processed according to coefficient of Spirmen Grade Correlation. The analysis showed us close relation between the level of the students' pretension and assessments received at a high school. This certifies high, positive correlation between the assessments received in the subject and accumulated grades according to the level of pretension. Besides this, there was found out that the level of pretension increases proportionally to the grades received in the subjects. As high grade has the student in the subject as much more is increased his level of pretension and vice versa. This difference was reflected in each subject in comparison of the findings of the level of pretension of the students having different grades. In all subjects is certified that as much is increased difference between the grades as much more difference is in the level of pretension. This gives us possibility to think about close relation between these two variable things. It is significant that according to findings of the researches, the role differentiation of leadership took place. Thus, the role of business and reciprocal leader was fulfilled by different persons. It is also significant that the business leaders received low grades according to the expressive measurement. The received findings give us the possibility to think that the business leaders in the students' group don't deserve a great authority. According to the analysis of the researches the high affected students are satisfied as with activity of the lecturers as wellas relation with them. What about students' status and correlation of their satisfaction there is given the following picture: namely, successful students are satisfied as with their professional activity as well as relationship with them, but the most acknowledged students are satisfied only with relation to the lecturers and not with the professional activity of the lecturers. Supposedly with this action they try to justify their relatively high grade in the business sphere.

58

pedagogika, fsiqologia = Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Tamar javaxiSvili

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

swavla da fsiqikuri janmrTeloba

sicocxle aqtivobaa. socialurad misaRebi aqtivobis sami forma arsebobs: TamaSi, swavla da Sroma. TiToeuli maTganis xvedriTi wili adamianis saerTo aqtivobaSi asakobrivadaa gansazRvruli da Sesabamisad, am asakSi warmoadgens fsiqikis ganviTarebis wamyvan qcevas anu exmareba fsiqikis droul, yovelmxriv da darRvevebis gareSe ganviTarebas asakobrivi da individualuri Taviseburebebis Sesatyvisi pirobebis SeqmniT. aseTia skolamdeli asakisaTvis TamaSi, saskolo da umaRlesi ganaTlebis periodisaTvis swavla da mowifuli asakisTvis ki Sroma. yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi qcevis zemoT dasaxelebuli formebi erTmaneTisgan ar arian mkacrad izolirebuli. piriqiT, isini mWidro kavSirSi arian erTmaneTTan, gadadian erTmaneTSi; xSirad imis dasadgenad Tu romel formas miekuTvneba esa Tu is konkretuli qceva, gadamwyvetia adamianis subieqturi gancda. SesaZloa garkveul pirobebSi adamianisaTvis swavla Tu Sroma iyos iseTive saintereso da saxaliso, rogorc sakuTari nebiT arCeuli TamaSi, an garToba. da piriqiT, SeiZleba bavSvisTvis is TamaSi iyos Zalian mZime da mosabezrebeli, Tu mas arCevanis uflebas ar aZleven da aiZuleben iTamaSos is, rac ar unda. amasTan dakavSirebiT, aRsaniSnavia ganviTarebis fsiqologiaSi gavrcelebuli faqti, rom bavSvis fsiqika ukeTesad viTardeba misTvis saintereso, mimzidveli da aragadamRleli saqmianobis procesSi. fsiqikis normaluri ganviTarebisaTvis, fsiqikuri janmrTelobis dacvisaTvis aucilebelia, rom qcevis sxvadasxva formebis urTierTSeWra ar arRvevdes mocemuli asakisaTvis ganviTarebis wamyvani qcevis upiratesobas. TamaSi, garToba, rogorc gantvirTvis saSualeba adamianis mTel cxovrebas unda gasdevdes, magram ZiriTadi saqmianobisaTvis (swavlis, Sromis) zianis miuyeneblad. aseve bavSvis fsiqikuri ganviTarebisaTvis saxifaToa TamaSisaTvis `gankuTvnil'' periodSi mizandasaxuli swavlisa da seriozuli Sromis didi doziT CarTva, radgan masTan dakavSirebulma SezRudvebma, `bavSvobis mouWmelobam'', SeiZleba mowifulobis asakSi ucnaurobebis, akviatebebis saxiT iCinos Tavi. TamaSis periodSi xelis Sewyoba bavSvis sruli ganviTarebisaTvis, misi dacva SiSis aRmZvreli travmebisagan, aRzrdis Secdomebisagan da qcevis sxva formebis araproporciuli CarTvebisagan Tavidanve mtkice safuZvels uqmnis mis fsiqikur janmrTelobas. adreuli bavSvobidan wamoyolili SiSebi da daZabulobani xdian bavSvs advilad travmirebads, midrekils paTogenuri

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konfliqtebisadmi da saswavlo da SromiT saqmianobaSi, adamianebTan urTierTobaSi. fsiqoanalizis mixedviT aRzrdis optimaluri gza individualurad varirebs miTiur personaJTa scillas (sruli Tavisufleba) da xaribdas (sruli akrZalva) Soris: akrZalvebiT unda mivaRwioT rac SeiZleba mets, magram ise, rom rac SeiZleba naklebi vavnoT. aRzrdis xelovneba imaSia, rom raRac avukrZaloT da imavdroulad raRacis neba davrToT, rom nebadarTulisgan siamovnebam Seamsubuqos akrZalviT gamowveuli daZabuloba. adamianis qcevis formebs Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia swavlas. dimitri uznaZis mixedviT swavla aris TamaSidan Sromaze gardamavali qceva, bavSvis momzadeba mowifulobis asakSi moqalaqeobrivi da SromiTi saqmianobisTvis. is TamaSis elementebsac Seicavs da Sromisasac. saskolo periodis dasawyisisTvis swavla ufro metad uaxlovdeba TamaSs, xolo dasasrulisaTvis ­ gonebriv Sromas. amis Sesatyvisad saskolo asakis dasawyisSi unda Warbobdes swavla-gamocdileba, didaqtikuri TamaSebi da a.S., rac uzrunvelyofs uSualo interess saswavlo masalisadmi, swavlas gadaRlis gareSe, saswavlo datvirTvis, dasvenebisa da Zilis asakobrivi, higienuri normebis dacvas. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom saskolo asakis dasawyisSi marTalia pirvel adgilze dgas inteleqtualuri aqtivobis tendencia, magram mas kvaldakval mohyveba motoruli aqtivobis tendencia, romlis SezRudvasac SeuZlia fsiqikis normaluri ganviTarebis Seferxeba sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania mozardis TandaTanobiT gadayvana TamaSis elementebis Warbad Semcveli swavlidan nebelobiT warmarTul swavlaze ­ mizandasaxul swavlaze, rac emTxveva umniSvnelovanesi Sinagani gardaqmnebis da siZneleebis periods ­ gardamaval asaks. am dros xdeba swrafi, naxtomiseburi winsvla ganviTarebis TiTqmis yvela mimarTulebiT: sqesobrivi momwifeba Tanamdevi interesebiT da moTxovnilebebiT, udidesi winsvla SemecnebiTi funqciebis ganviTarebaSi, emociuri gauwonasworeblobis zrda, `didobis grZnobis~ formireba, Zlierdeba Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis moTxovnileba, Tavs iCens ganviTarebis uTanabrobiT gamowveuli sxvadasxva saxis aqcentuaciebi da a. S. am asakSi gansakuTrebiT didia fsiqikuri janmrTelobis darRvevis albaToba, miT umetes Tu bavSvs skolamdeli asakidanve mohyveba SiSi da daZabuloba. kacobriobis mowinave nawili didxans moiTxovda, rom swavla yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomi yofiliyo, magram mas Semdeg rac es mizani miRweuli iqna, aRmoCnda, rom fizikurad janmrTel da gonebrivad normalurad ganviTarebuli moswavleebis garkveul nawils swavlisadmi uaryofiTi damokidebuleba aqvs. es fsiqikuri janmrTelobis darRvevis iseTive simptomia, rogorc is, rom bavSvi TamaSze ambobdes uars, an mowifuli adamiani Sromaze. namdvili swavla, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia interesi saswavlo masalisadmi, misi siRrmiseuli gagebis moTxovnileba, kritikuli midgoma, miiRweva mxolod swavlisadmi dadebiTi damokidebulebiT. mxolod aseT swav-

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las mohyveba inteleqtualur unar - CvevaTa ganviTareba da pirovnebis maformirebeli efeqti (d. uznaZe, v. Sterni, a. maslou...). yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs formaluri swavlis variantebi, romelTa niSnebia namdvili gagebis gareSe meqanikuri swavla-dazepireba, swavla mxolod niSnisaTvis, karnaxiTa da gadaweriT sargebloba da a. S. am sakiTxis mkvlevrebi (l. boJoviCi, m. neimarki) aRniSnaven, rom formaluri codna uaresia vidre ucodinroba, radgan cnobierebis gadavsebas gaugebari an arasworad gagebuli codniT mohyveba maTi gamoyenebisas warumatebloba, rac iwvevs uaryofiTi pirovnuli Tvisebebis ganviTarebas da fsiqikuri janmrTelobis darRvevas. fsiqikuri janmrTeloba, farTo gagebiT, niSnavs asakis Sesatyvisi ganviTarebis dones biologiuri, fsiqikuri (senso-motoruli, inteleqtualuri) da pirovnuli (emociur-nebelobiTi) mimarTulebebiT. es qmnis saukeTeso Sinagan pirobebs namdvili swavlisaTvis, radgan am dros maqsimalurad maRalia inteleqtualuri aqtivobis tendencia, Sromisunarianoba da Sromis nayofiereba. formaluri swavla ki (arasistematuri, gagebis gareSe meqanikuri damaxsovreba-dazepireba) SeiZleba fsiqikuri janmrTelobis darRvevis mizezic iyos da Sedegic. sulieri aSlilobis mZime formebis erTerTi arsebiTi niSania Sromisunarianobis dakargva. magram janmrTelobasa da mZime sulier aSlilobas Soris aris uamravi forma sulieri diskomfortisa, romelSic sxvadasxva zomiTaa daqveiTebuli Sromisunarianoba anda mimarTulia TiTon pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis sawinaaRmdegod. d. hellim moiZia masalebi depresiis mZime formis gavrcelebulobis Sesaxeb Zvelad da axla. aRmoCnda, rom mZime forma rogorc Zvelad, ise axla gvxvdeba mosaxleobis 1%-Tan. msubuqi formebi ki (cikluri, arCeviTi, warmavali travmuli...) SedarebiT gaxSirda da gvxvdeba yovel mexuTesTan. e. berni ganasxvavebs normalur qcevas, nevrotul qcevas da avadmyofoba nevrozs. maT Soris gansxvaveba raodenobrivia da mkveTri zRvari ar aris: normaluri qceva gvaqvs maSin, roca adamiani efeqturad iyenebs Tavis energias situaciis, sakuTari miznebis da socialuri normebis adeqvaturi saSualebebiT. nevrotuli qceva aRmocendeba `bavSvobis daumTavrebeli saqmeebidan", Seusrulebeli survilebidan, romlebic axla SeniRbuli saxiT arian mocemuli, iwveven energiis uazro flangvas da mTel rig fsiqikur garTulebebs: uZilobas, koncentraciis sisustes, mousvenrobas, gaRizianebadobas, ukontaqtobas, eWvianobas, abulias, gaugebar SiSebs da a. S. avadmyofoba-nevrozisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia zeWarbi nevrotuli qceva da Sromisunarianobis dakargva. aRzrdis erTerTi mizania normaluridan nevrotul qcevaze, xolo nevrotuli qcevidan avadmyofur nevrozze gadasvlis prevencia. amis ganxorcielebis ZiriTadi saSualebaa swavla-aRzrdis swori organizacia bavSvis asakobriv da individualur TaviseburebaTa Sesatyvisad. fsiqoanalizi da humanisturi fsiqologia miiCnevs, rom dReisaTvis aucilebelia maswavle-

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beli garkveuli azriT fsiqoTerapevtic iyos, raTa SeeZlos sworad gansazRvros rodisaa aucilebeli fsiqikuri janmrTelobis sakiTxis pirvel adgilze dayeneba, xolo akademiuri warmatebisa meoreze da piriqiT. fsiqoanalizis mixedviT nevrotuli qcevis fazas gadis TiTqmis yvela bavSvi, radgan aRzrdis zegavleniT is siamovnebis principidan realobis principze gadadis ufro swrafad, vidre es moxda adamianis filogenetur ganviTarebaSi. Tumca mowifulobaSi yvela maTgans ar daemarTeba nevrozi. Cndeba kiTxva: ra gansazRvravs imas Tu maTi qceva bavSvobis momdevno saskolo periodSi normalurTan ufro iqneba miaxlovebuli Tu nevrotulTan? am kiTxvaze pasuxs gvaZlevs ganaTlebis problemebSi xSirad dasaxelebuli termini ­ `skolis nevrozi~, raSic igulisxmeba produqtiul swavlaSi xelisSemSleli nevrotuli midrekilebebi. es nevrotuli midrekilebebia: miswrafeba Zalauflebisadmi (rac dawyebiT klasebSive SeiZleba gamovlindes jer aRmzrdelebisadmi daumorCileblobaSi, Semdeg sakuTari azrisadmi Tanatolebis damorCilebis mcdelobaSi..), sxvebis eqsploataciis moTxovnileba (gadamawerine, mikarnaxe, wamomiRe CanTa..), nevrotuli pativmoyvareoba (aracnobieri siZulvili yvelas mimarT, vinc masze ukeTesia, warmatebulia), akviatebuli Tavmdabloba da nebismieri gziT sxvebisagan siyvarulisa da pativiscemis moTxovnileba (am dros asocialuri qcevis mozardi mfarvelobs karg moswavleebs da asocialur jgufSi ki `sustebs da daCagrulebs~) da a. S. (k. horni). am nevrotul midrekilebebs garda, mencari (qarTuli fsiqoanalitikuri skola) asaxelebs qurdobis, meZavobis, siZunwis, sixarbis, alkoholizmis, narkomanobis midrekilebebsac da miaCnia, rom mencaruli midgomiT SesaZlebelia yvela maTganis profilaqtika-movla, ramdenadac isini emsaxurebian aRmzrdelobiT garemos mxridan bavSvis moTxovnilebebis uxeSi CaxSobis gamo maTSi aRZruli SiSisa da SfoTvisagan Tavdacvas. swavlaSi mozardis CarTulobaze gavlenas axdens saswavlo-aRmzrdelobiTi garemos yoveli, Tundac erTi SexedviT umniSvnelo elementi. saskolo asakis dasawyisSi bavSvi impulsuri arsebaa da yvelaferze reagirebs uSualod mocemul momentSi usiamovnebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, Soreuli Sedegebis gauTvaliswineblad da xSirad Tavis sazianod. amitom roca fizikurad janmrTeli da normaluri gonebrivi ganviTarebis mozardi swavlisadmi uaryofiT damokidebulebas avlens, aucilebelia moinaxos da aRmoifxvras is mizezebi, romlebic mozardSi nevrotuli ganviTarebis safuZvlebs amzadebs, arRvevs mis fsiqikur janmrTelobas da gansazRvravs momavalSi mis pasiur cxovrebiseul pozicias, an aqtiur CarTvas antisocialur qcevebSi. literatura: uznaZe 1967: d. uznaZe, Sromebi, t. V. `mecniereba~, Tbilisi, 1967. mencari 1999: mencari (qarTuli fsiqoanalitikuri skola), Tbilisi, `merani~, 1999.

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, 1991: , . . . . . . , , 1991. 1993: . , , , 1993. 1986: . , , ., , 1986 , 1996: . . , . . , , 1996.

TAMAR JAVAKHISHVILI

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

STUDYING AND PSYCHICAL HEALTH

Generally, psychical health means an age relevant development level through biological, psychical (senso-motor, intellectual) and personal (emotional-will) directions. This creates the best interior conditions for the factual studying, as at that time the intellectual activity level, ability to work is ultimately high. Formal studying (nonsystematic, mechanically remember-learn by heart without understanding) may be the reason for the disorder of psychical health and the result as well. One of the essential signs of heavy forms of spiritual disorder is losing the ability to work. But there are numerous forms of spiritual discomfort among health and heavy spiritual disorder, where the ability to work is fallen down in different scales or is directed against the person and the society. D. Helly searched the materials about the spread of heavy forms of depression. It is revealed that today as well as before such heavy form is characterized for 1 % of the population. Light forms (cyclic, elective, fleeting traumatic) have comparatively become more frequent and are characterized for every the fifth person. E. Bern distinguishes normal behavior, neurotic behavior and the disease ­ neurosis. Differences between them are numerical and there is no sharp bound among them: we have normal behavior when a human effectively uses his/her energy by adequate means of situation, own aims and social norms. Neurotic behavior emerges from an "undone affairs of childhood", unrealized wishes which now are given in a masked form, caused insensate waste of energy and the following complications: insomnia, concentration weakness, anxiety, irritation, jealousy, abulia, obscure fears and so on. Redundant neurotic behavior and loss of the ability to work are characterized for the neurosis. According to the psychoanalysis, almost every child goes through neurotic behavior phase, because of the influence of education he/she goes from pleasure principle to reality principle faster than it occurred in the philo-genetic development of a human. Though, in maturity not every of them will undergo neurosis. The question appears: What defines the situation that their behavior will be closer towards normal or neurotic behavior in school period of childhood? We find the answer to this question in the term often indicated in education programs ­ "School Neurosis", which means preventable neurotic inclinations in productive studying.

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These neurotic inclinations are: aspiration towards the power (that will appear in primary classes first in non-subordination of the educators and then in subordination attempt of the peers to his/her own thinking), desire of others exploitation (let me copy, dictate me, carry the bag . . .), neurotic ambition (non-cognition hate towards everybody who is better and successful than he/she), requirement of love and respect from others in every means (at this time the adult of asocial behavior protects good pupils and "weak and oppressed pupils" in asocial group) and so on (K. Horn). Besides these neurotic inclinations, Mentsar (Georgian psychoanalytical school) names the inclinations of robbery, prostitution, stinginess, greediness, alcoholism, drug addiction, and thinks that it is possible prophylaxis, taking care of everybody with the help of Mentsar approach, because they serve the self-defense from an existing fear and agitation formed due to the suppression of a child's requirements from educational environment. Every element of the teaching-educational environment impacts pupils' involvement in teaching. At the beginning of a school age a child is an impulsive creature and in the given moments reacts on everything in order to avoid troubles. That's why, when the adolescent with physically healthy and normal mental development shows a negative attitude towards studying, it is necessary to find and eradicate the reasons which prepare a neurotic developing basis among the youth, destroy their psychical health and define their passive life position in future or active involvement in an antisocial behavior.

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pedagogika, fsiqologia = Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

rusudan fifia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

siaxle ganaTlebis dargis profesiul leqsikaSi

ganaTlebis reformam axali amocanebis winaSe daayena qarTuli pedagogiuri sazogadoeba. mimdinareobs ganaTlebis dargis sasikeTo gardaqmna, romelSic umTavresi roli maswavlebels da skolas ekuTvnis. ganaTlebis sferoSi cvlilebebis Semotana drois moTxovnaa. dReisTvis praqtikaSi rTulad, magram mainc inergeba moswavleze orientirebuli swavleba. imsxvreva Zveli stereotipebi da standartebi, rac xels uwyobs momavali Taobis swor aRzrdas. bavSvis Camoyalibeba pirovnebad da misi niWisa da unarebis sworad ganviTareba Tanamedrove pedagogikis ZiriTadi prioritetia. ganaTlebis sakiTxebisadmi axleburma midgomam moiTxova axali saxelmZRvaneloebi, programebi da standartebi, romelic pedagogebs gauadvilebs urTules saqmianobas. Tanamedrove ganaTlebis sistema met yuradRebas aqcevs maswavlebelsa da moswavles. Sesabamisad Semodis axali dargobrivi literatura, axali terminebi da dasaxelebebi, rac aucileblad moiTxovs ganmartebasa da gaazrebas. aRzrda-ganaTlebis sistema, misi meqanizmi uaRresad gamravlda da gamravalferovnda, ramac pedagogTa muSaobaSic siaxleebis danergva moiTxova. drois moTxovna gaxda zogadi da profesiuli ganaTlebiT SeiaraRebul maswavlebelTa koleqtivis arseboba. `sazRvrebis gafarToebam, saganmanaTleblo sivrcis misawvdomobam mTeli rigi siaxleebi ara mxolod saqmiT, aramed Tavad pedagogiuri terminologiiT warmoaCina, romelTa codna aucilebelia momavali maswavleblisa Tu, saerTod ganaTlebis problemiT dainteresebuli pirebisaTvis~[vasaZe 2000: 30-31]. qarTul pedagogiur metyvelebaSi Semovida uamravi axali sityva, fraza, termini, romelic sul cota xnis win ar iyo saWiro. saganmanaTleblo reformebis gziT siarulma, qarTul pedagogiur sivrceSi cxadi gaxada dargobrivi ganmartebiTi leqsikonis Seqmnis saWiroeba. swored am did saqmes emsaxureba saqarTvelos erovnuli saswavlo gegmebis da Sefasebis centris mier Sedgenili ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ganaTlebis specialistebisaTvis, romelic sam nawiladaa dagegmili, ori nawili ki ukve miiRo sazogadoebam [ganmartebiTi leqsikoni 2007/2008]. ganmartebiTi leqsikonis winasityvaoba gvamcnobs, rom am tipis leqsikonis Seqmnis idea daibada pedagogebis survilis safuZvelze. leqsikoni `pedagogebs, ganaTlebis specialistebs, ganaTlebis fsiqologebs da sxva dainteresebul pirebs gaacnobs im ZiriTad terminebs, romlebic gamoiyeneba erovnul saswavlo gegmaSi, saswavlo gegmebis pilotirebis da danergvis

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trening-programaSi da, zogadad, ukavSirdeba ganaTlebis sistemis reformas da mis safuZvelze ganxorcielebul swavlebisa da swavlis Tanamedrove gagebas~[ganmartebiTi leqsikoni 2007: 6]. ganmartebiTi leqsikonis meore nawilSi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia ganaTlebis sferoSi arsebul Teoriebze, rac pedagogikis dargis specialistebs saSualebas miscems gaecnos Tanamedrove da moqmed saaRmzrdelo Teoriebs ucxour da qarTul praqtikaSi. ganmartebiTi leqsikonis orive nawilis struqtura dajgufebulia oTx ZiriTad kategoriad: unar-Cvevebi, Teoriebi, saswavlo procesi da ganaTlebis sistema. TiToeul kategoriaSi terminebi dalagebulia anbanTrigze. leqsikonis orive nawili daaxloebiT 240 termins moicavs da masSi amomwuravadaa axsnili TiToeuli sityvisa Tu frazis mniSvneloba. rogorc cnobilia, nebismieri dargis specialur terminologias ramdenime niSan-Tviseba axasiaTebs: monosemiuroba (erTi zusti mniSvneloba), sinonimis ararseboba (mcired gamovlena) da neitraluroba subieqturi damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT. samive es Tviseba mkafiodaa gamovlenili saanalizo wignebSi, sadac yvela sityva da termini zustad aRniSnavs konkretul saganmanaTleblo situacias, garda iSviaTi SemTxvevisa maTTvis sinonimis moZieba sakmaod rTulia da TiToeuli maTgani xasiaTdeba cnebiTi sizustiT. SeniSnulia, rom `specialuri terminologiis damkvidreba klasikur saliteraturo enebSi, Cveulebisamebr, mizanmimarTuli da regulirebadia, rac imas gulisxmobs, rom axali specialuri cnebis Sesatyvisi termini Semosulsa da sakuTar leqsikur masalas Soris SeirCeva garkveuli mizanSewonilobis principiT. ZiriTadi zogadi principi aq imas gulisxmobs, rom ucxo warmomavlobis termini ar iqnes daSvebuli (sanqcirebuli), Tuki Sesabamisi `samamulo~ termini (an sityvawarmoebiTi SesaZlebloba) arsebobs. sxva SemTxvevaSi ucxour terminTa damkvidreba `kanonzomieria~ [arabuli 2004: 269]. saanalizo ganmartebiT leqsikonebSi da Sesabamisad qarTul saganmanaTleblo profesiul terminologiaSi es wes-kanoni mcire gamonaklisis garda daculia. Tumca SevniSnavT, rom ramdenime ucxouri sityvis Sesatyvisi qarTul saliteraturo enaSic moipoveba (mag: unar-Cveva, asertuloba, kognicia da a. S). leqsikis ganviTareba uSualod asaxavs sazogadoebis ekonomikur da kulturul progress. amis dasturia gansaxilvel terminebSi mocemuli ganmartebebi. wignebSi uxvadaa mocemuli iseTi sityvebi da terminebi, rogoricaa: monitoringi, indikatori, diagnostikuri Sefaseba, teqnologiebis codna, socialuri (kooperatiuli da TanamSromlobiTi) swavleba, transferi da a. S. am tipis specialuri terminologiebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Sinaarsobrivi gamoxatvis neitraluroba, radganac aseTi formis terminebi daclilia subieqturi damokidebulebebisgan da is mxolod da mxolod specialuri dargisTvis damaxasiaTebeli TvisebebiT gamoirCeva.

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leqsikonSi mocemuli sityvebi da frazebi ZiriTadad nasesxebi leqsikisagan Sedgeba. maTi umravlesoba ucxouri warmomavlobis sityvaa, magram Cveni saganmanaTleblo realobidan gamomdinare TiToeuli maTgani saliteraturo enis erT-erT mTavar Semadgenel qvesistemad unda moviazroT. sainformacio qselebis ganviTareba aaxloebs saxalxo enas axal specialur terminologiasTan. erovnuli saswavlo gegmebisa da Sefasebis centris mier droulad da sainteresod Sedgenili ganmartebiTi leqsikonebi samagido wignebi gaxdeba ganaTlebis dargis specialistebisTvis. is drouli da saWiro SenaZenia da pedagogebs daexmareba droulad gaerkvnen ganaTlebis sistemaSi mimdinare reformebis arsSi. literatura: ganmartebiTi leqsikoni 2007: ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ganaTlebis specialistebisTvis, pirveli nawili, Tbilisi. 2007. ganmartebiTi leqsikoni 2008: ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ganaTlebis specialistebisTvis, meore nawili, Tbilisi. 2008. vasaZe 2000: n. vasaZe, ganaTlebis axali paradigmebi da teqnologiebi, pedagogiur mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, 2-3, Tbilisi 2000. arabuli 2004: a. arabuli, qarTuli metyvelebis kultura, Tbilisi. 2004.

RUSUDAN PIPIA

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

NOVELTY IN PROFESSIONAL VOCABULARY OF EDUCATION BRANCH

Current reforms in the education system first of all refer to teachers and school. Education-training system, its mechanism are exceptionally diversified, that, on the other hand, demands the introduction of novelties in the pedagogical work. Time demand has become the reality for teachers equipped with general and professional education. Orienting society toward sustainable development is impossible without the development of a teacher into a creative person with individual style of activity and thinking. This cannot be achieved without a continuous and systematic professional development that promotes innovation. Great hopes are placed on innovations, they are considered to be a reliable driving force for development. The accessibility of educational space has brought changes in pedagogical terminology. The knowledge of these terminologies is necessary for future teachers and persons interested in education problems. Many new words, phrases, and terms that weren't in use before have now started entering Georgian pedagogical speech. Practice of going through educational reforms clarified the necessity of branch explanatory dictionary. Explanatory dictionary for education specialists compiled by the Centre of National Education Plans

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and Assessment of Georgia precisely serves this great role. The dictionary is to be published in three parts. Two parts of this dictionary have already been published. The aim of the explanatory dictionary is to introduce teachers, education psychologists and other interested persons with the main terms that are used in National Education Plan. It helps specialists in understanding of teaching and learning. The structure of the both parts of the explanatory dictionary is grouped in four main categories: skills, theories, education process and education system. Terms in each category are placed according to the alphabet. Both parts of the dictionary contain approximately 240 words and terms, whereas the meaning of each word and phrase is presented in detail. It's well-known that any branch has its own special terminology that is characterized by some features, like: monosemy (one exact meaning), non-existence of synonym and neutrality from subjective point of view. All these three features are shown distinctly in special books where every word and term precisely indicates a concrete educational situation. Except of rare cases, it's difficult to find synonyms for them and each of them is characterized with notion accuracy. Development of vocabulary describes the economic and cultural progress of the society. The definition of certain words clearly defines this. The following words and terms are given in the books: monitoring, indicator, diagnostic assessment, technology knowledge, social (cooperative and collaborative) teaching, transfer and so on. This type of terminology is characterized with neutrality of expressing of content, as such terms lack subject dependence and are distinguished by the features typical only for special branch. The words and phrases given in the dictionary are mainly created with the borrowed vocabulary. The most of them are derived from foreign languages, but if we take into account our educational reality, each of them must be considered as one of the main components of literary language. The development of information nets compacts the people's language with a new special terminology. Explanatory dictionaries compiled timely and interestingly by the National Educational Plans and Assessments will become an useful and necessary tool for education branch specialists. It's a timely and an essential acquisition that will help teachers in the essence of current reforms in the education system.

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pedagogika, fsiqologia

=

Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

leila Serozia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

piradi magaliTi, rogorc zneobrivi aRzrdis ZiriTadi faqtori

cnobilia, rom aRzrdis procesSi mniSvnelovani faqtoria pativiscema aRsazrdelis pirovnebisadmi, rogorc srulyofili da Tanaswori partniorisadmi nebismier saqmianobaSi. aRzrdis procesi maSin ufro efeqturia, roca pedagogi da aRsazrdeli erTad iReben gadawyvetilebas, gulwrfelad uziareben erTmaneTs azrebs da aseve erTad cdiloben warmoqmnili problemis gadaWras. imisaTvis, rom studentsa da leqtors Soris partnioruli urTierTgageba arsebobdes, saWiroa leqtori saubrobdes studentisaTvis gasagebi eniT. man namdvilad unda gamoavlinos pativiscema partniorisadmi, gulwrfelad unda dainteresdes studentis problemiT, mudmivad win ar unda wamoswios sakuTari upiratesoba da angariSi gauwios studentis mosazrebebs. es ki SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu aRsazrdeli leqtor ­ maswavlebelSi xedavs pirovnebas. pativs scems mas da cdilobs mibaZos mas dadebiT qcevaSi. imisTvis rom safuZvlianad Semeswavla, Tu ra gavlenas axdens leqtormaswavlebelTa piradi magaliTi studentebze, gamoviyene kvlevis tradiciuli anketuri gamokiTxvis meTodi mokle droSi meti informaciis mosapoveblad. (anketireba Catarda ssip soxumis saxelmwifo universitetSi, romelSic monawileobas Rebulobdnen rogorc ganaTlebis fakultetis, aseve sxva specialobis studentebic. anketireba Catarda 2009 wlis TebervalSi da masSi sul 200-mde studenti Rebulobda monawileobas). anketuri gamokiTxvidan gamoirkva, rom karg leqtorad studentebi miiCnevdnen, upirveles yovlisa, imas, vinc Tavisi sagnis Rrma mcodnea, Semdeg modis studentebTan megobruli damokidebulebis mqone, mtkice momTxovnelobiT gamorCeuli, avtoritetuli leqtorebi da a.S. axla moviyvanoT imis amsaxveli cxrili, Tu ra pirovnuli Tvisebebis gadmoReba surT axalgazrdebs TavianTi sayvareli leqtorisgan. motivi: 1. sagnis Rrma codna; 2. taqtiani midgomis unari; 3. studentTa siyvaruli; 4. gulisxmiereba; 5. momTxovneloba; 6. obieqturoba;

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7. samarTlianoba; 8. mtkice nebisyofa; 9. maRali humanuroba. am cxrilis mixedviT pirvel adgils sagnis Rrma codna ikavebs. rogorc vxedavT, umaRles skolaSi es upirvelesi moTxovnaa. Semdegi adgili ukavia pedagogiur taqts, did mniSvnelobas aniWeben agreTve studentebisadmi leqtor-maswavlebelTa siyvaruls, gulisxmierebas da a.S. aRsaniSnavia, rom piradi magaliTiT ara marto kargi maswavlebeli axdens zegavlenas axalgazrdobaze, aramed TviT cudi leqtor-maswavlebelic. saerTod cnobilia, uaryofiT qcevas ufro swrafad iTvisebs aRsazrdeli, vidre dadebiTs, amitom unda vifiqroT, rom erTi cudi leqtor-maswavlebeli imdens vnebs studentebs, rom am naklis gamosworeba ar SeuZlia ramdenime leqtoris znekeTil moqmedebas. dadebiTi Cvevebis aRzrdas didi dro da energia sWirdeba, uaryofiTis SeTvisebas ki wuTebi. axla gavarkvioT Tu ra adgili uWiravs pirad magaliTs sxva aRmzrdelobiT zemoqmedebebs Soris? Cven viciT, rom pedagogiuri procesi gulisxmobs rogorc aRzrdas, ise swavlebas. saswavlo procesi umaRles saswavlebelSi xorcieldeba leqciaseminarebis saSualebiT rac eqvemdebareba mtkice samecadino cxrils da studentTa myar Semadgenlobas. ra saSualebebs moixmars maswavlebeli, raTa ganaxorcielos saswavlo gegmiTa da programiT gaTvaliswinebuli amocanebi da miznebi? emyareba ra saswavlo sagnis gegmas, programas, meTodur miTiTebebs da didaqtikur principebs, leqtori iyenebs sxvadasxva meTods, romlis meSveobiTac is moaxdens studentebSi wignze damoukidebeli muSaobis unaris aRzrdas, SeaCvevs maT saxelmZRvaneloebisa da sxva saswavlo saSualebaTa moxmarebas, raTa miaRwios studentebis mier codnis garkveuli maragis dagrovebas, garda amisa, igi didi yuradRebiT swavlobs studentis bunebas. radganac mTeli swavlebis procesSi leqtori aris axalgazrdebis warmmarTveli da xelmZRvaneli, amdenad misi piradi magaliTi did zegavlenas axdens studentebze. maswavlebelzea damokidebuli, Tu ra mimarTulebas miscems Tavis moqmedebas, xolo es zemoqmedeba ra zegavlenas moaxdens studentebze. Cvens mier Catarebul iqna agreTve ramdenime specialobis studentTa anketuri gamokiTxva, Tu rogori leqtori miaCniaT karg maswavleblad da ra pirovnul Tvisebebs gadmoiRebdnen misgan? kiTxvas, rogor leqtors Tvlian karg leqtorad upasuxes soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis sxvadasxva fakultetis studentebma. maTi Canawerebis analizi Semdeg suraTs iZleva: 1. Tavisi sagnis kargi mcodne (70 studenti); 2. studentebTan megobruli damokidebulebis mqone (40 studenti); 3. mtkice momTxovnelobiT gamorCeuli (30 studenti); 4. avtoritetuli (20 studenti); 5. obieqturi da samarTliani (15 studenti); 6. kargi gadacemis

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unaris mqone (10 studenti); 7. studentebis mosiyvarule (8 studenti); 8. gulisxmieri (7 studenti); 9. studentis sulier saubarSi wvdoma (6 studenti); 10. sazogadoebis mier dafasebuli (4 studenti). amrigad, studentTa CanawerebSi CamoTvlili Tvisebebi Cven SegviZlia Semdegnairad davajgufoT: I. pedagogiuri Tvisebebi, romlebSic Sedis: sagnis kargi codna, maRali kultura da ganaTlebuloba, pedagogikis, fsiqologiisa da meTodikis Rrma codna, organizatoruli unari, TiToeuli studentis xasiaTisa da pirovnuli Tvisebebis Rrma codna, pedagogiuri taqti da a.S. II. leqtoris pirovnuli xasiaTi: mtkice xasiaTi, nebisyofa, samarTlianoba, patiosneba, xalisiani, mxiaruli ganwyobileba da energiuloba, borotebis gamomricxavi simkacre da TiToeuli pirovnebis pativiscema, siaxlove, momTxovneloba da samarTlianoba, gulTbiloba, uxeSobisagan TavSekaveba da a.S. yvela es Tviseba dasawyis etapze SeiZleba ar gaaCndes leqtors, magram igi mainc, TandaTanobiT moipovebs studentTa Soris avtoritets, gaxdeba sayvareli da magaliTis maCvenebeli, Tuki yoveldRiurad izrunebs profesionalur daostatebaze. am gziT mas SeuZlia Camoayalibos mTeli rigi zneobrivi qcevebi da Tvisebebi, gaxdes magaliTi. amdenad, mTavaria, rom leqtori cdilobdes kontroli gauwios sakuTar Tavs, studentebTan urTierTobaSi gamoavlinos ara moCvenebiTi Tavazianoba, Tvalisamxvevi Cvevebi, aramed Sinaganad iyos wminda da daxvewili. rodesac studenti amCnevs, rom misi sayvareli maswavlebeli zneobrivi qceviT xasiaTdeba, masSi moCvenebiTi araferia, aramed mis arsebaSi yvelaferi namdvili da bunebrivia, maSin igi cdilobs es Tvisebebi sakuTar TavSic ganaviTaros da srulyos [malazonia 2001]. Tanaswori damokidebuleba studentTa mimarT, avtoritetiani maswavleblis damajerebeli toni did aRmzrdelobiT zegavlenas axdens axalgazrdebze. leqtoris maRali toni, uxeSi mimarTva, msmenelisadmi agdebuli damokidebuleba disciplinis darRvevis SemTxvevebs ver aRkveTs, samagierod, misi erTi mSvidi, taqtiani gamoxedva sakmarisia aRelvebuli studentis dasawynareblad da konfliqtis mosawesrigeblad [ 2001]. rogorc davinaxeT, umaRlesi saswavleblis mizania _ ara imdenad is, rom specialuri codna gadasces studentebs, aramed is, rom ganaviTaros da Seqmnas gansakuTrebuli kulturuli fena, romelsac TviTon specialisti ekuTvnis. igi ara marto garkveuli codnis matarebelia, aramed mas aqvs gansakuTrebuli msoflmxedveloba, gaaCnia cxovrebiseuli Rirebulebebi. amitom specialisti ara marto codnas da profesiul SesaZleblobebs uziarebs studentebs, aramed aaxloebs, axlos acnobs cxovrebas da maradiul Rirebulebebs. daaxloebiT erTi saukunis winaT kargad Camoayaliba uSinskim: `mxolod pirovnebas SeuZlia zemoqmedeba moaxdinos pirovnebis Camoyalibebaze, mxolod xasiaTs SeuZlia Seqmnas xasiaTi~ [uSinski 1959: 213].

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anketirebis gziT gairkva, Tu ra Tvisebebs afaseben axalgazrdebi TavianT maswavleblebSi. Cemi statiis mizanic naTelia _ nebismieri aRmzrdelmaswavlebeli valdebulia yuradReba miaqcios am moTxovnebs, Seecados iyos iseTi, rogorc surT maTi xilva studentebs _ xvalindel pedagogebs. literatura: 2001: .., . «» . 2001 cucqiriZe 1997: z. cucqiriZe. leqciebis kursi pedagogikaSi I-II nawili, Tbilisi. 1997 malazonia 2001: S. malazonia. pedagogika, Tbilisi. 2001 gagua 1996: v. gagua. pedagogika, Tbilisi. 1996 doRonaZe 2000: m. doRonaZe. skolaSi saaRmzrdelo muSaobis aqtualuri problemebi, Tbilisi. 2000 uSinski 1959: k. uSinski. rCeuli pedagogiuri Txzulebani, t. I, Tbilisi. 1959

LEILA SHEROZIA

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

PERSONAL EXAMPLE AS THE MAIN FACTOR OF MORAL EDUCATION

The main aim of the article is once again to remind the teachers of higher schools that the youth is a period of maximalism and they perceive both good and bad at the same degree. Every attempt to play and deceive them is in vain. The lecturer should love his/her work with a veritable love and the student should receive the same in answer. It is necessary that the lecturer speaks to the student clearly in order to establish the partnership understanding between the student and the lecturer. He/she should pay his/her respect to the partner, become sincerely interested in the student's problem, show his/her own superiority and respect the student's opinion. That is possible only in the case when the student considers the lecturer as a person, respects him/her and tries to imitate him/her in his positive behavior. So in an education process respect towards the student's personality is an important factor, as towards a perfect and anequal partner in any activity. The education process is more effective when a teacher and a student make the decision together, openly share their opinions and also try to solve the existing problems together. In this case a partnership phenomenon is at a high level. For the teacher-lecturer in order to implement the tasks and aims based on the teaching plans and programs, first of all, it is necessary to use different methods which will help the students to create the ability of working on books independently and get accustomed to the usage of text-books and other teaching resources, and on this basis the youth will store some knowledge. Besides, the teacher studies the student's character with great attention. The teacher's personal example impacts greatly on students, as the teacher-lecturer

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is the leader for the youth during the whole teaching process. It is dependent on the teachers in what direction they will act and how it will influence the students. In order to study thoroughly how to impact teacher's personal example on students, we use the traditional questionnaire method of the research to get more information in a short period of time. Interviews of the 200 students were conducted in LLEP Sokhumi State University. The research was held in February 2009. The questionnaire contained two questions: 1. How do you like the lecturer? 2. What personal characters would you accept from his/her personal example? The materials received from the interviews are grouped in the following manner: First ­ pedagogical characters which consist of: good knowledge of the subject, high level of culture and education, deep knowledge of pedagogy, psychology and methodology, management skill, deep knowledge of each student's character and personal features, pedagogical tact and so on. Second ­ the teacher-lecturer's personal character: steady character, will-power, justice, honesty, cheerful, merry mood and vitality, respect of people, closeness, restraint from rudeness and etc. Therefore, the aim of the university, institute is not only to give the special knowledge to the students but to develop and create a special cultural stratum to which the specialist belongs himself/herself. He/she is not only a carrier of some knowledge but carries special ideology and vital values. That's why the specialist shares the knowledge and professional possibilities to the students and also introduces them to everyday life and eternal values. About a century ago Ushinski stated correctly: `Only the person can impact on the formation of the person, only character can create character."

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pedagogika, fsiqologia

=

Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

maia firCxaZe

qarTul-italiuri skola

lia axalaZe

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

bruneris kognituri zrdis Teoria da codnis gamoxatvis formebi

swavlebis umniSvnelvanesi mizani moswavleTa kognituri ganviTarebis xelSewyobaa. kognituri ganviTreba ki, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs moswavleTa azrovnebis, Semecnebis, gansjis unarebisa da inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebis ganviTrebas [janaSia, imedaZe, gorgoZe 2008:14]. swavlebisa da ganaTlebis SeZenis procesSi aqtiuri mniSvneloba eniWeba jerom bruneris [ix. bruneri] mier SemoTavazebuli kognituri zrdis Teoriasa da codnis gamoxatvis formebs. bruneris mixedviT, adamianis inteleqtualuri ganviTreba moicavs meTodur winsvlas gonebis gamoyenebaSi. es meToduri winsvla ki damokidebulia gaumjobesebul anu mzard unarebze da sistematur swavlebaze bavSvis zrdasTan erTad misi qmedebebi garemoSi arsebuli stimulebis mier ufro da ufro naklebad izRudeba [janaSia, imedaZe, gorgoZe 2008: 111]. kognituri procesebis (azrebis da Sexedulebebis) gamoyeneba ufro metad aumjobesebs moswavleTa unars, rac moswavles saSualebas aZlevs, saWiroebisda mixedviT, erTi da igive sapasuxo qceva gamoiyenos cvalebad garemoSi da sxvadasxvanairad imoqmedos erTsa da imave garemoSi! maSasadame, bruneris mixedviT, adamianis inteleqtualuri ganviTreba dakavSirebulia gonebis operirebis unarTan, adamianis azrovnebis procesTan. brunerisagan gansxvavebiT Sveicariel fsiqolog Jan piaJes. [ix. piaJe] miaCnda, rom ganviTareba win uZRvis swavlas. bavSvebs jer garkveuli kognituri struqturebi, anu sqemebi unda CamouyalibdeT, raTa maT SeZlon samyaros Seswavla da Semecneba. socio-kulturuli Teoriis fuZemdebeli fsiqologi lev vigotski [ix. vigotski] Tvlida, rom sazogadoeba da kultura mniSvnelovnad uwyobs xels bavSvTa kognitur ganviTarebas. misi Teoria varaudobs, rom swavla win uZRvis da xels uwyobs kognitur ganviTarebas. samive Teoria azrovnebis ganviTarebis process sxvadasxvagvarad warmogvidgens. bruneris Teoriis Tanaxmad, upiratesoba gonebis gamoyenebas eniWeba, anu adamianis goneba kognitur zrdas ganicdis mxolod meTodur winsvlaze: mzard enobriv unarebze da sistemur swavlebaze. moviyvanoT magaliTi, Tu rogor SeiZleba es aisaxos istoriis swavlebisas saswavlo procesSi: roca moswavle ecnoba istoriis Sesavals anu im bazas, ris safuZvelzec xdeba istoriuli masalis dalageba, gadmocema, ageba da a. S., igi saam-

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isod iyenebs: sqemebs// asimilacias // akomodacias // eqvilibriums anu kognitur procesebs. meTodebis sistematuri varjiSisas, cvlisas anu gamoyenebisas, moswavles TavisTavad uviTardeba azrovneba, Semecneba, gansjis unari da saboloo jamSi xdeba inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebis ganviTreba. roca moswavles vTxovT, daadginos, rogor unda iwerebodes, ra procesebs unda akmayofilebdes istoriuli naSromi (antikuri, berZeni da romaeli istorikosebis TvalTaxedviT) da igi am davalebas Seasrulebs, bunebrivia, aq saqme gvaqvs kognitur procesTan, romlis Sedegad moswavles aucileblad ganuviTardeba unari - saWiro stimulis dros (magaliTad, gansazRvros Tukidides, amiane marcelines an prokopi kesarielis damokidebuleba istoriisa da istoriuli masalis mimarT) aucileblad gamoavlinos sapasuxo qceva - moswavle aq moiSveliebs im codnas, romelic man adre SeiZina am istorikosebis Sesaxeb; gaixsenebs Tu rogor iwereboda, ra moTxovnebs akmayofilebda berZeni da romaeli istorikosebis naSromebi da piriqiT. aRniSnuli codnis gamoyeneba mas SeuZlia sxvadasxva saxis davalebebis Sesrulebis dros magaliTad Tu mas davalebad mivcemT antikuri da aRorZinebis epoqis istorikosebis daxasiaTebas, an SeeZleba es codna gamoiyenos antikuri da aRorZinebis periodis istoriografebis naazrevis Sedarebis drosac, magaliTad, aseTi davalebis Sesrulebisas: gaixseneT antikuri da aRorZinebis epoqis istoriuli azris tendenciebi da SeavseT sqema: `ras gvaswavlis istoria~

antikuri istoriografebis azriT:

aRorZinebis epoqis istoriografebis azriT:

--------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------imisaTvis, rom maswavlebelma ufro advilad miadevnos Tvali moswavlis inteleqtualur zrdas, SeuZlia, daeyrdnos bruneris mier SemoTavazebul codnis gamoxatvis sam formas: · moqmedebiTi · warmosaxviTi · simboluri gamoxatva adamianis asakobriv cvlilebasTan erTad es formebi erTmaneTs enacvlebian. moqmedebiTi gamoxatva moicavs motorul sapasuxo qcevebs, anu garemoTi manipulirebis gzebs. radgan swavleba moswavlis kognitur ganviTarebas unda isaxavdes miznad, amitom bruneris azriT, swavlebis formac moswavlis kognitur ganvi-

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Tarebas unda Seesabamebodes [janaSia, imedaZe, gorgoZe 2008: 112]. nebismieri Sinaarsis masala SeiZleba nebismieri asakis moswavles ise vaswavloT, rom es misTvis saintereso da gasagebi iyos, oRond, cxadia, masalis Sinaarss isev unda davubrundeT yovel axal asakobriv etapze, radgan igive masala ufro rTul formebSi mivawodoT. amis Sesabamisad, codnis gamoxatvis samive forma ­ moqmedebiTi, warmosaxviTi da simboluri gamoxatva ­ aqtiurad viTardeba, rac saboloo jamSi adamianis inteleqtualur SesaZlebelobebs zrdis da xels uwyobs azrovnebis ganviTarebas. Cvens praqtikaSi es formebi aqtiurad unda gamoviyenoT swavlebis yvela safexurze da yvela dargSi. rogor SeiZleba misi gamoyeneba erTi saswavlo disciplinis Seswavlis dros? magaliTad, istoriis Sesavlis (an zogadi wyaroTmcodneobiTi kursis) Seswavlisas. pirveli etapi - codnis moqmedebiT gamoxatva gulisxmobs moswavleTaTvis romelime movlenis inscenirebas. magaliTad, borodinos brZolis aRwerisas maswavlebels SeuZlia klasSive didi Zalisxmevis gareSe, martivad gaiTamaSos omis sabrZolo moqmedebebis gegma, romelic warmoadgina petre bagrationma. gegmis Tanaxmad momgebiani iqneboda redutebis dadgma brZolis velze, mowinaaRmdege, romelic grZel rigebad iyo dawyobili, iZulebuli iqneboda gaxleCiliyo am redutebis meSveobiT da maTi ganadgureba advili iqneboda; msgavsi aRweriloba SeiZleba gavakeToT didgoris brZolis aRweris procesSi. aq SeiZleba sqemis gamoyenebac, riTac moswavles ufro naTlad davanaxebT suraTs mtris ganlagebis, aseve daviT aRmaSeneblis Canafiqris Sesaxeb, romelic ZiriTad ieriSs centris Zalebze dayrdnobiT ganaxorcielebda, xolo Semdeg marcxena da marjvena flangidan mtris rkalSi moqceviT brZolas warmatebiT daasrulebda. borodinos brZolisagan gansxvavebiT, aRniSnuli gegma daviTma didgoris velze realurad ganaxorciela da warmatebasac miaRwia. am gegmis moqmedebiT gamoxatva realuri da ganxorcielebadia, romelSic moswavleebic SeiZleba CavrToT. es xels Seuwyobs moswavlis saazrovno moqmedebis ganviTarebas da daainteresebs sakiTxisadmi. meore etapi ­ warmosaxviTi gamoxatva gonebriv gamosaxulebebs moicavs. bavSvebi iZenen fiqris unars iseT sagnebze, romlebic fizikurad maT irgvliv ar aris. maT SeuZliaT sagnebis da maTTan dakavSirebuli moqmedebebis gonebaSi warmosaxva. igi saSualebas aZlevs moswavles, Seadginos diagramebi, cxrilebi da Seavsos isini. istoriis swavlebis kerZo SemTxvevaSi magaliTad, moswavles SeiZleba SevTavazoT Semdegi cxrili, romelic blumis taqsonomiis safuZvelze aris agebuli [ix. axalaZe 2009].

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upasuxeT kiTxvas da SeavseT cxrili ris safuZvelze xdeba istoriuli masalis

aRdgena (dasaxeleba, gaxseneba, CamoTvla)? gageba (damuSaveba, SerCeva, aRwera, Sejameba, axsna, varaudis Camoyalibeba, interpretacia)? gamoyeneba (rukis, sqemebis, diagramebis momzadeba, dajgufeba)? analizi (Sedareba, gamokvleva)? sinTezi (Seswavlili masalis Teoriuli Camoyalibeba) ? Sefaseba (daskvnis gakeTeba, gakritikeba, poziciis gamoxatva)?

garda amisa, SegviZlia moswavles SevTavazoT aseve naxatebi, suraTebi, romlebsac daakavSirebs antikur, aRorZinebis an sxva epoqasTan. mesame etapi ­ swavlis simboluri forma gulisxmobs abstraqtul azrovnebas, muSaobas. simboluri gamoxatva iyenebs simbolur sistemebs imisaTvis, rom codna daSifros. maswavlebelma swavlebisas unda cvalos meTodebi moswavleTa ganviTarebis Sesabamisad. rogorc aRvniSneT, sanam moswavleebi abstraqtuli simboloebis gagebas SeZleben, maT istoriuli wyaroebi moqmedebiTi (magaliTad, sabrZolo gegmis, anu strategiis inscenireba saklaso oTaxSi) an warmosaxviTi (magaliTad, naxatebis, naxazebis) formebis saxiTac SeiZleba mivawodoT. amis Sesabamisad, kursis bolos maT saistorio wyaroebis Sesaxeb simboluri codnac CamouyalibdebaT. magaliTad, isini SeZleben aseTi tipis davalebebis Sesrulebas: kolxur monetebze (kolxuri TeTri) dayrdnobiT daaxasiaTeben kolxebis rwmena-warmodgenebsa da tradiciebs. simboluri gamoxatva yvelaze gvian viTardeba, mis paralelurad adamiani inarCunebs codnis moqmedebiT da warmosaxviT gamoxatvis unarebs. sagulisxmoa, rom bruneris kognituri zrdis Teoriisa da codnis gamoxatvis formebis gamoyeneba unda SevZloT sxva stimulebTan realur kavSirSi. magaliTad, maswavlebeli am dros sistematurad da gegmazomierad unda muSaobdes moswavleTa motivaciis amaRlebaze. am tipis samuSaoebi mas miznobrivad da Tanmimdevrulad unda hqondes dagegmili saswavlo programebSi [tyemalaZe 2008: 8]. · bruneris azriT, swavla aqtiuri procesia, romelSic mowafeebi ageben axal codnas TavianT arsebul codnaze dayrdnobiT. moswavle iyenebs kognitur struqturebs informaciis daxarisxebisa da gardaqmnisaTvis,

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cdebisa da eqsperimentebisaTvis. es yvelaferi ki sWirdeba sakuTari codnis aRmoCenisaTvis. · aRmoCena TavisTavad warmoadgens induqciuri azrovnebis formas: moswavleebi konkretuli magaliTebis Seswavlis Sedegad zogad cnebebs da principebs ayalibeben. magaliTad, moswavle gaecno ra qarTul saistorio wyaroTa jgufebs, SeuZlia Seasrulos Semdegi saxis davaleba: davaleba: mocemulia qarTuli wyaroebis jgufebi, miuTiTeT mTavari sakiTxebi

arqeologiuri Zeglebi epigrafikuli Zeglebi saistorio Txzulebebi hagiografiuli Txzulebebi istoriuli dokumentebi Zveli qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi saeklesio tibikonebi kono, foto, fonuri, video, audio masala ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

anu magaliTi gadaiyvanos cnebebSi da gansazRvros, ras niSnavs esa Tu is istoriuli wyaro. `aRmoCena~ ar moicavs moswavleTa Tavis nebaze miSvebas ­ `rac undaT, is iswavlon~ ­ aRmoCena efeqturia, roca mas maswavlebeli marTavs: maswavlebeli gegmavs da aZlevs moswavleebs iseT davalebebs, romlebic maT manipulirebis da gamokvlevis SesaZleblobebs miscems. moswavleebi amiT iZenen unars rogorc axali principebis formulirebisaTvis (Tundac zemoaRniSnul magaliTze), aseve informaciis SegrovebisaTvis. eZlevaT kiTxvebis dasmis saSualebac, rac xels uwyobs moswavleTa aqtivaciasa da efeqtur swavlas. saboloo jamSi maT SeuZliaT isaubron da prezentaciebi gamarTon iseT rTul sakiTxebze, rogoricaa, magaliTad, Temebi: `iyavi Sua saukuneebis meistorie~ an `istorikosi - istoriuli faseulobebis mcveli~ da sxv. am SemTxvevaSi CvenTvis mniSvnelovania ra Sedegs mivaRwevT aRniSnuli gziT, radgan swavlebis procesSi CvenTvis mniSvnelovania Sedegi da misi miRwevis gzebi. es ki, ZiriTadad, unda eyrdnobodes: magaliTad mocemuli istoriuli sakiTxis Sesaxeb informaciis gafarToebis codnas da `nou haus~ Ziebis process. devid perkinsis azriT, Sesabamisi aqtivobebi moicavs axali hipoTeze-

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bis wamoyenebas, sakamaTo daskvnebis gakeTebas da a. S. epistemuri1 donisagan gansxvavebiT tradiciuli ganaTleba arasakmaris yuradRebas uTmobs kvlevis dones [perkinsi 2007:102]. jerom bruneris Teoria Zalian mniSvnelovania swavlebis procesis sworad dagegmvisaTvis, misi aqtiuri gamoyeneba praqtikaSi bevr pedagogs daexmareba profesiuli saqmianobis daxvewasa da srulyofaSi, radgan skola, aramarto maswavleblis gonebis TavSesafari, aramed moswavlis gonebis TavSesafaric unda gaxdes. literatura da ganmartebebi: axalaZe 2008: l. axalaZe, blumis taqsonomia da misi gamoyeneba istoriis swavlebis procesSi, soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, humanitarul da social-politikur mecnierebaTa seria, t. V. Tbilisi. 2008. bruneri: jerom bruneri ­ daibada 1915 wels. amerikeli fsiqologi, kognituri fsiqologiis fuZemdebeli, safuZveli Cauyara kognituri swavlebis Teorias ganaTlebis fsiqologiaSi da ganaTlebis zogad filosofias [leqsikoni 2007: 18]. misi naSromebidan aRsaniSnavia: `azrovnebis Seswavla (1956), `ganaTlebis procesi~ (1960), `swavlebis Teoriisken~ (1966), `swavleba SemecnebiT zrdaSi~ (1966), `kognituri zrdis procesebi~ (1968), `bavSvis saubari: enis gamoyenebis swavla~ (1983), `azrovnebis ZebnaSi: eseebi avtobiografiaSi~ (1983), `ganaTlebis kultura~ (1996), `patara wigni didi mexsierebis Sesaxeb~ (1987), `gaxsovdes kanoni~ (2000), `istoriebis (moTxrobebis) Seqmna: kanoni, literatura, sicocxle~ (2003); mis Sesaxeb ixileT: htt://psych.nyu./ bruner. leqsikoni 2007: ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ganaTlebis specialistebisTvis, pirveli nawili, Tbilisi. 2007. vigotski: lev vigotski ­ daibada 1896 wels gardaicvala 1934 wels. warmoSobiT belorusi fsiqologi. daamTavra moskovis universitetis iuridiuli fakulteti, paralelurad swavlobda Seniavskis saxelobis universitetis istoria-filosofiis fakultetze. 1924 wlidan muSaobda moskovis eqsperimentaluri fsiqologiis institutSi, Semdeg mis mier daarsebul eqsperimentaluri defeqtologiis institutSi. safuZveli Cauyara kulturul-istoriul skolas fsiqologiaSi. l. vigotskis ZiriTadi naSromia: `umaRlesi fsiqikuri funqciis ganviTarebis istoria~ (1931), romelic 1960 wels gamoica. misi naSromi `azrovneba da metyveleba~ (1934) safuZvlad daedo rusuli fsiqolingvistikis ganviTarebas. perkinsi 2007: devid perkinsi, gonivruli skolebi, bavSvebma rom ukeT iazrovnon da iswavlon Tbilisi. 2007 tyemalaZe 2008: r. tyemalaZe, n. dalaqiSvili, q. TofaZe, T. paWkoria, T. buwaSvili, swavleba da Sefaseba, damxmare saxelmZRvanelo. II. Tbilisi. 2008.

1 epistemuri, anu codnis modaloba

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piaJe: Jan piaJe ­ Sveicarieli biologi da fsiqologi, daibada 1896 wels gardaicvala 1980 wels. iyo nevSatelis, Jenevisa da lozanis universitetebis profesori. Jan jak rusos institutis direqtori JenevaSi. Seqmna inteleqtis operacionalisturi koncefcia da genetikuri epistemologia. Seqmna bavSvis ganviTarebisa da swavlis mniSvnelovani modeli. misi Teoria efuZneba ideas, rom ganviTarebis procesSi myofi bavSvi agebs kognitur struqturebs-mentalur `rukebs~, sqemebs, anu gaerTianebul (urTierTdakavSirebul cnebebs (networked concepts), raTa gaigos da moaxdinos reagireba fizikur gamocdilebaze mis irgvliv arsebul garemoSi. janaSia, imedaZe, gorgoZe 2008: n. janaSia, n. imedaZe, s. gorgoZe, ganviTarebisa da swavlebis Teoriebi, damxmare saxelmZRvanelo. I. Tb. 2008.

MAYA PIRCHKHADZE,

Georgian-Italian School, Georgia

LIA AKHALADZE

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

COGNITIVE GROWTH THEORY OF BRUNER AND KNOWLEDGE EXPRESSION FORMS

The most important goal of study is promotion the pupil's cognitive development. Cognitive development itself means development of the pupil s'thought, cognition, discussion abilities and intellectual possibilities. In the process of study it is quite important cognitive growth theory and knowledge expression forms offered by Bruner. According to Bruner, a human's intellectual development comprises methodical advance in intellect usage. This methodical advance is dependent on improved, growing abilities and systematic studying. Usage of cognitive processes (thoughts and opinions) further improves the pupils' abilities and if necessary it gives the pupil the opportunity to use the same reply behavior in changing environment and to act differently in the same environment! Consequently according to Bruner a human's intellectual development is connected with the ability of mental operation, a human's thinking process. The teacher can depend on three forms of knowledge expression offered by Bruner in order better to observe the pupil's intellectual development: actual, imaginary, symbolical expression. The forms interchange each other together with the human's age changing. In Bruner's opinion, teaching form must be relevant to the pupil's cognitive development. We should teach the pupil any material so that it will be interesting and understanding for him/her, but of course we must return to the material content at every age stage in order to teach them the same material in difficult forms. Accordingly, these three forms of knowledge expression ­ actual, imaginary and symbolical ­ is being actively developed, that eventually increases the human's intellec-

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tual possibilities. The forms of Bruner's knowledge expression may be used in the process of teaching history as follows: The first stage ­ Knowledge expression by action means staging any historical event for pupils. For example, in the process of describing the Didgori Battle (1121 year) we can clearly show the picture about alignment of the enemy, as well as David Agmashenebeli's (Builder) decision to a pupil if we make dramatization or project of the battle. According to the King David's choice in the course of the Battle he would make the essential assault on base of the central forces, and then the battle would be ended successfully by involving in the arch of the enemy from the left and right flank. The mentioned plan was really implemented by King David on the Didgori Valley and reached the success. Dramatization of this plan and its expression by action is real and implementable in which even the pupils can be involved. It will promote a pupil's thinking action development and interests towards the issue. The second stage ­ Imaginary expression includes the mental imaginations. Children gain the skill of thinking on such subjects that are not actually around them. They can imagine the subjects and the actions related to them in their mind. It enables a pupil to draw up diagrams, schedules and complete them. In the certain case of history teaching, for instance, we can suggest to a pupil the following table which is drawn up on base of Blum's taxonomy. Answer to the question and complete the table ­ What is the ground of historical material

restoration (title, remembering, listing)? awareness (processing, selection, description, summation, explanation, supposition, interpretation)? application of (maps, charts, diagrams preparation, grouping)? analysis (comparison, study)? syntheses (theoretical establishment of the materials studied)? assessment (conclusion, criticism, position expression)?

Besides, we can offer to a pupil drawings and pictures that a pupil will connect to the antique, renascence and other epochs they will study. The third way ­ Symbolic form of studying that means abstract thinking, working.

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Symbolic expression uses symbolic systems for clarifying the knowledge. Teachers are to change methods during teaching in accordance with the development of the pupils. As we mentioned, before pupils can understand abstract symbols we may provide them with the historical sources by action (for example, fighting plan, i.e. staging the strategy in the classroom) or with imaginary forms. Respectively, at the end of learning course pupils will have symbolic knowledge about historical sources too. For instance, they will be able to perform the following kinds of tasks: on base of Kolkhian Coins (Kolkhian Tetri) they will describe Kolkhians' belief-imaginations and traditions. Symbolic expression is developed most lately; in parallel to it a human maintains the skills of knowledge expression by action and imagination. According to Bruner study is an active process, where the pupils receive new knowledge on the basis of their existing knowledge. The pupil uses cognitive structures for selection of information, transformation and experiments. He/she needs all these to discover his/her own knowledge. Discovery itself represents the form of inductive thinking: the pupils form general notions and principles on the basis of study of concrete examples. "Discovery" doesn't comprise allowance the pupils what they want to do, to study, discovery is effective when the teacher manages it: the teacher plans and gives the pupils such homework which will give them the possibilities for manipulation and searching. The pupils receive the possibilities as for formation of new principles as the possibilities of asking the questions and gathering information, which stipulates the pupils' effective studying. Bruner's theory is very important for correctly planning the teaching process, it is actively used in practice and helps many teachers in occupational perfection.

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pedagogika, fsiqologia =

Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

brolisa wulaia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

iakob gogebaSvili ­ bunebismetyveli

iakob gogebaSvili iyo qarTuli pedagogikis fuZemdebeli, publicisti, sabavSvo mwerali, literaturis kritikosi da XIX saukunis meore naxevris erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis erT-erTi TvalsaCino moRvawe. igi eweoda dauRalav da nayofier Sromas qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebaSi, romlis erT-erTi daamarsebeli da fuZemdebeli iyo sicocxlis bolomde. saqarTvelos istoriis Temaze agebuli moTxrobebiT i. gogebaSvili cdilobda momaval TaobaSi gaeRviZebina patriotuli suliskveTeba. didma pedagogma Tavis SesaniSnav saxelmZRvanelos `bunebis kars" 1912 wels axali ganyofileba `saqarTvelo~ daumata, ris Sesaxebac igi werda: `am ganyofilebis daniSnuleba aris gauTvaliswinos moswavleebs Cveni eris warsuli bedi da ubedureba, umTavresi istoriuli momentebi, mTavari istoriuli gvarebis moqmedeba, maTi vaJkacoba, Tavdadeba, zrunva eris ganaTlebasa da mis keTildReobaze~ [gogebaSvili 1912: 242-243]. yoveli misi moTxroba iwyeba bunebis suraTis aRweriT: `mSvenieri sanaxavia mowmendili ca ganTiadis wined. laJvardisferi gauzomeli gumbaTi moWedilia brwyinvale varskvlavebiTa da eseni ganuwyvetliv ebrZvian Ramis sibnelesa da hfenen dausrulebels sivrceSi sinaTlesa da lxenasa. am sasiqadulo qveynis samsaxurSi yvelaze metad dawinaurebulia ori mnaTobi: ciskari da xarisTvala. eseni Cvens dedamiwas ise uxvad ugzavnian sinaTlesa, rom bnels Rames amsgavseben naTels dResa. qeba da dideba cis mnaTobebsa da upirvelesad yovlisa maT Semoqmedsa~[gogebaSvili 1975: 341-342]. iakob gogebaSvili ara marto mSobliuri enis Seswavlas aqcevda did yuradRebas, aramed daucxromlad iRwvoda sxva disciplinebis swavlebis srulyofisTvisac, kerZod man didi samsaxuri gauwia bunebismetyvelebis swavlebis ganviTarebas skolaSi. i. gogebaSvili Rrmad iyo darwmunebuli, rom bavSvi Tavis samSoblos mxolod maSin Seiyvarebs, rodesac kargad gaicnobs mis bunebas, istoriasa da kulturas. swored aman ganapiroba, rom i. gogebaSvilis `bunebis kari" marTlac `pirveldawyebiTi enciklopedia~ iyo mecnieruli codnis misaRebad. 1912 wels gamocemul `bunebis karis~ winasityvaobaSi i. gogebaSvili kidev erTxel usvams xazs bunebis codnis saWiroebas bavSvis ganviTarebisaTvis. i. gogebaSvili gulistkiviliT aRniSnavda, rom biurokratiuli sagnebi ise usulgulod aswavlidnen bunebismetyvelebas, rom bavSvebs guli sruliad ucruvdebodaT maszeo. saqarTvelos buneba ki iseTi mdidari da mraval-

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ferovania, rom evropis buneba masTan verc ki miva, xolo Cven ki am mdidari bunebis ara gagvegeba-rao. bunebismetyvelebis swavlebisas aqcentis gamaxvileba ganwyoba-damokidebulebebisa da unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaze, kvleva-Ziebasa da codnis gamoyenebaze aris rogorc Tanamedrove dasavluri meTodikis, ise qarTuli klasikuri didaqtikis moTxovnac. iakob gogebaSvilis Tanaxmad, umTavresi mizani bunebis Seswavlisa aris ­ `gauxsnas ymawvils TanagrZnoba bunebisa, Seayvaros misi gamoZieba da misi ganxilva~. codnis praqtikuli gamoyeneba ara marto materialuri simdidris wyaroa, aramed igi agreTve mecnieruli azrovnebis swori aRzrdisa da ganmtkicebis erT-erTi udidesi saSualebaa. i. gogebaSvilis azriT, adamiani pataraobidanve unda mieCvios `bunebis kvlevas mis elementTa da ZalTa gacnobas,`bunebismetyvelebis siyvaruls~ [gogebaSvili 1896: 111], raTa momavalSi misgan Seqmna `Cinebuli mecnieri, friad sasargeblo bunebismetyveli~[i. gogebaSvili 1912]. ramdenadac bunebismetyvelebis ganviTareba, iakobis TqmiT `swori pirdapiri~ gziT miemarTeba, imdenad misi kanonebisa da mis ZalTa Seswavla ueWvelad swor, mecnierul msoflmxedvelobas uqmnis Semswavlels. gogebaSvili materialuri TvalsazrisiT swavlobda da xsnida bunebis movlenebs, mis Zalebsa da kanonebs, amave TvalsazrisiT miudga igi adamianTa damokidebulebis sakiTxs bunebasTan, cxovelTa da mcenareTa samyaros ganviTareba ki ganpirobebuli iyo adamianis zemoqmedebiT da ekologiuri garemos xasiaTiT. i. gogebaSvils Tavis wignebSi naklebad ainteresebs sistematiuri bunebismetyveleba, samagierod gansakuTrebuli interesiT ekideba sakiTxs, Tu rogor cxovrobs cxoveli, rogor ibrZvis arsebobisaTvis, ra adgili uWiravs bunebaSi, ra damokidebuleba aqvs sxva cxovelebTan da metadre adamianebTan. maSin gogebaSvilis es Sexedulebebi progresuli da swavlebis sakiTxSi win gadadgmuli nabiji iyo. i. gogebaSvili savsebiT iziarebda axlad Casaxul biologiur mimarTulebas bunebismetyvelebis swavlebis meTodikaSi, romelic Tavisi arsiT dResac exmaureba Tanamedrove biologiis swavlebis meTodikas [gogebaSvili 1912: 240]. cnobilia, rom gogebaSvili Tavis droze gatacebuli iyo darvinizmiT. iakobis biografiidan viciT, rom igi studentobis periodidan Rrmad swavlobda darvinizms, iyo am moZRvrebis mimdevari, rogorc darvinisti da maSasadame evoluciuri-Teoriis momxre, iziarebda materialistur ideas, Teorias biologia-bunebismetyvelebis dargSi da es iyo erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSani misi azrovnebisa. samagierod, sazogadoebis gagebis sakiTxs sxvagvarad udgeboda. aq igi ar cnobda materializms da amis erTaderT mizezad asaxelebs materializmis mier religiis uaryofas, radgan religia maRal `zneobriv kategoriad miaCnda.~aseTia iakob gogebaSvilis msoflmxedveloba, misi sabunebismetyvelo ideebi, misi filosofia. iakob gogebaSvilis pedagogiuri moZRvreba SeiZleba gaiSalos xuTi ZiriTadi problemis irgvliv: aRzrda-ganaTlebis miznebi, aRzrda-ganaTlebis

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Sinaarsi, deda ena, didaqtika, saxalxo skola da maswavlebeli. gansakuTrebiT ainteresebda sabunebismetyvelo-biologiuri da filosofiuri mecnierebani. iakob gogebaSvili mowodebulia biologiuri Temebi SesaZleblobisamebr, sazogadoebriv-ekonomikur cxovrebas daukavSiros da amiT ufro meti interesi gamoiwvios misadmi. kargad xedavs, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ekonomikuri CamorCenilobis erT-erTi mizezi bunebis Zalebis ucodinroba iyo. amitomac didi pedagogi moiTxovda qarTveli axalgazrdobis idealuri ganaTlebis safuZvelze aRzrdas, bunebis kanonebis Seswavlas. `buneba emorCileba - ambobs i. gogebaSvili, - mxolod imas, vinc misi kanonebis codniT aRWurvilia, misTvis azris simdidris wyaroa, visac misi ZalTa gamoyeneba SeuZlia~. igi savsebiT marTebulad aRniSnavda: `umecari kaci SeiZleba SimSiliT mokvdes TviT mdidar bunebaSi, Tu mas am bunebis araferi gaegeba. TviT Rataki buneba SeiZleba adamianma Seqmnas simdidris wyarod, Tu man zedmiwevniT icis, saidan unda mouaros am bunebasa da rogor gaixados igi Tavisi moTxovnilebis mosamsaxured~. iakob gogebaSvilis mravali leqsi da moTxroba, bunebis siyvarulsa da misadmi mzrunveluri damokidebulebis masalas warmoadgens, aq sakmarisia aRiniSnos misi nawarmoebebi: `vano da Citi~, `ori saxnisi~, `aleqsi da aqlemi~ da sxva. [gogebaSvili 1895: 57]. iakob gogebaSvili Tavis saxelmZRvaneloebsa da statiebSi moiTxovda sagnebisa da bunebis movlenebis Seswavlas, rac Tavis mxriv, sawindaria xalxis ganaTlebisa da qveynis ekonomikuri siZlierisa. mas mTeli SegnebiT uyvarda Tavisi qveyana, misi buneba da ibrZoda imisTvis, rom yvelas ase hyvareboda igi. amasTan erTad igi axalgazrdobas aswavlida, rogor Seecno da daecvaT Tavisi qveynis mSvenieri buneba. `Cven am mdidar bunebis, araferi gagvegeba, ukuRmarTi aRzrdis wyalobiT. mis gamo Cvens bunebas epatronebian ucxoelebi, SeiaraRebuli realuri codniT..... umecreba Cveni am mxriv kidev ufro Sors midis. mTavarni mterni yovelgvari mosavlisa arian sxvadasxva Wia-matlebi, romlebic uRrRnian, ufuWeben saWirnaxulo mcenareulobas fesvebs, foTlebsa da nayofs da did zarals ayeneben mxvnel-mTesvelT~ da iqve ganagrZobs: `nadirTa da frinvelTa Soris moipovebian imisTanani, romlebic emterebian am mavne Wia-matlebs, sdevnian maT da auarebels maT ricxvs Jleten dRe da Rame, magram es Cvenma uvicma xalxma ar icis, mtrulad ekidebian am Tavis daufasebel megobars da umowyalod Jlets maT Tavis sazaralod~ [gogebaSvili 1912: 342]. iakob gogebaSvili Cvens samSoblos adarebs maSindel kulturul, ganviTarebul qveynebs, sadac mcodne adamianebs daumorCilebia buneba da simdidris wyarod gauxdia igi. Tavadve svams kiTxvas: `ratom?~ da `es imitom, rom holandielebi arian. CvenSi aqamomde umecreba sufevs~. TiTqmis erTi saukunis ganmavlobaSi izrdeboda Cveni axalgazrdebi i. gogebaSvilis saxelmZRvaneloebsa da moTxrobebze, marto `deda ena~ da `bunebis kari~ kmara iakobis samaradiso Zeglad qarTveli xalxis istoriaSi.

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iakob gogebaSvili iyo adamiani, romelmac Tavisi magaliTiT cxadyo, Tu ra SeuZlia gaakeTos erTma pirovnebam rodesac is maRali ideebiT aris gatacebuli, gonivrulad moqmedebs, wesierad cxovrobs da bunebisadmi siyvarulis gzas mtkiced mihyveba. qarTuli anbanis saxelmZRvaneloSic ki, romelic man 1895 wels gamosca, sakiTxav teqstSi xSirad iyenebda sabunebismetyvelo masalebs, riTac cdilobda patara qarTvelebs samSoblos siyvaruli bunebis siyvaruliT SeecnoT. i. gogebaSvili gvTavazobs rom, `Seswavla sagnebisa aucileblad Tanabrad unda warmoebdes, rogorc saswavlebelSi, ise TviT bunebaSi da cxovrebaSi, radgan amgvarad SeZenils codna-dakvirvebas aqvs namdvili ganmaviTarebeli mniSvneloba~ [gogebaSvili 1895: 32]. es meToduri rCevebia imis Sesaxeb, rom bunebis sagnebsa da movlenebs moswavleebi cocxal bunebaSi praqtikulad unda ecnobodnen. swored am rCevebs iTvaliswinebs Tanamedrove saganmanaTleblo programa swavlis dawyebiT safexurze: garemoze dakvirveba, bunebrivi movlenebis amocnoba da martivi procesis aRwera, monacemebis Segroveba, dakvirveba, martivi eqsperimentis gakeTeba, garemoze zrunva da usafrTxoebis wesebis dacva [erovnuli saswavlo gegma 2008:404]. iakob gogebaSvili aRniSnavda, rom buneba mkacri, Seuryeveli kanonebiT naSeni sikeTea, magram iseTi sikeTe, romelic guls gadauxsnis mxolod kanonebis kargad mcodne admians, imaT, visac unari aqvs gaigos da Seignos am kanonebis Sinagani logika. mxolod codna da gamocdileba aZlevs adamians SesaZleblobas bunebisagan boZebuli, gare samyaroSi arsebuli simdidre Tavis sasargeblod gamoiyenos. iakob gogebaSvilis azriT, `dawinaurebuls, ganaTlebuls qveyanaSi kargad aqvT Segnebuli, rom bunebis codna da mis ZalTa damorCileba Seadgens erTs umTavres burjs erisa da kacobriobis bednierebisa. amis gamo iq bunebis Seswavlas did adgils uTmoben bavSvis ganviTarebaSi, rogorc ojaxebi, ise skolebi. swored amisTana aRzrdis meoxebiT moxda is, rom evropulma kacobriobam TandaTan gaixada umorCiles mosamsaxured mZlavri Zalani bunebisani. da dRiTidRe zrdis Tavis keTildReobas maTi SemweobiT~ [gogebaSvili 1912: 242 gogebaSvili 1975:341]. literatura: gogebaSvili 1912: i. gogebaSvili, bunebis kari. tfilisi.1912 gogebaSvili 1975: i. gogebaSvili, Txuzulebani. Tbilisi. 1975 erovnul saswavlo gegma 2008: erovnuli saswavlo gegma zogadsaganmanatleblo skolebisaTvis, 2008-2009 saswavlo weli. Tbilisi., 2008. gogebaSvili 1896: i. gogebaSvili, mosavlis mcvelni anu sasargeblo cxovelebi da frinvelebi. tfilisi. 1896 gogebaSvili 1895: i. gogebaSvili. qarTuli anbani. tfilisi. 1895

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BROLISA TSULAIA

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

IAKOB GOGEBASHVILI ­ A NATURALIST

While studying natural science, it's crucial to emphasize the issue of the development of disposition-dependence and abilities of using the researches and knowledge as the demand of both contemporary methodology and Georgian classical didactics. According to Iakob Gogebashvili, the main aim of studing the nature is to teach the youth to express sympathy towards the nature, and enjoy inquiring and discussing it. Iakob Gogebashvili was a great representatives of Georgian didacticts. Gogebashvili studies and explains natural phenomena, its strength and laws from materialistic point of view, as well as human relations with nature, stipulates the development of the world of animals and plants by the human influence and the character of an ecological environment. In his books Gogebashvili is interested in systematical natural science, especially in the following matters: how an animal lives, how it fights for survive and what place it takes in nature and what relation it has with the animals and especially with the people. Gogebashvili's these views were very progressive in the educative sphere. He shared the newly established materialbiological direction in the teaching methodology of natural science that helps the teaching methodology of modern Biology even nowadays. In his text-books and articles Iakob Gogebashvili stresses the importance of the study of a natural phenomenon that on the other hand is the guarantee of the people's education and the country's economical strength. He loves his country with the whole consciousness, its nature and tries to make people appreciate it as well. Herewith he teaches the youth how to recognize and protect the country's wonderful nature. Practical use of nature is not only the source of the material wealth but one of the greatest means of proper education and strengthening of scientific thought. From his point of view a human must learn to develop the natural science. According to Iakob, study of its laws creates right, scientific ideology for the researcher. Iakob Gogebashvili was a man who proved by his life what the person can do when he/she is keen with great ideas, acts reasonably, and lives honestly. During the half century the Georgian youth was brought up with the help of his text-books and stories. Only the books: "Mother tongue" and "Door to nature" are enough to consider them the important eternal monuments in the history of Georgian people. Iakob Gogebashvili indicates that nature is the kindness built by strict laws but the kindness that is open to the people knowing the laws well, who can understand interior logic of these laws. Only the knowledge and experience give the possibilities to a human to use the wealth existing in the nature in his service. From the point of view of Iakob Gogebashvili, in advanced educated country it is well understood that the knowledge of nature and subordination its strength is one of the main supporting elements of the happiness of the nation and the humanity. That's why the study of the nature has an important place in a child's development both in families and at schools. Noteworthy, with the help of such upbringing the Europeans have developed the well-being and prosperity.

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pedagogika, fsiqologia

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Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Tamar javaxiSvili

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

Sexedulebebi fsiqikur janmrTelobaze

sulier daavadebaTa mZime formebi sazogadoebisaTvis cnobilia jer kidev hipokrates droidan, magram maTi gamomwvevi mizezebis da mkurnalobis saSualebaTa mecnieruli kvleva gacilebiT gvian daiwyo. fsiqikuri janmrTelobis mecnieruli cnebis SemuSavebisTvis saWiro kvlevas tabu hqonda dadebuli sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis ganviTarebis im etapze, roca gabatonebuli azris mixedviT sulier daavadebaTa mizezad miCneuli iyo satanis dabudeba adamianSi da misgan ganTavisuflebis erTaderT gzad iTvleboda adamianis Caqolva, an koconze dawva. renesansis epoqidan mecnierebis swrafi ganviTarebis pirobebSi mdgomareoba arsebiTad Seicvala. fsiqikuri janmrTelobis sakiTxis win wamowevas xeli Seuwyo viqtorianul epoqaSi sulier daavadebaTa katastrofulma zrdam, e. w. `ubavSvo~ pedagogikis marcxma, didi pedagogebis (komenski, pestaloci, herbardti) daJinebulma moTxovnebma da realurma praqtikulma mcdelobebma, raTa swavla-aRzrda daefuZnebinaT bavSvis individualuri da asakobrivi ganviTarebis kanonzomierebebze, Jan Jak rusos `Tavisufali aRzrdis~ Teoriam, pirveli humanistebis moZraobam ganaTlebis sayovelTaobis moTxovniT da a. S. fsiqikuri janmrTelobis mecnieruli ganmarteba pirvelad zigmund froidma mogvca. man SeimuSava fsiqikur aSlilobaTa ­ nevrozebis mkurnalobis meTodi, ganmarta igi rogorc adamianis xelaxla aRzrda - gamosworeba, rac miiRweva bavSvobaSi daSvebuli aRzrdis Secdomebis (travmebis) gacnobiereba-gaanalizeba-damuSavebiT da imedovnebda, rom es meTodi warmatebiT iqneboda gamoyenebuli pedagogikis mier fsiqikurad janmrTeli axalgazrda Taobis aRzrdaSi. froidis ganmartebiT, fsiqikuri janmrTeloba aris subieqturi fenomeni, romelic ar SeiZleba ganvixiloT socialuri pirobebisgan damoukideblad. adamianis sulieri mdgomareoba or faqtorzea damokidebuli. pirveli: moralur Rirebulebebsa da sazogadoebriv normebze adamianis warmodgenasa da maTi gaTavisebis da ganxorcielebis doneze; meore: ojaxis wevrebTan da sxva axlobel adamianebTan urTierTobis Taviseburebebze. fsiqoanalituri meTodi miznad isaxavs zrdasrulTan darRveuli fsiqikuri janmrTelobis aRdgena-SenarCunebas, xolo bavSvebTan muSaobisas misi mizania daexmaros mozards misi aracnobieridan (ididan, instinqturi miswrafebebidan da impulsebidan) iseTi cnobieri me-s amozrdaSi, romelsac eqneba unari sakuTar TavSi instiqturi miswrafebebisa da gaSinaganebuli kulturuli moTxov-

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nilebebis antagonisturi dapirispirebisas, miiRos da ganaxorcielos socialurad adeqvaturi, kompromisuli gadawyvetileba, romelic zians ar miayenebs mis fsiqikur janmrTelobas, eqneba unari miaRwios warmatebas da ganicados siamovneba da bedniereba Sromasa da siyvarulSi (am sityvis farTo fsiqoanalituri gagebiT). anviTarebs ra am azrs Tanamedrove fsiqoanalitikosi, fsiqoanalituri pedagogikis erTerTi fuZemdebeli h. figdori miiCnevs, rom fsiqikuri janmrTeloba aris realobis gaTvaliswinebisa da masTan mimarTebaSi sakuTari SesaZleblobebis, moTxovnilebebis, miswrafebebis cnobieri TviTkontrolis unari da unari imisi, rom adamianebTan urTierToba ar daamZimo bavSobidan SemorCenili daZabulobebiT, SiSebiT, agresiulobiT. Tanamedrove orTodoqsi fsiqoanalitikosi e. berni aRniSnavs, rom aracnobierSi SemorCenili `bavSvobisdroindeli daumTavrebeli saqmeebiT~ gamowveuli daZabulobani miiswrafvian qcevaSi gamovlena-gantvirTvisaken zrdasrulisTvis Seuferebeli formebiT, axarjvineben adamians did energias maT Sekavebaze an vlindebian qcevaSi ucnaurobebis, akviatebebis saxiT da uqmnian mas dabrkolebas Sromasa da socialur urTierTobebSi. fsiqikuri janmrTelobis gansxvavebul aqcentebs vxvdebiT sxva fsiqologiur mimdinareobebSi. aris azri, rom erTmaneTisagan unda ganvasxvavoT fsiqikuri, fsiqologiuri da pirovnuli janmrTeloba. fsiqikur janmrTelobaSi moiazreben grZnobis organoebis, calkeuli fsiqikuri procesebis da meqanizmebis srul, yovelmxriv ganviTarebas bavSvobis yvela stadiaze. am Tvalsazrisze mdgomTaTvis fsiqikuri janmrTeloba aucilebel pirobadaa miCneuli fsiqologiuri janmrTelobisaTvis. fsiqologiur janmrTelobaSi ki igulisxmeba ara calkeuli fsiqikuri procesebis da meqanizmebis, aramed mTlianobiTi pirovnebis sruli yovelmxrivi ganviTareba pozitiuri, pasuxismgebluri damokidebulebiT Sromisa da socialur urTierTobaTa normebisadmi. amgvari dayofis mowinaaRmdegeni miuTiTeben im realur SemTxvevebze, romlebic gviCveneben, rom Zlier, janmrTel fsiqikas SeuZlia aramarto fsiqikuri, aramed fizikuri defeqtis kompensirebac. xolo a. adleri pirdapir miuTiTebs: iyo pirovneba niSnavs imas, rom SegeZlos gamudmebiT eZio sakuTar TavSi is nakli da izruno mis gamosworebaze. es aris srulyofilebisaken swrafvis gza. naklisaTvis Tavis aridebas, usafuZvlo TviTdajerebulobas da TviTkmayofilebas mivyavarT srulyofilebis kompleqsisaken (an rac mis miRma ifareba ­ arasrulfasovnebis kompleqsisaken) da fsiqikuri janmrTelobis darRvevisaken. humanisturi fsiqologia (a. maslou, k. rojersi) miuTiTebs fsiqologiuri janmrTelobis or Semadgenel nawilze. pirveli aris adamianis miswrafeba ganaviTaros mTeli Tavisi potenciali TviTaqtualizaciis gziT. gaakeTos yvelaferi, risi gakeTebis unar-SesaZleblobebic aqvs. TviTaqtualizaciis aucilebel pirobad maT miaCniaT adamianis swori warmodgena sakuTar SesaZleblobebze, adeqvaturi, pozitiuri TviTSefaseba. es ganapirobebs warmatebas TviTaqtualizaciis procesSi, ris gareSec is ver iqceva

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fsiqikuri janmrTelobis garantad. k. rojersi aRniSnavs, rom TviTaqtualizacia ormxriv mimarTuli procesia: erTis mxriv is mimarTulia unar-SesaZleblobaTa momwifebis dasrulebaze, asakis Sesatyvisi kompetenturobisa da TviTefeqturobis zrdaze, meoris mxriv ki mas mivyavarT damoukideblobis, avtonomiurobisken, TviTregulaciisken. didi mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom TviTaqtualizaciis moTxovnileba ar iyos mocemuli `sufTa saxiT~, ganmxoloebulad, radgan aman SeiZleba gamoiwvios pirovnebis egoisturi ganviTareba, rac safrTxes Seuqmnis mis fsiqikur janmrTelobas. masTan erTad aucilebelia TviTtranscendenciis fenomenis mocemulobac. TviTtranscendencia niSnavs sakuTari me-s farglebidan gamosvlas da sxva viRacaze an raRacaze zrunvas. v. franklis azriT, iyo adamiani niSnavs mimarTuli iyo ara sakuTar Tavze, aramed raRac sxvaze. es aris gza altruizmisaken. fsiqologiuri janmrTelobisTvis zrunva gulisxmobs imas, rom asakobrivi ganviTrebis msvlelobaSi daZleul iqnas am or fuZe moTxovnilebas Soris disproporcia da miRweul iqnas maTi gaerTianeba, gamTlianeba erT sulier procesSi `urTierTSevsebadobis, damatebiTobis~ principis safuZvelze, sadac TiToeuli maTgani yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi qcevis damabalansebeli Zalis mqone iqneba. arc marto egocentrizmi da arc marto altruizmi, radgan cal-calke orive daarRvevs fsiqologiur janmrTelobas. pirveli, sazogadoebasTan dapirispirebis gamo, xolo meore ­ xSir frustraciaTa da sikeTis daufaseblobiT gamowveuli ukmayofilebis gancdiT. fsiqologiuri janmrTelobis meore Semadgenel nawilad humanistebi miiCneven adamianis miswrafebas umaRlesi sulieri Rirebulebebisadmi. sulierebas ganmartaven rogorc mxolod adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebel gansakuTrebul emociur-zneobriv mdgomareobas, romelic mimarTulia absolutur Rirebulebebze: sikeTeze, WeSmaritebaze, samarTlianobaze, mSvenierebaze... da gansazRvravs maTi realizaciis mcdelobas adamianis mier Tavis saqmianobasa da socialur urTierTobebSi. humanisturi fsiqologiis mier SemoTavazebuli ganaTlebis sistemis reforma (Serwymuli ganaTleba, Tavisufali swavla, Ria skola da a. S.) miznad isaxavs sulierebis aRzrdis dayenebas skolis upirveles amocanaTa rigSi. S. biuleris mixedviT, fsiqologiur janmrTelobas uzrunvelyofs sruli TviTganxorcieleba, rasac win unda uZRodes Sinagani SesaZleblobebis da namdvili Sinagani mowodebis TviTgamorkveva. TviTganxorcieleba ar emTxveva TviTaqtualizacias. TviTganxorcieleba aris ara ubralod individis Zalebis sruli gamovlena, aramed Sinagani mowodebis Sesatyvisad cxovrebis sazrisis danaxva da mTeli ZalebiT CarTva mis ganxorcielebaSi. am azrs eTanxmeba logoTerapiis fuZemdebeli v. frankli. amasTanave igi aRniSnavs, rom yvela epoqas Tavisi nevrozebi aqvs, gansxvavebuli mizezebiT da Sesabamisad `fsiqologiuri janmrTelobac gansxvavebul sayrdens saWiroebs~. misi azriT, z. froidis epoqisgan gansxvavebiT, dReisaTvis nevrozebs iwvevs

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egzistencialuri problemebi. ukanasknel xanebSi swrafad gavrcelebadi e. w. noogenuri nevrozebis mizezad miCneulia cxovrebis sazrisis dakargva, uperspeqtivobis gancda, uimedoba, rac ZiriTadad vlindeba mowyenilobasa da apaTiaSi, Sinagani sicarielis gancdaSi. am simptomokompleqss man uwoda `egzistencialuri vakuumi~. cnobilia a. ainStainis naTqvami: vinc Tavisi cxovrebis uazrobas ganicdis, ara marto ubeduria, aramed sicocxlis uunarocaa. v. franki aRniSnavs, rom sicocxlis azrisa da daniSnulebis, cxovrebiseuli miznebis sworad danaxva ar aris raRac abstraqtuli da Znelad misaRwevi, radgan isini yovelTvis dakavSirebulni arian konkretul situaciasTan, konkretul saqmianobasTan da konkretul adamianTan. yoveli adamianis irgvliv uamravia aseTi saqmeebi, man mxolod unda airCios Tavisi SesaZleblobebis da Sinagani mowodebis Sesatyvisi saqme. qarTuli fsiqoanalitikuri skola - mencari miiCnevs, rom normaluri anu janmrTeli fsiqikis SemTxvevaSi, romelic harmoniaSia rogorc funqciur tendenciebTan da biologiur TaviseburebebTan, aseve sazogadoebis normebTan, Teoriulad gamoricxulia fsiqikuri aSlilobis warmoSoba. fsiqikur aSlilobas iwvevs funqciuri tendenciis SeferxebiT gamowveuli, imTaviTve aracnobierad Camoyalibebuli fiqsirebuli ganwyoba. funqciuri tendenciis romelime elementis Seferxeba xels uSlis bavSvis fsiqosocialur momwifebas, ver xerxdeba misi me-s sruli identifikacia. dedis fsiqologiuri garemodan sruli gamoyofa, rasac SeiZleba Semdgomi katastrofuli Sedegebi mohyves. termini `fsiqikuri janmrTeloba~ saerTaSoriso kvlevebSi damkvidrda mas Semdeg, rac 1979 wels janmrTelobis dacvis saerTaSoriso komitetma gansaxilvelad waradgina moxseneba Temaze: `fsiqikuri janmrTeloba da bavSvTa fsiqosocialuri ganviTareba~. es iyo stimuli iseTi kvlevebisaTvis, romlebic Seiswavlidnen mimarTebas mozardis ZiriTad, savaldebulo saqmianobas ­ swavlas da mis fsiqikur janmrTelobas Soris.

literatura: 1997: . , , , 1997 2003: , , -, 2003 2000: . , , , 2000 2000: . . , , , 2000 mencari 1999: mencari (qarTuli fsiqoanalitikuri skola), Tbilisi. 1999

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pedagogika, fsiqologia

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Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

TAMAR JAVAKHISHVILI

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

VIEWS OF PSYCHICAL HEALTH

The first scientific explanation of psychical health was given by Sigmund Freud. He elaborated the treating method of neurosis, explained it as an educational improvement of a human that is achieved by the acknowledgement, analysis and elaboration of educational mistakes (traumas) made in childhood, and hoped that this method will be successfully used by pedagogy in training of the physically health young generation. According to the explanation of S. Freud, psychical health is a subject phenomenon that cannot be discussed independently from social conditions. A human's spiritual condition is dependent on two factors. The first: people's consideration of moral values and social norms, and the second: peculiarities of the relationship among family members and other relatives. Psychoanalytical method aims to reanimate-preserve destroyed psychical health of the adults, and while working with children to help the adolescent to develop such "I" in his/her unconsciousness, which will have the ability to receive socially adequate, compromise decision while instinctive aspiration and cultural requirements, not damaging his/her psychical health, will have the ability to achieve success and feel pleasure and happiness in labor and love. According to H. Figdor, psychical health is a cognitive control ability on his/her own possibilities and reality, and the ability not to oppress the relation with the people who have fears preserved from childhood. Humanist psychology (A. Maslow, K. Rogers) indicates two components of psychical health: the first is the human's aspiration to develop his/her entire potential in the way of self-actualization, do everything what he is able to do. He believed that the necessary condition for self-actualization is the human's correct view about his/her own possibilities. This stipulates success in self-actualization process and without it this will not be the guarantee of psychical health. K. Rojers notes that the self-actualization is a bilaterally directed process. On the one hand, it is directed to the completion of the development of the abilities, to the increase of competency and self effectiveness relevant to his/her age; and on the other hand it leads us to independence, autonomy, formation of self-regulation. The human aspiration towards high spiritual values is considered as the second component of the psychical health by the humanists. Spirituality is defined as the special emotional-moral condition typical only for the human, which is directed towards internal values and defines attempt of their realization by the human in his/her activity and social relations. Sh. Beuler and V. Franklin indicate the importance of the correct understanding of life's essence and its realization for psychical health. Herewith, V. Franklin remarks that every epoch has its neurosis. He thinks that the loss of life's essence, feeling of no perspective, hopelessness are the reasons of the lately fast-spread noogenic neurosis, which is shown in sadness and apathy, in the

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feeling of internal vacuum. He called this simoptomocomplex the `Existential vacuum". Georgian psychoanalytical school ­ Mentsar thinks that in the case of normal, health psychic which is in harmony with functional tendencies and biological peculiarities, as well as with social norms, it is theoretically impossible to develop a psychical disorder. Psychical disorder is caused by an unconsciously formed fixed disposition. Impeding some elements of functional tendencies prevents a child's psychosocial development; it is impossible to thoroughly identify his/her "I", to separate completely from a mother's psychical environment that may be followed by the next catastrophic results.

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pedagogika, fsiqologia

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Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Temur ormocaZe

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

maTematikis swavlebis zogierTi sakiTxisaTvis Tanamedrove saganmanaTleblo reformis pirobebSi

saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi ar arsebobs erTi universaluri modeli, romelsac moirgeb da amiT daasruleb reformas ganaTlebis sistemaSi. es aris mudmivad cvalebadi da ganviTarebadi samyaro, romelic mudmivad ixveweba da siaxlis ZiebaSia. bunebrivia, arsebobs fundamentaluri sakanonmdeblo baza, romelsac eyrdnoba momdevno nabijebi reformis gzaze. Cveni qveynis ganaTlebis reformis samarTlebriv bazas warmoadgenen kanonebi: `umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ (21. 04. 2004); `zogadi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ (08. 04. 2004); `profesiuli ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ (28. 03. 2007). nebismieri saRad moazrovne adamiani xvdeba imas, rom am kanonebis sruli masStabiT amoqmedeba umaRles an saSualo ganaTlebis sferoSi, niSnavs momavali Taobis, Rirseul aRzrdas, romelic orientirebulia sruliad axali Tanamedrove droisa da msoflios standartebis Sesatyvis progresirebad ganaTlebis sistemaze. zemoT aRniSnul kanonebTan SesabamisobaSia uamravi meToduri saxis statia da miTiTebebi, romlebic ase uxvad ibeWdeba skolis maswavleblebisaTvis sxvadasxva Jurnal-gazeTebSi (mag. gakveTilis gegma wuTebSi gaTvlili da gaanalizebuli, aRmoCeniT swavleba maTematikis gakveTilze da a.S.). magram, drois `CarCoebSi~ moqceuli maswavlebeli ver SeZlebs im sqemiT muSaobas, romlis rekomendaciebsac iZlevian Cveni kolegebi. romelime moswavlis mier dasmuli gonivruli kiTxva an replika gakveTils Tavdayira daayenebs da wuTebSi gaTvlili gakveTilisTvis daxarjuli dro, marTlac, rom fuWad dakarguli aRmoCndeba. amitomacaa, rom gvaviwydeba ZiriTadi, Tu risTvis Sedis maswavlebeli saklaso oTaxSi. mTeli msoflio darwmunebulia (zogierTi gamonaklisis garda) imaSi, rom marto swavleba arafris momtania, Tu ar moxda moqalaqis, rogorc pirovnebis harmonizacia. yvela ganviTarebuli qveyana periodulad atarebs reformebs ganaTlebis sferoSi (da ara marto masSi), radgan ganaTlebis sistema marto fexs ki ar unda uwyobdes reformebs, aramed winmswreb reJimSi unda muSaobdes. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare migvaCnia, rom skolaSi saWiroa klasgareSe muSaobis aRorZineba. klasgareSe muSaobis zogierTi forma, misi simartivisagan (maswavleblebisaTvis) gamomdinare, Tanamedrove sajaro skolebSi dResac mimdinareobs _ magaliTad maTematikuri olimpiadebi, romlebic emsaxurebian maTematikuri niWiT dajildoebuli axalgazrdebis aRmoCenas.

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Tumca daviwyebasaa micemuli maTematikuri wreebis muSaoba, maTematikuri wreebisa da viqtorinebis mowyoba da a. S. maTematikis erovnuli saswavlo gegma - programa saSualo moswavlisaTvis codnis savaldebulo minimumia. Cveni skolis cxovrebaSi ki savsebiT axali datvirTva unda SeiZinos maTematikuri wreebis muSaobam, romlis mTavari mizani iqneba: · mecnierebaTa (kerZod maTematikis) gaRrmavebuli swavleba · moswavleTa logikuri azrovnebis ganviTareba am statiis farglebSi SevCerdebiT maTematikuri wreebis muSaobis Taviseburebebze da moviyvanT Cveni azriT ramdenime saintereso Temas maTematikuri wreebis muSaobisTvis. moswavleebs, rom ukeT gavacnoT maTematikis ganviTarebis etapebi Cvens qveyanaSi, sasurvelia maTematikuri wris muSaoba grZeldebodes xuTi weli: V klasidan IX klasamde. wris TiToeul mecadineobaze sasurvelia 10-15 wuTi davuTmoT istorias, kerZod ki _ maTematikis istoriis im sakiTxebs, romlebic exeba magaliTad: V klasSi - `rogori zomis erTeulebi hqondaT Zvelad saqarTveloSi~; `aTwiladebis aRmoCena~. VI klasSi - `Cveni cifrebi - indoelebis aRmoCena~; VII klasSi - `eileri da misi wirebi (venis diagramebi)~; VII-IX klasebSi - `gamoCenili qarTveli da ucxoeli maTematikosebi~; amasTanave, maTematikuri wris muSaobaSi, CarTuli unda iyos is sakiTxebi, romlebic gauRrmaveben moswavleebs codnas da sagnisadmi interess. maTematikaSi am miznis misaRwevad, SeiZleba maswavleblebs mieces Semdegi rekomendaciebi: 1. amocanebis amoxna - gakveTilebis Temis mixedviT, morgebuli saqarTvelos sinamdvileze da yoveldRiurobaze. 2. sxvadasxva maTematikuri paradoqsebi, sofizmebi, amocana - xumrobebi, geometriuli iluziebi. aseTi amocanebis ganxilvisaTvis saWiroa mkacri msjeloba da TiToeuli nabijis dasabuTeba. 3. praqtikuli samuSao, romelic moswavleebs daexmareba miRebuli maTematikuri codnis gamoyenebasa da TvalsaCinoebis damzadebaSi. praqtikuli samuSaos Tematika, unda iyos bunebrivi gagrZeleba saprogramo masalisa maTematikaSi. vfiqrobT, uadgilo ar iqneba ramdenime saintereso amocanis moyvana maTematikis wreebze muSaobisTvis, romlebic kargi orientiri iqneba maTematikuri wris xelmZRvanelebisaTvis. magaliTad: 1.

1 2 3 99 ... = 2 3 4 100

2. 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 99 + 100 =

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3. 4.

( 2 - 1)( 2 + 1)( 3 - 2 )( 3 + 2 )...( 99 +

1 1 1 1 1 + + + ... + + = 1 2 2 3 3 4 8 9 9 10

98 =

)

5. ra aris erTiani gamosaxulebaSi a) 7 a + 1 b) 1 a + 8 6. SeiZleba Tu ara, rom x > 5 x . 2 2 7. iyofa Tu ara a - c + b(2a + b) mravalwevri a + b - c samwevrze? 8. SeiZleba Tu ara, rom 3 da 2 iyos x + px + 3 = 0 kvadratuli gantolebis fesvebi 9. aageT ori kuTxe ise, rom maTi saerTo nawili iyos: oTxkuTxedi, samkuTxedi, sxivi, monakveTi, wertili. 10. daxazeT ori samkuTxedi ise, rom maTi saerTo nawili iyos eqvskuTxedi, xuTkuTxedi, oTxkuTxedi, samkuTxedi, monakveTi, 11. wertili 12. ramdeni monacemi unda vicodeT, rom ganvsazRvroT: a) samkuTxedis yvela elementi? b) wrewiris yvela elementi? imeds vitovebT, rom aRniSnuli problema qarTuli maTematikuri sazogadoebis ZalisxmeviT dadebiTad gadawydeba, rac xels Seuwyobs zogadad maTematikuri, logikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebas.

2

literatura: saxalxo ganaTleba 2009 - gazeTi `saxalxo ganaTleba~ 29 ianvari _ 4 Tebervali. 2009 weli; 5_11 Tebervali. 2009 weli; kanoni 2004 - kanoni `zogadi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ 08. 04. 2004. dograSvili 1997 - k. dograSvili, dawyebiTi maTematikis pedagogika. Tbilisi. 1997. qelbaqiani 2001 ­ v. qelbaqiani, maTematikis swavlebis meTodika. quTaisi 2001. jinjixaZe 1993 ­ j. jinjixaZe, maTematika. Tbilisi. 1993.

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Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

TEIMURAZ ORMOTSADZE

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

TO SOME ISSUES OF MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MODERN CONDITIONS OF EDUCATIONAL REFORM

The answer to this question can vary. The course of education reform has two sides - positive and negative. On the whole the reform is useful for the development of the society. However, some courses, especially Mathematics, have undergone certain losses, in particular one of the Mathematics directions, i.e. Math Instruction. The legislative bases of the education reform are on the following: "Higher education" (21.04.2004.), "General education" (08.04.2004), "Vocational education" (28.03.2007). Any smart person would know that the realization of these laws in full scope in higher or secondary education sphere means the guarantee for the future of our children; that it is oriented towards the new modern progressive education system equivalent to the world standards. Lots of methodological articles and instructions published so frequently for teachers in different newspapers and magazines are in full correspondence with the above mentioned laws (for example, lesson curricula counted and analyzed in minute timeframe; discovery method at the lesson of mathematics. However, a teacher put in so-called "timeframe" wouldn't be able to work under the scheme recommended by our colleagues. For instance, any wise questions asked by students or remarks will interfere with the teaching process and the course time counted in minutes will be spent in vain. That's why we forget the main ­ why the teacher enters the classroom. The whole world (beside some exceptions) is sure that education is not useful if there is no personal harmonization of a citizen. Every developed country periodically conducts reforms in education sphere (and not only), whereas the education system shouldn't be conducted only alongside the reforms, but must work in a progressive regime. From the above mentioned statement we think that it is necessary to revive an extracurricular training. Some forms of extracurricular activities in terms of its simplicity (for teachers) are held in public schools even at present time ­ for example, mathematical Olympiads, that help to discover the youth with great skills in Math. Existence and work of math circles as well as quizzes, are forgotten; that, based on a proper leadership, certainly would facilitate the raise of the respect towards the home-country and the nation. Program in mathematics is an obligatory minimum of knowledge for an average student. And functioning of mathematical circles should add a new load to a school life. Its main aim will be: teaching sciences (for example, mathematics) on a deeper level; and developing pupils' logical thinking abilities. It is desirable that mathematical circles last at least five years: from the V grade till IX in order to introduce the phases of mathematical development to pupils. Ideally, it

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would be useful to spend 10-15 minutes on history questions at each lesson of the circle, especially on the issues which concern the following: V grade ­ "What kind of size measures people had in Georgia in old ages?"; "Discovery of decimals". VI grade ­ "Our figures ­ the Indians' discovery" VII grade ­ "Eiler and his lines (Vienna's diagrams)" VIII-IX grades ­ Famous Georgian mathematicians. Herewith, the tasks which deepen pupils' knowledge in Mathematics and develop interest in the subject should be included in the work of the mathematical circle. The following recommendations are given to teachers for gaining this aim. 1. Solve the sum ­ according to the course topic, adjusted to Georgian reality and everyday life. 2. Various mathematical paradoxes, sophisms, sum jokes, geometrical illusions. In order to discuss these sums it is necessary to analyze and stress each step. 3. Practical work which helps pupils to effectively use the gained mathematical knowledge. Topics of practical work must be the continuance of program materials in mathematics. We hope that the mentioned problem will be solved positively with the help of Georgian mathematical society for the best future of our children.

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pedagogika, fsiqologia

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Pedagogy-Psychology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

maka doliZe

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

swavla ­ aRzrdis sakiTxebi petre surgulaZis SemoqmedebaSi

qarTveli Jurnalisti da sazogado moRvawe petre surgulaZe XIX saukunis miwurulsa da XX saukunis dasawyisSi moRvaweobda. igi iyo pedagogi, publicisti da redaqtori, sazogado moRvawe, romelmac xeli moawera saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aqts. miuxedavad mravali damsaxurebisa, farTo sazogadoebisaTvis petre surgulaZis Sesaxeb saTanadod cnobili ar aris. igi iyo Jurnal `eris~ ara marto redaqtor-gamomcemeli, aramed sulisCamdgmelic. samwuxarod, enciklopediaSi amis Sesaxeb gakvriT aris moxsenebuli, xolo sofrom mgalobliSvili ki, romelic Jurnalis ukanasknel 96-e nomers redaqtorobda, `eris~ redaqtorad moixsenieba. 19131914 wlebSi iyo Jurnal `Tavisufali saqarTvelos~ erT-erTi redaqtori. petre surgulaZe daibada XIX saukunis 60-ani wlebis bolos, rostom surgulaZis ojaxSi. 1894 wels daamTavra Tbilisis aleqsandres saostato instituti da xeli mihyo pedagogiur moRvaweobas. pirvel xanebSi quTaisis gimnaziaSi muSaobda, sadac xSirad gamodioda leqciebiT da moxsenebebiT pedagogiur da politikur sakiTxebze, ilaSqrebda arsebuli reJimis winaaRmdeg. Jandarmerias SeumCneveli ar darCenia misi ganwyoba, risTvisac sdevnida mas. dapatimrebisagan Tavi rom daeRwia, p. surgulaZe iZulebuli gaxda, mietovebina quTaisi da TbilisSi gadmosuliyo, sadac saTavadaznauro gimnaziaSi maswavleblad daiwyo muSaoba. petre surgulaZe, ratomRac, verc Tbilisisa da verc quTaisis pedagogiur koleqtivs ver SeeTvisa. Tumca samarTlianoba moiTxovs aRiniSnos, rom amas obieqturi mizezebi hqonda. orive skolaSi gamefebuli iyo qaosi da uniaToba, romelsac mtkice da principuli xasiaTis petre surgulaZe ver urigdeboda. igi TavgamodebiT ibrZoda da cdilobda gamoenaxa iseTi gzebi da saSualebebi, romlebic xels Seuwyobdnen swavla-aRzrdis gaumjobesebas, moswavleTa erovnuli TviTSegnebiT aRzrdas, maTSi mSobliuri enisadmi interesisa da Rrma siyvarulis gaRvivebasa da ganmtkicebas. rogorc quTaisSi, aseve Tbilisis saTavadaznauro gimnaziaSi maswavleblad yofnis dros, igi dauaxlovda moswavleebs da didi avtoriteti moipova. maTTan erTad, xSirad, gamodioda mitingebze, aqveynebda werilebs, statiebs swavla-aRzrdisa da saqarTveloSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. misi TiToeuli statia Tu werili gamoirCeoda maRali akademiurobiT, Rrma SinaarsiT, ris gamoc mravalricxovan mkiTxvels izidavda. moiTxovda saqmis Segnebulad, gulianad, rudunebiT keTebas `Tu kaci saqmes Seugneblad, ugu-

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lod ekideba maSin, rasakvirvelia, yoveli odnav moberili sioc ki gaitacebs, aiyoliebs da, vin icis, ra vnebas da cuds moqmedebas ar Caadeninebs~ [iveria 1897]. igi iRwvoda imisaTvis, rom TiToeuli Tavisi moswavlec am suliskveTebiT aRezarda, amitomac iyo, rom zepir gamosvlebsa Tu publikaciebSi, mourideblad akritikebda im vai pedagogebs, romlebic usulgulod ekidebodnen momavali Taobis aRzrdas. `an maswavlebels ar esmis gonebrivi ganviTarebis mniSvneloba, - ambobda igi, - anda ar surs esmodes is~[kvali 1902/6: 94]. mas miaCnda, rom zogierTi maswavlebeli, samwuxarod, moswavleebs xSirad saTanadod wera-kiTxvasac ver aswavlida. amis erT-erT magaliTad Tbilisis sakvirao skolis maswavleblebi mohyavda, romelTagan, TxuTmetidan mxolod oTxiode Tu iyo mowodebis simaRleze. `ai, saqmis siyvarulic ase unda, - werda p. surgulaZe, - ubralo anbanic ver giswavlebiaT, TiTo saaTi kviraSi ver SegiwiravT umecari xalxisaTvis. Tu vinmem rame giTxraT ki, gaiberebiT: - `Cven inteligencia varT, Cvenzea momavali damokidebulio~ ­ RmerTma nu qnas!~ [kvali 1902/11: 178]. am werilma ise aRaSfoTa sakvirao skolis maswavleblebi, rom gazeT `cnobis furclis~ erT-erT nomerSi, mkacradac gaakritikes igi da ironiuli xasiaTis werilic moaTavses: `batono redaqtoro! umorCilesad gTxovT neba gviboZoT Tqvenis gazeTis saSualebiT madloba gadavuxadoT sakvirao skolis erT ucnaur gulSematkivars~[cnobis furceli 1902]. amave werilSi, isini yovelnairad cdilobdnen Tavis gamarTlebasa da `ucnauri gulSematkivris~ dadanaSaulebas. petre surgulaZe ver SeaSina Tavdasxmam da gazeT `kvalis~ me-13 nomerSi dabeWda Tbilisis sakvirao skolis qarTveli maswavlebeli qalebisadmi mimarTuli Ria werili `.. sanam Cem gamtyunebas moisurvebdeT, - werda igi, - mipasuxeT Semdeg kiTxvebze... marTalia Tu ara, rom Cvens sakvirao skolaSi... xSirad moswavleebi umaswavleblod rCebian, radgan ukanasknelT urCevniaT seirni da sxva da sxva `krebebis~ daswreba?... roca romelime maswavlebeli gakveTils akldeba, maSin jgufi usaqmod rCeba, Tu vinme mecadineobs? ramdeni mowafe gyavT da raa mizezi mowafeTa ricxvis simcirisa?~ [kvali 1902/13: 217]. am SekiTxvebs, ra Tqma unda, aravin gasca pasuxi. mozardi Taobis aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis amaRlebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi gza, petre surgulaZis azriT, skola iyo. mas miaCnda, rom ganaTlebisa da skolis gareSe arseboba SeuZlebelia. `skola safexuria, - ambobda igi,- romelzedac mozardi adamiani emzadeba sazogadoebriv cxovrebisaTvis. skola aris ojaxis da sazogadoebis Semadgeneli dawesebuleba~[iveria 1987]. petre surgulaZe bavSvis saRi gonebrivi ganviTarebis aucilebel pirobad skolaSi mSobliur enaze swavlebas miiCnevda. am sakiTxs igi xSirad ayenebda, rasac ramdenime wignic ki miuZRvna. mis mier gamocemuli Jurnali `eri~ mSobliur enaze swavlebis erT-erTi propagandisti iyo. petre surgulaZe principulad moiTxovda, dawyebiTi ganaTleba savaldebulo, ufaso, saero da erovnuli yofiliyo. samwuxarod, skolis bevri imdroin-

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deli mesveuri amas yurad ar iRebda. arc moswavleebi miiCnevdnen swavlas savaldebulod, metic, amave azrs iziarebda mSoblebis garkveuli nawilic, maswavlebelTa umravlesobac upasuxismgeblod ekideboda am sakiTxs. amis erT-erTi mizezi is iyo, rom mravali skolis gamgebloba Cabarebuli hqonda gareSe pirebs, romlebsac ganaTlebis bevri araferi gaegebodaT. amis sailustraciod petre surgulaZes mohyavda kavkavis skolis magaliTi, sadac gamefebuli iyo qaosi da ganukiTxaoba. ibrZoda ra skolebSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis winaaRmdeg, igi principulad moiTxovda, rom skolis gamgebloba ufros moswavleebs gadascemodaT. amave azrs iziarebda iakob gogebaSvilic. amis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneboda `rogorc pedagogisa, agreTve sxva mxrivac skolis saqmec kargad wavideso, aRniSnavda igi, - rom arsebuli wesi yovlad mavnea saqmisaTvis, es iqidan Cans, rom skolaSi bevri uwesoba xdeba da saqme iqamdis mivida, rom moswavleebs Tavpirs amtvreven~ [iveria 1901]. sazogadoebis mniSvnelovani nawili mtrulad Sexvda kavkavis skolis gakritikebas. presis furclebze qveyndeboda kritikuli, xSirad Seuracxmyofeli masalebi, im pirebis mimarT, romlebmac gailaSqres kavkavis skolaze. niko sulxaniSvili, `plebs-is~ fsevdonimiT werda: `aba seiri maSin iqneba, roca alyiT Semoertymian protestants pedagogs da ieriSiT mivlen. magram RvTis winaSe, laxtis qneva imasac ki emarjveba~[cnobis furceli 1901]. am kritikam azri ar Seacvlevina qarTuli skolis interesebis damcvel petre surgulaZes. igi kvlavac ilaSqrebda skolaSi uwesrigobisa da swavlis dabali donis winaaRmdeg. xSirad aqveynebda publikaciebs skolaSi, kerZod soflis skolaSi damkvidrebuli ganukiTxaobis Sesaxeb. petre surgulaZe sastikad akritikebda imdroindeli skolis mizans, romelic codnis mxolod praqtikul mxares aniWebda mniSvnelobas, xolo Teoriuli meorexarisxovnad miaCnda. principulad winaaRmdegi iyo am Sexedulebis da Tvlida, axalgazrda Taobis ganaTlebis maRali donis misaRwevad saWiroa, pedagogs ara marto praqtikuli gamocdileba hqondes, aramed Teoriuli codnac. igi maRal Sefasebas aZlevda iakob gogebaSvilis naSroms [iveria 1901/2], sadac warmoCenili iyo Tvalsazrisi maswavleblis rolis Sesaxeb moswavlis swavla-aRzrdis saqmeSi. `...b-ni gogebaSvili, - werda p. surgulaZe, _ Tavisi wigniT mcire daxmarebas ar gauwevs Cvens pedagogebs kritikulad Sexedon sagans da saRi pedagogiuri rwmenani, principebi gaigon da SeiTvison~[iveria 1901/22]. moswavleTa swavla-aRzrdis gaumjobesebis saqmeSi p. surgulaZe did mniSvnelobas aniWebda i. gogebaSvilis `deda enas~, sadac avtori ukve cnobili asoebidan SesaZlebel kombinaciebs adgenda. petre surgulaZes ar moswonda imdroindeli swavlebis done da adreul asakSi rTuli nawarmoebebiT swavlebis winaaRmdegi iyo. `me aranormalur movlenad mimaCnia, _ werda igi, _ rom Cvens skolebSi moswavle axalgazrdobas aswavlian, iseTi wignebis saSualebebiT, rogorc magaliTad vefxistyaosani da orbelianis arakebia, ma-

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Sin rodesac bavSvis gonebas srulad ar SeuZlian maTi moneleba da arc mniSvneloba eqneba aseTs swavlebas; Cven unda Tanamedrove cxovrebis Sexedulebebis wignebze aRvzardoT bavSvebi~[iveria 1897]. p. surgulaZe `vefxistyaosanisa~ da orbelianis arakebis swavlebas ki ar uaryofda, piriqiT, metad saWirod miaCnda, magram moiTxovda, Tavdapirvelad, bavSvisaTvis ioli gziT, gasagebi eniT eswavlebinaT, raTa Semdgom, TandaTanobiT, rTuli masala daeZlia. qarTuli enis saTanado doneze dasayeneblad petre surgulaZes saWirod miaCnda qarTuli enis swavlebisaTvis SemuSavebuliyo axali programa. moxsenebebSi, werilebsa Tu statiebSi xSirad akritikebda dawyebiT skolebSi damkvidrebul swavla-aRzrdis mdgomareobas, principulad ayenebda sxvadasxva problemas, romlebsac xeli unda Seewyo ganaTlebis saerTo donis amaRlebisaTvis. swored am sakiTxebs eZRvneba `saqarTvelos kalendarSi~ dabeWdili erovnuli suliT gaJRenTili werili `ena da eri~ [cnobis furceli 1901], sadac petre surgulaZisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli pedagogiuri damajereblobiTa da mecnieruli dasabuTebiT aris saubari enis ganviTarebis istoriaze. am werils didi aRfrTovanebiT Sexvda samson fircxalava, romelic pedagogiur sazogadoebaSi didi pativiscemiT sargeblobda. man gazeT `iveriis~ furclebze `sityvis~ fsevdonimiT qeba-didebiT moixsenia petre surgulaZis es werili, maRali Sefaseba misca mas da mTlianad gaiziara misi Sexedulebebi [kvali 1902/4: 59]. petre surgulaZes swamda, rom ganaTlebis saqme saqarTveloSi gaumjobesdeboda. dadgeboda is nanatri dro, rodesac arc erTi wera-kiTxvis ucodinari ar iqneboda `... Tanamedrove pirobebSi, _ werda igi, _ saxalxo skola raodenobiTac sul win wava da bolos iseT wertilamde mivaRwevT, rom arc erTi wera-kiTxvis ucodinari ar darCeba~ [iveria 1900]. petre surgulaZis moRvaweobas garkveul periodSi, kerZod, meoce saukunis dasawyisSi, ratomRac saTanadod ver afasebdnen, daumsaxureblad akritikebdnen kidec. sxvaTaSoris, am saqmeSi Tavi `iveriamac~ gamoiCina, romelmac ramdenime kritikuli werili gamoaqveyna. gansakuTrebiT RvarZliani iyo 1900 wlis 7 ivniss gamoqveynebuli werili: `erTi RvTis gulisaTvis hkiTxeT baton surgulaZes, ra Rvawli miuZRvis warsulSi sazogadoebis winaSe, anu ra didi SesaniSnavi niWisa da codnis patronia~ [iveria 1900]. magram, sul male vai kritikosebi mixvdnen, ra didi Rvawli miuZRoda petre surgulaZes erisa da sazogadoebis winaSe, ra niWisa da codnis patroni iyo igi da qeba-dideba dauwyes mas. maT mxari auba gazeTma `iveriamac~ da mravali masala gamoaqveyna, romelic naTel suraTs iZleoda misi cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. petre surgulaZe pedagogiur moRvaweobas kargad uTavsebda sazogadoebriv-politikur muSaobas, aqtiurad TanamSromlobda sxvadasxva Jurnal-gazeTebSi, iyo mravali gazeTis saredaqcio kolegiis wevri, Tavyrilobebisa da konfederaciis saorganizacio komitetis wevri da Tavmjdomare, erovnuli sabWos wevri. 1913-1914 wlebSi JenevaSi leo da giorgi kere-

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seliZeebTan erTad gamoscemda qarTuli Jurnals `Tavisufali saqarTvelo~. [SaraZe 2001:61-113]. petre surgulaZe metad saintereso pirovneba da mravalmxrivi moRvawe iyo. cxovrebam igi xan aRma atara, xan daRma. siZneleebs ar SeuSinda da arCeuli gzidan ar gadauxvia. piriqiT, saqarTvelos gasabWoebis Semdeg sazRvargareT gadaxvewili cdilobda, yovelTvis, Rirseulad etarebina qarTvelis saxeli. literatura: iveria 1897: gazeTi `iveria~, 1897 wlis 10 agvisto; kvali 1902/6: gazeTi `kvali~ 6, 1902 weli; kvali 1902/11:. gazeTi `kvali~ 11, 1902 weli; cnobis furceli 1902: gazeTi `cnobis furceli~, 1902 wlis 21 marti; kvali 1902/13: gaz.eTi `kvali~ 13, 1902 weli; iveria 1901: gazeTi `iveria~, 1901 wlis 25 agvisto; cnobis furceli 1901: gazeTi `cnobis furceli~, 1901 wlis 30 oqtomberi; iveria 1901/2: gazeTi `iveria~, 1901 wlis 2 dekemberi; iveria 1901/22: gazeTi `iveria~, 1901 wlis 22 dekemberi; kvali 1902/4: gazeTi `kvali~, 4, 1902weli; iveria 1900: gazeTi `iveria~, 1900 wlis 7 ivnisi; SaraZe 2001: g. SaraZe, qarTuli emigrantuli Jurnalistikis istoria, t. I. Tbilisi. 2001.

MAKA DOLIDZE

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

TEACHING ASPECTS IN THE WORKS OF PETRE SURGULADZE

A Georgian journalist and public figure Petre Surguladze led his activities in the 20th century. He was a teacher, publicist, editor. He signed the Independent Act of Georgia. But in spite of his merits, he is not widely-known. We don't see his name in Georgian encyclopedia. Even as an editor of the journal `Eri" (`Nation"), his name is mentioned in passing. Though, he was not only the editor and publisher of the journal but also its inspirer. After graduation from the institute Petre Surguladze began his pedagogical activities. He worked at Tbilisi and Kutaisi gymnasiums where he held lectures and speeches about pedagogical and political issues, fought against the existing regime. He fought selflessly and tried to find such ways and means that would facilitate the improvement of education, growing the pupils with sense of national self-consciousness, rising and strengthening the interest and love of a native language. Petre Surguladze published letters and articles on education as well as the existing situation in Georgia in different newspapers and journals. His each article or letter was distinguished with ahigh level of academy, deep content; that's why he attracted numerous readers. His main requirement was to perform work consciously. He led his activities in order to bring up each pupil with this aspiration, that's why in his public statements and publications he criticized the

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teachers who had a callous attitude towards an upbringing of the future generation. He believed that unfortunately some teachers could hardly educate students in good reading and writing. In Petre Surguladze's opinion school was one of the basic ways of bringing up the young generation and developing education. He believed that it was impossible to exist without education and school. School is the component institution of a family and the society. He considered school teaching in a native language being the essential condition for a child's sensible development. Mr. Surguladze also published many books covering these issues. Noteworthy, the journal `Eri" was one of the propagandists of teaching in a native language. Petre Surguladze principally required a primary education to be obligatory, free of charge, secular and national. Unfortunately, many school leaders of that time didn't pay attention to that. The pupils didn't consider education to be obligatory; furthermore, some parents shared the same opinion, as well as the majority of teachers had a negligent attitude towards this matter. Petre Surguladze strictly criticized the school direction that attached importance only to a practical part of the knowledge, whereas its theoretical part was considered as a minor subject. P. Surguladze was against such approach and thought that a teacher should have not only practical experience but also theoretical knowledge in order to reach high education level of the young generation. He evaluated Iakob Gogebashvili's work `Analysis of teaching textbook of the Russian Language" which was presenting a certain reflection on a teacher's role in pupils' education. For the improvement of pupils' education Petre Surguladze paid great attention to `Deda Ena" (Mother Tongue) by Iakob Gogebashvili, where the author built the possible combinations from famous letters. Petre Surguladze did not like the teaching level of that time and was against the study of difficult compositions at an early age. He thought it was abnormally to study by `Knight in the leathers skin" and Orbeliani's parables because a child's mental can hardly absorb them. However, we should not perceive Petre Surguladze totally denying teaching of `the knight in the leathers skin" and Orbeliani's parables. On the contrary, he thought it was necessary though only through teaching children in an easy way. He thought that the teaching material should be comprehensible for children and only afterwards they would gradually grasp the difficult material. Petre Surguladze considered that it was necessary to elaborate a new program for raising the importance of Georgian Language. He believed that education matter would be improved in Georgia, that the time would come when there were no illiterate people in the country. Petre Surguladze successfully combined pedagogical activity with public political work, actively contributed to different newspapers, was a member of the editorial board of many newspapers, a member and chairman of organizational committee of the confederation, and a member of National Council. Petre Surguladze was quite an interesting person and figure with diverse areas of expertise. He had many difficulties in life and but he was not afraid of difficulties and never stepped aside from his chosen way. On the contrary, being abroad he always tried to bear the name of a Georgian with great dignity.

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samarTali, ekonomika

=

Law, Economics

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Tamar zarandia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

garigebis formis problema qarTul samarTalSi

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Sesavali; sesxis xelSekrulebaSi procentze SeTanxmebis forma; garigebis forma fulad valdebulebebsa da valis arsebobis aRiarebisas; garigebis formis problema sakuTrebis uflebis konstituciurobasTan dakavSirebiT; garigebis formis problema sakuTrebis mindobisas; ukanaskneli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi uZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis SeZenisas garigebis formis Taobaze.

Sesavali

yvela Tanamedrove marTlwesrigSi zogierTi xelSekrulebis namdvilobisaTvis aucilebelia kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili aucilebeli formis dacva. Tumca formis moTxovna yvelgan gaxda gamonaklisi formis Tavisuflebis saerTo wesidan. qarTuli kanonmdeblobiT nebis gamovlena SeiZleba moxdes zepirad an werilobiT, dumiliT, moqmedebiT an sulac umoqmedobiT, konkludenturi moqmedebiT. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 68-e muxlis Tanaxmad, `garigebis namdvilobisaTvis saWiroa kanoniT dadgenili formis dacva~. Tu gadavxedavT garigebis formasTan dakavSirebul sakanonmdeblo moTxovnebs, davinaxavT, rom kanoni mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi moiTxovs dadgenili formis dacvas da ZiriTadad ganamtkicebs garigebis formis Tavisuflebis princips. ukanaskneli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebiT, romelsac am naSromis boloSi SevexebiT, garigebebis savaldebulo sanotaro damowmeba qarTul samarTalSi kidev ufro iSviaTi gamonaklisi gaxda. valdebulebiT samarTalSi mciredi gamonaklisebis garda kanoni raime formis dacvas savaldebulod ar Tvlis, sanivTo samarTalSi formis Sesaxeb kanonis moTxovnebis dacva ki aucilebelia. erTmaneTisagan ganasxvaveben kanoniT gTvaliswinebul werilobiT formas, garigebiT gaTvaliswinebul werilobiT formas, garigebis rTul sanotaro formas da sxva.

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sesxis xelSekrulebaSi procentze SeTanxmebis forma

qarTul sasamarTlo praqtikaSi garigebis formis problema aqtualuri iyo sesxis xelSekrulebasTan dakavSirebiT. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsiT sesxis xelSekrulebisaTvis ar aris aucilebeli werilobiTi formis dacva da aseTi garigeba SeiZleba zepiric iyos, magram am SemTxvevaSi sesxis xelSekrulebis arseboba ar SeiZleba dadasturebul iqnes mxolod mowmeTa

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CvenebiT. amdenad marTalia kanoni ar moiTxovs sesxis xelSekrulebisaTvis werilobiT formas, magram metwilad mxareebi mimarTaven mas. sainteresoa aseve sesxTan dakavSirebuli aqsesorli uflebis gaformebasTan dakavSirebuli mdgomareoba. kanoni arc aq moiTxovs raime formis dacvas, magram sasamarTlo praqtikam gamokveTa, rom Tu xelSekruleba daido werilobiTi formiT, SeTanxmeba procentze aseve unda gaformdes werilobiT. samagaliTod SegviZlia moviyvanoT saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erT - erTi gadawyvetileba. saqmis garemoebani iyo Semdegi: v. surmaniZem asesxa v. TxilaSvils 7000 aTasi aSS dolari. sesxis xelSekruleba daido werilobiTi formiT da xelSekrulebis me-3 punqtSi aRiniSna, rom sesxs sargebeli procentis saxiT ar ericxeba. mosarCele miuTiTebda, rom sesxis xelSekrulebis gaformebis dResve mxareebi SeTanxmdnen yovelTviurad 7 000 aSS dolaris 5% gadaxdis Taobaze, rac mopasuxis TxovniT sesxis xelSekrulebaSi ar miuTiTes. sakasacio palatam CaTvala, rom mxareTa SeTanxmeba procentis Taobaze sesxis xelSekrulebis arsebiT pirobas warmoadgens. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 327-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad, xelSekruleba dadebulad iTvleba, Tu mxareebi mis yvela arsebiT pirobaze SeTanxmdnen saamisod gaTvaliswinebuli formiT. imave muxlis meore nawilSi ki miTiTebulia, rom arsebiTad CaiTvleba xelSekrulebis is pirobebi, romlebzedac erT-erTi mxaris moTxovniT miRweul unda iqnes SeTanxmeba, anda romlebic aseTad miCneulia kanonis mier. sakasacio palatam CaTvala, rom saqmis masalebiT ar dasturdeba, mxareTa Soris sesxis xelSekruleba procentianoba. sk-is 328-e muxlis pirveli nawilis moTxovnaa, rom Tu xelSekrulebis namdvilobisaTvis dadgenilia gansazRvruli forma, maSin xelSekruleba ZalaSi Sedis mxolod am formis Sesaxeb moTxovnis Sesrulebis Semdeg. rac miuTiTebs imaze, rom werilobiTi formiT dadebuli xelSekrulebis pirobebis Secvlac amave formiT unda moxdes. Sesabamisad, imis miuxedavad rom procentTan dakavSirebiT xelSekrulebis werilobiTi forma sakanonmdeblo moTxovna ar aris, procenti warmoadgens xelSekrulebis arsebiT pirobas da aseTi SeTanxmeba procentis Sesaxeb aseve werilobiTi formiT unda moxdes [sus gadawyvetileba 2006. 30. 06/1]. · garigebis forma fulad valdebulebebsa da valis arsebobis aRiarebisas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom msgavsi wesi moqmedebs valis arsebobis aRiarebis mimarTac. aqac aucilebelia uflebamosili piris mimarT werilobiTi aRiarebis arseboba. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs araerTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos 2006 wlis 30 noembris as 239-653-06 ganCinebiT ar dakmayofilda j. burkiaSvilis sakasacio saCivari ss `gurjaani-93~-is mimarT da mas uari eTqva 150 000 aSS dolaris odenobiT sesxis dabrunebaze. j. burkiaSvilis moTxovna ss `gurjaani -93is~ mimarT efuZneboda im garemoebas, rom misi ganmartebiT miTiTebul iuridiul pirs asesxa 150 000 aSS dolari, romelic misTvis ar daubrunebiaT.

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imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom Tanxis gadacema moxda zepiri xelSekrulebis safuZvleze am valdebulebis Sesrulebas j. burkiaSvili iTxovda ss `gurjaani 93-is~ notariulad damowmebuli sameTvalyureo sabWos #15 oqmis safuZvelze, riTac, misi azriT moxda valis arsebobis aRiareba. aRniSnuli mtkicebulebis samarTlebrivi Sefasebis Sedegad palata mivida im mosazrebamde, rom aRniSnuli ar warmoadgens valis aRiarebas Semdeg garemoebaTa gamo: sameTvalyureo sabWos sxdomaze ganxiluli iyo Tavad j. burkiaSvilis gancxadeba, romelSic igi iTxovda mis mier 1997 wlis 23 seqtembris #19 xelSekrulebiT damzadebuli Rvinis safasuris nawilobriv dabrunebas SeZlebisdagvarad. saqmis masalebidan dadginda, rom aRniSnuli xelSekruleba daido ss `gurjaani 93~-sa da bizneskompania `vasil treidings~ Soris. aRniSnul xelSekrulebaSi j. burkiaSvili ar moixsenieba arc mxared, arc mxaris warmomadgenlad. marTalia sameTvalyureo sabWos dadgenilebis SinaarsSi miTiTebulia, rom unda dakmayofildes j. burkiaSvilis gancxadeba da #19 xelSekrulebis Sesruleba moxdes naRdi angariSsworebiT an gadaricxviT, magram aRniSnuliT ar ikveTeboda is garemoeba, rom valdebulebis Sesruleba unda momxdariyo swored burkiaSvilis mimarT. saubari iyo mxolod #19 xelSekrulebis Sesrulebaze, romlis mxaresac burkiaSvili ar warmoadgenda. sk-is 341-e muxlis Tanaxmad im xelSekrulebis namdvilobisaTvis, romliTac aRiarebul iqna valdebulebiTi urTierTobis arseboba, aucilebelia werilobiTi aRiareba. valis aRiarebis dros xdeba valdebulebiTi urTierTobebis arsebobis aRiareba, magram mocemuli oqmis safuZvleze aRiarebulia #19 xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare urTierToba, rac ar gulisxmobs j. burkiaSvilis mimarT valdebulebis arsebobas. amdenad palatam uari uTxra burkiaSvils sakasacio saCivris dakmayofilebaze [sus gadawyvetileba 2006. 30. 06/2].

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garigebis formis problema sakuTrebis uflebis konstituciurobasTan dakavSirebiT

uflebis warmoSobasTan dakavSirebiT garigebis formis sakiTxi daisva sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 2001 wlis 7 ivnisis gadawyvetilebaSic (1/103,117,137,147,148,152-153) saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis ­ valida darbaiZis, naTela cimakuriZis, nana mirvelaSvilisa da sxvebis sarCelSi saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRmdeg. davis sagans warmoadgenda `sacxovrebeli sadgomiT sargeblobisas warmoSobili urTierTobebis Sesaxeb~ 1998 wlis 25 ivnisis kanonis konstituciuroba saqarTvelos konstituciis 21-e muxlTan mimarTebaSi. sadavo aqti kanonmdebelma specialuri kanonis saxiT miiRo. igi gamiznuli iyo moewesrigebina warsulidan SemorCenili samarTlebrivi moTxovnebis ugulebelyofiT gaformebuli aratipuri sabinao urTierTobebi, romelTa mxareebsac warmoadgenen binis mesakuTreebi da mosargebleebi. CvenTvis amjerad sainteresoa is samarTlebrivi poziciebi, rac am saqmeze arsebul gansxvavebul azrSia gatarebuli, amitomac gTavazobT

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mcire citirebas: Cven ar uarvyofT mosarCeleTa samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobaze damyarebul pozicias imis Taobaze, rom uZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis warmoSobisaTvis saWiroa nebis gamovlena, romelic savaldebulo formaSi unda iyos gamoxatuli da saTanado wesiT registrirebuli, magram es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom nebis gamovlena gavaigivoT savaldebulo formasTan. nebis gamovlena am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, mainc nebis gamovlenaa, marTalia, igi gamoxatulia garkveuli werilobiTi formiT. kanonmdebeli nebis gamovlenisa da savaldebulo formis konfliqtis viTarebaSi, uflebis damfuZneblad miiCnevs nebis gamovlenas pirveli punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli saxiT da amiT asworebs formis nakls. Cven migvaCnia, rom sakuTrebis uflebasTan mimarTebiT konstituciurobis gamorkvevisas, mniSvnelovania swored rom mesakuTris namdvili nebis dadgena. mesakuTres, romelmac namdvilad moisurva sacxovrebeli sadgomis gasxviseba da SemZenisagan Sesabamisi safasuric miiRo, samoqalaqo brunvaSi aRiarebuli keTilsindisierebis moTxovnebi avaldebulebs, rom borotad ar gamoiyenos SemZenTan urTierTobaSi arsebuli formis nakli. iseT viTarebaSi, roca saxezea nebis gamovlena da savaldebulo formis nakli swordeba imiT, rom kanoni aRiarebs me-2 muxlis pirvel punqtSi mocemuli saxiT dadebuli nasyidobis namdvilobas, SeuZlebelia vilaparakoT mesakuTris sakuTrebis uflebis darRvevaze... am SemTxvevaSi mesakuTre Tavisufalia nebis gamovlenaSi da ara savaldebulo formis gansazRvraSi. sadavo muxlis norma mxolod im SemTxvevaSi cnobs mxareTa Soris nasyidobas, roca igi werilobiTi dokumentiT iqneba aRiarebuli [zoiZe 2001. 07.06]. da marTlac, ra daniSnuleba aqvs formas garigebebSi? igi nebis gamovlenis utyuarobisa da mtkicebis garantiaa. forma formisTvis ki ar arsebobs, aramed nebis gamovlenis namdvilobis mtkicebis saSualebaa. amdenad garigebis forma mowesrigebuli, usafrTxo da garantirebuli samoqalaqo brunvis safuZvelia.

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garigebis formis problema sakuTrebis mindobisas

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsiT sakuTrebis mindobis xelSekrulebiT sakuTrebis mimndobi gadascems qonebas mindobil mesakuTres, romelic iRebs da marTavs mas sakuTrebis mimndobis interesebis Sesabamisad. mindobili mesakuTre mesame pirebTan urTierTobaSi sargeblobs mesakuTris uflebamosilebiT (725-e muxlis me-2 nawili). ssk 725-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad, mindobili mesakuTre movalea marTos mindobili sakuTreba Tavisi saxeliT, magram sakuTrebis mimndobis riskiTa da xarjiT. swored amiT gansxvavdeba mindobili mesakuTris instituti davalebis urTierTobisagan, rom aq mindobili mesakuTre axorcielebs marTvas Tavisi saxeliT. mindobili mesakuTre warmomadgenlisagan gansxvavdeba swored moqmedebis Tavisuflebis xarisxiT. is ar aris mxolod sxvisi nebis ganmaxorcielebeli piri, aramed arsebiTad Tavisufalia da Tavad SeuZlia ganaxorcielos yvela uflebamosileba, risi ganxorcielebac

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xelewifeba mesakuTres. mindobili mesakuTris koncefcia, rogorc cnobilia, ukavSirdeba inglisur-amerikul samarTals da iSviaTobaa kontinentur marTlwesrigebSi, radgan emyareba inglisuri samarTlis metad Tavisebur tradiciebs. trasti, Tavisi bunebiT ar miekuTvneba arc sanivTo da arc valdebulebiT uflebebs, radgan aseTi dayofa ucnobia im marTlwesrigebisaTvis, sadac aRniSnuli xelSekruleba gaCnda. 725-e muxlis me-2 nawilis pirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, mindobili mesakuTre mesame pirebTan urTierTobaSi sargeblobs mesakuTris uflebamosilebiT. mindobili mesakuTris mesame pirebTan urTierTobis sakiTxi pirdapir ukavSirdeba mindobili sakuTrebis xelSekrulebis formis problemas. 727-e muxlis Tanaxmad, sakuTrebis mindobis xelSekruleba ideba werilobiT. ar arsebobs kanonis sxvagvari imperatiuli moTxovna am xelSekrulebis formasTan dakavSirebiT. amavdroulad, praqtikaSi ukve gaCnda azri, rom wilis mindoba aris wilis gasxvisebasTan gaTanabrebuli garigeba da Sesabamisad, am SemTxvevaSi daculi unda iqnes wilis gasxvisebis wesebi [sus gadawyvetileba 2001/12: 1398]. yvela SemTxvevaSi faqtia, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsi ar iTxovs aseTi xelSekrulebis gaformebisaTvis, garda werilobiTisa, raime formalobebis dacvas, maSin rodesac praqtikulad SeuZlebelia, rom pirma isargeblos mesakuTris uflebamosilebiT mxolod werilobiTi formiT dadebuli xelSekrulebis safuZvelze (magaliTad, rodesac saqme exeba wilis mindobas). amasTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom moqmedebs kanonis codnis prezumfcia, da formalurad, piri ar aris valdebuli icnobdes sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas imis Taobaze, rom wilis mindoba uTanabrdeba mis gasxvisebas. Tumca Tu mxareebi marTlac moqmedeben im ganzraxviT, rom wilis marTvas ganaxorcielebs mindobili mesakuTre, SeuZlebelia maT ar daicvan wilis gasxvisebis wesebi, Tumca amas kanoni maTgan ar moiTxovs. radgan, rogor unda marTos pirma, rogorc mindobilma mesakuTrem qoneba, magaliTad, Tu qonebaa uZravi nivTi, romelic gadaeca mindobil mesakuTres, Tu ar aris daculi aseTi nivTebis gasxvisebisaTvis saWiro wesebi. vin endoba mas am urTierTobebSi?

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ukanaskneli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi uZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis SeZenisas garigebis formis Taobaze.

uZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis SeZenisas garigebis formis Taobaze ukanaskneli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi qarTul kanonmdeblobaSi ganxorcielda 2006 wlis 29 dekembers. am cvlilebebamde uZravi nivTis SesaZenad aucilebeli iyo garigebis sanotaro wesiT damowmeba da SemZenis registracia sajaro reestrSi. aseT proceduras araerTi qveynis kanonmdebloba ganamtkicebs da igi emsaxureba uZravi qonebis SemZenTa interesebis dacvasa da samarTlebriv usafrTxoebas. cvlilebebTan dakavSirebiT gamoiTqva kritikuli Sefasebebic [Wanturia 2007: 26].

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2006 wlis 29 dekembris cvlilebebis Semdeg uZravi qonebis SesaZenad sakmarisia werilobiTi SeTanxmeba mxareebs Soris da SemZenze garigebiT gansazRvruli sakuTrebis uflebis registracia sajaro reestrSi (muxli 183). rogorc aRniSnul cvlilebebTan dakavSirebul kanonis proeqtze ganmartebiT baraTSi aRiniSna cvlilebebis miRebis mizezi uZrav nivTebze uflebis registraciis proceduris sirTule yofila. SemdgomSi ganmartebiT baraTSi, romelic am kanonis miRebis aucileblobas gvisabuTebs, vkiTxulobT: `sajaro reestrSi garigebis Sedegad warmoSobili uflebis registraciis gamartiveba miznad isaxavs uZrav nivTze uflebebis warmoSobis gamartivebas administraciuli barierebisagan. cvlilebebis miRebis Semdeg saerTod aRar moxdeba garigebis sanotaro wesiT dadastureba, mxolod SesaZlebeli iqneba garigebaze xelmoweris damowmeba. notariusis moqmedeba saqarTveloSi dayvanilia wminda formalur donemde, maT mxolod imitom mimarTaven, rom amis valdebuleba arsebobs. notariusi ki, am formalobas momsaxurebis safasuris miRebis motivaciiT (dainteresebiT) asrulebs, rac arcTu mcirea da moqalaqeTa da mewarmeTa samarTlian guliswyromas iwvevs. calke aRsaniSnavia notariusTa institutis komercializacia saqarTveloSi. notariusis momsaxurebis safasuri gamoiangariSeba garigebaSi miTiTebuli fasidan, romelic maRalia, Tu maRalia garigebis fasi. amiT ki, notariusi Tavisufali profesiis piris nacvlad, mogebaze orientirebul subieqts emsgavseba. mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs drois faqtori, rac dokumentaciis moZiebidan garigebis sanotaro dadasturebamde drois monakveTs moicavs, rasac emateba notariusis e.w. mzadyofna, daadasturos garigeba, rac arcTu iSviaTad problematuria, notariusis gazrdili rolidan gamomdinare. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, axali cvlilebebi miznad isaxaven sanotaro moqmedebis ara gauqmebas, aramed garigebebis sanotaro wesiT savaldebulo dadasturebis gauqmebas da xelSekrulebis absoluturi Tavisuflebis principis ganmtkicebas kanonmdeblobaSi. garigebis sanotaro wesiT dadasturebam unda miiRos nebayoflobiTi xasiaTi.~[samoqalaqo kodeqsi]. aRniSnuli iyo citireba sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis ganmartebiTi baraTidan. sakiTxavia mxolod, ramdenad aris warmodgenili dasabuTeba sakmarisi argumenti aseTi seriozuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebisaTvis. sabolood, uZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis SeZenis axali wesi ase gamoiyureba: uZrav nivTze registraciis moTxovnis ufleba warmoiSoba mxareTa mier xelmowerili garigebidan. garigebaze xelmowera uSualod xdeba saregistracio samsaxurSi, sadac uflebamosili piri (saregistracio dokumentebis mimRebi) daadgens garigebis mxareTa vinaobas da mxareebi garigebaze xels moaweren misi TandaswrebiT. garigebis damdeb pirebs ar mouwevT uZrav nivTze sajaro reestridan amonawerisa da yadaRis cnobis miReba, es informacia adgilze iqneba Sesabamisi eleqtronuli bazis saxiT, romelsac saregistra-

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cio samsaxuris uflebamosili piri Seamowmebs dokumentebis miRebamde. amiT uflebis ganmkargavi piri Tavisufldeba zedmeti xarjebis, droisa da administraciuli barierebisagan; Tumca saregistracio samsaxuris uflebamosili piris funqciaa mxolod daadginos, gankargavs Tu ara nivTs misi mesakuTre da daadasturos garigebaze xelmoweris faqti. dadastureba moxdeba ara raime specialuri aqtis SedgeniT, aramed saregistraciod dokumentis miRebiT. garigebis Sinaarsze pasuximgebloba (kanonmdeblobasTan Sesabamisoba da a.S.) mTlianad gadadis garigebis mxareebze. vfiqrob, rom SesaZlebelia axal sakanonmdeblo regulirebas dadebiTi mxareebic hqondes, magram mowesrigebis garkveuli xarvezianoba aseve TvalnaTelia. pirvel rigSi, es exeba imas, rom Tundac sanotaro formis sakanonmdeblo moTxovnebi mTeli rigi garemoebebiTaa nakarnaxevi. pirvel rigSi, es aris aseTi urTierTobebis monawileTa dacva siCqarisagan. sailustraciod moviyvan ramdenime normas saqarTvelos kanonidan notariatis Sesaxeb: sanotaro moqmedebebTan dakavSirebiT notariusi samarTlebriv daxmarebas uwevs pirebs da maTi SuamavlobiT adgens dokumentebis proeqtebs;1 imave kanonis 50-e muxlis Tanaxmad notariusi movalea sanotaro moqmedebis Sesrulebisas sanotaro moqmedebis Sinaarsi da samarTlebrivi Sedegebi ganumartos im pirebs, romlebic iTxoven sanotaro moqmedebis Sesrulebas. amasTan notariusi movalea izrunos, raTa ar Seilaxos im pirTa interesebi, romlebmac kanoni ar ician da saWiroeben samarTlebriv daxmarebas2. amave kanonis 51-e muxli ki akonkretebs sanotaro dokumentebis xelmoweris wess, kerZod: Tu sanotaro dokumenti Seicavs sanotaro moqmedebis monawilis nebis gamovlinebas, notariusma dokumentis xelmoweramde mas unda waukiTxos dokumentis teqsti (punqti 2); Tu sanotaro moqmedebis Sesrulebis monawile munji, yru an yru-munjia, notariusma saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi am pirisaTvis sanotaro moqmedebis Sinaarsis da Sedegebis gasagebad unda isargeblos Sesabamisi specialistis daxmarebiT. specialistma xelmoweriT unda daadasturos, rom moqmedebis Sinaarsi pirs ganemarta da mis nebas Seesabameba~ `Tu sanotaro moqmedebis Sesrulebis mTxovneli moqalaqe werakiTxvis ucodinari an usinaTloa notariusi movalea waukiTxos mas teqsti da es aRniSnos dokumentSi~ (punqti 5). mimaCnia, rom saqarTveloSi, sadac samarTlebrivi ganaTleba mosaxleobaSi ar aris saxarbielo, ganxorcielebuli cvlileba ar aris gamarTlebuli da SeiZleba iqces seriozul problemad samoqalaqo brunvisaTvis da gazrdis garigebaTa baTilobisa da samarTlebrivi davebis warmoSobis albaTobas. aseve mimaCnia, rom uZrav qonebaze sakuTrebis SeZenasTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovania sanotaro damowmeba, radganac es emsaxureba marTlwesrigis stabilurobas. amave sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebiT sanotaro wesiT damowmeba ar aris aseve saWiro Cuqebis, samidRemCio rCenis da saqorwino xelSekrulebaTa da1 kanoni notariatis Sesaxeb, muxli 41, p. 4. 2 kanoni notariatis Sesaxeb, muxli 50.

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sadebad. saqorwino kontraqtTan dakavSirebiT miviCnev, rom Tu meuRleebi xelSekrulebiT cvlian TanasakuTrebis kanoniT dadgenil reJims, mxareTa interesebidan gamomdinare, aRniSnuli aseve unda savaldebulo wesiT saWiroebdes sanotaro damowmebas. mimaCnia, rom im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saubaria mxareTa interesebis dacvisa da stabilurobis interesebze, kanonmdebloba mxareebs unda sTavazobdes maTi dacvis sakmaris standartebs. zog SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqme exeba uZrav nivTebTan dakavSirebul garigebebs, kanonmdeblobam, Cemi azriT, ar unda dautovos mxares arCevanis ufleba im dacvasTan dakavSirebiT, rasac sTavazobs dadgenili formis saxiT. Tumca uZravi nivTebis bazarze ukanaskneli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi amiT ar amowurula. aRniSnul cvlilebas mohyva sxva, saqarTvelos iusticiis ministris brZanebiT damtkicda instruqcia `uZrav nivTebze uflebaTa registraciis Sesaxeb~ [brZanebuleba 2006. 13. 12]. aRniSnuli instruqcia `sajaro reestris mier gaweuli momsaxurebisaTvis dawesebuli safasuris Sesaxeb~ kanonTan da `uZrav nivTebze uflebaTa registraciis Sesaxeb~ kanonTan erTad qmnis kidec sajaro reestris warmoebisa da xelmisawvdomobis ZiriTad samarTlebriv safuZvels. axali instruqciis seriozuli siaxle gaxda is, rom amonaweri sajaro reestridan uZrav nivTebze SesaZlebelia gaices nebismier pirze, mas ar gaaCnia moqmedebis SezRuduli vada, amonaweri ganTavsebulia veb gverdze da misi amobeWdva SesaZlebelia SeuzRudavad. saagentos veb gverdze ganTavsebulia Sesabamisi administraciuli aqti, romelic aseve xelmisawvdomia nebismieri pirisaTvis. TavisTavad, administraciuli organos mier Tavisi funqciebis ganxorcielebisas Tanamedrove teqnologiebis gamoyeneba marTlac mniSvnelovnad aumjobesebs dainteresebuli pirebis momsaxurebis xarisxs, amiT udavod gaumjobesda dainteresebuli piris mxridan aseTi informaciis gacnobis SesaZlebloba da xelmisawvdomoba, magram am konkretul SemTxvevaSi sajaro reestris amonawerTan dakavSirebiT bevri kiTxvis niSani arsebobs. kerZod, aRniSnuli instruqciis me-9 muxlis me-5 punqtis Tanaxmad `maregistrirebeli organo uflebamosilia eleqtronuli aslis saxiT iqonios da amave saxiT gasces mis mier gamocemuli an gacemuli nebismieri dokumenti, romelsac SeiZleba samarTlebrivi Sedegi mohyves~. me-6 punqtis Tanaxmad ki `am muxlis me-5 punqtiT gaTvaliswinebul dokumentebis eleqtronul aslebs da maT amonabeWdebs aqvs igive iuridiuli Zala, rogoric Tavad am dokumentebs~. samwuxarod, praqtika ise ganviTarda, rom sajaro reestri iZleva mxolod eleqtronul asls, maSin rodesac sajaro reestri uflebamosilia gasces eleqtronuli asli im dokumentisa, romelic ukve gamocemulia an gacemulia da arsebobs dednis saxiT. aseve savaraudoa, rom aseTi asli, raki igi aslia, unda damowmdes damowmebis formuliariT, rogorc amas iTxovs imave me-9 muxlis me-2 da me-3 punqtebi1 (rac aseve ar xdeba). aRniSnuli wesebis dacvis

1 punqti me-2: `maregistrirebeli organo uflebamosilia daamowmos mis mier, an misi qvem-

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gareSe arsebuli aslebi Sesabamisad dokumentad ver miiCneva. mdgomareobas arTulebs isic, rom ar arsebobs dokumenti, romelSic dadgenilia eleqtronuli dokumentis savaldebulo rekvizitebi, romelTa dacva aucilebeli pirobaa eleqtronuli dokumentis namdvilobisaTvis (aseTi dokumenti arsebobs sabanko seqtorSi, sadac aris dadgenili eletronuli xelmoweris wesi, daSifvris wesebi, dacvis wesebi da sxva). aRniSnuli cvlilebebi SedarebiT axalia da amdenad miuxedavad imisa, rom aris aRniSnuli sakiTxebisadmi araerTgvarovani damokidebuleba, yvela tyuil - marTals gansjis dro da Camoyalibebuli samarTlebrivi praqtika. literatura: susGgadawyvetileba 2006. 30. 06/1 - saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos 2006 wlis 30 ivnisis -1260-1501-05 gadawyvetileba. susGgadawyvetileba 2006. 30. 06/2 - saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos 2006 wlis 30 noembris 239-653-06 gadawyvetileba zoiZe 2001. 07. 06. - saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosamarTlis besarion zoiZis gansxvavebuli azri saqmeze saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi valida darbaiZe, naTela cimakuriZe da sxvebi saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRmdeg, 2001 wlis 7 ivnisi, 1/1/103, 117, 137, 147-48. susGgadawyvetileba 2001/12 ­ saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba samoqalaqo saqmeebze, 2001 w. 12 Wanturia 2007 - lado Wanturia, damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirveli samoqalaqo kodeqsi 10 wlisaa, Jur. `marTlmsajuleba da kanoni~, 02. 03. 2007 samoqalaqo kodeqsi - ganmartebiTi baraTi `saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsSi cvlilebebisa da damatebis Setanis Sesaxeb" saqarTvelos kanonis proeqtze, http://www.civilin.org.ge/parliament/ccodexg.php brZanebuleba 2006. 13. 12. - saqarTvelos iusticiis ministris 2006 wlis 13 dekembris 800 brZanebiT damtkicebuli instruqcia `uZrav nivTebze uflebaTa registraciis Sesaxeb~

dgomi organos mier gamocemuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis an sxva dokumentebis, aseve masTan daculi uflebis damadasturebeli dokumentebis Tu sxva dokumentebis aslebi, Tu dednis da aslis Sinaarsi Seesabameba erTmaneTs. punqti 3: dokumentaciis aslis sisworis damowmebisas maregistrirebeli organo adgens formuliars. formulari iwereba aslis boloSi an calke furcelze, romelic aikinZeba aslTan erTad. formularis Sinaarsi ganisazRvreba erovnuli saagentos Tavmjdomaris individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtiT. formulari mowmdeba maregistrirebeli organos samsaxurebrivi beWdiT. Tu dokumentis asli Sedgeba ramdenime furclisagan, furclebi ise unda aikinZos, rom dazianebis gareSe SesaZlebeli iyos furclis gancalkeveba.

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samarTali, ekonomika

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Law. Economics

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

TAMAR ZARANDIA

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

THE PROBLEM OF THE FORM OF A TRANSACTION IN GEORGIAN LAW

In every modern justice for some agreement to be legally valid it is necessary to observe the mandatory forms established by the law. However, almost everywhere the form requirement has become the exception from the general rule of freedom of form. According to Georgian legislation the will may be declared orally or in writing, tacitly, through an action or even omission, by contracting bargains. If we look through the legal requirements related to the form of a transaction, one can see that the law requires observance of the established forms only an exceptional cases and reinforces the principle of freedom of transaction form in general. The law of obligations doesn't require the protection of some form except for certain cases, but in property law it is necessary to strictly follow the statutory requirements concerning form. There can be a written form envisaged by law, a written form prescribed by a transaction, a complex notarized form of a transaction, etc. Prof. Zarandia's article concerns the issue of form in transactions. The author researches the problems existing within the Georgian law in relation with the form of a transaction, for example, the form of an agreement on interest in a loan contract, the problem of form in the case of property trust, etc. In Georgian judicial practice the problem of form of a transaction has been rather pressing in relation with loan contracts. The Civil Code of Georgia does not provide for a mandatory written form for a loan contract, thus such a transaction may also be made orally, but in this case the existence of a loan contract cannot be certified only through the testimonies of witnesses. Hence, although the law doesn't require a written form for a loan contract, the parties opt for this very form in most cases. The situation is also rather interesting in relation with the registration of loan related appurtenant rights. The law doesn't require the observance of some specific form in this case either, however the judicial practice evidences that if a contract is made in writing, an agreement on interest should be executed also in written form insofar as the interest is an essential condition of a contract. It can be said that similar rule operates with respect to the recognition of debt. In this case it's also necessary for a written recognition to an authorized person to exist. There has been a very interesting from the legal point of view theoretical discusion concerning the origin of a right in the context of the form of a transaction. What is a founder ­ a declaration of will or a form in transactions? Is it possible to neglect the problem of form when the will really exists and it is confirmed? And really what is the aim of the form in transactions? It is the guarantee of veracity and assertion of declaration of will. The form doesn't exist purely for the purpose of form. It is only the instrument of assertion of the authenticity of declaration of will.The form of a transaction is the basis of

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well-regulated, safe and guaranted civil circulation. The issue of the form of a transaction is rather problematic in the case of property trust. Commensurate with the Civil Code of Georgia a trustor transfers property to a trustee on the basis of a trust agreement who receives and manages it in accordance with the interests of the property trustor. The trustee acts as a proprietor in relation with the third parties (Article 725, Part 2). As it is known the concept of a trustee is associated with the English-American law and is a rarity in the continental law as it is based on quite peculiar traditions of the English law. Trust by its nature doesn't belong either to property or obligatory rights, because such division is unknown for the law where the type of agreement concerned originated. According to the first sentence of Part 2 of Article 725 of the Civil Code a trustee enjoys the powers of a proprietor in relation with the third parties. The relationship of a trustee with the third parties is directly related to the problem of form of a trust agreement. According to Article 725, a trust agreement is made in writing. There is no other imperative statutory requirement concerning the form of this type of agreement. At the same time there already is an opinion in practice that the trust of a share is equalized to the alienation of a share and accordingly in this case the rules of alienation of a share should be observed. In any case it is a fact that the Civil Code doesn't require the observance of any other formalities in relation with the execution of such an agreement except for the written form of the agreement when it is practically impossible for a person to enjoy the powers of a proprietor only on the basis of the agreement made in writing. The last amendment concerning the form of a transaction in the case of purchase of a title to real property were introduced into Georgian legislation on the 29 December 2006. Before these amendments the notarization of a transaction and registration of a buyer in the Public Register was required in the case of purchase of a real estate. After the introduction of the aforementioned amendments only the execution of a written agreement between the parties and the registration of the right of a buyer, envisaged by the agreement, in the Public Register is sufficient for the purchase of a real estate. These changes resulted in substantial simplification of the real estate purchase procedure ­ the procedure was accelerated and became more accessible. However all these have negative consequences as well. In particular, there is no person responsible for the lawfulness of a transaction. When a notary was involved in these relationships, he was the person who was supposed to explain the type of the agreement they were entering into to the parties; to invite a translator if any of the parties did not know the language, etc. What is more, according to the opinion, which developed in the German literature, notary activities are associated with certain timelines what saves people from making hasty decisions. In this case the cancellation of the notarization requirement increases the probability of origin of legal disputes. It is beyond doubt that the legislation should offer enough standards to the parties for their protection. In the authors opinion in some cases when the matter concerns to transactions related to real property the legislation should not provide a party with an alternative in relation with the protection, which is guaranteed by the established form of a transaction.

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samarTali, ekonomika

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Law. Economics

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

ALBERTO DE OLIVEIRA

Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

BRAZIL: ECONOMY, INEQUALITY AND ANTAGONISMS

Brazil occupies an important position not only in Latin America, but also among the named emergent countries. Its importance in the world economy is justified not exclusively by the magnitude of its wealth (GDP of US$ 1,3 billion), its territorial extension (8,5 million sq.km) or its population (191,6 million). After World War II, Brazilian economy changed from the pattern agricultural exports to urban-industrials sectors as motor of economy. Such changes generated multiple consequences, but the economic growth was not enough to eliminate social inequality and to raise the population's conditions of life. Brazil's modest position (70th) in HDI (Human Development Index) confirms this conclusion. Population and economy: main indicators Brazil and selected countries - 2007

Indicators Brazil China Latin America and Caribeean 562,8 1,2 20.421 3.444 5,7 73 ­ Russian Spain Federation 141,6 -0,6 44,9 1,6 Italy

Population ­ (total) (milliions) Population growth ­ (annual %) Surface area ­ (sq.km) (thousands) Gross Domestic Product ­ (US$ billions) Gross Domestic Product growth ­ (annual %) Life expectancy at birth ­ (total) (years) (2006) Human Development Index (2005)

191,6 1,2 8.514 1.314 5,4 72 0,800

1,319,9 0,6 9.598 3.280 11,9 72 0,777

59,4 0,7 301,3 2.107 1,5 81 0,941

17.098 505,4 1.291 1.429 8,1 66 3,8 81

0,802 0,949

Source: World Bank Life expectancy at birth, total (years)Parte superior do formulário The implantation of industries of capital goods and the diversification of production contributed for the economic growth. The intense urbanization extended the domestic market, increasing industrial investments and reinforcing the growth economic cycle Literature shows that economies based exclusively on the exportation of primary products (usually agricultural and mineral commodities) are vulnerable to international market fluctuations. The income distribution is an important mean of inducing the increase and diversification of aggregate demand and capital investment. The external disequilibrium has a structural nature, inherent to the growth

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process of underdevelopment countries. According to Furtado (1963), the underdevelopment is a process derived from the First Industrial Revolution, initiated in Western Europe around the mid-eighteenth century. Both development and underdevelopment were directly generated by Industrial Revolution, resulting in dependent insertion of periphery in world economy. The growth of Brazilian economy was spatially concentrated, resulting in internal migrations and regional disequilibrium. The deepening of these inequalities, derived from the process of economy formation, has defined the country strategies for development. Therefore, to understand Brazil, it is necessary to study its heterogeneities. Regional survey of Brazil Southeastern Region, especially the State of São Paulo, is the richest and most developed area in Brazil. The dynamic industries, modern services and consuming market are concentrated in this region. In 2007, the State of São Paulo concentrated 21.9% of Brazilian population and produced 30.9% of the GDP. In the same year, the Northeast Region had 27.8% of Brazil's population and produced only 14.1% of GDP. The GDP per capita of São Paulo is almost three times bigger than the Northeast one. Regional distribution of GDP and population Brasil - 2007

Region Brazil North Region Northeast Region Southeastern Region State of São Paulo South Region Central-West Region Population Distribution(%) 100,0 7,9 27,8 42,6 21,9 14,7 7,0 GDP distribution (%) 100,0 5,3 14,1 54,9 30,9 18,2 7,5 GDP per capita (US$) 3.331,89 2.225,95 1.687,26 4.294,37 4.700,39 4.137,28 3.559,44

Source: IBGE In Brazil, the State of São Paulo polarized the industrialization process, creating complementary linkages with other Brazilian regions productive structures. According Oliveira (2003), São Paulo was benefited by the transference of wealth from the peripheral states of Brazil. In opposition, Cano (1998) said that São Paulo "pulled" the economic expansion of poor states. In other words, the business increase in São Paulo created the necessary conditions for the periphery economic progress. Beyond the discussion about regional losses and profits, there's no doubt that São Paulo has determined the economic configuration of all states in Brazil. This process created "produc-

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tive specializations" to attend São Paulo and Southeastern Region's industries. The growth of industries in peripheral areas contributed to supply São Paulo and regional exportations. Brazil's periphery specialization has made a space hierarchy in the country. However, the history of Brazil is not the history of São Paulo. Different regions show trajectories derived from their own economic formations. The pioneering activities were created on the 16th century. Initially, Portuguese people explored the wealth of coast forest. The substitution of honey for sugarcane in Europe opened way for the intense growth in Northeast region's economy. In the 17th century, Brazil was the most important sugarcane producer in the world. The production was based on enslaved work and big farms (latifúndios). The implementation of sugarcane production in Antilhas islands and the replacement of sugarcane by beet sugar contributed to finish this economy circle in Northeast.

Brazilian Regions and states

The decline of sugarcane industry in Northeast didn't modify region's agrarian structure. The control of big extensions of fertile land by the agricultural oligarchy pushed the poor population to subsistence activities, in low fertility areas, compromising the possibilities of improving their life conditions. In the last few decades, the extractive and no-durable-goods industries have occupied important position on the regional economy, creating jobs and rising incomes. Since 90´s, as in China and other Asian countries, many clothing industries have been installed in this region, attracted by low wages, governmental subsidies and better logistic to exportation. The North Region's economy has been strongly linked to the Amazonia forest. It occupies

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about 40% of Brazilian territory and practically the totality of this region, extending itself for the neighboring countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, among others). Although many people depend directly or indirectly on the forest, the region is also characterized by mineral extractive industries. The region has iron, coal, gold, bauxite and other important minerals. In 60´s, Brazilian government created Manaus Free Trade Zone to attract industries by offering benefits. In 90´s, this government police was compromised by open economy. Since then, many industries have gone to Brazilian developed areas, in Southeast. The expansion of illegal activities has destroyed important areas in forest, catching ambientalists and foreign countries attention. In Brazil's history, the cities had been back to the country. The occupation of territory occurred from coast areas to interior, concentrating the population in Atlantic neighborhood. Since the colonial period, the coastal cities have been used as trade areas to exportation to European and U.S. markets. The economic growth was late in Central-West Region because it has many logistic problems and high transportation costs. Until the middle of 20th century, the CentralWest region was characterized for cattle creation (with low productivity). Since the 60's, Federal Government has developed researches for agricultural adaptation to the climatic conditions of Central-West. This "conservative modernization strategy" consisted in technical change and incentives for a few number of agricultural activities, contributing to consolidate the agricultural complexes, especially the soybeans complex1. Technical change involved the development and adaptation of green-revolution technologies, geared mainly toward large agricultural operations that had important roles for mechanization and chemical inputs. Regarding the agricultural complexes, the government provided strong incentives for the creation and expansion of processing industries and for the development and modernization of agricultural input industries in CentralWest. The evolution of South Region was substantially different from other regions of Brazil. In the primordial time of Brazil's history, the region occupied a secondary position in the national economy. The great distances from main consuming markets brought many difficulties to the regional trade. At the end of 19th century, the European immigration contributed to implement a small-scale agrarian structure in the South. The small farms survived until the 60's, when the "conservative modernization" destroyed them. This differentiated history helped to improve some industrial-urban centers, especially destined to clotting industries, besides of meat processing industries. Although the region has been strongly linked to São Paulo, the economy received new impulse with Mercosul2, in 1991. The combination of politicians, economic and social elements has created an inequality country. The differences among Brazilian regions are too large. The social disparity can be seen in rich or poor states and among them. To understand the present, it's necessary to study the country's past and its essential moments. The colonial Brazil (16th to 19th century)

1 The United States, Brazil, Argentina and China produced 200 million metric tonnes of soybeans in 2005, 90% of the global total. Brazil has exported around 25% of global soybeans exportations. 2 The Mercosul (Common Market of the South) is composed for five countries: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela.

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At the beginning of the colonial period the expressive extension of Brazil's territory brought great power for Portuguese empire. However it was very expensive to guarantee border's protection, mainly to prevent the siege of European countries, especially French and Dutch. The colonial economy was organized to complement Portuguese's metropolis necessities. Initially, the coast forests were explored. After that the value of tropical products in European market transformed Brazil in an important sugarcane producer, further than other agricultural products, as cotton and tobacco. Following the Africa model, Portuguese expanded along the Atlantic coast gradually. In 1536, the Brazilian coast was divided into fifteen big donatory captaincies to induce the settlement. The owners controlled the enslaved natives and part of the exploration of Brazilian's natural goods. Brazil's colonization created important urban centers for exportation in coast area. The production based on enslaved work brought expressive black population to the country. The native population declined quickly by fights and diseases brought from Portuguese colonizers. The settlement was restricted to the coast for many centuries, pushing natives to interior. Later the native slavery and the search for precious metals moved the settlers to the interior. More than 640,000 natives were extinguished in Brazil (IBGE, 2000) during the colonization. At this time, more than 2 million blacks passed for the Brazilian ports only during 17th century, majority from Angola. The black population grew faster than European, changing the population distribution in Brazil. In mid-16th century, Portugal succeeded in establishing sugarcane industry in Northeast cost. Portuguese people had agricultural and manufacturing kwon-how due to the experience on Atlantic islands. Until 17th century, Portuguese and Dutch people had the monopoly of the sugar exports to Europe. However, the Caribbean sugar boom (beet sugar) brought a decline in world sugar prices. The downfall of sugar industry revealed a fragile colonial economy, without trade links among Brazilian's regions. Paradoxically, these problems induced the settlement of different portions of the territory. The cattle sector, which had evolved to supply the sugar economy with animals for transport, meat, and hides, assimilated part of the resources made idle, becoming a subsistence economy. Because of extensive cattle production methods, large low fertility areas in the interior of Northeast region were settled. Such circumstances maintained the inequalities on northeast social structure. In 18th century, the migration to interior was strongly intensified by the discovery of gold and other mineral in Minas Gerais, Goias and Mato Grosso states. This moment registered intense changes on geographic and ethnic population distribution. Until gold rush, European participation in Brazil's population was low. But mineral discoveries attracted a lot of Europeans to the country, differently of the sugarcane circle. The sugarcane industry required high investment, lands and many slaves. In opposite, the gold extraction could be explored with relatively minimal resources and workers (slaves or not), offering access for low money adventurers. The gold economy contributed to increase the occupation, the urban net, the population (consuming market) and the transportation system in interior. The gold areas demanded food, animals for transportation and tools, which produced effects outside mining regions. The staff of colonial administration moved to Southeast and many supply areas increased in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul, extending the trade and network region connections in Brazil.

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Until end-19th century, Amazonia hadn't been incorporated in Brazilian economy system. The region wasn't connected with European market neither produced an important commodity to compete on global market. This situation changed with the Industrial Revolution. The strong expansion of industry opened new opportunities to invest on vegetal rubber production. Between 1890 and 1910, the North region was responsible for about 40% of global vegetal rubber production. The rubber economy attracted foreign investors and workers to the region. In the process of vegetal extraction of rubber, the "cablocos" (mix of white and native people) searched rubber in large areas inside the forest. The work was dangerous and slow because the tropical forest was inhospitable. In the beginning of 20th century, England had success in vegetal rubber production in their Asia colonies, depressing the prices. Some time later, the development of synthetic rubber finished the first Brazilian rubber circle. Nowadays, forest has been disputed by different internal and external groups: "cablocos", natives, ambientalists, foreign governments/institutions and global companies. All of them are interested in Amazônia. In the 19th century, Brazil was marked by innumerable new features in politics. In 1808, Portuguese royal family fled from Napoleon army, moving to Brazil. In 1822, Brazil became independent from Portugal. Soon after, the slavery was extinct (1888) and the monarchy was replaced for the republican government (1889). Such events, however, didn't modify Brazilian's conditions of life and neither changed the country's position in the world-wide economy. The Brazilian agricultural oligarchy was prepared for the end of the slavery since the middle of the 19th century, because of the advantages of using free workers. Free workers pay for their own survival while slaves need to be supported. Between 1884 and 1933, 4 million immigrants, the greater part Italians and Portugueses, arrived at Brazilian ports. In the same period, Brazilian population grew intensively, from 14,3 million (1890) to 41,2 million (1940). This politic aimed to reduce the production costs and also the population whitening. Brazilian oligarchy intended to erase decades of slavery using the deliberate politic of miscegenation, in order to approach Brazil of the effective ethnic standard in Europe. Immigration flows according to nationality Brazil ­ 1884/1933

Períod Nationalities Total of immigrants German people Spanish people Italian people Japanese people 1884-1893 1894-1903 883.668 22.778 113.116 510.533 852.110 6.698 102.142 537.784 1904-1913 1.006.617 33.859 224.672 196.521 11.868 1914-1923 1924-1933 503.981 29.339 94.779 86.320 20.398 713.132 61.723 52.405 70.177 110.191

Total 1884-1933 3.959.508 154.397 587.114 1.401.335 142.457

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Portuguese people Syrian and Turk people Other nacionalities

170.621 96 66.524

155.542 7.124 42.820

384.672 45.803 109.222

201.252 20.400 51.493

233.650 20.400 164.586

1.145.737 93.823 434.645

Source: IBGE As social transformations would be inevitable, the agricultural oligarchy fought to preserve the power on the people and on the country's wealth. In 1850, the land law was changed to regulate the private property in a different way. Before this changing, the lands were donated to the proprietors by the State and then to their successors. After the new rule, the properties were transferred by contracts of purchase and sale, witch restricted the access of the poorest (former slaves and immigrants). The limitations in purchasing and the strictness agrarian structure left deep scars in the country. It could be detected on the migratory flows, the unemployment, the population's conditions of life and the partner-space inequalities. Population distribution according to color

( %)

60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 1872 1890 Brazil ­ 1872/2000 1940 2000

White

Black

Pardos

Source: IBGE The birth of modern Brazil (20th century) Until the 30's, Brazilian economy was based on agricultural exportations. The production cycles (gold, sugar, rubber, etc) increased the disposable income at different moments and regions, attracting capitals and population. However, when the cycles depleted, the land, main capital of rural oligarchy, was preserved by subsistence economy or low productive activities, as cattle creation, sustaining the agrarian concentration. This strategy helped to preserve the Industrial Reserve Army for the next cycle, but, at the same time, kept a great part of the population on poverty conditions.

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The cycles didn't sustain the economy growth for two basic reasons: (1) the income produced by agricultural exportations was captured by riches countries, as a result of the deterioration of terms of trade and the long-term decline of commodities prices; (2) the economic growth depended on world market enlargement or the increase of commodities prices (Prebisch, 1950). The exhaustion of productive cycles reduced the disposable income and the employment level, hindering the consolidation of internal market in peripherical economies. At the end of 19th century, a new exportation product grew quickly, creating favorable conditions to Brazilian industrialization: the coffee. The coffee production started in Rio de Janeiro and extended to São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. But, in São Paulo, this activity was completely different, because it wasn't based on slave labor, reducing the costs production. When the coffee prices declined on global market, the coffee's producers could move their investments to industry sector. In Brazil, historical and political conditions were clear when coffee arrived in São Paulo. So, coffee's producers could see that the economy was changing and the industry sector could offer high profits expectations. The Brazilian coffee's producers exercised a great influence on government. The macroeconomic policy was guided to preserve their profits. When the international market coffee declined, the exchange rate was changed to preserve the sales level1. However this policy had a collateral effect: the inflation. The increase of internal prices created the necessary conditions to Brazil's industrialization. At the beginning of the 20th century, Brazil was highly dependent on importations. Only some goods were manufactured in the country. The increase of free population and the declined of the participation of imported goods contributed to create the domestic market. When internal prices increased the external goods were replaced by domestic production, giving way to industrialization. The import substitution process had great impacts over spatial distribution of wealth in Brazil. São Paulo's industry grew faster than the in the other states because it congregated favorable conditions: (1) coffee's cycle assured the capital accumulation to industrialization and (2) São Paulo could consolidate a strong consumption market early (Cano, 1988). Between 1880's and 1930's, Brazilian industry expanded based on consumption of notdurable goods. This period was named "restricted industrialization" (Cano, 1998) because the growth of economy still depended on income exportations. In other words, when the exportations increased, the internal incomes rose too, pulling up the consumption. When foreign sales decreased, the economy declined. In 40's, as a result of the implantation of industry of capital goods, the import substitution process increased strongly. This implantation opened way for the growth of investments on new industries and sectors, extending the linking among industrial sectors and creating others. Therefore, Brazilian industry emerged more powerful and diversified. The new chances of profit attracted foreign capital to strategic sectors, like transportation industry. The public sector offered a lot of benefits to industrialization and invested in infrastructure, specially transportation and energy systems. The growth of industry contributed to consolidate the domestic market. There1 The exchange rate depreciation in Brazil increased the sales of coffee's producers. The wages weren't affected by Brazilian exchange rate, so the sales increase maintained the profits levels.

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after, the dynamics of the economy was less depended on export fluctuations because the center of growth had moved to internal market. Naturally, the foreign dependence was not eliminated, but its power was weaker. The high dependence on imports of capital goods reduced the growth of economy because part of national income was transferred to exterior. Thereafter the implantation of capital goods sector in Brazil, incomes could be retained inside the country, amplifying the investments and multiplying its effects among sectors. Besides, the internal market growth attracted investments from developed countries, so Brazilian industrial structure became bigger and more complex. The 50's and 60's were of great importance for national industrialization. Many great companies came to Brazil, specially transport companies like Volkswagen, General Motors and Ford. Public sector made important infrastructure investments, therefore the urbanization grew quickly. The growth of cities brought social progress, uprising life conditions. The cities offered better wages and more access to public services. But the urbanization also brought new problems. The poverty and the land concentration in peripheral states of Brazil contributed to rural exodus. Southeast cities as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro grew quickly, creating new troubles. The implantation of industry of capital goods intensified the economic concentration in São Paulo, moving people and investments. In 50's, Southeast region concentrated 43.3% of Brazilian population. In State of São Paulo lived around 9.1 million people or 17.6% of national population. The São Paulo city (capital of state with the same name) became the main attraction area in Southeast. Between 1872 and 1970, the population of São Paulo city passed from 31.385 to 5.978.977 people or 6.3% of the national population1. The industrialization process was used as a social damper. In Northeast, the agrarian oligarchy controlled the Industrial Reserve Army, creating a poverty island. These workers moved to São Paulo and Southeast to attend industrial necessities. Between the end of 19th century and 1970, around 11.9 million people moved from their birthplaces. In other words, the oligarchy mobilized 12.6% of Brazil's population2 to attend its labor necessities. Only the State of São Paulo received 1.2 million migrants on this period (Cano, 1998).

1 Today more than 10 million people are living in São Paulo city. Metropolitan area is nearly double (19.697.337 people). 2 In 1970, Brazilian population was 94.5 million people (IBGE)

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Population of Brazilian regions 1872/1970

45,0 40,0 million of people 35,0 30,0 25,0 20,0 15,0 10,0 5,0 North Northeast Southeast South Central West 1.872 0,3 4,6 4,0 0,7 0,2 1.890 0,5 6,0 6,1 1,4 0,3 1.900 0,7 6,7 7,8 1,8 0,4 1.920 1,4 11,2 13,7 3,5 0,8 1.940 1,5 14,4 18,3 5,7 1,3 1.950 1,8 18,0 22,5 7,8 1,7 1.960 2,6 22,4 31,1 11,9 3,0 1.970 3,7 28,7 40,3 16,7 5,2

Source: IBGE The government tried to cut down migratory flows by implementing agrarian policies to attract people to interior, opening new agricultural fronts in public areas. But these actions benefited only the agrarian oligarchy. They extended their lands, reproducing the conservative character of national politic. So the government plan didn't work. As workers couldn't access to land, they kept moving to large cities, searching for work. It increased social infrastructure deterioration and violence problems. Population evolution Brazil, State of São Paulo and City of São Paulo 1872/1970

Population Year Brazil 1872 1890 1900 1920 1940 1950 1960 1970 9 930 478 14 333 915 17 438 434 30 635 605 41 236 315 51 944 397 70 992 343 94 508 554 State of São Paulo 837 354 1 384 753 2 282 279 4 592 188 7 180 316 9 134 423 12 974 699 17 958 693 City of São Paulo 31 385 64 934 239 820 579 033 1 326 261 2 198 096 3 825 351 5 978 977 Brazil 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 (%) State of São Paulo 8,4 9,7 13,1 15,0 17,4 17,6 18,3 19,0 City of São Paulo 0,3 0,5 1,4 1,9 3,2 4,2 5,4 6,3

Source: IBGE

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The 60's was marked by important politics and economic changes, not only in Brazil, but in almost all Latin America. In 1964, the conservative forces put down the civil government. The military government maintained the industrialization process and moved efforts to reduce the economic concentration in Southeast, especially in São Paulo. These actions attended to many reasons: (1) the occupation of empty spaces to protect national borders; (2) the regional integration and the increase of internal trade helped to reduce the industry concentration in Southeast and the political power of São Paulo; (3) the military government increased its political power in Congress by helping regional oligarchies. In 70's, the military government moved the industrialization process to poor areas, producing positive effects on urbanization, regional labor market and population conditions of life. The growth of urban middle class, the government structure and the investments in Brazil's periphery were very important to increase the poor people's income. The government made strong efforts to move industries to poor areas, contributing to raise the formalization level of labor market. These actions didn't eliminate social or spatial inequalities, but they contributed to reduce the poverty indicators. The development of industry in Brazil's periphery faced a strong obstacle: the concentration of consumption market in Southeast. Because of income inequalities it was difficult to consolidate a consumption market in peripheral areas. The government reacted by developing industries of complementary goods (intermediate goods) in poor states1. Moreover important mineral deposits and most of agricultural areas were located in interior, witch helped the development of agricultural and extraction business. The current spatial division of labor in Brazil has been explained by the reflection of spatial specialization that had occurred in 70's. The government investments were financed by international financial market, in 70's. The oil crisis (1973 and 1979) and the financial market deregulation raised the liquidity level in global market. The peripheral countries received lines of credit with variable interest rates. The problems started in 80's, when the interest rates rose quickly. The U.S. monetary policy elevated the interest rate to sustain their economic growth, reducing the credit at international market. All countries were forced to adjust their balances of payment, implying high social and economic costs. In 80's, Brazil paid the foreign debt by increasing exportations. The governmental policy privileged economic activities associated with better performance at international market in other to facilitate cash flow. Mineral extraction and agricultural activities were the best options to raise level of Brazil's international reserves. For this reason, the agricultural and mineral explorations maintained special position at governmental agenda. All economic sectors lost their fiscal benefits, except for the agricultural and mineral extraction. After the restoration of civil government, in 1985, long-term strategies haven't changed significantly. Since then, the government has focalized investments at infrastructure, particularly energy and transport sectors, to assure export activities.

1 In many cases, government benefits were insufficient to cover the expenditures on the transport of goods to consumption markets, in Southeast. Only industrial great units (with high scale of production) could produce in poor areas.

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The urbanization and the decline of industry concentration contributed to disseminate the labor law. Rural workers had less access to labor benefits' than urban workers. The industrialization decreased (a little) the participation of informal sectors in labor market, especially in rural areas. The expansion of the participation of big companies in rural areas absorbed the workers at subsistence activities. The labor laws contributed to raise wages level and social security. Between 1959 and 1987, the number of Brazilian workers who integrated the social security system grew 630% (from 3.8 to 28.4 million people). Although their participation increased quickly in rural areas, they were concentrated in Southeast region. The participation of State of São Paulo in total of social security was 31.9%, in 1987. People and the Evolution of Social Security Brazil and regions 1959/1987

People Year 1959 1969 1987 Brazil 3 892 704 8 776 455 28 437 708 Southeast 5 252 407 15 765 046 State of São Paulo 3 358 040 9 065 810 Brazil 100,0 100,0 (%) Southeast 59,8 55,4 State of São Paulo 38,3 31,9

Source: IBGE In 80's, the foreign debt crisis brought many economic problems to the country. But there were great advances in citizenship rights. The military government finished in 1985 and the political normality was restored after twenty years. In 1988, the civil government promulgated a new constitution aimed at social and political advances, extending civil rights, security system and tax distribution. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that maintained social inequalities weren't modified. The fiscal policy increased the participation of cities and states at tax revenue. Other important change was the incorporation of rural workers at social security. After that, all Brazilian people could receive medical service (without any payment) and retirement assistance. Between 1980 and 2007, the payments of social security passed from 1.5 to 4.1 million benefits. Brazilian social security has different kinds of benefits: (1) permanent benefits (retirements); (2) temporary benefits (disability workers) and (3) other benefits, as rehabilitation services. Brazilian social security has grown because of the number of insured person and the variety of benefits. Today, the State is attending different workers' necessities. The enlargement of benefit range reduced the participation of retirements on total benefits. Between 1980 and 2007, the participation of permanent benefits decreased from 45.7% to 30.2%. At the same time, benefits paid to rural worker expanded from 19.4% to 24.4%. Brazil is still a young country, but the participation of old people on the population pyramid has grown quickly in the last few decades. In 2000, the percentage of people aged 65 and over was 5% of total population. So, the expansion of social securities has many challengers.

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Benefits paid for Social Security Brazil ­ 1980/2007

Total benefits paid Year benefits 1980 1990 2000 2007 1.541.682 1.390.693 2.949.149 4.173.351 (%) 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 Benefits types (%) Permanent benefits 45,7 50,9 32,7 30,2 Temporary benefits 52,3 42,1 54,3 55,0 Other benefits 2,1 7,0 13,1 14,8 Spatial distribution (%) Urban 80,6 70,2 65,5 75,6 Rural 19,4 29,8 34,5 24,4

Source: IBGE After World War II, Brazil has had important advances, not only in social security, but in other social instruments, as education and health system. These improvements have reflected the industrialization effects and the modernization of economy. However, the poverty level is still high and social inequalities haven't changed substantially. What have we done? Brazil in the 21st century: new challenges, old problems The end of the 20th century was marked by the orthodox economy, not only in Brazil, but in all Latin America. In the 80's, the economy policy was directed towards market interests. However, in the 90's Brazilian government deepened the transformations in macroeconomic polity. In 1994, a policy named "Plano Real" opened the economy for international competition, valuing the exchange tax artificially, privatizing the great part of production structure and reducing the participation of public sector in economy. Brazil, as the majority of Latin American countries, was suffering from a runaway inflation, which disorganized prices relation. Companies couldn't have long term plans and population consumption was reduced. For these reasons, government priority was the fight against inflation. There is no doubt that the orthodox economic policy had success in combating the inflation and modernizing national industry. On the other hand, this success had a high cost: unemployment increase and deterioration in public accounts. The fast economic opening did not allow adjustments of Brazilian industry and market competition increased hardly. A great flow of goods, mainly from Asiatic countries, destroyed part of national industry and pushed the remaining industries to increase the productive efficiency. More efficiency implied in less employment. The declined of public investments and the enlargement of unemployment rates reduced personal income and consumption, creating barriers for economy growth. Once more, only the agricultural and mineral commodities exporters sectors experienced positive economic performance. The industrial employment reduction was partially counterbalanced by the employment growth in the tertiary sector. However, the work condition on this economic sector is worse than in the industry sector: the wage is lower, the labor journey is higher and the legal protection level is smaller. The productive restructure process deteriorated work conditions, after the improvement experienced in post-World War II.

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The overvalued cambial rate increased Brazilian export prices on the external market, reducing the international reserves. The income of foreign currency in Brazil depended on the privatization program and internal interest rate elevation. The elevation on the interest rate implied in two different simultaneous negatives effects: to reduce the economic growth and to increase the public sector indebt. In the last 20 years, there have been few changes in the Brazilian economic strategy. The center of the state policy has been the inflation control, the increase of productive efficiency and international market insertion via commodities export. Although highly inspired on the orthodox economic dogmas, the government has adopted antagonistic strategies. While the Central Bank has followed a restrictive monetary policy, the Treasury department has tried to compensate the damages produced by the monetary contraction trough generous fiscals and credits policies. In the middle of economic instability, the financial sector emerged as the main beneficiary of the economic growth. As observed in other countries, the financial sector importance has increased in the economy, extending its influence over the government policies. The disputes between the productive oligarchy and the financial oligarchy have left less public resources for social expenses. In a hand, there are bankers pressing government for increasing the interest rate from the public bonds. On another hand, the agricultural oligarchy fights for more public investments on transport infrastructure, to increase their competitiveness in the international market. In spite of the government policy contradictions, Brazil has registered important economic growth after 2003, following the observed movement in the world economy. The export expansion has contributed positively to minimize the importation restrictions which prevented to modernize the national productive structure. Beyond that, the growth of export has elevated the international reserves and the personal income for consumption and investment. Nevertheless, the export can not be considerate as the main induction factor of economic growth (like many small Asiatic countries), considering the size and complexity of the productive Brazilian structure. The economic growth in the last years is explained by the reactivation of investments (public and private), by the amplification of credit and by the recuperation from employment level and wages. The orthodox economy has altered the development strategies of the country, modifying the sectorial and patrimonial composition from the Brazilian productive structure, resulting in a line of export with low dynamism and low technological content. In abstract, a retrograde aligned with the primary-exporter set which the country had overcome in the second half of 20th century. In 1964, Brazilian exports (US$ 1,3 millions) were composed mostly by not manufactured goods (85,4%), while the manufactured products represented only 6,0% of external sales. At the 20th century ending, the productive Brazilian structure was substantially modified: the manufactured products participation increased to 59,0% while the not manufactured goods decreased to 22,8%. This change cleared showed the modernization and diversification process of the country economy. In the last years, the extraordinary growth verified in the exports (that passed from US$ 12,5 millions to US$ 51,5 millions, between 2000 and 2007) was followed by the perceptible expansion of not manufactured goods (from 22,8% to 31,2%) in detriment of the manufactured ones, which were reduced from 59,% to 52,3%.

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( %80,0 )

70,0 60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0

1964 85,4

1970 74,8

1980 42,2

1990 27,8

2000 22,8

2003 29,0 15,0 54,3

2007 32,1 13,6 52,3

Not manufactered goods

The Export Evolution categorized by product type 8,0 9,1 11,7 16,3 15,4 Brasil ­ 1964/2007 54,2 6,2 15,2 44,8 59,0 Manufactered goods

Semi-manufactered goods

Source: Ministério do Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio Exterior The deterioration of the Brazilian export quality is explained for the strategies to be inserted in the international economy and for the concurrence on the international market. To overcome the chronic flow dependency of foreign capital (that did guarantee the productive modernization and economic growth), Brazilian government has working to explore the market where there are better condition to compete. After the Second World War, the growth of the rich countries and the anti-Communist policy contributed to modernize the periphery countries, reducing the participation of not manufactured goods in their exports. However, from 90's, the elimination of the communist risk, the incitement of economic instability and the advance of the Asiatic exports have increased substantially the competition for exports of Latin American countries. The central countries have intensified the closing of their economies for the Latin American products and pressed Latin American countries to open their markets. In the last years, Brazilian insertion in global economy has been trough commodities, resulting in social consequences, as the regression of the national productive matrix. The country competitiveness in the exterior has been linked to the agriculturist activities and mineral extraction. The soybean complex is a typical example of what has occurred in other Brazilian regions. The trade and processing soybean market has been controlled by four great multinationals (ADM, Bunge, Gargill and Coinbra/Deryfus) and two nationals companies (Caramuru and Maggi), representing 7,1% of the Brazilian exports in 2007. These economical groups finances (and buy) relevant part of the national grain production, what provides to them the control over the market prices. The soybean production (and other agriculturist products) occurs in rural properties with huge extensions. The agriculturist activity mechanization level is related with the product characteristics, the cultivated area and the consumer market. In the soybean case, the great enterprises presence and the market potential tend to elevate the utilization level of machines and equipment, intensifying the unemployment rates. Similar situation can be observed in other harvests, like sugarcane in São Paulo State. This model of agriculturist production reinforces the concentration of the agrarian landed structure in Brazil.

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Export Evolution categorized by product type Brazil ­ 2007

Export goods Transport Material Metalurgical Products Fuel and Oil Ores Soy complex Meat Chemical Products Machine and Equipment Sugar and Ethanol Electrical Equipment Paper and Celulosis Leather shoes US$ millions 23.865 16.100 16.042 12.026 11.386 11.095 10.914 8.724 6.578 5.712 4.726 4.389 (%) 14,9 10 10 7,5 7,1 6,9 6,8 5,4 4,1 3,6 2,9 2,7

Source: Ministério do Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio Exterior In 2003, there were 4.3 millions of agrarian landed properties in Brazil, which answered for 420.0 millions of hectares. However, about 32.2 thousand properties gather 132.0 millions of hectares. In other words, 31.6% of these areas were concentrated in 0.8% of the agrarian properties. Considering that the great agrarian producers can control many properties, it is possible to affirm that the level of agrarian landed concentration can reach more high levels. One great property in Brazil can, easily, overcome 4.0 thousands of hectares, which corresponds of 0.06% of Georgia's territory or 0.14% of Armenia surface.

Rural properties distribution Brazil ­ 2003

Area Classes (hectares) Total Less than 10 from 10 to 25 from 25 to 50 from 50 to 100 from 100 to 500 from 500 to 1000 from 1000 to 2000 More than 2000 Landed Properties Absolute (%) Numbers (a) 4.238.447 1.338.771 1.102.999 684.237 485.482 482.677 75.158 36.859 32.264 100,0 31,6 26,0 16,1 11,5 11,4 1,8 0,9 0,8 Total Area Hectares (b) 420.345.362 7.616.113 18.985.869 24.141.638 33.630.240 100.216.200 52.191.003 50.932.790 132.631.509 (%) 100,0 1,8 4,5 5,7 8,0 23,8 12,4 12,1 31,6 Average area (a/b) 99,2 5,7 17,2 35,3 69,3 207,6 694,4 1.381,8 4.110,8

Source: DIEESE/Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário (2006)

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The deepening of the economic growth strategy in the exploration of naturals resources, allied to the concentration of great economical groups and the maintenance of the agrarian landed structure are the fundamental elements that explain the reproduction of poverty in Brazil, the great economics profits and the modernization of the productive structure. In the 21st century, social inequity reaches dramatic bounds, considering that 33,3% of the population lives in metropolitan areas, inciting the deleterious effects over violence and life condition. It's fair to explain that the violence in Brazil is not restricted to great cities. The agricultural business advances in the Amazonia direction, producing negative effects in the environment, which incites the struggle over the land control by different national and international players1. Population Distribution categorized by Metropolitan Regions Brazil ­ 2000

Areas Brazil Metropolitan areas São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Belo Horizonte Rio Grande do Sul Pernambuco Salvador Fortaleza Curitiba Distrito Federal Belém do Pará Goiânia Not Metropolitan Areas Population 169.799.170 54.397.642 17.878.703 10.894.156 4.349.425 3.718.778 3.337.565 3.021.572 2.984.689 2.726.556 2.051.146 1.795.536 1.639.516 115.401.528 (%) 100,0 32,0 10,5 6,4 2,6 2,2 2,0 1,8 1,8 1,6 1,2 1,1 1,0 68,0

Source: IBGE Brazil presents many social and economical problems of great complexity, because historical inequities remained despite the country modernization. It's not possible to understand Brazil without a deep exam of its social and economical heterogeneity. The inequity is present among regions and in the interior of each space. The modern country that fights to be heard in the rich countries club, the G20, has been constructed over a foundation of delay, inequity and poverty. To know Brazil is necessary to dig deep to find out the mysteries which involve it's successes and antagonisms.

1 Amazonia has been the focus of great discussion inside and outside Brazil with a multiplicity of players. In the internal side, the multinationals enterprises explores the economic biodiversity potential of the region. Many institutions of environment defending are involved in attacking (or protecting) the interests of theses great international groups. In the internal side, the national companies, the local population and the government fight for the land control and the preservation of national interests. Such struggles reached the international media with the production of books and movies about Chico Mendes history.

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Raízes da Concentração Industrial em São Paulo, 4ª. ed. Campinas, Editora Unicamp/IE, 1998 CANO, W. Desequilíbrios regionais e concentração industrial no Brasil: 1930 ­ 1995. 2 ed. Campinas, Editora Unicamp/IE, 1998.

CANO, W. DEPARTAMENTO INTERSINDICAL DE ESTATÍSTICA E ESTUDOS SÓCIOECONÔMICOS (DIEESE). Estatísticas do meio rural. Brasília (DF), DIEESE/Ministério do Desenvolvi-

mento Agrário (MDA), 2ª Edição, 2006 FURTADO, C. Economic Development of Latin America: historical background and contemporary problems, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1977 FURTADO, C. The Economic Growth of Brazil: a survey from de colonial to modern times. Berkeley (CA), University of California Press, 1963

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alberto de oliveira

rio de Janeiros federaluri universiteti, brazila

brazilia: ekonomika, uTanasworoba da antagonizmi

braziliis roli msoflio ekonomikaSi arc Tu ise umniSvneloa. meore msoflio omis Semdeg braziliis ekonomikam kursi Secvala da soflis meurneobis eqsportidan samrewvelo seqtorze gadainacvla. aseTma cvlilebam mravalmxrivi Sedegi moitana, Tumca ekonomikuri zrda arasakmarisi iyo arsebuli socialuri uTanasworobis aRmosafxvrelad da mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis asamaRleblad. adamianuri ganviTarebis indeqsis mixedviT braziliis mokrZalebuli pozicia am mosazrebas adasturebs. braziliis ekonomikis zrda ganpirobebuli iyo Sida migraciiT da regionaluri gansxvavebebiT. ekonomikis formirebis procesidan gamomdinare am uTanasworobis gaRrmaveba gansazRvravs qveynis ganviTarebis strategias. samxreT-aRmosavleTi regioni, gansakuTrebiT san paulo - braziliaSi yvelaze mdidar da ganviTarebul regions warmoadgens. 2007 wels san paulos Stati (sadac koncentrirebulia braziliis mosaxleobis 21,9 %) mSp-is

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(mTliani Sida produqtis-GDP) 30,9 %-s awarmoebda. imave wels CrdiloeT regioni (sadac braziliis mosaxleobis 27,8 % cxovrobs) awarmoebda mxolod mSp-s 14,1 %-s. mSp erT sul mosaxleze san pauloSi samjer metia CrdiloeTis regionTan SedarebiT. braziliaSi san paulos Stati industrializaciis process polarizacias ukeTebs da braziliis periferiuli simdidris mozidvas axerxebs. saun paulo gansazRvravs braziliis yvela Statis ekonomikur konfiguracias. periferiaSi industriis zrda xels uwyobs saun paulos da regionaluri eqsportirebis uzrunvelyofas. CrdiloeT regionSi, ZiriTadad, sasoflo sameurneo struqturaa ganviTarebuli. soflis meurneobis oligarqebis mier nayofieri miwebis didi farTobebis xelSi Cagdebam aiZula Raribi mosaxleoba saarsebo saSualebebi SedarebiT nakleb mosavlian miwebze moeZebna. bolo ramdenime aTwleulSi qsovilis mrewvelobam mniSvnelovani poziciebi daikava regionalur ekonimikaSi, qmnis ra samuSao adgilebsa da iwvevs xelfasis zrdas. 90-iani wlebidan aq, iseve rogorc CineTsa da aziis bevr qveyanaSi, mWidrod dafuZnda qsovilis industria, romelic mTavrobis mxridan did subsidiebs Rebulobs da ukeTesi eqsportirebis lojistika gaaCnia. CrdiloeT regionis ekonomika mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli amazonis tyesTan. mas braziliis teritoriis 40 % ukavia da Tumca bevri adamiani pirdapir Tu arapirdapir damokidebulia tyeze, aRniSnuli regionisTvis damaxasiaTebelia aseve mineraluri industria. regions gaaCnia rkina, naxSiri, oqro da sxva mniSvnelovani mineralebi. mosaxleobis gansaxleba braziliis miwebze xdeboda sanapiro zolidan qveynis Sida nawilisken. mosaxleoba, ZiriTadad, koncentrirdeboda atlantis okeanis sanapiro zolze. kolonizaciis periodSi sanapiro qalaqebi gamoiyeneboda savaWro centrebad aSS-sa da evropis bazrebze eqsportirebisTvis. ekonomikuri zrda centralur-dasavlur regionebSi gvian ganxorcielda lojistikuri problemebisa da transportirebis maRali fasebis gamo. me-20 saukunis Sua periodamde centralur-dasavluri regionisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo msxvilfexa pirutyvis moSeneba. XX saukunis 60-iani wlebidan ki farTod daiwyo soios moSeneba. mTavrobam didad Seuwyo xeli soflis meurneobis ganviTarebas da modernizacias qveynis centralur-dasavlur nawilSi. politikosebis, ekonomikuri da socialuri elementebis sxvadasxvaobam warmoSva araTanaswori qveyana, da radgan braziliis regionebs Soris gansxvaveba sakmaod didia. socialuri uTanasworoba Cans, rogorc mdidar da Rarib Statebs Sors, aseve TviT calkeul Statebs SigniTac. bolo oci wlis manZilze ramdenime cvlileba moxda braziliis ekonomikur strategiaSi. saxelmwifos politika mimarTuli iyo inflaciis gasakontroleblad, nayofierebis zrdisa da saerTaSoriso bazris CasarTavad farTo moxmarebis sagnebis eqportis gziT. mTavrobam antagonisturi strategia airCia. im dros roca centraluri banki mkacr monetarul politikas misdev-

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da, saxazino departamenti cdilobda im zianis kompensirebas, rac gamowveuli iyo monetaruli kontrmoqmedebebiT fiskaluri da sakredito politikis saSualebiT. ekonomikuri arastabilurobis Sua procesSi finansuri seqtori gadaiqca ekonomikuri zrdis mTavar beneficiarad. ekonomikaSi finansuri seqtoris mniSvneloba gaizarda da misi gavlena mTavrobis politikazec gavrcelda. mwarmoeblur oligarqiasa da safinanso oligarqias Soris davam da konkurenciam socialuri xarjebisTvis naklebi resursebi datova. miuxedavad amisa, braziliam mniSvnelovan ekonimikur zrdas miaRwia 2003 wlidan. bolo wlebSi ekonomikis zrda SeiZleba aixsnas ara eqsportis zrdiT, aramed investirebis reaqtivizaciiT. miuxedavad amisa, 21-e saukuneSi socialurma uTanasworobam dramatul zRvars miaRwia, mosaxleobis 33,3% cxovrobs saqalaqo raionebSi da ganicdis mavne Sedegebs Zaladobisa da cxovrebis pirobebidan gamomdinare. Zaladoba did qalaqebSi ar aris SezRuduli. qveynis modernizaciis miuxedavad brazilias gaaCnia didi sirTulis bevri socialuri da ekonomikuri problema. braziliis gageba SeuZlebelia misi socialuri da ekonomikuri araerTgvarovnebis Rrma kvlevis gareSe. Tanamedrove brazilia, romelic cdilobs mdidari qveynebis rigebs SeuerTdes agebulia uTanasworobasa da siRaribeze.

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samarTali, ekonomika

=

Law. Economics

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Ddevi Sonia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

marketinguli investiciebi da kompaniis momgebianoba

biznesis efeqturi marTva moiTxovs mis aqtivebSi Cadebuli nebismieri investiciis maRal mecnierul doneze Sefasebas. am mimarTulebiT metad mniSvnelovania marketinguli aqtivebis Seqmnisa da marTvis, marketingul aqtivebSi Cadebuli investiciebis sworad Sefasebisa da gamoyenebis sakiTxebi. marketinguli aramaterialuri aqtivebis Seqmna, mozidva da marTva gulisxmobs mniSvnelovan investiciebs maTi efeqtianobis Sesabamisi SefasebiT. praqtikaSi marketinguli investiciebis analizi garTulebulia. sirTulis mizezi ki imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mTlianobaSi ar xdeba marketinguli investiciebis identifikacia da isini aRricxvas eqvemdebarebian mxolod rogorc marketinguli xarjebi. am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, jon arisonis (Valuation of intellectual propert) da Carlz svordis (Pricewaterhouse Coopers) moxsenebebSi aRniSnulia, rom `bolo periodamde, aramaterialuri aqtivebi ar iyo gamoxatuli korporaciul angariSebSi, amasTan kompaniis SigniT aramaterialuri aqtivebis Sesaqmnelad xarjebis mniSvnelovani nawili gamoxatuli iyo ubralod rogorc mimdinare xarjebi (mag. marketinguli xarjebi)~ [Arrison, Svord, 2005; www.buildingipvalue. com]. aqedan gamomdinare, Tavdapirvelad yuradReba unda gavamaxviloT marketingul xarjebze. tradiciulad kompaniebis aRricxvis praqtika marketingul xarjebs ganixilavs, rogorc saqonlisa da momsaxurebis TviTRirebulebis nawils mimdinare moklevadian periodSi. marketinguli xarjebis gaTvaliswineba xdeba firmis komerciuli da nawilobriv mmarTvelobiTi xarjebis CarCoebSi, tipiuri mogebisa da wagebis angariSebSi. aseT viTarebaSi marketinguli xarjebi warmoadgenen firmis erTobliv xarjebs bazris SesaZleblobebis analizze, marketinguli kompleqsis RonisZiebebis SemuSavebaze, maT ganxorcielebaze, marketinguli kontrolis ganxorcielebaze. marketingis amerikuli asociacia marketingul xarjebs ganmartavs rogorc `faqtiur xarjebs, gaweuls marketingze da produqtis distribuciaze~ [Rosenwald: www.Marketingpower.com]. am ganmartebis Sesabamisad, marketingis amerikuli asociacia marketinguli gegmis SesamuSaveblad rekomendacias aZlevs xarjebis Semdeg struqturas: · marketinguli gamokvlevebi; · produqtebis SemuSaveba;

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faswarmoqmna; distribucia; gayidvebis marTva; reklama; winsvla (gasaRebis mastimulirebeli aqciebi); sazogadoebasTan kavSiri (fablik rileisenz); iuridiuli xarjebi (sasamarTlo dacva, lobireba, patentebis, savaWro markebis dacva; · operaciuli xarjebi (gamyidvelebis, agentebis, distributorebis dajildoveba [Parmerlee: 2000]. xarjebis analogiur dajgufebas iZlevian sxva avtorebic [ .. 2000 : 86]. unda aRiniSnos, rom marketinguli xarjebis struqturaSi gamoiyofa mudmivi da cvalebadi xarjebi (gayidvebis moculobis cvlilebasTan damokidebulebiT), aseve pirdapiri da iribi xarjebi (obieqtze xarjebis mimarTvis xerxis mixedviT). marketinguli xarjebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT diferencirebulad, firmis produqciaze moTxovnis generirebis (iniciativebis generacia, gayidvebis klasifikacia, gayidvamdeli RonisZiebebi, garigebebis dasruleba, gayidvis Semdgomi momsaxureba) mixedviT - marketinguli arxebisa da instrumentebis WrilSi: pirdapiri gayidvebi, telemarketingi, pirdapiri safosto gzavnilebi, sacalo maRaziebi, distributorebi, dilerebi da damatebiTi sacalo movaWreebi, reklama, debitorebis angariSebis marTva [:517]. m. beikeris mixedviT marketinguli xarjebis saerTo analizi xorcieldeba: marketingis sferoebis mixedviT - SemuSaveba, winsvla, ganawileba; - calkeuli saqonlis, jgufis mixedviT procentebSi; - momsaxurebis sferoebis mixedviT - momxmarebelTa segmentebis mixedviT, teritoriulad; - xarjebis ZiriTadi maCveneblebis mixedviT - erT vizitze, erT SekveTaze, erTi myidvelis mozidvaze; - alternatiuli marketinguli xarjebis Sesadareblad [ 2002: 260261]. marketinguli xarjebis raodenobrivi Sefaseba ki gamoxatavs da gviCvenebs mis mniSvnelovan rols biznesSi. ase magaliTad, aSS-Si kompaniebi rogorc wesi, gayidvebis erToblivi moculobis 15-35 % xarjaven marketingze [Marjot, 2003: http:IiiI-synergy.com]. firma - lackfriars-is analitikuri mimoxilvis - `xarjebi marketingze aSS-Si~- Sesabamisad, amerikuli kompaniebis xarjebi 2005 wels marketingze Seadgenda 1 trilion dolarze mets. Tu warmovidgenT marketings, rogorc calke vertikalurad integrirebul dargs, maSin igi daikavebda me-5 adgils gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobis, saxelmwifo seqtoris, uZravi seqtorisa da profesiuli momsaxurebis sferos Semdeg. aSS-Si xarjebi marketingze ufro metia, vidre mTliani finansuri seqtoris mier erTobliv Sida produqtSi

· · · · · · ·

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Cadebuli wili. didi xarjebi aqvT marketingze (120 mlrd. dolari weliwadSi (2005 w) gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobis kompaniebs, romelTa wili eSp-Si 1,5 trilioni dolaria. aseve xarjebi pirdapir marketingze metad SesamCnevia sacalo vaWrobis firmebSi - 24,5 miliardi dolari, maT aqvT agreTve marketinguli xarjebis yvelaze maRali wili gayidvebis moculobaSi. 2005 wlis I kvartalis marketinguli xarjebis struqtura aSS-Si mocemulia I cxrilSi sadac Cans, rom marketinguli xarjebis pirveli sami kategoria saerTo struqturaSi Seadgens daaxloebiT 60% [Shattock. www.Marketingcoach.Com]. cxrili I. marketinguli xarjebis struqtura aSS-Si 2005 w. I kvartali (%-Si).

- - ( ) 24 21 15 11 9 3 4 2 11

zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, Tu gaviTvaliswinebiT marketinguli xarjebis aseT mniSvnelobas, aqtualurad migvaCnia marketinguli xarjebis optimalurobis gansazRvris sakiTxi. sawarmoSi marketingis erToblivi xarjebis gansazRvris ori ZiriTadi meTodi SeiZleba gamovyoT: pirveli meTodis Tanaxmad - (,,zevidan qveviT~), marketinguli xarjebis saerTo raodenoba ganisazRvreba rogorc procenti - dagegmili gayidvebidan, miznobrivi mogebidan, an konkurentuli paritetis safuZvelze (konkurentis xarjebis mixedviT). am SemTxvevaSi ZiriTad maCvenebels warmoadgens marketinguli xarjebis/gayidvebis moculobis koeficienti. meore meTodis gamoyenebisas (,,qvevidan zeviT~) marketinguli xarjebis saerTo moculobis formireba xdeba rogorc xarjebis jami calkeul marketingul RonisZiebebze/instrumentebze - praqtikaSi xarjebis miRebuli normebisa da normativebis safuZvelze [ 2000:84]. marketinguli xarjebis momgebianobis gaangariSeba, pirvel etapze moiTxovs funqcionaluri danaxarjebis mTlianad, da calkeuli arxebis mixedviT (magaliTad sacalo vaWrobis xarjebis) - gaTvlas. Semdgom ganisazRvreba marketingul obieqtebze (specializirebuli maRaziebi) ganawilebuli funqcionaluri xarjebi. amis Semdeg ki yoveli arxidan sufTa mogeba/ wagebis gasagebad, erToblivi mogebidan gamoiqviTeba funqcionaluri marketinguli xarjebi yovel arxze. Tu mivmarTavT maT TiToeuli arxis xarjebTan, miviRebT marketinguli momgebianobis maCveneblebs arxebis mixedviT.

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marketinguli xarjebis efeqtianoba dgindeba agreTve analiziT - `gayidvebi - marketinguli xarjebi~. amasTan bevr kompaniaSi aseT analizs mivyavarT iseT mmarTvelobiT gadawyvetilebamde, romelic amcirebs efeqtur marketingul xarjebs mimdinare mogebis sasargeblod da biznesis momavali Rirebulebis sazianod. aseTi gadawyvetileba ar iTvaliswinebs imas, rom praqtikaSi marketinguli danaxarjebis mniSvnelovani nawili ar iZleva ukugebas ara imdenad mimdinare wels, ramdenadac Semdgom wlebSi. aseTi danaxarjebi Tavisi ekonomikuri arsiT, warmoadgenen investiciebs - amtkicebs bevri ucxoeli avtori [Shattock. www.Marketingcoach.Com.]. ,,marketinguli xarjebi warmoadgenen investiciebs, gayidvebidan momavali Semosavlebis miRebis mizniT~ - amtkicebs g. paueli [Pawell 2002. www. returnonmarketing.com]. analogiurad Tvlian Srivastava da raibStaini, rom marketinguli xarjebi, romlebic monawileoben grZelvadiani konkurentuli upiratesobis SeqmnaSi, ekonomikuri logikiT unda ganixilebodes rogorc investiciebi yovelwliuri amortizaciiT [Srivastava, Reibstein 2004: 7]. j. lenskoldi wignSi `investiciis rentabeloba marketingSi~ mijnavs marketingul investiciebs da xarjebs erTmaneTisagan: `investiciebi marketingSi - es aris xarjebi, romliTac Tqven riskulobT; isini ar iTvaliswineben xarjebs gayidvebis gansaxorcieleblad, romlebic sinamdvileSi erToblivi mogebis gaangariSebisas gaiTvaliswineba...... gadawyvetileba ama Tu im elementis investiciebis jamSi CarTvasTan dakavSirebiT, xSirad iqneba subieqturi imaze damokidebulebiT, Tu rogor surs organizacias investiciuri gadawyvetilebebis marTvis ganxorcieleba [ 2005:78-80]. j. lenskoldi marketinguli investiciis ganmartebisaTvis gamoyofs or kriteriums: samewarmeo risks da fuladi dinebebis droebiT Sefasebas. `investiciebi = marketingze sufTad gaweuli yvela xarjebis Rirebulebas, romliTac Tqven riskulobT~. 2006 wels, aSS-Si Catarda didi konferencia `ROMI 2006~, romelic mieZRvna marketinguli investiciebis rentabelobas, sadac marketingi aRiarebuli da daculi iqna rogorc biznes-investirebis mTavari mamoZravebeli procesi [ROMI 2006. www.iirusa.com] amerikis marketingis asociaciis erT-erT publikaciaSi, marketinguli xarjebis Semdegi ganmartebaa mocemuli: `dasawyisSi es aris xarjebi momxmareblebis SeZenaze, romlebic SemdgomSi uzrunvelyofen Semosavlebis dinebas, romelTa kapitalizacia SesaZlebelia winaswar warmodgenil da konservatiul drois periodad~ [Rosenwald www.marketingpower.com]. `marketinguli xarjebi, gansakuTrebiT reklamaze, ukeTesia mivakuTvnoT momavalis investiciebs~- aRniSnulia inglisur onlainur JurnalSi `Marketing Monthly~ (agvisto 2004w.) `marketingi - es aris sarisko investiciuri berketi didi ukugebis misaRwevad, vidre Tavdapirveli investiciebi~ (noemberi 2003w.) [Brown 2004. www. Onevision.co.uk.]. Sesabamisad, kompaniis mier SemuSavebuli grZelvadiani marketinguli strategiis CarCoebSi, marketinguli investiciebi warmoadgenen grZelva-

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dian kapitaldabandebebs marketingul aqtivebSi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen grZelvadiani damatebiTi Semosavlebis generacias. marketingul investiciebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT xarjebis ramodenime jgufi: - avansuri xarjebi (kampaniis dawyebamde kvlevebze, SemoqmedebiT saqmianobaze, personalis swavlebaze); - mimdinare cvalebadi xarjebi (masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, pirdapiri mimarTvebi momxmareblebisadmi, gayidvebis mxardaWerisTvis saWiro masalebi); - xarjebi, romlebic saWiro gaxdeba SemdgomSi (magaliTad, momxmarebelTa loialurobis amaRlebis programebze); - adamianuri resursebis Rirebuleba, romlebic amoqmedebulia programebis damuSavebisa da realizaciisas (gasaReba, marketingi, reklama, kvlevebi, arxebi, komunikaciebi klientebTan); - investiciis Rirebulebis is nawili, romelic emsaxureba ramodenime kampanias. amasTanave unda aRiniSnos, rom xarjebis mocemuli gamoyofili jgufebi, urTierTdakavSirebulni arian calkeuli marketinguli kompaniebis (programebis) mier da moicaven yvela damatebiT marketingul xarjebs, romlebic ukavSirdebian maT realizacias. marketinguli xarjebis erTobliobis, rogorc marketinguli aqtivebis SeqmnaSi da rekonstruqciaSi kapitalis Cadebis klasifikacia SesaZlebelia vadebis, Cadebis obieqtebis da dafinansebis wyaroebis mixedviT. magaliTad a. devisis moxsenebaSi (PricewaterhouseCoopers) "IP Value Report 2004", aRniSnulia, rom brendis warmatebuli Seqmna da marTva moiTxovs ZviradRirebul, xSirad kompaniaSi umsxviles marketingul investiciebs. kompaniebis umravlesoba, romlebic awarmoeben samomxmareblo saqonlebs, TavianTi brunvis moculobis 10-20% abandeben reklamaSi, winsvlaSi da sxva marketingul RonisZiebebSi [Davis, Spicer, www. buildingipvalue.com / 04index.Html]. xarjebi romlebic ar miekuTvnebian marketingul programebs da ukavSirdebian uSualod gayidvebs, ganixilebian rogorc mimdinare xarjebi. marketinguli programebis efeqtis gaTvlisas isini gamoiqviTebian navaWridan. swored aqve unda aRiniSnos kidev erTxel, rom ganmartebebis umravlesobaSi marketinguli investiciebi ganixileba rogorc nawili erToblivi marketinguli xarjebisa, romlebic mimarTulia marketinguli aqtivebis Rirebulebis gazrdisaken da grZelvadiani damatebiTi Semosavlebis miRebis uzrunvelyofisaken. rig marketingul investiciebs zemoqmedebis moxdena SeuZliaT bevr marketingul programaze. iseT investiciebs, romlebic ayalibeben saerTo marketingul mxardaWeras, j. lendskoldma miakuTvna xarjebi Semdeg RonisZiebebze: - brendis winsvlasTan dakavSirebiT komunikaciebis ganxorcieleba, gayidvebisa da marketinguli Zalisxmevis mxardaWeris mizniT;

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- internet-saitis Seqmna da mxardaWera masSi gzavnilebis ganaxlebiT; - komunikaciis arxebSi klientebze monacemebis Segroveba; - marketinguli monacemTa bazis Seqmna da sistemis funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofa; - pirdapiri marketinguli kvlevebis Catareba, romelic ar ukavSirdeba romelime kampanias; -RonisZiebebis Catareba klientebTan urTierTobebis marTvis sferoSi [ 2005:82-83] mocemuli investiciebi, maTi realizaciis efeqtianobis Sefasebisas, gadanawildebian marketinguli programebis mixedviT. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT sawarmoebisaTvis marketinguli aqtivebis maRal Rirebulebasa da mniSvnelobas, davinaxavT marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis SefasebisaTvis specialuri meqanizmis SemuSavebis aucilebelobasac. f. kotleris azriT: `amJamad kompaniis xelmZRvanelobisaTvis ukve ar aris sakmarisi momxmarebelTa upiratesobebis maCveneblebi. maT surT icodnen marketinguli programis mimdinareobisas ramdeni gayidvebi, mogeba da aqcioneruli Rirebuleba iqna Seqmnili~ [ 2004. www.Campaignist.com]. marketingul investiciebs Sedegad moyveba marketinguli aqtivebis Rirebulebis Seqmna da Semdgomi zrda. ukanasknels, anu - Zlieri brendebis, bazris codnas, strategiul partniorul urTierTobebs - aqtiurad iyeneben kompaniebi TavianTi finansuri da ekonomikuri Zlierebis zrdisaTvis. efeqturi marketinguli investiciebis wyalobiT, korporaciuli marketinguli strategiebis CarCoebSi, wlidan wlamde izrdeba kompaniis vaWrobis moculoba, mogeba, fulis mimoqceva, rentabeloba da Rirebuleba. finansuri analizisa da aRricxvis TeoriaSi kompaniis saqmianobis efeqtianobis dasadgenad gamoiTvleba sxvadasxva maCveneblebi. firmis momgebianobisa da efeqtianobis analizisaTvis gamoiyeneba absoluturi maCveneblebi - mogeba, danaxarjebi, investiciebi, aqtivebi, sakuTari kapitali da a. S. Sedarebis mizniT ki SefardebiTi maCveneblebi (koeficientebi, normebi, doneebi) gamoiyeneba procentebSi - gayidvebis, gamoyenebuli kapitalis, sakuTari kapitalis, aqtivebis, investiciebis rentabeloba. aRricxvis es maCveneblebi sasargebloa moklevadiani Sedegebis analizisas, amasTan maT gaaCniaT rigi mniSvnelovani naklovanebebi: mocemuli maCveneblebi yuradRebas ar aqceven drois faqtoris samewarmeo xasiaTs da ar iTvaliswineben investiciebs, rogorc grZelvadian investiciur process/ proeqts. isini efuZnebian mimdinare (mocemuli wlis), aRricxul mogebas, romlis sidide SeiZleba mniSvnelovnad Seicvalos manipulirebis Sedegad. mesakuTris, aqcioneris SexedulebiT - kapitalis investireba niSnavs mimdinare sargeblisagan uaris Tqmas, Semosavlisa da kapitalis gazrdis mizniT momavalSi. amitomac investiciuri mimzidveloba da rentabeloba unda iqnas dadgenili prognozirebadi Semosavlebisa da kapitaldabandebebis analizSi. Tu Cven vaxdenT investirebas marketingSi, grZelvadiani gayid-

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vebis Sedegad unda velodebodeT investiciis ukugebis xangrZlivobas, romlebic Sefasebul unda iqnas investorebis molodinTan mimarTebaSi. marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis Sefasebis erT-erT SedarebiT metad gamoyenebad midgomas warmoadgens marketinguli investiciis rentabelobis maCveneblis (mir) gamoyeneba, romelic ganisazRvreba rogorc dagrovili rentabeloba diskontirebis teqnikis gaTvaliswinebiT [ 2005:73]. (navaWris cvlileba-danaxarjebis cvlileba) - marketinguli investiciebi mir = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------marketinguli investiciebi erToblivi mogeba - marketinguli investiciebi mir = ----------------------------------------------------------------------marketinguli investiciebi marketinguli investiciebis rentabelobis erTian formulaSi fuladi masebis moyvanis problema SeiZleba gadawydes diskontirebis procesis Sedegad. msoflio marketingul literaturaSi ar aris moyvanili konkretuli marketinguli investiciisaTvis diskontis gaTvlis meTodika, romelic gaiTvaliswinebda risks da dabandebidan moTxovnil Semosavals. avtorebi Cveulebrivad gvTavazoben mivmarToT diskontirebisaTvis kompaniis finansur ganyofilebas. finansur ganyofilebebSi ki diskontis gaTvla dawesebulebebisTvis cnobili modelebiT xdeba (kapitaluri aqtivebis Sefasebis modeli, kumulatiuri modeli, kapitalis saSualo Rirebulebis modeli da sxva) marketingSi investiciebis specifikasTan misi dakavSirebis gareSe. diskontis sididis mniSvnelobam SeiZleba arsebiTad imoqmedos marketinguli investiciebis rentabelobis gamoTvlis saboloo Sedegebze. marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis sidides SeiZleba hqondes damakmayofilebeli, uaryofiTi da nulovani mniSvneloba. marketinguli investiciebi iTvleba efeqturad, Tu marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis sidide kompaniis mier dadgenil miznobriv doneze maRalia. marketinguli investiciebis rentabelobis gansazRvrisaTvis, marketinguli maCveneblebis efeqturi gamoyenebis problema, dakavSirebulia agreTve am maCveneblebis erTmaneTSi urTierTqmedebaze. msoflios wamyvani marketologebi marketinguli investiciebis rentabelobisaTvis gvTavazoben marketinguli maCveneblebis (sazomebis) ierarqiis sxvadasxva variantebs, romlebis uzrunvelyofen maT dekompozicias. magaliTad Srivastava da raibstaini gvTavazoben maCveneblebis samdonian erTobliobas, romelic moicavs: - pirveli done - maCveneblebi, romlebic gamoxataven marketinguli investiciebis zemoqmedebas momxmareblebze (loialurobis done, brendebis aRqma da a. S.);

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- meore done - maCveneblebi, romlebic gamoxataven marketinguli saqmianobis warmatebebs (bazris wili, danaxarjebi produqciis realizaciaze, gayidvebis ciklis Semcireba da a. S.); - mesame done - maCveneblebi, romlebic gamoxataven marketinguli investiciebis finansur Sedegebs (fulis dinebis sididis zrda, investiciebis rentabeloba, kompaniis Rirebulebis zrda) [Srivastava, Reibstein, 2004:7]. marketinguli maCveneblebis krebulis (marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis (mir) CaTvliT) standartizacia, biznesis sxvadasxva bunebis gamo SeuZlebelia yvela dargisaTvis. am mimarTulebiT, Tavisi xedva warmoadgina inglisisa da uelsis diplomirebuli buRaltrebis institutma (dbi) - korporaciaTa aqcionerebisa da direqtorTa sabWoebisaTvis, romelic iZleva ierarqiis samive donis maCveneblebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas. ix. cxrili 2. cxrili 2. kompaniis muSaobis efeqtianobis indikatorebi

()

wyaro: . : . . . 2003. . 205. marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis Sefaseba, SeiZleba ganxorcieldes rogorc mTlianad kompaniisaTvis, aseve marketinguli aqtivebis calkeul jgufebTan mimarTebaSic. investiciebis Cadeba iseTi marketinguli aqtivebis SeqmnaSi da ganviTarebaSi, rogoricaa strategiuli partnioroba, bazris codna, warmoadgenen marketinguli strategiis realizaciis mTavar elements. amrigad, daskvnis saxiT, gvinda aRvniSnoT rom: - firmis marketinguli aqtivebi warmoadgenen upiratesad aramaterialur aqtivebs, romelTa aRricxvis sakiTxi xSirad xdeba diskusiis sagani, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac adgili aqvs Seusabamobas aRricxvis saerTaSoriso standartebsa da qveynis saaRricxvo sistemas Soris; - marketinguli aramaterialuri aqtivebis Seqmna, mozidva da marTva pirvel rigSi gulisxmobs investiciebis Cadebas marketingSi da am investiciebis efeqtianobis Sesabamis Sefasebas; - marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis Sefaseba pirvel rigSi xarjebis identifikacias moiTxovs: mudmiv da cvalebad, pirdapir da irib xarjebad.

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msoflios wamyvan qveynebSi am investiciebis raodenobrivi Sefaseba, gviCvenebs maT rols Tanamedrove biznesSi; - marketinguli xarjebi warmoadgenen investiciebs biznesSi. isini warmoadgenen grZelvadian kapitaldabandebebs marketingul aqtivebSi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen grZelvadian damatebiT Semosavlebs; - metad mniSvnelovania biznesis warmatebisaTvis marketinguli xarjebis optimalurobis gansazRvra maTi rentabelobis dadgeniT, amisaTvis saWiroa maCveneblebis erTobliobis SemoReba; - marketinguli investiciebi iTvleba efeqturad, Tu marketinguli investiciebis efeqtianobis sidide kompaniis mier dadgenil miznobriv doneze maRalia. migvaCnia, rom wamoWrili sakiTxebis Seswavlasa da gamoyenebas, udaod didi mniSvneloba aqvT Tanamedrove qarTuli biznesis efeqtianobis amaRlebaSi. literatura: Arrison, Svord 2005 - Arrison J., Svord C. (PricewaterhouseCoopers) "Valuation of intellectual property~ in `IP Value 2005". Published by Globe White Page, publishers of intellectual Asset Manajement Magazine. www.buildingipvalue.com Brown 2004- Brown M. One Vision Ltd "Marketing costs money~. 2004. August. "3easy ways to gain a Bigger marketing budget" November 2003 in "Marketing Monthly", www.Onevision. co.uk. Marjot 2003 - -Building the Business Case for Marketing Resource Management/ A WHITE PAPER BY: BILL MARJOT. CHIEF EXEKUTIVE. NVIGORATE LTD. 2003. September. P.2. http:IiiI-synergy. Com/html (articles) Building/ 20 the.20 Business. Pdb/February 2004.p.2 Davis, Spicer - An international perspective on brand valuation and management. Adrian Davis and Lucinda Spicer in IP Value 2004. Published by Globe White Page, publishers of Intellectual Asset Management Magazine, www. buildingipvalue.com / 04index.Html. Dictionary - Dictionary of marketing Terms, www.Marketingpower.com. / mg. Dictionary. View 1866. php. Shattock - John Shattock. Is marketing an expense, or an investment? www.Marketingcoach. com Parmerlee 2000 - Parmerlee D. Preparing the marketing plan. AMA marketing toolbox, 2000. Powell 2002 - Return on Marketing Investment by Guy R. Powell. 2002. Ch. 1. www.Returnonmarketing.Net / Advertising. ROI.html. Rosenwald - Rosenwald P. The Economics of Data ­ Driven Marketing. Accountable Marketing. /www.marketingpower.com. ROMI 2006 - The ROMI 2006 Conference. Event Overview. You must defend marketing as a sound business investment. www.iirusa.com Srivastava, Reibstein 2004 - Srivastava R., Reibstein D.J. Metrics for Linking Marketing to financial Performance // Working paper submitted to Marketing Science Institute. 2004. October 19.

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www. Blackfriarsinc.com - U. S. Marketing Spending To Exceed S1 Trillion In 2005. www. Blackfriarsinc.com 2002 - . . . . . . . 2002. 2004 - . `Brand Equity", . 2004. www. Campaignist.com - . . 10- . , . 2005 - . . . 2005. 2000 - .. . . . 2000.

DEVI SHONIA

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

MARKETING INVESTMENTS AND PROFIT OF THE COMPANY

Against the background of the contemporary financial crisis, effective management of the firms requires a high level estimation of any investments put in their assets in order the firms to avoid the crisis. Following this direction, there are certain important aspects such as the management of marketing assets and the correct estimation and usage of investments put in marketing assets. If the firm's market capitalization is expressed by the market price of material and nonmaterial assets, it is expressed only through material assets in balance accounts. It should be also indicated that the difficult task of diversity of nonmaterial assets (various non material assets) has not been considered yet in the modern systems of counting. It should be stressed that exactly nonmaterial assets represent important components in the market capitalization of modern comanies of different branches. The most important and problematic issue concerning the nonmaterial assets, is the task of belonging of different units to the assets of this category. Though, nowadays the registration of nonmaterial assets has been mostly implemented, at the same time it often becomes the subject of discussion, especially when there is the irrelevance of international standards of accounting and accounting system of the country. It should be indicated that marketing assets have an important place the among contemporary company assets. As both foreign and local practices prove, the firm's marketing assets mostly are nonmaterial assets. While revealing and studying marketing assets of any company, first of all it is necessary to take into consideration the realistic potential of identifying (separating, dividing) the composition of these assets. In such situation marketing expenses are the firm's joint expenses necessary for the analysis of market's possibilities, elaboration of the measures of marketing complex, their implementation, and realization of marketing control. American Association of Marketing defines marketing expenses as "factual expenses spent on marketing and product distribution." According to this explanation, American Association of Marketing gives recommendation for the elaboration of marketing plan to the following structure

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of the expenses: · Marketing researches; · Elaboration of products; · Price establishment · Distribution; · Sales management · Advertisement; · Development (stimulating actions of trade) · Public relations · Juridical expenses (Court defense, protection, lobbying patents, and trade marks) · Operative expenses (rewards for sellers, agents, distributors) The same grouping of expenses is also provided by the other authors. Creation, attraction and management of marketing assets mean important investments according to the relevant estimation of their effectiveness. Analysis of marketing investments in practice is complicated because they are not identified as a whole and are registered only as marketing expenses. There are permanent and changing, direct and indirect expenses in the structure of marketing expenses. Numerical estimation of marketing expenses throughout the world shows us their importance in business sphere; however it is also important to determine their optimum. There are different approaches to such tendency. Marketing expenses are investments in order to receive future incomes from sales. It is quite important to dissociate marketing investments from marketing expenses. It is important to elaborate a special mechanism for estimation of effectiveness of marketing investments. And approaches towards this are different. Marketing investments are followed by development of marketing assets' value and the following raise. Marketing investments are considered effectively if the size of effectiveness of marketing assets is higher than the level established by the company. We believe that the study and usage of these issues have a great importance in the development of Georgian business effectiveness.

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istoria, politikuri mecnierebani

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History, Political Sciences

Jurnali `ganaTleba ~#1, 2009 Journal "Education"

dazmir jojua

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

globalizacia da saerTaSoriso sistemis struqturuli transformacia

globalizaciis procesi, romelic upirateswilad ganimarteba rogorc yovlismomcveli planetaruli integraciisa da msoflios universalizaciis procesi, intensiuri tempebiT viTardeba gasuli saukunis 70-80-iani wlebidan. magram diskusiebi da samecniero codnis Camoyalibeba am globaluri fenomenis Sesaxeb, ramac socialur-humanitarul mecnierebaTa sistemaSi warmoSva axali mravalganzomilebiani disciplina_globalistika, daiwyo mxolod 90-iani wlebis Sua xanebidan. amitom sruliad aSkaraa am procesis konceptualizaciis problema _ erTgvari araTanxvedra da, SeiZleba iTqvas, winaaRmdegobac globalizaciasa da globalistikas Soris. es problema, cxadia, garTulebulia aseve samecniero codnis ganviTarebis Sinagani epistemologiuri logikiTac-raRac azris gardaqmna codnad, am ukanasknelisa ki - samecniero codnad xom urTulesi da uaRresad gonebatevadi procesia. Semecnebis amgvari `moZraoba~ xdeba viTarebaSi, rodesac absoluturad cxadia, rom globalizacias marTlac aqvs adgili, magram bolomde ar aris garkveuli Tu ras warmoadgens es procesi da, miTumetes, rogori iqneba misi Sedegebi. globalizaciis ganxilva globalistikis prizmaSi, rac specialuri kvlevis obieqti unda gaxdes, warmoadgens Tanamedrove Semecnebis RerZul problemas, romlis pozitiuri gadawyveta aucileblad gamoiwvevs gadatrialebas azrovnebaSi da, SeiZleba iTqvas, globalur gonebriv revoluciasac (mTlianad Seicvleba SexedulebaTa sistema samyaroze, sazogadoebasa da adamianze, aseve Seicvleba maTi Semecnebis meTodebic1). am mxriv problemur sakiTxTa `birTvuli~ kompleqsi ase Tu ise garkveulia-ra aris globalizacia? rogoria misi procesi? ras warmoadgens misi struqtura? vin arian globalizaciis avtorebi? rogor `gamoiyureba~ globaluri kultura universalizmisa da fragmentaciis prizmaSi? da a.S. Cveni statiis mokrZalebuli mizania globalizaciis ganxilva misi saerTaSoriso-politikuri ganzomilebis konteqstSi-Tu ra gavlenas axdens globalizacia saerTaSoriso sistemis funqcionirebisa da transformaciis fundamentur safuZvlebze, globaluri wesrigis struqturuli organizaciis Sinagan, substanciur principebze. am SemTxvevaSi saerTaSoriso sistemis

1 am mxriv sakmarisia aRiniSnos, rom swored globalizaciam gamokveTa aqtualurad meTodologiuri ,,tranzitis~ iseTi mimarTulebani, rogoricaa - globalistika, sinergetika, kulturologia, msoflio-sistemuri meTodi, postmodernizmi, postklasikuri paradigma da a.S.

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parametrebi warmodgenilia globalizaciis mimarT maTi Teoriuli Semecnebis TvalsazrisiT. amitom ZiriTadi aqcenti gadatanilia konceptualur sakiTxebze: ras warmoadgens globalizacia saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi? ra formas Rebulobs globaluri wesrigi saerTaSoriso-politikuri universalizmis Suqze? ra elis kacobriobis struqturul organizacias globalizaciis pirobebSi: konvergencia Tu koevolucia? monocentristuli sinTezi Tu arastacionaluri policentristuli qaosi? religiaTa da kulturaTa dialogi Tu civilizaciaTa Sejaxeba? am sakiTxis gaazrebas uaRresad didi mniSvneloba aqvs Tanamedrove msoflios magistraluri megatendenciebis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT. saerTaSoriso politosferos struqturasa da ZiriTadi subieqtebis urTierTmimarTebaze globalizaciis procesis zegavlenis Semecnebas didi evristikuli da aqsiologiuri faseuloba gaaCnia. saerTaSoriso politosferosaTvis globalizaciis gamo damaxasiaTebeli dinamiuri cvalebadoba, am cvalebadobis qronopolitikuri ciklebi, msoflios ZalTa centrebs Soris Zalauflebrivi meqanizmebis gadanawilebis kratokratiuli moZraobebi_ ai, sakiTxTa kompleqsi, romelTa analizSic naTlad vlindeba globalistikis SemecnebiTi funqcia, miuxedavad imisa, rom am mecnierebis disciplinaruli struqtura bolomde ar aris Camoyalibebuli. cxadia, Tanamedrove globaluri viTareba ver iZleva am kiTxvebze erTmniSvnelovan pasuxebs. magram aseve cxadia meore momentic: gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisidan dRemde ganviTarebuli procesebi erTian mTlianobaSi mainc qmnian garkveul fons, romelzec met-naklebi relatiurobiT gamokveTilia momavali msoflio mowyobis warmmarTveli tendenciebi. rasakvirvelia, jer unda ganimartos TviT cneba `globalizacia~ da daxasiaTdes am fenomenis arsobrivi niSnebi. udavoa, rom globalizacia _ es aris ekonomikisa da politikis integraciis umaRlesi faza, aseve Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSi _ kulturuli universalizaciis sawyisi stadia, rac am fenomenis uaryofiT impulss warmoadgens. isic udavoa, rom globalizacia aris Tanamedrove civilizaciuri revolucia. magram es srulebiTac ar niSnavs imas, rom es definiciebi sabolooa da misaRebi. SesaZlebelia da aucilebelic, rom amgvar `udavoobas~ xSirad Caenacvlos davebi globalizaciis tendenciebis, farglebisa da SesaZlo Sedegebis Sesaxeb. erTi sityviT, saWirocaa da aucilebelic globaluri diskursi globalizaciaze, rogorc istoriul procesze. globalizaciis definiciis sakiTxSi SeimCneva erTi arsebiTi problema: praqtikulad yvela socialuri mecniereba yuradRebas amaxvilebs globalizaciis im aspeqtebze, romlebic gansakuTrebulad arian dakavSirebulni mxolod am mecnierebis kvlevis obieqtTan. amis Sedegad xdeba globalizaciis cnebis fragmentacia, misi `gaxleCa~ calkeul disciplinebs Soris, rac aZnelebs erTiani konceptualizaciis SesaZleblobas. mag. ekonomikur mecnierebas es procesi dahyavs ekonomikis sferoSi integraciuli tendencie-

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bis analizamde (finansuri globalizacia, msoflio vaWrobis gafarToeba, globaluri masStabis transerovnuli korporaciebis Camoyalibeba da a.S. [daviTaSvili 1999: 228-245]; geografebi globalizaciis fenomens ukavSireben im procesebs, romelTa ganviTarebis Sedegad sul ufro da ufro mcirdeba manZilisa da sazRvrebis mniSvneloba, yalibdeba e.w `ekonomikuri arqipelagebi~ - umsxvilesi qalaq-megapolisebis asociaciebi (mag:, garkveuli finansuri interesebis gamo SeiZleba manZili niu-iorksa da tokios Soris ufro `axlo" iyos, vidre igive niu-iorksa da aSS-s romelime sxva qalaqs Soris). `romis klubis~1 mier XX saukuneSi kacobriobis teqnologiuri potencialis ganviTarebaze SemuSavebuli sqemis mixedviT, 1900 welTan SedarebiT 2000 wlisaTvis msoflio doneze urTierTobis siCqare gaizarda 107-jer, dedamiwis erTi adgilidan meoreSi gadaadgilebis siCqare ki-102-jer, e.i. asjer [ 2000: 562]; sociologebi globalizaciis arsis gadmocemisas upiratesobas aniWeben adamianTa cxovrebis wesebis daaxloebas, xolo kulturologebi globalizacias ganmartaven sxvadasxva kulturaTa urTierTdaaxloebisa da kulturaTa `hibridizaciis~ konteqstSi. analogiuri monisturi, erTganzomilebiani definiciebi axasiaTebT sxva mecnierebebsac. yovelive zemoTqmulidan cxadia, rom globalizaciis arsis garkvevaSi umTavresi sirTule dakavSirebulia am procesis gamovlenis formaTa mravalferovnebasTan. Cveni azriT, globalizaciis procesis konceptualizaciis sabazo fenomenad unda miviCnioT faseulobaTa sistemis universalizaciis Teza. swored misi meSveobiT aris SesaZlebeli globalizaciis Semadgeneli atributebis ganzogadeba da met-naklebi sistematizacia. faseulobaTa sistema warmoadgens globalur doneze maintegrirebeli funqciis mqone fenomens. liberaluri demokratiis, kanonis uzenaesobis, adamianis uflebaTa dacvis moTxovnilebani warmoSoben politikur faseulobaTa sistemas, iseve rogorc kerZo sakuTrebis, sabazro ekonomikis, cxovrebis maRali donis da sxva amdagvari moTxovnilebani - ekonomikur faseulobaTa sistemas da a.S. ase yalibdeba RirebulebaTa garkveuli ierarqia, romlis nebismieri safexuris moazreba Tavisuflad SeiZleba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi. aqedan gamomdinare, faseulobaTa universalizacia iwvevs integraciul tendenciebs cxovrebis Sesabamis sferoebSi da qmnis globalizaciis faqtorTa jgufebs. politikur faseulobaTa universalizacia, e.i. pluralisturi demokratiis, parlamentarizmis, adamianis uflebaTa prioritetis principTa sayovelTao gavrceleba qmnis faqtorTa politikur jgufs-politikur globalizacias. analogiurad xorcieldeba es procesi sxva sferoebSi. faseulobaTa sistemis universalizaciiT generirebuli faqtorTa jgufebis erToblioba ki warmoadgens globalizaciis movlenis Sinaarss. amdenad, globalizaciis procesis definirebis sqemaSi fundamentur Teziss warmoadgens RirebulebaTa ierarqiis universalizacia.

1

`romis klubi~ saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo samecniero klubi. Seiqmna 1968 wels.

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ra gavlenas axdens globalizaciis procesi saerTaSoriso sistemis ganviTarebaze da msoflio wesrigis struqturul qmnadobaze? sruliad cxadia, rom globalizacia fundamentur gavlenas axdens globalur doneze ZalTa ganlagebaze, radikalurad cvlis ZalTa centrebis da subieqtebis urTierTmimarTebas da TviT msoflio sistemis arsebul konstruqcias. unda iTqvas, rom saerTaSoriso-politikur mecnierebaSi aRniSnuli sakiTxis gaazrebas garkveuli pluralisturi midgomis daRi azis. aq arsebuli sami kanonikuri paradigmidan (realizm-neorealizmi, liberalizmneoliberalizmi, neomarqsizmi) gamomdinareobs globalizaciis daxasiaTebis sami konceptualuri modeli; realistebs globalizacia esmiT, rogorc postindustriul stadiaze `civilizaciaTa konfliqti~ [hanTingtoni 1997: 6-7], an kidev `civ omSi" ssrk-ze dasavleTis gamarjvebis Sedegad mTels msoflioze aSS-s hegemoniis damyarebis procesi [,,Time~, Mar. 14, 1994. h. kisinjeri]. neoliberaluri paradigmis momxreebi globalizacias ganixilaven, rogorc `istoriis dasasruls~ [fukuiama 1999: 124] - mTels msoflioSi dasavluri faseulobebis saboloo gamarjvebisa da sayovelTao gavrcelebis Seuqcevad process. neomarqsistebis azriT, globalizacia aris monopolisturi kapitalisa da amerikuli imperializmis mizanmimarTuli strategia msoflios damorCilebisaken [www. Ieie.nsc.ru: 8101]. globalizacia marTlac udides gavlenas axdens rogorc saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa konkretul tendenciebze, iseve saerTod globaluri procesis mTlianobaze. es procesi ganapirobebs msoflios geopolitikuri suraTis kardinalur Secvlas im gagebiT, rom axdens seriozul cvlilebebs saerTaSoriso sistemis struqturuli organizaciis, ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso aqtorebis interesebisa da strategiebis sferoSi. cnobilma amerikelma geopolitologma m. kaplanma SeimuSava saerTaSoriso sistemebis tipologiis unikaluri meTodi da gamoyo msoflios struqturis eqvsi tipi [ 2000: 220-236]. 1. `ZalTa balansis~ sistema, romlis drosac aranakleb xuT-eqvs zesaxelmwifos Soris adgili aqvs globalur wonasworobas. aseTi struqtura hqonda saerTaSoriso sistemas XVIII_XIX saukuneebSi (e. w. `evropuli koncerti~) 2. zomieri bipolaruli sistema, romelSic arsebobs ori globaluri ZalTa centri da, garda amisa, didi roli aqvT neitralur saxelmwifoebsa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebs. aseTi iyo, magaliTad, msoflio samTa kavSirisa da antantis blokebis dapirispirebis dros da, rasakvirvelia, meore msoflio omis Semdgomi `civi omis~ reJimSi. 3. uxeSi bipolaruli sistema, romelSic arsebobs mxolod ori bloki, Tanac blokebs SigniT urTierTobani mkacrad ierarqizebulia. aseTi sistema funqcionirebda pirveli da meore msoflio omebis periodSi. 4. universaluri sistema, romlis drosac universalur saerTaSoriso

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organizacias faqtobrivad aqvs `msoflio mTavrobis~ funqciebi da swored is marTavs msoflios saqmeebs. 5. ierarqiuli sistema, sadac erTi konkretuli saxelmwifo (an qveyanaTa koalicia) saTaveSi udgas saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa `piramidas~. 6. `erTeuli vetos sistema~, romelSic sistemis yovel aqtors SeuZlia, SantaJis garkveuli saSualebebis gamoyenebiT, SeaCeros misTvis arasasargeblo procesebi (,,veto~ daados maT) da dablokos sistemis funqcionireba. magaliTad, aseTi sistema SeiZleba ganviTardes raketul-birTvuli iaraRis masobrivi gavrcelebis SemTxvevaSi. saerTaSoriso sistemis struqturuli transformaciis ra forma SeiZleba ganviTardes globalizaciis Sedegad da ra tipologiuri determinacia SeiZleba miiRos msoflio wesrigis struqturam? Cvenis azriT, yvelaferi damokidebulia TviT globalizaciis procesualur da struqturul determinantebze, anu imaze, Tu ra formiT ganviTardeba es procesi, ra ZiriTad parametrebs moicavs is, rogori iqneba misi struqtura, misi mamoZravebeli Zalebi da subieqtebi. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba warmovidginoT saerTaSoriso sistemis struqturuli cvlilebis sami modeli: 1. Tu globalizacia warimarTeba mondializaciis scenariT, maSin saerTaSoriso sistemis struqtura miiRebs ierarqiuli mowyobis formas. msoflio wesrigs eqneba Pax Americana­s xasiaTi. damyardeba aSS-s globaluri hegemonia, romlis safuZveli iqneba aSS-s giganturi samxedro infrastruqtura, ekonomikuri da finansuri Zliereba. 2. Tu globalizacia warimarTeba fragmentacia-regionalizaciis scenariT, maSin msoflio struqtura miiRebs ZalTa balansis sistemis reanimaciis axal cikls. saerTaSoriso arenaze Camoyalibdeba globaluri Zalauflebis ramdenime centri (aSS, evrokavSiri, CineTi, ruseTi, indoeTi, samxreTaRmosavleT azia), romelTa Soris uflebamosilebaTa konfiguracia saerTaSoriso sistemis struqturas ZalTa wonasworobis xasiaTs mianiWebs. 3. Tu globalizacia warimarTeba kulturaTaSorisi konsensusisa da dialogis scenariT, maSin globalur wesrigs eqneba universaluri sistemis tipologiuri niSan-Tviseba. msoflio warmodgenili iqneba eqvsi-Svidi geocivilizaciis paraleluri arsebobiT da civilizaciaTaSorisi balansi, gnebavT kulturaTaSorisi koevolucia gaxdeba globaluri ganviTarebis ganmsazRvreli algoriTmi. saqarTvelo patara saxelmwifoa, magram qarTveli eri unikaluri da TviTmyofadi civilizaciis, umaRlesi kulturuli formatis matarebeli eria. amitom Cveni perspeqtiuli interesebis TvalsazrisiT saerTaSoriso sistemis optimalur models warmoadgens policentristuli struqturis globaluri wesrigi, romelic daefuZneba eTnocivilizaciuri mravalferovnebisa da kulturaTa `polifonia-simfoniis~ principebs. civilizaciaTaSorisi koevoluciis es modeli uzrunvelyofs Cveni civilizaciuri iden-

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turobis dacvas, qarTuli kulturis `ekologias~. amitom savsebiT gasagebi unda iyos globalizaciis mondialisturi scenaris mimarT saqarTvelos sulier ­ inteleqtualuri kolizia. literatura: daviTaSvili 1999 - z. daviTaSvili nacionalizmi da globalizacia, Tbilisi. 2006. fukuiama 1999 - f. fukuiama. `istoriis dasasruli~, anu ukanaskneli adamiani. Tbilisi. 1999. hanTingtoni 1997 - s. hanTingtoni civilizaciaTa Sejaxeba, Tbilisi. 1997. 2000 - , . 2000. . , . 2002. ,,Time", Mar. 14, 1994. www. Ieie.nsc.ru:8101.

DAZMIR JOJUA

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

GLOBALIZATION AND STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION OF INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS

The process of globalization, as the process of universal integration and the world's universalization, has been developing rapidly since 70-80-ies of the 20th century. Based on the methodological pluralism, there exist several definition models of globalization in international political science. The Neorealists consider it as `a clash of civilizations~ at the post-industrial stage (`Huntington's view~). The supporters of Neoliberal paradigms perceive globalization as `the end of history~ ­ the irreversible process of the final victory and spread of Western values in the whole world (`Fukiama line~). Certainly, globalization has a huge effect on the entire international processes. It stipulates the cardinal change of the world's geopolitical picture so that it causes serious transformations in the sphere of structural organization of international system, the main international actors' interests, strategies and power division. What kind of typological determination can the structure of the world order receive following the globalization process? We can predict three models of such structural transformation: 1) If the globalization is directed through the modularization approach, the structure of the international system will receive the form of hierarchical structure - the USA's global hegemony will be established. 2) If globalization is directed by the fragmentation-regionalization scenario, the structure of the world's order will have a power balance character. Global force centres (USA, the European Union, China, Russia, India, and South-Eastern Asia) will form an international "equilibrium" and the regime of balance. 3) If globalization is aimed at the direction of intercultural consensus and a dialogue, the global order will obtain typological features of the universal system. The world will present a parallel existence of six-seven geo-civilizations, and the co-evolution of inter-civilizations will become the algorithm determining global development.

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istoria, politikuri mecnierebani

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History, Political Sciences

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

qeTevan mania

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

osmaluri dokumentebis wyaroTmcodneobiTi kvleva saqarTveloSi XX s-is 60-iani wlebidan dRemde

osmaluri dokumentebis Seswavlas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs rogorc osmaleT-saqarTvelos istoriuli urTierTobebis dasadgenad, aseve, socialur-ekonomikuri da politikuri sakiTxebis gasaanalizeblad. winamdebare naSromSi mimovixilav osmaleT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis amsaxveli osmaluri dokumenturi wyaroebis kvlevis istorias XX s-is 60iani wlebidan dRemde. aRebul qronologiur monakveTSi osmaluri sabuTebis moZieba-publikacia-Seswavlis saqmeSi didi wvlili Seitanes qarTvelma Turqologebma c. abulaZem, m. svaniZem, n. Sengeliam, s. jiqiam. muSaoba ramdenime mimarTulebiT warimarTa: xdeboda rogorc dokumentebis moZieba, aseve, maTi wyaroTmcodneobiT-istoriografiuli analizi. upirveles amocanas, dasmul sakiTxTa Soris saqarTveloSi Tu sazRvargareTis arqivebSi daculi osmaluri sabuTebis gamovlena warmoadgenda. am mizans emsaxureboda specialuri samecniero mivlinebebi, romlebic moewyo bulgareTsa da TurqeTSi. gamoqveynda aRniSnuli samecniero mivlinebebis Sesaxeb angariSebi, sadac mocemulia muSaobis dros aRmoCenili masalebis mokle mimoxilva [meSveliani 1968:413-421; Sengelia 1979:190-196; Sengelia 1999:159-171; Sengelia 2000a:351-372]. saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis sayuradRebo dokumentebis gamovlenis TvalsazrisiT, nayofieri aRmoCnda samecniero mivlinebis muSaoba bulgareTSi, q. sofiis kirilesa da meTodes saxelobis saxalxo biblioTekis aRmosavleTmcodneobis ganyofilebaSi. bulgareTidan Camotanili mravalricxovani dokumentebis garkveuli nawilis publikacia SemogvTavaza n. Sengeliam [Sengelia 1987 a]. publikaciaSi warmodgenilia XVI_XVIIIss. osmaleT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis amsaxveli dokumentebi. maTi samecniero mimoqcevaSi Semotana mkvlevrebs did daxmarebas gauwevs bevri saintereso sakiTxis garkvevaSi. fasdaudebelia am dokumentebis mniSvneloba rogorc saqarTvelos, ise mezobeli qveynebis politikuri istoriis ekonomikis, kulturis, istoriuli geografiis, diplomatikis, onomastikis, lingvistikis Sesaswavlad. bulgareTidan Camotanili sabuTebidan, sayuradReboa, Cildiris eialeTis jaba davTari, romelic gamocemul iqna c. abulaZisa da m. svaniZis mier [abulaZe, svaniZe 1979], patara davTari XVI s-is ukanaskneli meoTxedis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Sesaxeb [Sengelia 2003-2004:278-305], XVIII s-is Turquli sabuTebi Tbilisis Sesaxeb [Sengelia 1987b:74-94; Sengelia 1993:259-267]. mravali sayuradRebo dokumenti iqna gamovlenili TurqeTSi mivline-

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bis dros sxvadasxva arqivebsa da wignTsacavebSi. gamovlenil dokumentebs Soris erT-erTi mniSvnelovania Cildiris vilaieTis mokle davTari, romelsac misi aRmomCeni n. Sengelia 1592 wliT aTariRebs da gvTavazobs dokumentis mniSvnelobis ganxilvas [Sengelia 2002b:298-334; Sengelia 2008a]. mkvlevarma ministrTa sabWos arqivSi miakvlia, aseve, 1574 wlis `gurjistanis vilaieTis did davTars~. davTars wamZRvarebuli hqonda `osmaluri kanunnameebis krebulSi~ Sesuli saqarTvelos Sesaxeb arsebuli kanonTa wigni. n. Sengeliam pirvelad Semoitana aRniSnuli dokumenti mimoqcevaSi da misi 1595 wliT daTariRebul cnobil davTarTan SedarebiTi analiziT, gamoavlina maT Soris arsebiTi sxvaoba. gamoarkvia, rom 1574 wliT daTariRebuli davTari gacilebiT mcire teritoriebs moicavs. rogorc Cans, am ori davTris Sedgenas Soris arsebuli drois mcire monakveTSi osmalebma, ara marto mtkiced moikides fexi samxreT saqarTveloSi, aramed moaxdines miwebis xelaxali gadanawileba da qarTuli miwebi sxvadasxva vilaieTebs SeuerTes [Sengelia 2003b:487-500]. stambulis arqivSi mikvleul iqna social-ekonomikuri istoriis Sesaxeb mniSvnelovani dokumentebi [Sengelia 2008b; Sengelia 2003:19-26], aseve, sayuradReboa sabuTebi istoriuli saqarTvelos zogierTi regionis Sesaxeb. am dokumentebis kvlevam cxadyo, rom firmanebis beraTebis da sxva sabuTebis analizi, did mniSvnelobas iZens specialur literaturaSi ucnobi istoriuli soflebis saxelwodebis aRdgenis TvalsazrisiT. gamoqveynda am mxriv saintereso zogierTi dokumenti artanujis da, saerTod, artanujis sanjaySi Semavali soflebis Sesaxeb [gorgaZe 2002:587-594; gorgaZe 2004:494502]. zemoT miTiTebuli gamocemebi aRWurvilia samecniero aparatiT _ Turqul dednebs qarTuli TargmanebiT axlavs komentarebi da SeniSvnebi. ganxorcielda saqarTvelos arqivebSi, kerZod, xelnawerTa erovnuli centris aRmosavlur ganyofilebaSi gamovlenili osmaluri dokumentebis publikacia, romlebic mniSvnelovan wyaros warmoadgenen qarTul teritoriaze osmaluri miwismflobelobis formebis SeswavlisaTvis. gamoqveynda iurTluqisa da ojaqliqis wesiT cxinvalis givi amilaxorisaTvis [jiqia 1965:243-247], Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTridan amowerili soflebis (mawevani, satredo, ateni, wedisi, bnavisi) da sxva mamulebis osmalo moxeleebisaTvis [jiqia 1972:210-216], Tbilisis vilaieTis baqar bagrationisadmi sabeglarbegod [jiqia 1971:278-282], suleiman esadisaTvis mamulebis [jiqia 1960:161-1850] gaboZebis firmanebi qarTuli TargmaniT da saTanado komentariT. gamovlenili da samecniero brunvaSi iqna Semotanili politikuri istoriis SeswavlisaTvis mniSvnelovani araerTi Turquli dokumenti: XVI s-is 80-iani wlebis saqarTvelo-TurqeTis urTierTobis amsaxveli sayuradRebo dokumenti. osmalTa sulTnis simon qarTlis mefisadmi gagzavnili `uavgustoesis xelSekuleba~ [svaniZe, jiqia 1966:223-236], trapizonis faSas werilebi imereTis mefis solomon II-isadmi [abulaZe 1967:165-185; abulaZe 1971:402406], osmaleTis sulTnis firmani solomon II-isadmi [Sengelia 1963: 186-195],

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osmaleTis xelisuflebasTan dadianis politikuri damokidebulebis amsaxveli dokumenti [jiqia 1966: 294-298]. gamocemul iqna iran-osmaleTis sazavo xelSekrulebis mniSvnelovani punqtebi saqarTvelosa da amierkavkasiis qveynebis Sesaxeb [CoCievi 1962:271-309; CoCievi 1965:401-419], agreTve, sabuTebi osmaluri sasamarTlo wyobilebis [jiqia 1969:165-188] da osmaluri safinanso saqmeebis warmoebis [Sengelia 1984a:58-82] Sesaxeb, sulTan mehmed IV-is sigeli awyuris saeparqioSi ioane beris mawyverlad daniSvnis Taobaze [abulaZe 1989:198-202], givi amilaxvarTan da daviT TarxanTan dakavSirebuli [jiqia 1962:153-172; abulaZe 1973a:294-305] Turquli sabuTebi qarTuli TargmaniT da komentariT. gamoqveynda, agreTve, sxvadasxva arqivebSi daculi osmaluri dokumentebi saqarTvelos cixeebis Sesaxeb. samecniero literaturaSi warmodgenili sabuTebi anakliisa da ruxis (Sengelia 1982; Sengelia 2002a:99-119), foTis [Sengelia 1978a:126-148], quTaisis [Sengelia 1984b:209-215; Sengelia 1985a:147-149], xerTvisis [Sengelia 2001a:234-241], soxumis [jiqia 1984:211223; Sengelia 1991:309-321; anCabaZe, Sengelia 2008:170-186], baTumis [Sengelia 1996:171-178], awyuris [Sengelia 2005a:337-343] cixeebis Sesaxeb, mniSvnelovan cnobebs gvawvdis osmaluri samoxeleo aparatis, maTi realuri Zalauflebis, am cixeebSi Cayenebuli osmaluri garnizonis ufleba-movaleobis, socialur politikuri terminologiis, socialur-ekonomikuri istoriisaTvis. anakliisa da ruxis cixeebis Sesaxeb dokumentebis analiziT, gamoirkva, Tu rogor cdilobda osmalo xelisufleba osmaluri social-politikuri terminologiis danergvas saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. soxumis cixis dokumentis SeswavliT ki TvalsaCinovdeba, rom osmalo administratorebis mcdelobis miuxedavad, maTi realuri Zalaufleba am cixis kedlebs ar scildeboda. gamocemul iqna saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebis _ aWaris [Sengelia 1978b:124-136], afxazeTis [Sengelia 1985b:186-190], samxreT da samxreT-dasavleT [abulaZe 1983; Sengelia 1988:267-271; Sengelia 2005b:344-366] saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis saintereso cnobebis Semcveli osmaluri sabuTebi. publikaciis paralelurad intensiurad mimdinareobda masalis wyaroTmcodneobiTi analizi. rogorc cnobilia, osmaleTis mTavroba dapyrobili qarTuli provinciebisaTvis sxvadasxva periodSi adgenda specialur davTrebs. amgvarad gaCnda qarTul istoriul sinamdvileSi _ gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari, Cildiris vilaieTis jaba davTari, Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTari, zemo aWaris livis vrceli davTari, `muhime davTrebi~, kanun-nameebi, Tesqereebi da sxva. specialuri naSromebi mieZRvna am dokumentebis mniSvnelobis gansazRvras saqarTvelos istoriis mTeli rigi sakiTxebis _ kerZod, osmaleT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis, osmaluri gadasaxadebis da sagadasaxado sistemis, osmaluri miwaTsargeblobis da miwaTmflobelobis wesebis da saerTod, mosaxleobis socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis Sesaswavlad. ase magaliTad, Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTris gaanalizebis sa-

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fuZvelze gamovlinda, rom dokumentSi gvxvdeba cnobebi muslimur saxeloebze. irkveva, rom osmalo xelisufali ver arCevda glexs Tavadisa da aznaurisagan _ igi misTvis gadasaxadebis gadamxdeli obieqti iyo [svaniZe 1984:170180; Sengelia 2005b:333-350; Sengelia 2007:229-230; gorgaZe 2005:415-429]. saintereso suraTs iZleva sameurneo tradiciebis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT, 1595 wlis gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTris monacemebze eTnografiuli dakvirveba. davTris analiziT, gamokvleul iqna meurneobis erT-erTi dargis parkosan kulturaTa gavrcelebis sakiTxi. gamoirkva, rom aRniSnuli kulturis gavrceleba daqvemdebarebulia zonalobis princips [beriaSvili 1975:332-340]. aseve, mniSvnelovania `zemo aWaris livis davTris~ cnobebi XVI s-is aWaris istoriis socialur-ekonomikuri da istoriulgeografiuli sakiTxebis gasaanalizeblad [SaSikaZe 2002:420-488]. sayuradRebo detalebiT avsebs Turquli `kanun-nameebi~ osmaluri agraruli da sagadasaxado sistemis istorias. `kanun-nameebi~ win uZRoda xalxTa aRweris davTrebs. am dokumentebSi gansazRvruli iyo gadasaxadebis, baJebis da jarimebis odenoba. XVI s-is meore naxevridan osmalebi samcxe-saaTabagos TandaTanobiT ipyroben da qmnian osmalur sanjayebs. am qarTul teritoriaze Seqmnili sanjayebisaTvis iqna Sedgenili gurjistanis `kanun-name~. igi saukeTeso wyaros warmoadgens am mxareSi osmalobis SemoRebisa da gavrcelebis sakiTxis Sesaswavlad. n. Sengeliam SemogvTavaza Turquli `kanun-nameebis~ o. barkaniseul publikaciaSi Sesuli zemoT aRniSnuli dokumentis analizi da warmoaCina maTi mniSvneloba rogorc saqarTvelos, aseve, amierkavkasiis qveynebis istoriis kardinaluri sakiTxebis gadaWris TvalsazrisiT. mkvlevarma aqve mogvca gurjistanis dokumentTan erTad, ganjis 1727 wlis `kanun-names~ publikacia [Sengelia 1960:183-205; Sengelia 1962:219-234; Sengelia 2003d:103-106]. am dokumentebis kvleviT naTeli gaxda, rom osmaluri wesebis danergva erTbaSad ar momxdara, igi saukuneTa manZilze grZeldeboda; osmaluri kanonebi xSir SemTxvevaSi iuridiul xasiaTs atarebda da faqtobrivad qarTuli miwismflobelobis formebi saxeSecvlili formiT ganagrZobda arsebobas [svaniZe 1963:149-175; svaniZe 1975:324-331]. osmaluri miwismflobelobis SeswavlisaTvis mniSvnelovania osmalTa batonobis Sedegad gaCenili mamulebis gaboZebis formebis - ojaqliqebisa da iurTluqebis monacemebi. aRniSnuli formebis SemoReba garkveuli mizandasaxulobiT iyo ganpirobebuli, osmaleTis xelisufleba imagrebda Tavis politikur poziciebs dapyrobil teritoriebze. miwebis gadacemiT dampyrobeli erTgvar RonisZiebas atarebda damorCilebuli qveynis warCinebulTa gadasabireblad [jiqia 1971:278-282]. firmanebis analiziT, mkvlevrebi aRniSnaven, rom iurTluqebis da ojaqliqebis wesiT miwis mflobelobis SemoReba iyo erTgvari kompromisi. am wesiT qarTuli miwebis mflobelni iyvnen qarTveli feodalebi, romlebic garkveul valdebulebas kisrulobdnen xelisuflebis winaSe, magram sanacvlod miwaze baton-patronobis ufleba gadaecemodaT [Sengelia 1974; svaniZe 1976:219-225]. sayuradRebo monacemebi

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gamovlinda XVIII s-is Turquli dokumentis analiziT. s. jiqia SeniSnavs, rom XVIII s-is Sua xanebSic ojaqliqebs da iurTluqebs warmoadgenen iseTi teritoriebi, rogoricaa, alTun-yalas rabaTi, ocxis da axalcixis sanjayebi. es teritoriebi, rogorc cnobilia XVI s-is miwurulidan mitacebuli hqonda osmaleTs. XVIII s-is Sua xanebisTvisac ki osmaleTis xelisufleba iZulebuli gamxdara daTmobebze wasuliyo da aq iurTluqebis da ojaqliqebis beraTebis ganaxlebiT dakmayofilebuliyo. mkvlevris TvalsazrisiT es faqti miuTiTebs adgilobriv feodalTa winaaRmdegobaze [jiqia 1960:161-185]. xelnawerTa erovnuli centris osmalur fondSi gamovlenil iqna sulTnisaTvis gaweuli erTgulebis sanacvlod mamulebis gaboZebis firmanebi. ase magaliTad, erasti yaflaniSvils qarTlis dapyrobaSi gaweuli samsaxurisaTvis madlieri sulTani somxiTSi mdebare or sofels _ xoJoians da meliqaSens, uboZebs [abulaZe 1975:224-229]. osmaluri miwismflobelobis zemoT aRniSnuli formebi iqna danergili aWaraSic, romlis kvlevas sagangebo monografia miuZRvna a. avalianma. naSromSi mkvlevari am movlenis amsaxveli beraTebis ganxilvis safuZvelze askvnis, rom zemo aWaraSi SenarCunebul iqna qarTuli TemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlena - Temuri mflobeloba saxnav-saTes miwebze, rac gamoricxuli iyo Turquli kanonmdeblobiT [avaliani 1960]. qarTuli feodalizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli wesebis arsebobis damadasturebeli XIX s-is meore naxevris firmanis analizi SemogvTavaza, aseve, n. Sengeliam. igi aRniSnavs, rom Turqebma ver SeZles aWaris gaosmaleba [Sengelia 2002g: 99-108]. osmaluri feodalizmis rigi Taviseburebebis gasaTvaliswineblad saukeTeso wyaros warmoadgens `xazinis Tesqereebi~. isini gankuTvnili iyo saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi ganlagebuli osmalTa SeiaraRebuli Zalebis meTaurebisaTvis. osmalTa garnizonis meTaurebi garkveuli pirobis sanacvlod iRebdnen miwis nakveTs SemosavliTurT. `xazinis Tesqereebis~ ganxilviT Seswavlil iqna maTi ufleba-movaleobebi, aseve, adgilobrivi mosaxleobis valdebulebac - ama Tu im cixe-simagreSi ganlagebuli SeiaraRebuli ZalebisaTvis mosaxleobas unda exada specialuri gadasaxadebi [Sengelia 2001g: 96-131; Sengelia 2004:427-444]. saqarTvelos istoriis mravalmxriv gaSuqebaSi didad gvexmareba `muhime davTrebis~ monacemebi. XVI s-is ukanaskneli meoTxedis dokumentebi mniSvnelovan cnobebs gvawvdis TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli simon I-is mravalmxrivi saqmianobis Sesaxeb. dokumentebSi aSkarad Cans, Tu rogor TavdadebiT ibrZoda qarTlis mefe osmalTa moZalebis winaaRmdeg [Sengelia 2006:337-393]. amave dros igi osmalTa batonobis Sesamsubuqeblad frTxil diplomatiur nabijsac dgamda. amis naTel dadasturebas warmoadgens simon I-is gagzavnili arza murad III-sadmi, romelSic TxovniT mimarTavs sulTans gadasces mas Tbilisis, dmanisis, lores garSemo 106 sofeli. c. abulaZis SexedulebiT, mefis Txovna ufro diplomatiuri nabiji iyo, vidre osmaluri samxedro sistemis miReba _ amgvarad cdilobda qarTlis Seuvali mflobeli

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isev TviTon da misi aznaurebi yofiliyvnen [abulaZe 1980:152-166]. firmanebis analiziT, Seswavlil iqna osmaleTis sulTnis damokidebuleba solomon II-sadmi. gamoirkva, rom trapizons TavSefarebuli mefe amaod imedovnebda osmaleTis daxmarebiT samefo taxtis dabrunebas [Sengelia 1963:188-195]. araerTi sayuradRebo dokumenti iqna gamovlenili `osmaleTis saxelmwifo moxeleebis mimoweraTa krebulSi~, kerZod, aRsaniSnavia osmaleTsaqarTvelos urTierTobis sakiTxis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT osmaleTis sulTnis mier qarTlis mefis simon I-isadmi boZebuli `uavgustoesis xelSekruleba~. dokumentis monacemebis sxva wyaroebis (rogorc qarTuli, aseve ucxouri) monacemebTan Sejerebis Sedegad TvalsaCinovdeba, Tu raoden mwvaved idga saqarTvelos sakiTxi iran-osmaleTis urTierTobaSi, rogor cdiloben qarTvelebi TavianTi qveynis interesebis dacvas [svaniZe 2003:138153]. gamovlenil da gamoqveynebul iqna iran-osmaleTis urTierTobis amsaxvel dokumentebSi daculi saintereso cnobebi saqarTvelos, kerZod, XVI s-is I naxevris samcxe-saaTabagos istoriisaTvis. vinaidan am ori qveynis urTierTobaSi mTavari adgili eWira saqarTvelos sakiTxs, dokumentebi iran-osmaleTis urTierTobis fonze cxovlad warmoaCendnen Cveni qveynis istoriisaTvis mniSvnelovan informacias. osmaleTis samefo karze samcxis regionidan gagzavnili ramdenime dokumentis analiziT, c. abulaZes naCvenebi aqvs aTabagis saxlis wevrebs Soris mimdinare mZafri Sida feodaluri brZolis etapebi, msxvili feodalebis separatistuli gegmebi da maTi gamosvlebi aTabagis saxlis winaaRmdeg [abulaZe 1983]. ganxilul iqna TurqTa calkeuli laSqrobis (1548-1549ww.) Sesaxeb monacemebis Semcveli sabuTebi [uruSaZe 1991:96-105]. Turquli dokumentebis ganxilvam didad Seuwyo xeli saqarTveloSi arsebuli osmaluri sasamarTlos Seswavlasac. rogorc cnobilia, qarTlSi osmalebis gabatonebas osmaluri samarTlis normebis gavrceleba mohyva, romlis cxovrebaSi gamtarebeli, sasuliero mosamarTle - yadi iyo. sabuTebis analiziT dadasturda, rom qarTlSi SariaTis sami - Tbilisis, goris da TrialeTis sayado sasamarTlo arsebobda [jiqia 1969:165-188]. XV-XIX ss. saqarTvelos istoriis osmaluri wyaroebis analizs mieZRvna ganmazogadebeli naSromi, romelSic ganxilulia rogorc Cvens arqivebSi, aseve, katalogebisa da gzamkvlevebis saSualebiT cnobili ucxoeTis siZveleTsacavebSi daculi osmaluri dokumentebis mniSvneloba saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis [Sengelia 1974]. gaanalizebul iqna osmaluri sabuTebis diplomatikuri Taviseburebani m. svaniZis mier. mkvlevari osmaluri davTrebis or ZiriTad jgufad dayofis Tvalsazriss gvTavazobs: davTrebi, romlebSic detalurad qronologiuri TanmimdevrobiT aris warmodgenili uzenaesi xelisuflebis mier gacemuli werilobiTi aqtebi da davTrebi, romlebic politikuri, samxedro da finansuri xasiaTis monacemebs Seicaven da romlebiTac sargeblobdnen Semsrulebeli organoebi [svaniZe 1988: 276-281]. amdenad, osmaluri dokumenturi wyaroebis Seswavlis saqmeSi XX s-is 60-

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iani wlebidan dRemde periodi mniSvnelovani SedegebiT aRiniSna. gansaxilveli qronologiuri monakveTi masalis analizis TvalsazrisiT, pirobiTad, or periodad SeiZleba daiyos: pirveli _ 60-70-iani wlebi, romlis drosac xdeba mxolod saqarTvelos sacavebSi daculi Turquli sabuTebis kvleva da publikacia da igzavneba specialuri samecniero mivlinebebiT mkvlevrebi sazRvargareTis arqivTsacavebSi daculi mravalricxovani Turquli sabuTebis gamosavlenad da Sesaswavlad, e. i. es periodi umTavresad masalis moZiebiT aRiniSneba; meore _ 80-iani wlebidan dRemde periodi, romelic moZiebuli masalis aqtiuri wyaroTmcodneobiTi kvleviT gamoirCeva. konkretuli dokumentis gamovlena-Seswavla-publikaciasTan erTad adgili hqonda am masalis klasifikaciis sakiTxis gadawyvetis mcdelobasac. Seiqmna mTeli simravlis ganmazogadebeli naSromi da warmoCenil iqna maTi mniSvneloba saqarTvelos istoriis kardinaluri problemebis gadawyvetaSi. osmaluri dokumentebis kvlevam didad Seuwyo xeli mravali sakiTxis axleburad gaanalizebas. literatura: abulaZe 1967: c. abulaZe. Turquli dokumenti imereTis mefis solomon II-is Sesaxeb // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 121 (1967). abulaZe 1971: c. abulaZe. trapizonis faSis seid suleimanis werilebi solomon meorisadmi // mravalTavi. II (1971). abulaZe 1973a: c. abulaZe. osmalobis xanis sami Turquli firmani // aRmosavluri filologia. III (1973a). abulaZe 1973b: c. abulaZe. ori firmani daviT Tarxans // mravalTavi. III (1973b). abulaZe 1975: c. abulaZe. ori firmani erasti mdivanbegs // mravalTavi. IV (1975). abulaZe 1980: c. abulaZe. simon mefis arza sulTan murad III-s // mravalTavi. VII (1980). abulaZe 1983: c. abulaZe. Turquli wyaroebi XVI s-is I meoTxedis samcxe-saaTabagos istoriisaTvis. Turquli dokumentebi, qarTuli TargmaniT, gamokvleviTa da SeniSvnebiT gamosca cisana abulaZem. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1983). abulaZe 1989: c. abulaZe. sulTan mehmed IV-is sigeli ioane beris mawyverlad daniSvnis Taobaze // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 290 (1989). abulaZe, svaniZe 1973: c. abulaZe, m. svaniZe. Cildiris eialeTis jaba davTari 1694-1732ww. Turquli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniT gamosacemad moamzada c. abulaZem, gamokvleva daurTo m. svaniZem. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1979). avaliani 1960: a. avaliani. miwismflobelobis formebi aWaraSi. baTumi (1969). anCabaZe, Sengelia (2008): g. anCabaZe, n. Sengelia. XVIII saukunis ori osmaluri dokumenti soxumis cixis Sesaxeb // saqarTvelos Sua saukuneebis istoriis sakiTxebi. IX. Tbilisi: universali (2008).

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baramiZe 2005: i. baramiZe. qarTul-rusul-osmaluri urTierTobebi XIX saukunis I mesamedSi. baTumi (2005). beriaSvili 1975: l. beriaSvili. memindvreobis kulturebi mesxeTSi gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTris mixedviT (eTnografiuli dakvirvebani) // iv. javaxiSvilis dabadebis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1975). gorgaZe 2002: n. gorgaZe. erTi firmani artanujis Sesaxeb //qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 9. Tbilisi: Tsu (2002). gorgaZe 2004: n. gorgaZe. 1756 wlis erTi osmaluri dokumenti artanujis Sesaxeb // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 11. Tbilisi: Tsu (2004). gorgaZe 2005: n. gorgaZe. osmaluri gadasaxadebi da valdebulebani qsnisa da aragvis xeobaSi `Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTris (1788w.) mixedviT // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 12. Tbilisi: Tsu (2005). svaniZe 1968: m. svaniZe. axalcixis livas kanun-nameebi // maxlobeli aRmosavleTis socialur-ekonomikuri urTierTobani. narkvevebi (1968). svaniZe 1975: m. svaniZe. glexTa miwaTmflobelobisa da miwaTsargeblobis wesebi axalcixis safaSoSi osmaluri kanun-nameebis mixedviT // iv. javaxiSvilis dabadebis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1975). svaniZe 1976: m. svaniZe. miwaTmflobelobis istoriidan axalcixis safaSoSi (iurTluqebi da ojaqliqebi) // Ziebani saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis istoriidan. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1976). svaniZe 1984: . . . - (-) // _ 1979. : (1984). svaniZe 1988: . . . // _ 1985. : (1988). svaniZe 2003: m. svaniZe. 1588 wels qarTlis mefe simon I-isa da osmaleTis sardal ferhad faSas Soris dadebuli sazavo xelSekruleba // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 10. Tbilisi: Tsu (2003). svaniZe, jiqia 1966: m. svaniZe, s. jiqia. saqarTvelo-TurqeTis urTierTobis istoriidan 1588-1590ww. // sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa akademiis macne. 6 (1966). samsonaZe 1999: m. samsonaZe. saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris 1783 wels gaformebuli xelSekrulebis SefasebisaTvis // analebi #2 (1999). uruSaZe 1991: l. uruSaZe. XVI s-is Sua xanebis osmaluri dokumenturi cnobebi 1548-1549ww. TurqTa laSqrobis Sesaxeb // istoriul-wyaroTmcodneobiTi gamokvlevebi. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1991). SaSikaZe 2002: z. SaSikaZe. `zemo aWaris livis vrceli davTari~ wyaro aWaris istoriisaTvis // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 341 (2002). Sengelia 1960: n. Sengelia. gurjistanis 1572/3 wlis kanun-name // aRmosavluri krebuli. I. Tbilisi: saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia (1960).

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Sengelia 1963: n. Sengelia. osmaleTTan solomon meoris urTierTobis erTi epizodi // sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa akademiis macne. 3 (1963). Sengelia 1974: n. Sengelia. XV-XIX sauluneebis saqarTvelos istoriis osmaluri wyaroebi. Tbilisi: Tsu (1974). Sengelia 1978: n. Sengelia. XVIII s. I meoTxedis osmaluri dokumenturi wyaroebi foTis cixis Sesaxeb // qarTuli wyaroTmcodneoba. V. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1978). Sengelia 1979: n. Sengelia. saqarTvelos istoriis osmaluri dokumenturi wyaroebi bulgareTis arqivSi (samecniero milinebis mokle angariSi) // saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis macne (istoriis seria) 1 (1979). Sengelia 1982: n. Sengelia. osmaluri dokumenturi wyaroebi anakliisa da ruxis cixeebis Sesaxeb (XVII-XVIII ss.) // Turquli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniT, SesavliT, terminologiuri leqsikoniT, faqsimileebiTa da saZieblebiT gamosacemad moamzada nodar Sengeliam. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1982). Sengelia 1984a: . . . XVIII . // _ 1979. : (1984a). Sengelia 1984b: n. Sengelia. osmaluri safinanso dokumentebi axalcixis Sesaxeb // saqarTvelo da aRmosavleTi. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1984b). Sengelia 1985a: n. Sengelia. osmaluri arzebi quTaisis cixis Sesaxeb // qarTuli wyaroTmcodneoba. VI. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1985a). Sengelia 1985b: . . . XVII-XVIII . // _ 1984. : (1985b). Sengelia 1987a: n. Sengelia. XVI-XVIII saukuneebis osmaluri dokumenturi wyaroebi. wigni I // Turquli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniT, SesavliT, terminologiuri leqsikoniT, faqsimileebiTa da saZieblebiT gamosacemad moamzada nodar Sengeliam. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1987a). Sengelia 1987b: n. Sengelia. sami Turquli sabuTi Tbilisis Sesaxeb // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 273 (1987b). Sengelia 1988: . . . - XVII-XVIII . // _ 1985. : (1988). Sengelia 1993: n. Sengelia. ori Turquli firmani Tbilisis Sesaxeb // qarTuli wyaroTmcodneoba. VIII. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1993). Sengelia 1996: n. Sengelia. eqvsi firmani baTumis Sesaxeb // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 3. Tbilisi: Tsu (1996). Sengelia 1998: n. Sengelia. TurqeTis arqivebSi daculi osmaluri wyaroebi samxreT saqarTvelos Sesaxeb // mesxeTi. II. Tbilisi-axalcixe: Tsu (1998). Sengelia 1999: n. Sengelia. saqarTvelos istoriis osmaluri wyaroebi TurqeTis arqivebSi (TurqeTSi samecniero mivlinebis angariSidan) // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 6. Tbilisi: Tsu (1999). Sengelia 2000a: n. Sengelia. saqarTvelos istoriis osmaluri wyaroebi Turqe-

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Tis arqivebSi (TurqeTSi samecniero mivlinebis angariSidan _ stambuli) // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 7. Tbilisi: Tsu (2000a). Sengelia 2000b: n. Sengelia. 1728 wlis Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTari // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 7. Tbilisi: Tsu (2000b). Sengelia 2001a: n. Sengelia. erTi arza xerTvisis cixis Sesaxeb // valerian maWaraZe. Tbilisi: Tsu (2001a). Sengelia 2001b: n. Sengelia. 1574 wlis `gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari~ // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 8. Tbilisi: Tsu (2001b). Sengelia 2001g: n. Sengelia. `xazinis Tesqereebi~ axalcixis cixis Sesaxeb // mesxeTi. IV. Tbilisi-axalcixe: Tsu (2001g). Sengelia 2002a: n. Sengelia. osmaluri dokumentebi anakliisa da ruxis cixeebis Sesaxeb // Tsu zugdidis filialis Sromebi. I (2002). Sengelia 2002b: n. Sengelia. 1592 wlis Cildiris vilaieTis mokle (ijmal) davTari // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 9. Tbilisi: Tsu (2002b). Sengelia 2002g: n. Sengelia. erTi firmani zemo aWaris Sesaxeb // mesxeTi. V. Tbilisi-axalcixe: Tsu (2002g). Sengelia 2003a: n. Sengelia. `1574 wlis gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari~, rogorc saistorio wyaro samxreT saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis // qarTuli diplomatia: weliwdeuli. 10. Tbilisi: Tsu (2003a). Sengelia 2003b: n. Sengelia. gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari // valerian gabaSvili (2003b). Sengelia 2003g: n. Sengelia. sulTan ahmed III ori firmani // gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis Jurnali. 4. quTaisi (2003g). Sengelia 2003d: n. Sengelia. osmaluri kanun-nameebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb // aRmosavleTi da kavkasia. I. Tbilisi: saari (2003d). Sengelia 2003-2004: n. Sengelia. mniSvnelovani samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis // orientalisti. II. Tbilisi: nekeri (2003-2004). Sengelia 2004: n. Sengelia. smaluri `xazinis Tesqereebi~ axalcixis Sesaxeb // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 361 (2004). Sengelia 2005a: n. Sengelia. ori `quCuk beraTi~ awyuris cixis Sesaxeb // mesxeTi. VI-VII. Tbilisi-axalcixe: Tsu (2005a). Sengelia 2005b: n. Sengelia. Zvirfasi wyaro XVI saukunis ukanaskneli meoTxedis tao-klarjeTis istoriisaTvis // mesxeTi. VI-VII. Tbilisi-axalcixe: Tsu (2005b). Sengelia 2006: n. Sengelia. xuTi dokumenti `muhime davTrebidan~ simon mefis Sesaxeb // saiubileo krebuli miZRvnili SoTa mesxias dabadebidan 90 wlisTavisadmi. Tbilisi (2006). Sengelia 2007: n. Sengelia. saamilaxvres nahie `1728 wlis Tbilisis vilaieTis vrceli davTris~ mixedviT // mSveniereba mosili sevdiT. Tbilisi: nekeri (2007). Sengelia 2008a: n. Sengelia. Cildiris vilaieTis mokle (ijmal) davTari // Turquli teqsti, qarTuli TargmaniT, SesavliT, SeniSvnebiTa da faqsimi-

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leebiT gamosacemad moamzades mirian maxaraZem da nodar Sengeliam. Tbilisi: horosi XXI (2008a). Sengelia 2008b: n. Sengelia. sami wyaro Tbilisis istoriisaTvis (1730-1732wlebi) // Turquli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniT, SesavliT, terminologiuri leqsikoniTa da faqsimileebiT gamosacemad moamzada nodar Sengeliam. Tbilisi: horosi XXI (2008b). CoCievi 1962: v. CoCievi. iranisa da osmaleTis 1736 da 1746 wlebis sazavo xelSekrulebebi // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 99 (1962). CoCievi 1965: v. CoCievi. iranis saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba iran- osmaleTis 1727 w. sazavo xelSekrulebis mixedviT // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 116 (1965). jiqia 1960: s. jiqia. me-18 saukunis Turquli dokumenti oqros cixis Sesaxeb // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 91 (1960). jiqia 1962: s. jiqia. XVIII saukunis ori Turquli dokumenti // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 99 (1962). jiqia 1965: s. jiqia. erTi Turquli sabuTi cxinvalis Sesaxeb // Tsu Sromebi (aRmosavleTmcodneobis seria) 116 (1965). jiqia 1966: s. jiqia. epizodi odiSis politikuri istoriidan // kavkasiis xalxTa istoriis sakiTxebi. Tbilisi (1966). jiqia 1969: s. jiqia. osmaluri iuridiuli dokumentebi XVIII saukunis pirveli naxevris qarTlSi // aRmosavluri filologia. I (1969). saqarTvelo da aRmosavleTi. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1984). jiqia 1971: s. jiqia. sulTan ahmed III-is firmani baqar bagrations // qarTuli wyaroTmcodneoba. III. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1971). jiqia 1972: s. jiqia. mawevani da ateni Turqul sabuTebSi // aRmosavluri filologia. II (1972). jiqia 1984: . . . // saqarTvelo da aRmosavleTi. Tbilisi: mecniereba (1984).

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Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

KETEVAN MANIA

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

STUDY OF OTTOMAN SOURCES IN GEORGIA DURING THE PERIOD FROM 1960S UNTIL TODAY

In the present work it is considered a history of the source-study investigations of historical documents concerning Georgian-Ottoman interelations . The period chosen for the analysis is from sixties of the 20th c until today. Georgian scholars specialists in field of Turkish Studies Ts. Abuladze, M. Svanidze, N. Shengelia, S. Jikia greatly contributed the investigations in this direction: searching the relevant materials and analizing were simultaneous processes. The most important task was revealing of the Ottoman documents stored in the archives . At this very objective were aimed special academic expeditions in Bulgaria and Turkey. As a results of these expeditions were obtained and included in academic circulation many vary valuable documents, sources history of Georgia. There were published documents concerning the relations between the Ottoman Empire and Georgia during 16th-18th centuries (N. Shengelia), the Defter ­ i Caba of the Childir eyelet (C. Abuladze, M. Svanidze), Concise Defter about Southern -Western Georgia during the quarter of 16th century (N. Shengelia), Turkish documents of 18th century about Tbilisi (N. Shengelia), The Great Defter of the Gurjistan vilayet (N. Shengelia), documents about Artanuji (N. Shengelia, N. Gorgadze). There were published the documents stored in the department of oriental studies of National Center of Manuscripts. The above documents contain valuable information on history of landownership (S Jikia), political history (Ts.Abuladze, M.Svanidze), regions of Georgia and fortresses (N. Shengelia). The mentioned publications are supplemented with comments to the original texts, translations in Georgian , annexes. In parallel with publication the above materials were subjects of relevant sourcestudy analyzes. As it is well known authorities of the Ottoman Empire had constituted different documents containing information concerning occupied Georgian territories. The Great Defter of the Gurjistan Vilayet, Childir Vilayet Caba Defter, Tbilisi Vilayet Great Defter, Livi Defter of Zemo Achara, etc reflect just above activities.The special works are dedicated to the investigation of these historical documents. In result of these researches there were clarified the issues concerning ottoman taxes, landownership and land tenure and generally for social-economical developments. Some researches were focused on between the Ottoman Empire and Georgia (M. Svanidze, N. Shengelia, N. Gorgadze). There also were studied agricultural traditions on a ground of the Great Defter of Gurjistan Vilayet of 1595 (L. Beriashvili) and other sources as well (M. Svanidze, N. Shengelia). In result of investigation were revealed many very important facts, in particular, it became clear that the ottoman rules in agriculture and economy were not imple-

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mented in Georgia right away. Despite fact that they preserved juridical importance for a long period Georgian traditions, customs and economical system in general continue existence in their slightly changed forms. It was identified the purpose of the form of lands' alienation. As it became clear the Ottoman authorities through these efforts tried to reinforce of the politic positions on occupied territories. With the transmission of lands to the local dominant social strata, the ottoman officials aimed at obtaining of their loyalty (S. Jikia). Georgians also had benefits from this: by this way Georgian feudal lords preserved lands in their hands (N. Shengelia, M. Svanidze). In Zemo Achara there were even preserved the characteristic for Georgian community features of landownership ­ communal ownership on the arable -seeding lands (A. Avaliani). For identification of particularities of Ottoman feudalism, the documents containing information on ottoman military commanders ­ "Khazin`s Teskers" (N. Shengelia). In the Defter Muhime there were obtained very valuable information on Georgian political history as well. In particular, the uncompromised struggle of Georgian King Simon I against of Ottoman conquerors (N. Shengelia). But, at the same time, according to available data the king had undertaken very caoutious steps in relations with ottomans, so that to relieve the ottoman yoke for Georgians. As affirmation of the above statement can serve the petition of Simon I to the Murad III in which he addressed the Sultan with demand to restitute to him Tbilisi, Dmanisi, Lore and 106 villages. In this way the Georgian King tried to preserve power on eastern Georgia, namely, Kartli Kingdom (Ts. Abuladze). There were published very interesting materials concerning 16th c Georgia, namely Samtskhe-Saatabago principality. Grounded on these documents were reconstructed stages of controversies between the duka's family members (Ts.Abuladze). The ottoman documents helps to reconstruct facts concerning of court of justice operating in Georgia. In Tbilisi existed three courts ­ in Tbilisi, Gori and Trialeti (S. Jikia). To the documents of 16th -19th cc was devoted the monograph of N..Shengelia which represents a general overview of available materials. The diplomatic particularities of ottoman documents is concerned in M. Svanidze's monograph. Thus, the period under the consideration is marked by the important results achieved in field of ottoman documents studying in Georgia. The above period conventionally might be divided into two sub-periods: the first one - 1960s-1970s when the study and publication of archival data had taken place and second one - from 1980s until today which is characterized by consideration of obtained materials and inclusion of the relevant data into historical representations. The study of the ottoman documents has manifold effect on reconsideration of many aspects of Georgian and Caucasian history.

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istoria, politikuri mecnierebani

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Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

kaxaber fifia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

elius spartianes erTi cnobis dazustebisaTvis

romauli istoriografiis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Zeglia `Scriptores Historiae Augustae~ (`avgustusTa istoriis mwerlebi~). es aris biografiuli Janris nawarmoebi, romelic imperatorTa cxovrebis aRweris gziT, aSuqebs romis istoriis garkveul periods ­ adrianes (117-138 ww.) princepsobidan diokletianes (284-305 ww) mmarTvelobamde, e.i. 117-284 ww. am Txzulebis Seswavlas sam saukuneze meti xnis istoria aqvs da Tanamedrove istoriografiaSi sandoobis arc Tu ise maRali xarisxiT sargeblobs [qavTaria 1989: 263268; 1957: 245-256]. TvalSisacemi xarvezebis gamo, Zalze xSiria `Scriptores Historiae Augustae~-s diskreditaciis mcdelobac. magram miuxedavad amisa, misi uaryofiTad Semfasebeli mkvlevarebic ki aRiareben, rom bevr SemTxvevaSi, garkveuli epoqisa Tu konkretuli istoriuli faqtis Sesaswavlad, es Txzuleba erTaderTi da Seucvleli wyaroa [qavTaria 1989: 268; 1957: 233-245]. `Scriptores Historiae Augustae~ imperator adrianes biografiis gadmocemiT iwyeba. misi avtoria elius spartiane. adrianes biografiaSi daculia ramdenime cnoba, romelsac pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba aqvs saqarTvelos istoriis TvalsazrisiT. faqtobrivad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sxva antikur wyaroebTan erTad, pirvel rigSi elius spartianes damsaxurebaa is, rom am periodis saqarTvelos sagareo urTierTobebis Sesaxeb, sxva epoqebTan SedarebiT, bevrad meti ram viciT. amasTan, iberiis (qarTlis) erT-erTi yvelaze gamorCeuli mefis, qarTul saistorio tradiciaSi `qvelis~ epiTetiT Semkuli farsman II-is [yauxCiSvili 1955: 50-53] moRvaweobis realuri suraTis aRsadgenad, yvelaze mniSvnelovan cnobebs swored spartianes Txzuleba gvawvdis. II s. 20-30-iani wlebi, adrianes mmarTvelobis xana, qarTul-romauli mravalsaukunovani urTierTobebis istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze kargad Seswavlili periodia. Tumca, jer kidev bevria iseTi sakiTxi, romelic Semdgom kvleva-Ziebasa da dazustebas moiTxovs. maT rigs miekuTvneba adrianes mier farsmanisaTvis saCuqrad gagzavnili kohortis statusis, daniSnulebisa da masSi Semavali meomrebis raodenobis sakiTxi. elius spartianes cnobiT, `bevr mefes (adrianem).... misca uricxvi saCuqari, magram yvelaze meti iberTa mefes, romelsac Zvirfasi saCuqrebis garda, miuZRvna spilo da ormocdaaTkaciani kohorta~ (E1. Spart., Hadr., XVII, 11). aRniSnuli kohortis Sesaxeb samecniero literaturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa, rac gamowveulia sakuTriv elius spartianes cnobis uzustobiT. rogorc cnobilia, romauli kohorta

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500-600 jariskacisagan Sedgeboda. aqedan gamomdinare ki, mkvlevarTa nawili miiCnevs, rom teqstSi naxsenebi ormocdaaTkaciani kohorta gadamwerTa Secdomaa da sinamdvileSi aq saubari unda iyos xuTaskacian razmze, anu Cveulebriv kohortaze [Todua 2006: 69-70]. jer kidev XVIII s. 60-ian ww. kazobonis mier gamocemul `Scriptores Historiae Augustae~-s teqstSi Setanil iqna Sesworeba [Scriptores XIII:17,Sen.12] da misi gavleniT zogierT Semdgom gamocemaSi, maT Soris v. latiSevis krebulSi - `Scythica et Caucasica~ [ 1904: 293; 1949: 256], ZiriTadi xelnaweris `ormocdaaTkaciani kohorta~ Seicvala `xuTaskacianiT~. Tavidan swored v. latiSevis Targmanze dayrdnobiT gavrcelda qarTul istoriografiaSi (iv. javaxiSvili, s. janaSia) spartianes cnobis Sesworebuli varianti [javaxiSvili 1979: 212; janaSia 1949: 206; janaSia 1946: 83]. Tumca, mkvlevarTa nawili ar iziarebs spartianes teqstSi Sesworebis Setanis aucileblobas. magaliTad, `avgustusTa istoriis mwerlebis~ s. kondratievaseul TargmanSi saubaria ormocdaaTkacian kohortaze [ 1957: 265]. teqstis originaloba daculia am Txzulebis uaxles rusul gamocemaSic [ 1999]. adrianes naCuqari razmis Semadgenlobas 50 meomriT gansazRvraven g. meliqiSvili [meliqiSvili 1970: 530; 1959: 358] da n. lomouri [ 1981:192], xolo d. braundi ki, mas 50-kacian sainJinro nawilad miiCnevs [ 1991: 51]. amdenad, elius spartianes es cnoba didi xania ipyrobs mkvlevarTa garkveul yuradRebas. faqtobrivad, verc erTi mkvlevari, visac ki umuSavia gvianantikuri xanis iberiis samefos politikuri istoriis problemebze, am cnobas gverds ver uvlis da Cveulebisamebr iTvaliswineben mas. Tumca, miuxedavad imisa, rom am cnobis garSemo azrTa didi sxvadasxvaobaa, igi specialuri Seswavlis sagani ar gamxdara. ufro metic, samecniero literaturaSi spartianes sxvadasxva gamocemebs Soris arsebuli winaaRmdegobebis dafiqsirebac iSviaTad xdeba. mkvlevarTa absoluturi umravlesoba teqstis wakiTxvis romelime erT konkretul variants eyrdnoba da ar iTvaliswinebs meores. arada aRniSnuli kohortis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali meomrebis raodenobis dazustebas, saqarTvelos istoriis TvalsazrisiT Zalze didi mniSvneloba aqvs, ramdenadac mas ukavSirdeba iberiaSi romauli garnizonis dislocirebis sakiTxi. Tu CavTvliT, rom adrianes gamogzavnili razmi xuTasi kacisagan Sedgeboda, maSin unda gadaixedos qarTul istoriografiaSi ZiriTadad miRebuli debuleba iberiis teritoriaze romauli garnizonebis aryofnis Sesaxeb. Tu adrianes mier farsmanisaTvis gagzavnili razmi Cveulebrivi, xuTaskaciani kohorta iyo, maSin, cxadia, is ubralo saCuqrad ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rac zogierT mkvlevars afiqrebinebs, rom es iyo iberiis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli aqti, romelic miznad isaxavda romis poziciebis ganmtkicebas am qveyanaSi da faqtobrivad, warmoadgenda iberiaSi SeniRbuli saxiT romauli garnizonis Cayenebis mcdelobas. es mosazreba pirvelad 1955 w. m. inaZem gamoTqva. mkvlevari, eyrdnoba ra `avgustusTa istoriis

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mwerlebis~ kazoboniseul gamocemas, aRniSnavs, rom 500 meomrisa da sabrZolo spilos gamogzavna iberiaSi Cveulebrivi saCuqris xasiaTs ar atarebda. aRniSnul xanebSi, imperiis samxedro Zalebis Semcirebis pirobebSi adrianes mier farsmanisaTvis 500 meomris boZeba advili ar unda yofiliyo da igi garkveuli aucileblobiT iyo nakarnaxevi. kerZod, romi iZulebuli gaxda ase moqceuliyo imis gamo, rom am periodSi iberia gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda da igi ukve gamodioda ara romis mokavSire qveynis rolSi, aramed TviT uqmnida safrTxes imperias. Tumca, rogorc Cans, adriane moerida iberiaSi aSkarad Caeyenebina romauli samxedro Zalebi, rac kidev ufro gaamwvavebda maT Soris urTierTobas da amitom igi Seecada am aqtisaTvis iberiisaTvis misaRebi saxe mieca [inaZe 1955: 324-325]. amdenad, m. inaZis azriT, adrianem am saCuqris saxiT iberiaSi faqtobrivad romauli garnizoni ganalaga. mkvlevarTa is nawili, romelic `adrianes ZRvenis~ raodenobas xuTasi kaciT gansazRvravs, miiCnevs, rom am razmis ZiriTad daniSnulebas warmoadgenda iberiis xelisufalTa gakontroleba da pirvel rigSi, darialis gadmosasvlelis Caketva, saidanac imperiis sazRvrebs alanTa Semosevis safrTxe emuqreboda [Todua 2006: 70; Bosworth: 1977: 225]. aqedan gamomdinare ki Tvlian, rom aRniSnuli kohorta swored darialis xeobaSi unda yofiliyo dislocirebuli [Todua 2006: 70]. es mosazreba ramdenime garemoebis gamo miuReblad migvaCnia. Cveni azriT, SeuZlebelia, rom adrianes mier gamogzavnil razmSi 50 meomarze meti yofiliyo da am mosazrebis dasadastureblad SevecdebiT ramdenime argumentis motanas. jer erTi, rogorc aRvniSneT, sakuTriv yvela xelnawerSi [Scriptores 1953:54-55; Scriptores 1955: 19] saubaria ara `xuTaskacian~ (quingenariam), aramed `ormocdaaTkacian kohortaze~ (quinquagenariam cohortem) da, rogorc samarTlianad aRniSnavs g. meliqiSvili, teqstSi Sesworebis Setanis aucilebloba ar igrZnoba, ramdenadac `kohorta~ SesaZloa naxmari yofiliyo samxedro razmis zogadi mniSvnelobiT [meliqiSvili 1970: 530, Sen. 1; 1959: 358, Sen. 80]. garda amisa, iberiis teritoriaze, mcxeTasa an darialSi, 500-kaciani samxedro SenaerTis dislocirebis Sesaxeb sxva wyaroebi arafers gveubnebian da gamoricxulad migvaCnia, rom maT aq yofnas ukvalod Caevlo. amasTan, Zneli warmosadgenia, rom iberiaSi dabanakebuli yofiliyo romaelTa 500-kaciani razmi, maSin roca imave periodSi uSualod romis politikur sistemaSi CarTuli kolxeTis [ix. 2009: 107-117] zRvispireTSi, romauli aRmosavleTis erTiani sasazRvro-TavdacviTi sistemis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani monakveTis ­ ponto-kavkasiis sasazRvro xazis sayrden romaul kastelumebSi ­ fasissa da sebastopolisSi, ufro mcirericxovani garnizonebi iyo ganlagebuli. mag., fasisSi dislocirebuli iyo 400 kaciani garnizoni (Arr., PPE, 11), xolo aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi romaelTa mflobelobis ukiduresi Crdilo-dasavleT forpostis - sebastopolisis garnizonis Semadgenloba 200-300 kacs ar aRemateboda [fifia 2005a: 147]. da bolos, am sakiTxis gadasawyvetad, Cveni azriT, umniSvnelovanesia elius spartianes cnobis ganxilva im dros iberia-roms Soris arsebul urT-

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ierTobaTa saerTo konteqstSi. winaswarve gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom am periodSi CvenTvis saintereso politikuri procesebis ganviTarebis dinamika ar iZleva imis saSualebas, vivaraudoT, rom `adrianes ZRveni~ 500-kacian garnizons warmoadgenda. rogorc cnobilia, adrianes principatis mTel manZilze iberia-romis urTierToba sakmaod daZabuli iyo. adrianes mier sayovelTao mSvidobis - `Pax Romana~-s gamocxadebis Semdeg, imperia sazRvrebis mTel perimetrze strategiul Tvdacvaze gadavida. imave periodSi, traianes (98-117 ww.) laSqrobis Sedegad krizisSi myofma parTiis samefomac TandaTanobiT daTmo poziciebi [fifia 2005a: 107-110]. aRmosavleTSi Seqmnili axali politikuri koniunqtura maqsimalurad xelsayreli aRmoCnda aRmavlobis gzaze mdgari iberiis samefosaTvis. am periodSi iberiis romze damokidebuleba, e.w. `megobroba-mokavSireoba~ mxolod formalur xasiaTs atarebda [fifia 2008: 335]. ufro metic, mefe farsmani ar erideba imperiis avtoritetsac ki, masTan aSkara konfrontaciazec midis da romis gavlenis qveS myofi kolxeTis zRvispireTis erT-erT seqtors ­ zidritTa olqs eufleba (Arr. PPE, 11). farsmanma es aqcia, rogorc Cans, 117-129 ww. ganaxorciela [fifia 2008 b; fifia 2005 a: 112]. farsmanis mier zidritTa olqis dakaveba unda yofiliyo im uTanxmoebis mTavari mizezi, romelic adrianes mmarTvelobis mTel periodSi SeimCneoda iberia-roms Soris. traianes aRmosavluri katastrofis Semdeg, imperator adrianes fiqric ki ar SeeZlo kavkasiaSi sabrZolo moqmedebebis ganaxlebaze. amitom igi diplomatiuri gziT cdilobs farsmanTan urTierTobis mogvarebas [fifia 2008a: 335-336]. 129 w. kapadokiaSi myofma imperatorma `megobrul Sexvedraze~ moiwvia farsman mefe, magram am ukanasknelma uari ganacxada masTan vizitze [El. Spart., Hadr., XVII, 8-9]. farsmanis demonstraciuli uaris sapasuxod, adrianem iberiis sazRvrebTan, uSualod axalSeerTebuli zidritTa olqis siaxloves, daiwyo romauli forpostebis modernizacia [fifia 2005 a: 114-115]. rogorc Cans, kolxeTis romauli cixesimagreebis ganaxleba-ganmtkicebas adriane did mniSvnelobas aniWebda, ramdenadac man aq Catarebuli samSeneblo samuSaoebis inspeqtirebis mizniT piradad kapadokiis prokonsuli flavius ariane (daaxl. 95-175 ww.) gamogzavna [ix. keWaymaZe 1961]. ra Tqma unda, axalSeerTebul zidritTa olqTan romauli samxedro Zalebis gaZliereba farsmans ar awyobda da am RonisZiebaTa sapasuxod man 135-137 ww. amierkavkasiis gadmosasvlelebi gauxsna momTabare alanebs. dion kasiosis (daaxl. 153-235 ww.) cnobiT, alanTa laSqrobam `Zalze Seawuxa albania da midia, Seexo agreTve armeniasa da kapadokias~ [Dio Cass., LXIX, 1]. ase, rom farsmanis mier organizebulma alanTa laSqrobam destabilizacia gamoiwvia TiTqmis mTel regionSi. alanTa laSqrobam daazarala ara marto albaneTi da somxeTi, aramed romisa da parTiis provinciebic (Sesabamisad kapadokia da midia). am aqciiT farsmanma Tavisi realuri Zalis demonstrireba moaxdina da aSkarad daanaxa roms, rom misi interesebis gauTvaliswineblobis SemTxvevaSi, mas SeeZlo regionis masStabiT nebismieri saxelmwifosaTvis problemis

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Seqmna. bunebrivia, farsmanis mier alanTa gadmoyvana dazaralebuli qveynebis gaRizianebas gamoiwvevda. Cven ar viciT, Tu ra reaqcia hqondaT farsmanis am aqciaze albaneTisa da armeniis mmarTvel wreebs, wyaroebi amis Sesaxeb arafers gveubnebian. magram cnobilia, rom alanTa SeWram parTiaSi vologez II-is (105-147 ww.) didi guliswyroma gamoiwvia. igi verafers gaxda midiaSi moTareSe alanTa winaaRmdeg da iZulebuli gaxda gamosasyidi gadaexada [Dio Cass., LXIX, 15,1]. Tavis mxriv, rommac qmediTi RonisZiebebis gatareba daiwyo da kapadokiis mmarTvelma flavius arianem, rogorc Cans, romauli armiis mobilizacia gamoacxada [ 1949:356]. swored amas unda miuTiTebdes dion kasiosis cnoba, rom alanebi flavius arianem SeaSina, ris Semdegac omi Sewyda [Dio Cass., LXIX, 15,1]. marTalia, `vologezes saCuqrebiT mosyiduli da adrianes mier SeSinebuli~ alanebi kvlav CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi gabrundnen [Dio Cass., LXIX, 15,1], magram, cxadia, amiTi problema ar amowurula da alanTa mxridan Semdgomi Semosevebis aRsakveTad aucilebeli iyo prevenciuli RonisZiebebis gatareba. am sakiTxSi parTiisa da romis interesebi erTmaneTs emTxveoda da amierkavkasiis gadmosasvlelebis Caketva orives interesebSi Sedioda. dion kasiosis cnobiT, vologezem saCivari gagzavna romSi da imperatorma adrianem farsmans momxdar faqtze oficialuri ganmarteba mosTxova [Dio Cass., LXIX, 15,2]. Tumca, farsmanma arc amjerad isurva adrianesTan gamocxadeba da imperatorica da romSi myofi parTelTa elCebic misi werilobiTi pasuxiT dakmayofildnen [inaZe 1955: 322; fifia 2008 b]. samwuxarod, dion kasiosis cnobidan ar Cans Tu ra Sedegebi mohyva am molaparakebas. magram, cxadia, rom alanTa Semosevebis Tavidan asacileblad saWiro iyo konkretuli nabijebis gadadgma da romauli diplomatia am mimarTulebiT kidev ufro gaaqtiurdeboda. farsmanTan urTierTobis mosagvareblad adrianem iberiaSi, rogorc Cans, flavius ariane gagzavna. amaze unda miuTiTebdes VI s. avtoris ioane lides naSromSi - `romaelTa saxelmwifo TanamdebobaTa Sesaxeb~, daculi cnoba, rom flavius arianem moinaxula kavkasia da daaTvaliera kavkasionis gadasasvlelebi [Ioan. Lydus. De Magist., lomouri 1966: 53]. rogorc samarTlianad aRniSnavs g. meliqiSvili, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im dros iberia-roms Soris arsebul daZabul urTierTobas, ariane iberiaSi mxolod diplomatiuri misiiT SeiZleboda moxvedriliyo [meliqiSvili 1970: 530; 1959: 358-359]. adriane, romelic `mudam yidulobda mSvidobasa da zavs~ [El. Spart., Hadr., XVII], rogorc Cans, swored am molaparakebebis dros ugzavnis iberTa mefes brwyinvale saCuqrebsa da samxedro razms. savaraudoa, rom es saCuqrebi farsmans swored flavius arianem Caabara1[meliqiSvili 1970: 531; 1959: 359]. magram, rogorc Cans, arianes elCoba uSedegod dasrulda. savaraudoa,

1 mkvlevrebi Tanxmdebian imaSi, rom adrianes mier farsmanisaTvis saCuqrad kohortis gagzavnas alanTa Semosevebis Semdeg gamarTuli molaparakebebis dros hqonda adgili (inaZe 1955: 324, meliqiSvili 1970: 530; 1981:196)

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rom romi iTxovda darialis gadasasvlelze sakuTari kontrolis dawesebas da swored amaze ganacxada uari farsmanma. rogorc miiCneven mkvlevrebi, iberiaSi mogzaurobis Sedegebi, arianes oficialuri baraTis saxiT unda gaegzavna adrianesTvis [inaZe 1955: 325; yauxCiSvili 1951: 101-102]. garda amisa, ioane lides mowmobiT, arianes es cnobebi kaspiis karis aRwerilobis saxiT Seutania Tavis `alanTa istoriaSi~ [Ioan. Lydus, De Magist., 246]. sainteresoa isic, rom swored am periodSi iwereba arianes cnobili traqtatebi taqtikis sakiTxebze - `taqtika~ da `alanTa winaaRmdeg romaelTa jaris ganlageba~. pirveli maTgani zustad TariRdeba. is dawerilia 136 wels [yauxCiSvili 1951: 102]. rac Seexeba `alanTa winaaRmdeg romaelTa jaris ganlagebas~, isic daaxloebiT imave dros, 134-137 wlebSia dawerili [yauxCiSvili 1951: 103]. vfiqrobT, arianem es traqtatebi misi iberiaSi warumatebeli vizitisa da farsmanTan uSedego molaparakebebis Semdeg dawera. mas, rogorc kapadokiis mmarTvels, evaleboda Tavisi provinciis dacva alanTa Tavdasxmebisagan. romma, farsmanTan uSedego molaparakebebis Semdeg, rogorc Cans, alanTa winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad seriozuli mzadeba daiwyo. arianes traqtatebSi detaluradaa aRwerili. Tu rogor unda imoqmedos romaulma jarma alanTa winaaRmdeg, rogor unda ganlagdnen romaelebisa da maTi mokavSireebis Zalebi, rogor unda moiqcnen isini brZolis dawyebamde da brZolis dros [yauxCiSvili 1983: 162-167]. `alanTa winaaRmdeg romaelTa jaris ganlagebaSi~ dawvrilebiTi cnobebia daculi momaval samxedro kampaniaSi monawile SenaerTebis Sesaxeb. alanTa winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad gamzadebuli iyvnen XII da XV romauli legionebi, italielebis, keltebis, kvirenelebis, getebis, iturielebis SenaerTebi, xolo romis mokavSireTa Soris ariane asaxelebs ­ armenielebs, mcire armenielebs, bosforelebs, kolxebs, trapezuntelebsa da riZelebs [yauxCiSvili 1983: 162-167]. sayuradReboa, rom sakuTriv romauli jarebisa da maT mokavSireTa sakmaod STambeWdav CamonaTvalSi, ar ixsenebian iberielebi, arada iberiis, rogorc romis `megobari da mokavSire~ qveynis oficialur movaleobas warmoadgenda saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi imperiisaTvis samxedro daxmarebis gaweva [ 1981: 104].1 ase rom, iberia romelic zemoCamoTvlil mokavSireTagan yvelaze Zlieria, alanebTan teritoriuladac yvelaze axlosaa da amdenad, romic gansakuTrebiT iqneboda dainteresebuli momaval kampaniaSi misi monawileobiT, rogorc Cans, uars acxadebs romaelTa daxmarebaze. axla rac Seexeba uSualod adrianes mier gamogzavnili kohortis sakiTxs. rogorc aRiniSna, mkvlevarebi miuxedavad imisa, Tu rogor gansazRvraven isini am kohortaSi Semavali meomrebis raodenobas, miiCneven, rom adrianem es razmi iberiaSi alanTa Semosevis Semdeg gamogzavna. mag., m. inaZe, romelic `adrianes saCuqars~ 500-kacian SenaerTad Tvlis, aRniSnavs, rom

1 dokumenturad dasturdeba, rom adrianes winamorbedis, traianes mmarTvelobis dros iberielTa jari romaelebs mokavSireobas uwevda parTiis winaaRmdeg omSi (yauxCiSvili 1951: 236-237; fifia 2005 b:19)

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misi gamogzavna ar SeiZleba momxdariyo farsmanis mier alanTa gadmoyvanamde, ramdenadac am razmis iberiaSi gamoCenis Semdeg, farsmans antiromaul saqmianobaSi dabrkoleba Seeqmneboda [inaZe 1955: 324].1 TavisTavad sakiTxis am kuTxiT dasma absoluturad sworia. faqtia, rom Tu iberiaSi dislocirebuli iqneboda 500-kaciani romauli garnizoni, maSin farsmani ver SeZlebda iseTi masStaburi antiromauli aqciis ganxorcielebas, rogoric alanTa gadmoyvana iyo. Cveni sakvlevi problemis am WrilSi ganxilva saSualebas iZleva garkveul iqnas `adrianes ZRvenis~ realuri raodenoba. Tumca, rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, sakiTxisadmi swored amgvari midgoma gamoricxavs iberiis teritoriaze romauli 500-kaciani garnizonis yofnas, ramdenadac adrianes mier saCuqrad razmis gamogzavnis Semdegac farsmans ar Seuwyvetia antiromauli saqmianoba. davuSvaT, rom adrianem farsmans marTlac 500-kaciani kohorta gamougzavna. aseT SemTxvevaSi, rogor unda aixsnas is faqti, rom farsmanma uari ganacxada adrianes mier alanTa winaaRmdeg dagegmil samxedro operaciaSi monawileobaze? am dros iberiis teritoriaze, miT umetes darialis xeobaSi ganlagebuli rom yofiliyo imperiis 500-kaciani garnizoni, rogorc amas miiCnevs mklevarTa nawili, maSin farsmans ubralod arCevanis gakeTebis saSualebac ki ar eqneboda. Tu dariali romaelTa xelSi aRmoCndeboda da realurad Caiketeboda, maSin farsmani ara marto romze zemoqmedebis yvela berkets, aramed faqtobrivad raime damoukidebeli sagareo politikis warmoebis saSualebasac ki dakargavda, ramdenadac igi mowyvetili iqneboda misi samxedro Zlierebis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes wyaros, imierkavkasiis `barbarosul~ sivrces2. amdenad, gamoricxulia, rom iberiis teritoriaze, miT umetes darialSi romaelTa 500-kaciani garnizonis ganlagebis Semdeg farsmans kvlav gaegrZelebina antiromauli saqmianoba. mas amis saSualebas romauli garnizoni ubralod ar miscemda. ase rom, farsmanis mier alanTa winaaRmdeg dagegmil laSqrobaSi monawileobaze uaris Tqma, aSkarad miuTiTebs, rom am dros iberiis teritoriaze romauli samxedro SenaerTebi ar idga. da bolos, problemis gadasawyvetad, Cveni azriT, umniSvnelovanesia TviT elius spartianes cnoba, saidanac aSkarad Cans, rom farsmans adrianesagan saCuqrebis miRebis Semdegac gaugrZelebia antiromauli saqmianoba. spartiane roca saubrobs farsmanisaTvis gagzavnil ZRvenze, iqve aRniS1 srul gaugebrobas iwvevs ukanasknel xanebSi gamoTqmuli mosazreba, rom adrianem 500-kaciani razmi iberiaSi, mcxeTisa an darialis gasamagreblad jer kidev 129-131 ww. gagzavna (pertia 2004: 228-229). aseT SemTxvevaSi, iberiaSi 500-kaciani romauli garnizonis yofnis pirobebSi, warmoudgenelia, rom farsmans 135-137 ww. SeZleboda alanebis gadmoyvana. 2 darialis gadmosasvlels udidesi strategiuli mniSvneloba hqonda iberiisaTvis. misi meSveobiT saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli iyo imierkavkasieli nomadebis gadmoyvana da maTi samxedro resursebis sakuTari survilisamebr gamoyeneba. iberia am strategiul faqtors sakmaod gonivrulad iyenebda mTeli I saukunis manZilze (ix. fifia 2007: 184-188). swored Crdilokavkasiel momTabareebTan kavSirSi SeeZlo farsmansac, rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, erTdroulad dapirispireboda parTiasa da roms. Tavis mxriv, romsac araerTxel ucdia darialis gasasvlelze uSualo kontrolis daweseba (ix. fifia 2007: 177-189).

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navs, `rodesac farsmanisganac didi saCuqrebi miiRo, maT Soris mooqruli wamosasxamebi, adrianem mis dasacinad arenaze gamouSva samasi damnaSave am mooqrul wamosasxamebSi~ [El. Spart., Hadr., XVII, 12]. amrigad, iberiaSi saCuqris saxiT razmis gagzavnis Semdegac, farsmans kvlav ganuxorcielebia romisTvis miuRebeli raRac politikuri aqcia, ramac sabolood wyobidan gamoiyvana iseTi TavSekavebuli da daxvewili diplomatic ki, rogoric imperatori adriane iyo. adrianes mier yovelgvari diplomatiuri etiketis gverdis avliT, saCuqrebze uaris Tqma da ufro metic, iberTa mefis dasacinad, mis mier gamogzavnili wamosasxamebiT damnaSaveebis arenaze gaSveba, adrianes ukidures gaRizianebaze da Sesabamisad, farsmanis raRac `mZime danaSaulze~ metyvelebs1. Tu davuSvebT imas, rom am dros iberiaSi romaelTa 500-kaciani garnizoni iyo ganlagebuli, maSin warmoudgenelia, rom farsmans romis sawinaaRmdego raRac iseTi mwvave RonisZiebis gatarebis saSualeba hqonda, rasac adrianes zemoaRniSnuli reaqcia mohyva; da Tu farsmani mainc Seecdeboda antiromauli qmedebis ganxorcilebas, maSin adrianes iberiaSi dislocirebuli garnizonis meSveobiT, masze zemoqmedebis realuri saSualeba eqneboda da Tavis guliswyromas mxolod misi abuCad agdebiT ar gamoxatavda. amdenad, yovelive zemoTqmulis Semdeg, gamoricxulad migvaCnia, rom adrianes mier iberiaSi gamogzavnili razmi 500-kaciT yofiliyo dakompleqtebuli; elius spartianes cnobaSi aRniSnuli 50 meomari realobas Seesabameba, teqstSi Sesworebis Setana miuRebelia da aq `kohorta~ zogadad samxedro razmis mniSvnelobiTaa naxmari. literatura: Todua 2006: T. Todua, g. gamyreliZe. romis samxedro-politikuri eqspansia saqarTveloSi. Tbilisi. 2006. inaZe 1955: m. inaZe. iberiisa da romis urTierToba II saukunis pirvel naxevarSi ­ istoriis institutis Sromebi, I, Tbilisi. 1955. keWaymaZe 1961: flavius ariane. mogzauroba Savi zRvis garSemo. Targmani, gamokvleva, komentarebi da ruka n. keWaRmaZisa. Tbilisi. 1961. lomouri 1966: dion kasiosis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb. berZnuli teqsti qarTuli TarganiTurT gamosca da Sesavali da komentarebi daurTo n. lomourma. Tbilisi. 1966. meliqiSvili 1970: g. meliqiSvili. saqarTvelo ax. w. I-III saukuneebSi. ­ saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. I, Tbilisi. 1970. pertia 2004: x. pertia. adrianes aRmosavluri politika da iberia. ­ saistorio Ziebani, VII, Tbilisi. 2004. fifia 2005 a: k. fifia. romi da aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTi I-II ss. (politi1 mkvlevarTa nawili miiCnevs, rom adrianes gaRizianeba SesaZlebelia iman gamoiwvia, rom farsmanma iberiaSi gamarTuli molaparakebebis dros uari ganacxada romSi Casvlaze ( 1981: 196), magram, adrianes ukiduresi reaqciidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, amis mizezi swored farsmanis mier alanTa winaaRmdeg omSi monawileobaze uaris Tqma iyo.

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kuri urTierTobebi). Tbilisi. 2005. fifia 2005 b: k. fifia. traianes aRmosavluri politika da saqarTvelo. Tbilisi. 2005. fifia 2007: k. fifia. neronis kavkasiuri laSqrobis miznebisa da mimarTulebis sakiTxisaTvis ­ soxumis universitetis Sromebi, humanitarul da socialur-politikur mecnierebaTa seria, I, Tbilisi. 2007. fifia 2008 a: k. fifia. zidritTa olqis problema iberia-romis diplomatiur urTierTobebSi (ax. w. II s. 20-30-iani ww.). ­ istoriul-eTnologiuri Ziebani, X, Tbilisi. 2008. fifia 2008 b: k. fifia. iberia-romis urTierToba II s. 20-30-ian ww. (imperatori adriane da farsman II). ­ soxumis universitetis Sromebi. humanitarul da socialur-politikur mecnierebaTa seria, II Tbilisi. 2008. qavTaria 1998: berZeni da romaeli istorikosebi, g. qavTarias redaqtorobiT Tbilisi. 1998. yauxCiSvili 1951: T. yauxCiSvili. berZnuli warwerebi saqarTveloSi. Tbilisi. 1951. yauxCiSvili 1955: qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tbilisi. 1955. yauxCiSviuli 1983: berZeni mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb. V. Zveli berZnulidan Targmna, gamokvleva da saZieblebi daurTo T. yauxCiSvilma. Tbilisi. 1983. javaxiSvili 1979: iv. javaxiSvili. Txzulebani Tormet tomad. t. I. Tbilisi. 1979. janaSia 1946: saqarTvelos istoria, uZvelesi droidan XIX s. damdegamde (s. janaSias redaqciiT), Tbilisi. 1946. janaSia 1949: s. janaSia. saqarTvelo adrindeli feodalizaciis gzaze. ­ Sromebi. I. Tbilisi. 1949. 1991: . . . - , 1991, 4, . 34-52. 1957: .. . Scriptores Historiae Augustae. ­ , 1957, 1, . 245-256. 1957: . . . , . . . - , 1957, 1, . 225- 269. 1999: . ( .. , .. ), ., 1999. 1904: .. . Scythica et Caucasica. . .II. ., 1904. 1949: .. . . ­ , 1949, 3, . 205-308. 1981: .. . - . ., 1981. 1959: .. . . ., 1959. 1949: . . . . V. ., 1949. 2009: .. . -

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. - . 1, 2009, . 107-117. 1957: .. . "Scriptores Historiae Augustae" . ­ , 1957, 1, . 233-245. Bosworth 1977: .A.B. Bosworth. Arrian and the Alani. ­ Harward Studies in Classical Philology. 1977, 81, p. 217-255. Scriptores XIII: Scriptores Historiae Augustae. Vol. I. Berolini, MDCCCL XIII. Scriptores 1953: Scriptores Historiae Augustae. Translated by D. Magie, 1953. Scriptores 1955: Scriptores Historiae Augustae. editit E. Hohl. Lipsiae, 1955.

KAKHA PIPIA

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

FOR SPESIFYING THE DATA OF ELIUS SPARTIANE

One of the most important monuments of Roman Historiography - Scriptores Historiae Augustae (writers of history of Augustus) begins with the biography of Emperor Adriane. Its author is Elius Spartiane. In the given work, on the basis of a new interpretation of different sources, we tried to specify the data kept in Adriane's biography, which has a great importance in the perspective of Georgian History. According to Elis Spartiane, "(Adriane) gave numerous gifts to many kings, although more to the king of Iberia, who, besides the precious gifts, was given an elephant and the cohort consisted of 50 men". There exist different opinions on the number, status and functions of the cohort that is caused by the data inaccuracy of Elius Spartiane. The cohort of 50 men (quinuagenariam cohortem) is mentioned in the manuscript. On the whole the cohort consisted of 500-600 soldiers. That's why some researchers think that the mentioned "cohort of 50 men" is a mistake of copyists, and here was meant an ordinary cohort, not the garrison of 500 men. On the basis of such consideration some researchers thought that "Adriane's gift was really the act against Iberia and in fact Rome located these soldiers in Kartli on purpose, as a garrison to control the king Parsman and to block the Darial Ravine from Alan's invasions common for the empire's Eastern provinces. Due to certain reasons such opinion is not acceptable for us. First, as it was indicated, the cohort of 50 men is mentioned in all main manuscripts, and there is no evidence of possibly made corrections in the text. "The cohort" may be used with the general meaning of the military garrison. Besides, the other sources about the garrison of 500 men in Mtskheta and the Darial Ravine on the territory of Iberia don't give us any information. Alongside, it is difficult to imagine the settlement of the garrison of 500 men in Mtskheta, while at the same time the garrisons of 400 and 200 men were dislocated in Phasis and Sebastopolis ­ in the Roman castles involved in Rome's political system. And finally, the note of Elius Spartiane could be the clue for solving this dilemma. The note speaks about the gift sent to Parsman, whereas Spartiane indicates: "When Adriane got many gifts from Parsman, including golden cloaks, he let 300 men dressed in these golden cloaks to act on the arena and make fun of Parsman." If we discuss this information in the context of the existing relations between Iberia and Rome, it will be clear that

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"Adriane's gift" didn't really exceed the garrison of 50 men. As well-known, Parsman, a king of Iberia refused to obey the emperor and did not restraint against the anti-roman actions. First Parsman took away the sector of Kolchi's seacoast ­ the region of Dzidrits, then in 129 demonstratively refused to visit the imperator, and in 135-137 opened the crossings of the Caucasus and let the nomadic Alans invade Rome's domains. Adriane who could not subordinate indocile Parsman, tried to find a diplomatic way to regulate his relation with Parsman, and exactly for this purpose he sent him the above mentioned gifts. Though, as it seemed he could not reconcile Parsman. Even afterwards, the king of Iberia still conducted anti-roman action that caused Adriane's irritation. That is clearly shown from Spartiane's data ­ a retrained diplomat Adriane didn't accept Parsman's gifts and dressed the guilties in them. So after sending the Romans' armed garrison to Iberia as a gift, Parsman still carried out some anti-roman measures that finally made Adriane angry. If we suppose that at that time the garrison of 500 men was dislocated in Mtskheta, it will be difficult to imagine that Parsman had the opportunity to carry out any anti-empire actions. The Roman garrison didn't simply let him do so. So the revision of the information of Elius Spartiane and the definition "Adriane's gift" as a garrison of 500 men is not correct. 50 soldiers indicated in the information is correspondence with the reality and "the cohort" is normally used as the meaning of a military garrison.

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istoria, politikuri mecnierebani

=

History, Political Sciences

Jurnali `ganaTleba ~#1, 2009 Journal "Education"

omar ardaSelia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

Sarl de golis politikis transformacia indoCineTis qveynebis mimarT XX saukunis 50-60-ian wlebSi

indoCineTis qveynebi, vietnami, kamboja da laosi, XIX saukunis bolosa da XX saukunis dasawyisidan safrangeTis koloniebs warmoadgendnen da meore msoflio omis damTavrebamde darCnen am qveynis gavlenis sferod. meore msoflio omis Semdeg Seqmnilma politikurma viTarebam indoCineTis qveynebSi mZlavri biZgi misca gaZlierebul erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobas, romlis Sedegad am regionSi axali saxelmwifoebi Camoyalibda. Seqmnil saerTaSoriso viTarebaSi safrangeTis xelisuflebis mcdeloba SeenarCunebina Tavisi gavlena am qveynebSi, sabolood kraxiT dasrulda, radgan am regionSi sakuTari geopolitikuri, strategiuli da ideologiuri interesebis gansaxorcieleblad Zal-Rones ar iSurebda `komunisturi CineTi~, romelsac zurgs umagrebda aseve `komunisturi ruseTis imperiasabWoTa kavSiri~. meore msoflio omSi dasustebul safrangeTs ar SeeZlo win aRdgomoda CineTisa da sabWoTa kavSiris mzard politikur interesebs, rac sabolood indoCineTSi komunizmis ideologiis danergvasa da regionis sakuTar geoplitikur da strategiul dasayrdenad gadaqcevas isaxavda miznad. XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan moyolebuli vidre 70-ian wlebamde safrangeTis sagareo politikuri kursi indoCineTis qveynebis mimarT evoluciurad ganviTarda da transformacia ganicada. miuxedavad imisa, rom safrangeTis xelisuflebisa da Sarl de golis politikuri kursi sabolood mimarTuli iyo regionSi safrangeTis politikuri gavlenis SenarCunebisaken, masSi mainc aisaxa franguli politikuri kulturisa da sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis saocari dawinaurebisa da ganviTarebis maRali done. Sarl de golis epoqaSi frangulma sazogadoebriv-politikurma azrma araerTi msgavsi politika Sva, romelmac frangul koloniebs Tavisufleba da damoukidebeli ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba misca [ardaSelia 2003: 283-294]. XIX saukunis 60-iani wlebidan indoCineTis kolonizaciis sakiTxs didi adgili ekava safrangeTis koloniur politikaSi, xolo mas Semdeg rac es ganxorcielda, franguli kapitali maqsimalurad cdilobda am qveynebis ekonomikuri resursebis aTvisebas. am regionSi safrangeTis mier gazrdili samrewvelo kapitalis sidide naTlad miuTiTebda indoCineTis qveynebis mniSvnelobasa da rolze safrangeTis ekonomikisTvis. [safrangeTis kapitaldabandebam meore msoflio omis win, regionSi 10 miliardi franki Seadgina]. meore msoflio omis dros safrangeTis damarcxebam da viSis mTavrobis mo-

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Ralaturma moqmedebam, saerTaSoriso arenaze safrangeTis politikuri da moraluri prestiJi Searyia. frangi politikosebisa da samxedroebis nawilma londonSi Seqmnes safrangeTis winaaRmdegobis komiteti, romelic devnili mTavrobis rols asrulebda da romlis saTaveSi generali Sarl de goli idga. koloniebis sakiTxi yovelTvis mniSvnelovani iyo frangi politikosebisaTvis, miTumetes omis pirobebSi, rodesac damarcxebuli safrangeTi koloniebis resursebis imedad darCa. Sarl de gols araerTxel aRuniSnavs, rom safrangeTis koloniuri imperiis SenarCuneba `saSualebas miscemda frangebs gaegrZelebinaT omi germaniis winaaRmdeg mokavSireebTan erTad, rac maTi avtoritetis SenarCunebisaTvis aucilebeli iyo~- mas esmoda, rom koloniebSi gavlenis SenarCuneba moiTxovda safrangeTis koloniebis statusis Secvlas da maTTvis meti Sida avtonomiis miniWebas. Sarl de golis es mosazreba aisaxa brazavilis 1944 wlis konferenciisa da safrangeTis droebiTi mTavrobis deklaraciaSi 1945 wlis 24 marts [ 1989]. meore msoflio omma daasusta safrangeTis ekonomiuri da samxedro potenciali, rac amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisaTvis aRmoCnda sababi dRis wesrigSi daeyenebina safrangeTis koloniebze Tavisi kontrolis damyarebis sakiTxi. ruzveltis sityvebiT, rom vTqvaT `safrangeTis indoCineTi - es yvelaze cudad marTvadi teritoriaa mTel samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi~ [ 1947: 78]. ufro metic qairos 1943 wlis konferenciis dros ruzveltma privatul saubarSi Can - kai - SisTan (CineTis maSindeli prezidenti) ganacxada, rom `safrangeTi ar miiRebs uflebas dabrundes indoCineTSi~ [ 1947: 78]. garda amisa imave konferenciaze CerCilma da ruzveltma Can-kaiSisTan moilaparakes, rom indoCineTi me-16 paralelze gaiyofoda Cinelebsa da ingliselebs Soris (maSindeli CineTis gomindanis mTavroba meore msoflio omis dros mokavSireebis mxareze gamodioda). mogvianebiT potsdamis 1945 wlis konferenciaze amerikelebi da ingliselebi sxva sakiTxebTan erTad SeTanxmdnen indoCineTis gayofaze, magram am gegmebs asruleba ar ewera, radgan CrdiloeT vietnamis liderma xo Si-minma1 1945 wlis 2 seqtembers vietnami damoukidebel saxelwifod gamoacxada, ufro adre imave wlis martSi kambojam gamoacxada damoukidebloba, xolo 12 oqtombers Camogdebuli iqna laosis mefe, romelic omis dros iaponelebTan TanamSromlobda. ase, rom indoCineTis qveynebma kargad isargebles meore msoflio omSi iaponelebis damarcxebiTa da safrangeTis ukiduresi dasustebiT. safrangeTis mcdeloba meore msoflio omis Semdeg aRedgina Tavisi koloniuri mmarTveloba indoCineTSi omis damTavrebisTanave gamoCnda, radgan frangebma 1945 wlis 6 seqtembers samxreT vietnamSi saomari moqmedebebi q. saigonSi daiwyes (saigoni samxreT vietnamis ekonomikuri da politikuri centri iyo), vietnamelebis mier Seqmnili adgilobrivi xelisufleba daamxes da droebiTi reJimi Seqmnes. safrangeTis xelisufleba acxadebda,

1 xo-Si-mini (1890-1969 ww) _ vietnamis saxelmwifo da politikuri moRvawe. vietnamis demokratiuli respublikis (Cr. vietnamis) pirveli prezidenti 1946-1969 wlebSi

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rom maT mier ganxorcielebuli aqciis sababi iyo iaponelebis sajariso nawilebis ganiaraReba, romlebic jer kidev imyofebodnen samxreT vietnamSi. sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom TviT safrangeTis mmarTvel wreebSi ar arsebobda erTiani azri indoCineTis problemebis mosagvareblad. magaliTad, safrangeTis warmomadgeneli vietnamSi sentini Tavis moxsenebebSi mTavrobis wevrebis winaSe pirdapir aRniSnavda, rom `saWiroa molaparakeba adgilobriv politikur ZalebTan, romlis gareSec veraferi ver gadawydeba~. samwuxarid, misi mosazreba maSin ar gaiziares. faqtobrivad, vietnamis omis franguli periodi iwyeba 1946 wlis 23 noembers, rodesac frangebma cecxli gauxsnes q. xaifons da Seecadnen mis xelSi Cagdebas [Salan 1971:142]. samxreT - aRmosavleT aziis politikuri mdgomareobis Sefaseba warmoudgenelia CineTis gareSe, radgan XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi indoCineTis geopolitikur arealSi Camoyalibda mZlavri, axali tipis ideologiis matarebeli saxelmwifo, CineTis saxalxo respublika, romelic sabWoTa kavSirTan erTad cdilobda Tavisi hegemoniis damyarebas aziis mTel kontinentze. swored amiT aixsneba amerikelebis Careva indoCineTis saqmeebSi, radgan isini kargad xedavdnen, rom safrangeTs ar ZaluZda aRdgomoda win im safrTxes, romelic komunisturi CineTidan modioda. im periodis cnobili mkvlevari a. groseri werda, rom `1950 wlidan indoCineTis omi gaxda elementi msoflio dapirispirebisa da amerikelTa Careva gamowveuli iyo maTi antikomunisturi SexedulebebiT~ [ 1976: 123]. 1946-1954 wlebSi safrangeTis samxedro _ eqspediciuri korpusis moqmedeba indoCineTis naxevarkunZulze sruli kraxiT dasrulda, radgan arc finansuri da arc samxedro TvalsazrisiT frangebs ar gaaCndaT is resursebi, romelic maT gamarjvebamde miiyvanda. amas daemata safrangeTSi arsebuli daZabuli Sidapolitikuri viTareba, romelic saSualebas ar aZlevda mas ufro aqtiuri RonisZiebebi ganexorcielebina indoCineTis qveynebis mimarT. aSS xedavda, rom safrangeTi uZluri iyo SeeCerebina `komunisturi safrTxe~ indoCineTis naxevarkunZulze, swored, am momentidan iwyeba amerikelebis aqtiuri Careva indoCineTis qveynebis saqmeebSi. aSS-s Careva indoCineTis qveynebis saqmeebSi ganpirobebuli iyo ramdenime mizezT: 1. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi cdilobda TviTon damkvidrebuliyo am regionSi; 2. komunisturi ideologiis damkvidreba CineTSi safrTxes uqmnida aSS-s interesebs mTeli wynari okeanis qveynebis auzSi, maT Soris indoCineTSi; 3. aSS-s mier indoCineTis qveynebSi aqtiuri konfrontaciis dawyeba gamowveuli iyo `komunizmis Sekavebis~ doqtrinis SemuSavebiT, romlis Tanaxmad (trumeniseuli doqtrina) `komunizmis Sekaveba~ unda momxdariyo mTeli msoflios masStabiT; 4. msoflio omis Semdeg aSS gaxda meore supersaxelmwifo, romelmac, Tavis mokavSireebTan erTad, Tavis Tavze aiRo axali geopolitikuri wesrigis damyarebis pasuxismgebloba. am nabijisken amerikelebs meore msoflio omis Semdeg evropis saxelmwifoebSi Seqmnilma politikurma suraTma ubiZga. isini xedavdnen, rom meore msoflio omgadax-

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dil `Zvel~ evropul `imperiebs~ (safrangeTi, inglisi) TavianTi ekonomiuri da politikuri mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, ukve ar SeeZloT supersaxelmwifos rolis TamaSi. safrangeTis marcxi indoCineTSi gamowveuli iyo imiTac, rom frangebs, amerikelebTan SedarebiT, gansxvavebuli xedva hqondaT indoCineTis qveynebis statusze [Salan 1971:142]. safrangeTi mzad iyo mieca maTTvis SezRuduli suvereniteti e. w. indoCineTis kavSiris1 SemadgenlobaSi, maSin rodesac amerikelebi moiTxovdnen maTTvis sruli suverenitetis gadacemas im pirobiT, rom am qveynebSi movidodnen proamerikulad ganwyobili politikuri Zalebi. safrangeTis mcdeloba samxedro meTodebiT gadaewyvita indoCineTis sakiTxi dienfibuSi dasamarda, rodesac 1954 wlis 7 maiss vietnamis jarebma samTviani alyis Semdeg general ziapis meTaurobiT gaanadgures safrangeTis eqspediciuri korpusi, ramac udidesi roli iTamaSa omis damTavrebaSi [ 1989: 67]. indoCineTis sakiTxi ar iyo mowyvetili im politikur movlenebs, romlis epicentri Soreuli aRmosavleTi iyo. indoCineTisa da koreis 1950-1953 wlebis movlenebi Jenevis 1954 wlis konferenciis msjelobis sagani gaxda, sadac dainteresebuli mxareebi cdilobdnen gadaewyvitaT is sakiTxebi, romelic msoflio sazogadoebas indoCineTTan mimarTebaSi aRelvebda. Jenevis konferenciaze monawileobda didi britaneTis, ssrk-s, safrangeTisa da CineTis saxalxo respublikis sagareo saqmeTa ministrebi, romlebmac ganixiles koreasa da indoCineTSi mSvidobis sakiTxebi. koreis sakiTxis ganxilvisas konferenciaze agreTve daSvebuli iqnen koreis saxalxo demokratiuli respublika, samxreT korea da koreaSi gaeros egidiT Catarebuli operaciis monawile 12 qveyana. marTalia koreis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT konferenciaze SeTanxmeba ar iqna miRebuli, magram SedarebiT ufro warmatebulad mimdinareobda indoCineTis sakiTxis ganxilva, romelSic monawileobis ufleba miecaT agreTve vietnamis demokratiul respublikas, samxreT vietnams, laoss da kambojas. 20-21 ivliss xelmowerili iqna SeTanxmebebi, romlebmac bolo mouRes vietnamSi, laossa da kambojaSi mimdinare oms. franguli delegacia, romelsac mendes fransi xelmZRvanelobda iZulebuli gaxda mTel rig daTmobebze wasuliyo. safrangeTma valdebuleba aiRo ecno vietnamis, laosisa da kambojis damoukidebloba, suvereniteti, erTianoba da teritoriuli mTlianoba. vietnamSi saomari moqmedebebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb miRweuli SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, dawesda droebiTi sadermakacio xazi me-17 paralelis maxloblad da gansazRvruli iqna meomar mxareTa Zalebis am xazidan gayvanis vadebi [ 1956]. laosisa da kambojis Taobaze xelmowerili analogiuri SeTanxmebis Ta1 indoCineTis kavSiri _ safrangeTis koloniebis gaerTianeba XX s dasawisSi. safrangeTis konstituciis mixedviT (III_IVrespublikis perodSi) am kavSirSi Semaval koloniebs hqondaT Sinagani avtonomia

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naxmad am qveynebis teritoriebi unda daetovebinaT safrangeTis kavSiris Zalebsa da vietnamelTa SenaerTebs, xolo erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis patet-laos winaaRmdegobis Zalebi unda gaeyvanaT. laosisa da kambojis teritoriaze aikrZala sxva saxelmwifoTa samxedro bazebis Seqmna, sakuTriv es saxelmwifoebi ki ar unda Sesuliyvnen romelime samxedro blokSi [ 1956: 23,24]. samxedro sakiTxebis ganxilvis garda, JenevaSi miRweuli iqna SeTanxmebebi laosis, vietnamisa da kambojis politikuri mowyobis Sesaxeb. gadawyda, rom 1955 wels laossa da kambojaSi, xolo 1956 wels vietnamSi Catardeboda sayovelTao Tavisufali arCevnebi indoCineTis saxelmwifoebis damoukideblobis, suverenitetis, teritoriuli mTlianobisa da saSinao saqmeebSi Caurevlobis principebis safuZvelze. indoCineTis sakiTxze miRweuli SeTanxmebebis pirobebis Sesrulebaze kontrolis gasawevad Jenevis konferenciaze Seiqmna saerTaSoriso komisia indoeTis (Tavmjdomare), kanadisa da poloneTis warmomadgenlebis SemadgenlobiT. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom Jenevis konferenciis mier miRebuli samxedro muxlebi vietnamSi saomari moqmedebebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb gansazRvrul droSi ganxorcielda. 1955-1957 wlebSi Sesrulda laosisa da kambojis politikuri mowyobis sakiTxebic, magram vietnamSi arCevnebis Catareba SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda, radgan qveynis SigniT arsebobda didi politikuri dapirispireba. vietnami, faqtobrivad, or did banakad iqca. erTi banakis ukan sabWoTa kavSiri da CineTi idgnen, xolo meore banaks mxars uWerda amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi. Jenevis SeTanxmebam safrangeTi aiZula daetovebina indoCineTis naxevarkunZuli, magram es movlena ganpirobebuli iyo ara marto saerTaSoriso Zalebis zemoqmdebiT, aramed safrangeTis Sida politikuri viTarebiT. XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan alJirma daiwyo brZola safrangeTis koloniuri reJimis winaaRmdeg. bunebrivia, safrangeTis xelisuflebas arc samxedro da arc politikuri resursebi gaaCnda erTdoulad moegvarebina indoCineTisa da alJiris politikuri krizisebi. Jenevis SeTanxmebiT ar damTavrebula indoCineTis sakiTxi XX saukunis saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi. XX saukunis 50-iani wlebis miwuruls indoCineTis qveynebis istoriaSi daiwyo politikuri brZolis axali etapi, rodesac amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma, Tavisi geostrategiuli miznebidan gamomdinare `komunizmis Sekavebis~ doqtrinis ganxorcieleba daiwyo. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, es doqtrina iTvaliswinebda komunizmis safrTxisagan daecva msoflio da maT Soris indoCineTis qveynebi. aRniSnuli safrTxe, pirvel rigSi, momdinareobda CineTis saxalxo respublikisa da sabWoTa kavSirisagan. CineTs, bunebrivia, sakuTari geopolitikuri interesebi gaaCnda am regionSi, rasac TvalnaTliv xedavda aSS-s diplomatia da cdilobda win aRdgomoda CineTisa da ssrks politikas samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebSi. samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi Seqmnili axali politikuri viTarebis

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safuZvelze safrangeTis xelisuflebam general Sarl de golis xelmZRvanelobiT SeimuSava safrangeTis axali sagareo politika, romelic ZiriTadad safrangeTis yofili koloniebis mimarT ganxorcielda. safrangeTi natos wevri saxelmwifo iyo da iZulebuli iyo Tavisi poziciebi SeeTanxmebina aSS-Tvis, rac Sarl de golis azriT, akninebda safrangeTis suverenitets da xdida mas meorexarisxovan saxelmwifod evropaSi. safrangeTis winaSe idga mZime ekonomikuri sakiTxebic, rac saSualebas ar aZlevda mas aqtiuri moTamaSe yofiliyo msoflio politikur arenaze. am viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT, Sarl de golma sagareo politikis mTvari aqcenti gadaitana e. w. mesame qveynebze1. safrangeTis axali politika indoCineTSi misi azriT unda yofiliyo moqnili da efeqturi. ra iyo am politikis ZiriTadi azri? im garemoebidan gamomdinare, rom indoCineTis qveynebs safrangeTTan urTierTobis aswliani istoria hqondaT da frangebi kargad icnobdnen iqaur politikur viTarebas, saWiro iyo individualuri midgoma yvela problemuri sakiTxisadmi. safrangeTisaTvis mniSvnelovani iyo daenaxebina yofili koloniuri qveynebisTvis, rom safrangeTis xelisufleba cdilobda adgilobriv xelisuflebasTan erTad gadaewyvita is politikuri problemebi, romelic maTTvis aqtualuri iyo. indoCineTis problema ar iyo marto romelime erTi saxelmwifos, an calkeuli saxelmwifoebis problema, is iqca im droisTvis globalur problemad, romelSic koncentrirebuli iyo yvela is ekonomikuri, politikuri da ideologiuri cvlilebebi, romelic moxda indoCineTis qveynebSi meore msoflio omis Semdeg. XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi indoCineTidan safrangeTis wasvla ar niSnavda imas, rom is ar Seecdeboda kvlav dabrunebuliyo am regionSi. safrangeTis maSindeli politika gaTvlili iyo indoCineTis qveynebSi Seesustebina aSS-is gavlena, romelsac is monopoliurad ganagebda 60-iani wlebis dasawyisidan. rodesac Sarl de gols aSS-s prezidentma jon kenedim 1961 wels vaSingtonSi Sexvedrisas gaando, rom amerikelebi iwyebdnen farTomasStabian samxedro moqmedebas vietnamSi, man upasuxa, rom Tqveni aseTi moqmedeba arafers ar moitans, radgan SeuZlebelia gaRviZebuli erebis Sekaveba romlebic ibrZvian damoukideblobisaTvis... [ 1972]. safrangeTis axali politika indoCineTSi gamoixateboda mis `neitralizciaSi", anu iTvaliswinebda misgan im qveynebis CamoSorebas, romlebic samomavlod ar gaxdebodnen axali politikuri problemis mizezi2. safrangeTis politikis axali xedva indoCineTisadmi Sarl de golma Camoayaliba vietnamis prezidentis xo-Si-minisadmi gagzavnil werilSi da 1966 wlis 13 aprils laosis mefesTan Sexvedris dros parizSi. vietnamis gaerTianebis Semdeg de goli aqcents akeTebda mis neitralur saxelmwifod gamocxadebaze da saerTod

1 es iyo safrangeTis sagareo politikis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mimarTuleba. Sarl de gols hqonda Tavisi xedva da mimarTuleba evropuli problemebisadmi, romelic man ganaxorciela da romelic miznad isaxavda safrangeTis suverenitetis amaRlebas. 2 Cveni azriT aseTi xedva cota ar iyos idealisturi iyo, magram im droisTvis sakmaod novatoruli, romelmac dadebiTi roli iTamaSa vietnamis omis damTavrebaSi.

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indoCineTis qveynebis neitralitetze (problemis arsic swored amaSi iyo, rom im SemTxvevaSi Tu aSS wavidoda indoCineTidan vin Seavsebda am vakuums? ra ideologiis da politikuri kursis matareblebi iqnebodnen es qveynebi? da a. S. anu arsebobda didi safrTxe, rom es vakuumi `komunistur~ CineTsa da sabWoTa kavSirs amoevsoT). safrangeTi am sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi aqtiuri Suamavalis rols kisrulobda. erTis mxriv, aseTi amplua saSualebas aZlevda ufro aqtiuri gamxdariyo misi roli saerTaSoriso problemebis mowesrigebaSi da meore mxriv, ramdenadac es SesaZlebeli iyo Seemcirebina gavleniani saxelwifoebis roli1. imisaTvis rom safrangeTs Seesrulebina Tavisi misia konfliqtis mogvarebis saqmeSi saWiro iyo aqtiuri pozicia, romelic gamoixateboda aSS-s kritikiT, rac bunebrivia ar moswondaT amerikelebs. 60-iani wlebis bolos naTeli gaxda, rom aSS ver SeinarCunebda Tavis pozicias indoCineTSi da rom masac sWirdeboda Suamavali diplomatiuri zondaJisTvis dainteresebul mxareebTan (pirvel rigSi CrdiloeT vietnamTan). Tu adre amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi safrangeTs akritikebdnen indoCineTSi misi politikis gamo (40-50-iani wlebi), axla ukve safrangeTi iyo am ampluaSi. safrangeTis aseTma poziciam gazarda misi avtoriteti konfliqtis mogvarebis saqmeSi da krizisis srulfasovani monawile gaxda. Sarl de golis gadadgomis Semdeg, safrangeTis momdevno prezidentebma JorJ pompidum da Jiskar destenma SeinarCunes Sarl de golis mier SemuSavebuli politika safrangeTis yofili metropoliebis mimarT, magram taqtikuri mosazrebebidan gamomdinare aSS-s kritika naklebi intensivobiT gamoirCeoda, Tumca es gasagebic iyo. niqsonis axali politika iTvaliswinebda aSS-s vietnamidan wasvlas, rac gamowveuli iyo misi arapopularobiT am regionSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi safrangeTma Tavis Tavze aiRo aramarto indoCineTis qveynebTan, aramed CineTTan urTierTobebis mowesrigeba, raTa moemzadebina niadagi aSS-CineTis urTierTobebis aRdgenisaTvis, romelic sabolood or qveyanas Soris diplomatiuri urTierTobebis aRdgeniT dasrulda. safrangeTis Suamavlobam Tavis nayofi gamoiRo da miRweuli iqna kompromisuli formula cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb vietnamSi. xelSekruleba daido 1973 wlis 27 ianvars parizSi. maSindeli safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministris Sumanis TqmiT: es safrangeTisTvis metad mniSvnelovani iyo, radgan konfliqtis mogvarebis saqmeSi garkveuli wvlili safrangeTsac miuZRvis"2. parizis xelSekrulebam frangul diplomatias sabolood gauxsna xel-fexi indoCineTis regionSi. pirveli rac gaakeTa safrangeTma iyo diplomatiuri urTierTobebis sruli aRdgena CrdiloeT da samxreT vietnamTan. damyarda kontaqtebi samxreT vietnamSi moqmed partizanul moZraobasTan (romlis ukan CrdiloeT vietnami idga). samxreT vietnamis sakiTxi mniSvnelovani iyo

1 indoCineTis qveynebidan ori monarqia iyo kamboja da laosi, romlebic safrangeTs aRiqvamdnen, rogor mokavSires problemis mogvarebis saqmeSi. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom safrangeTs im droisTvis Tavisi ekonomikuri interesebi gaaCnda am qveynebSi. 2 cit. aRebulia www. francaices.doc.org

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frangebisTvis, radgan frangebs aq hqondaT yvelaze meti ekonomikuri interesebi. parizis SeTanxmeba scnobda orive vietnamis arsebobas (es aSS-s moTxovna iyo), magram randenad iyo saigonis reJimi myari es mxolod drois saqme iyo. ori wlis Semdeg, 1975 wels, saigoni daeca da vietnami gaerTianda. erTis mxriv, es iyo qveynis ganviTarebis kanonzomiereba, rac vietnamSi mimdinare 30 wlian oms unda mohyoloda. xolo meore mxriv samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebSi aSS-s gavlena sagrZnoblad Sesustda. aRniSnuli movlenebis safuZvelze, safrangeTma SeZlo garkveuli gavlenis SenarCuneba indoCineTis qveynebSi, rac Sarl de golis axali sagareo politikuri kursis nayofi iyo. amrigad, safrangeTis politika indoCineTis qveynebis mimarT XX saukunis 50-70-ian wlebSi cvalebadi da evoluciuri xasiaTisa iyo. Tu meore msoflio omamde da meore msoflio omis mimdinareobis dros franguli politika mkacri da daundobeli iyo Tavisi koloniebis mimarT indoCineTis qveynebSi, meore msoflio omis Semdeg safrangeTma ver SeZlo Tavisi politikuri gavlenis SenarCuneba am regionSi, rac, nawilobriv, gamowveuli iyo samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi sxva qveynebis geostrategiuli interesebis gaTvaliswinebiTa da Tavad safrangeTis dasustebiT. aseT pirobebSi, bunebrivia mas saSualeba ar hqonda SeenarCunebina Tavisi gavlena yofil koloniebSi. amas zed daemata sabWoTa kavSiris, CineTisa da aSS-s interesebi regionSi da brZola aSS-sa da CineT-sabWoTa kavSiris alianss Soris regionSi gabatonebisaTvis. samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi, kerZod, indoCineTis naxevarkunZulze Seqmnil saerTaSoriso viTarebaSi, safrangeTi iZulebuli gaxda ukan daexia da daTanxmebuliyo Jenevis SeTanxmebebs, ris Sedegad regioni mTlianad aSS-s gavlenis sferod darCa. Tumca CineTi da sabWoTa kavSiri kvlav cdilobdnen TavianTi interesebis SenarCunebas am qveynebSi. XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi vietnamSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma aSS aiZula wamosuliyo vietnamidan, rac safuZveli gaxda safrangeTis axali, Sarl de goliseuli sagareo politikuri kursis gatarebisa saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi da kerZod, indoCineTis qveynebis mimarT. es politikuri kursi ZiriTadad iTvaliswinebda axlebur midgomas am qveynebis mimarT, maTi politikuri suverenitetisa da damoukideblobisadmi pativiscemis xazgasmasa da politikuri `neitralizaciis~ sakiTxs. XX saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi safrangeTma Sarl de golis axali politikuri kursis wyalobiT SeZlo Tavisi gavlena aRedgina saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi da garegnuli politikuri gavlenis foni SeinarCuna indoCineTis naxevarkunZilzec. literatura: ardaSelia 2003: o. ardaSelia, alJiris krizisi da Sarl de golis politika, eq. TayaiSvilis saxelobis saqarTvelos saistorio sazogadoeba, afxazeTis organizaciis weliwdeuli `saistorio Ziebani~, VI, Tbilisi. 2003.

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1962: .. . . 1962 1972: . M. 1972 1989: . . 1989. 1956: . 1954 . , . 1956. 1958: . . 1958. www. francaices.doc.org 1947: . . . 1947. Salan 1971: Salan R. Memoires. Fin d'un Empire. t.2. Le Viet-minh mon adversaire (octobre 1946 - octobre 1954), Paris, 1971. 1976: . . . . 1976.

OMAR ARDASHELIA

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

POLICY TRANSFORMATION OF CHARLES DE GAULLE TOWARDS THE COUNTRIES OF INDOCHINA IN THE 50-60-IES OF THE XX CENTURY

The research topic "Policy transformation of Charles de Gaulle towards the countries of Indochina in the 50-70-ies of the XX Century" is about the political events developed on the peninsula of Indochina at the time of establishing the new world order after the second world war. The countries of Indochina ­ Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos were the colonies of France since the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX centuries and remained under its control till the end of the second world war. After the second world war the attempt of the government of France to maintain its influence in these countries eventually failed, because "Communist China" did its best to realize its geopolitical, strategic and ideological interests in this region and "the Communist Russian empire-the Soviet Union" supported it as well. France that was weakened in the second world war couldn't resist growing political interests of China and the Soviet Union, that eventually aimed to introduce Communism ideology in Indochina and to make this region its own geopolitical and strategic platform. In this situation the doctrine of stopping "the communism danger" was worked out in the USA, which was directed towards the ideological expansion of the USSR and China and was conditioned by the interests of the USA in Southern-Eastern Asia. The USA saw that France couldn't maintain its influence in the region, that followed domination of communist China and the Soviet Union on the peninsula of Indochina. It's obvious that diplomacy of the USA would not admit it which caused the temporary opposition of the interest between the USA and France in the region. Despite it, in the countries of Indochina the main opposition parties represented on the one hand ­ USA and on the other hand the Soviet Union and Communist China. In such conditions, and relevantly France elaborated a new policy towards the countries of Indochina. In the south-east Asia, especially, within the international situation created on the peninsula of Indochina France was forced to withdraw and agree with Geneva Agreements, as a result of which the region remained totally under the influence of the USA. But

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China and the Soviet Union attempted to maintain their interests in these countries. In 60s of XX century the events occurred in Vietnam forced the USA to go out of Vietnam which became the ground of pursuing the new foreign political course of France towards the countries of Indochina. Policy transformation of France was connected to the name of Charles de Gaulle, the president of France of that time, who elaborated a new tactics and strategy towards the countries of Indochina. This political course mainly took into consideration to respect political sovereignty and independence of these countries and the issue of their political "neutralization". In the 70-ies of the XX century France could keep definite influence in the countries of Indochina, that was the result of the new foreign policy of Charles de Gaulle. Thus, from 50s to 70s of XX century France's external political course towards the countries of Indochina had evolutionally developed and experienced a great change. In spite of the new political course of France's authority and Charles de Gaulle was finally directed towards maintaining France's political influence in the region, even the high level of French political culture and incredible improvements and developments of social thought was reflected in it. In Charles de Gaulle's epoch French social-political opinion generated not a one similar policy that gave the French colonies the opportunity of freedom and independent development.

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istoria, politikuri mecnierebani = History, Political Sciences

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Tamar paiWaZe, nino mindiaSvili

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

akademiuri TanamSromloba konfliqtebis winaaRmdeg: realoba da perspeqtivebi

me-20 saukunis bolo aTwleulSi saqarTvelom dakarga ori umniSvnelovanesi regioni - afxazeTi da samaCablo. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis erTerTi yvelaze mtkivneuli sakiTxi konfliqtur zonebSi viTarebis politikuri daregulirebaa. saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis yvela warmomadgenloba Tu organizacia gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iCens konfliqturi regionebisadmi ganxorcielebuli politikis mimarT. gansaxorcielebel proeqtTa umravlesoba swored am ori regionis post-konfliqturi reabilitaciis strategiuli mxardaWeraa, daxmarebis sferoebi moicavs TiTqmis yvela mniSvnelovan dargs: ekonomikas, energetikas, jandacvas, garemos dacvas, ltolvilTa daxmarebas da sxva... swored diplomatiuri gzebiT, ekonomikuri mxardaWeriT, urTierTTanamSromlobis principebze dafuZnebuli axali iniciativebiT gadaiWreba arsebuli problemebi da amoivseba is ufskruli, romelic mesame qveynis arcTu amao mcdelobiT, xSir SemTxvevaSi xelovnuri gaRvivebis gziT warmoiqmna da araswori saxelmwifoebrivi politikis Sedegad droSic gaiwela. urTierTTnamSromlobisa da saxalxo diplomatiis umniSvnelovanesi nawilia kulturul-saganmanaTleblo proeqtebi, romelic sulier, inteleqtualur Tu materialur faseulobaTa, urTierTgacnobis, gaziarebisa Tu erToblivi muSaobis perspeqtivas gulisxmobs, rameTu kulturuli dialogi yovelTvis ganapirobebda sazogadoebis wevrTa urTierTTanamSromlobas, keTilganwyobasa da Tanamoazreobas. am mimarTulebiT gansakuTrebuli pasuxismgebloba ekisreba ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo, soxumisa da goris saxelmwifo universitetebs, aqedan gamomdinare isic bunebrivia, rom konfliqtebis daregulirebis sakiTxebSi swored es universitetebi unda iqcnen kulturulsaganmanaTleblo urTierTobaTa iniciatorad da bazad qarTul-osur-afxazuri konfliqtebis mogvarebis saqmeSi. am viTarebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, Cndeba perspeqtiva erToblivi saganmanaTleblo proeqtebis SemuSavebisa, romlis Sedegia, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis bazaze Camoyalibuli e.w kulturul-humanitarul urTierTobaTa mimarTulebis proeqti `urTierTobaTa da konfliqtebis daregulirebisaTvis~, romelic miznad isaxavs profesor-maswavlebelTa da studentTa

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urTierTTanamSromlobas konfliqturi zonebis umaRles saswavleblebTan. sawyis etapze aRniSnulma urTierTobam realur saxe miiRo samaCablos regionSi, cxinvalis universitetTan, radgan am mimarTulebiT muSaobisaTvis arsebobda realuri berketi: cxinvalis universitetisa da ganaTlebis sferos zogierTi TanamSromeli Semxvedri nabijiT gamoexmaura am mesijs da urTierTTanamSromlobis survilic gamoxata, rac ara mxolod samecniero da kolegialuri, aramed, pirvelyovlisa, Cveulebrivi adamianuri urTierTobis aRdgenis mcdelobad unda miviRoT. amave mimarTulebiT muSaoba tardeba Cvens afxaz kolegebTanac, rac imedia, droTa ganmavlobaSi pozitiur Sedegs gamoiRebs. kulturul-humanitarul urTierTobaTa mimarTulebiT saproeqto doneze SemuSavda ramdenime saswavlo gegma, romelic moicavs samagistro, sabakalavro da zogadsakvalifikacio programebs, xolo momavalSi, qveda saswavlo doneebis gavlis Semdeg, SeiZleba SemuSavdes doqturanturis mimarTulebis programebic. is studentebi da magistrantebi, romlebic airCeven kulturul-humanitaruli urTierTobebis specializaciis sagnebs (savaldebulo an arCeviTi kursebis saxiT) miiReben ganaTlebas konfliqtologiis, kulturul-literaturuli urTierTobebis, sazogadoebriv-humanitaruli normebis, erTobliv samuSaoTa dagegmarebisa da perspeqtiuli TanamSromlobis mimarTulebiT. amasTan erTad, SesaZloa SemuSavdes meoradi specialobis programa (e.w `mainor-programa~) kulturul-humanitaruli urTierTobis specialistebisaTvis. sxvadasxva sauniversiteto-saswavlo donisaTvis unda SemuSavdes calkeuli programebi swavlebis procesSi wasakiTx saganTa mixedviT. aRniSnuli sagnebi SemuSavdeba, rogorc calkeuli saswavlo kursi da silabusebis mixedviT wakiTxuli iqneba universitetebSi moqmedi saswavlo meTodebisa da SromiTi kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad. gansaxorcielebeli proeqtis mTavari mizani-pirvel etapze TanamSromlobisaTvis da leqciebis wasakiTxad cxinvalis da soxumis universitetebis, aseve ganaTlebisa da kulturis sferos sxva warmomadgenelTa mowvevaa, Semdgom ki saswavlo procesSi aqtiurad CarTva osi da afxazi studentebisa; mowvevis safuZvelze, Tu studenturi gacvlis principiT. saswavleblad mowveuli unda iyos cxinvalisa da soxumis universitetebis studentebi da magistrantebi. amisaTvis saWiroa Catardes sainformacio samuSaoebi afxaz da os mosaxleobasTan da iqaur universitetebSi, ganTavsdes informacia vebgverdebsa Tu sxva sainformacio saSualebebSi, raTa axali saswavlo programebisa da mimarTulebis arCevanis saSualeba ara mxolod Cvens studentebsa da magistrantebs, aramed, upirvelesad, swored samaCabloel da afxaz studentebs hqondeT. sxvadasxva saleqcio kursebis wasakiTxad SesaZlebelia mowveuli iynven konfliqtologiis, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebisa da samarTlis, sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis, istoriul da filologiur mecnierebaTa spe-

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cialistebi. garkveuli periodulebiT, (savaraudod weliwadSi erTxel), SeiZleba Catardes samecniero-pedagogiuri konferenciebi da studentTa konferenciebi, gamoices saukeTesod aRiarebuli samecniero da hublicisturi xasiaTis masalebi, saJurnalo, sainterneto Tu sabiuleteno versiebis saxiT, aseve calke gamoices is axali da aqtualuri saleqcio kursebi, romelic wakiTxuli iqneba saswavlo procesis dros. kulturul-humanitarul urTierTobaTa mimarTulebis saswavlo programaTa bazaze SesaZlebelia Seiqmnas pedagogTa sakvalifikacio (gadamzadebis) kursebi, sadac mowveuli iqnebian umaRlesi Tu saskolo saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis TanamSromlebi, Seiqmneba erToblivi saswavlo jgufebi os da afxaz maswavleblebTan erTad, sadac ganxorcieldeba ara mxolod saleqcio muSaoba, aramed gamocdilebaTa urTierTgaziareba, urTierTTanamSromlobisa da kolegiuri muSaobis dagegmva, rac konfliqturi viTarebidan gamosvlis pirdapiri gzaa. aRniSnuli sakvalifikacio kursebis msmenelTa Soris garkveuli prioriteti swored konfliqturi regionebidan Camosul pedagogebTan muSaoba da maTTan urTierTobebis gzebis Zieba iqneba. kulturul-humanitaruli urTierTobebis da konfliqtebis daregulirebis saswavlo programebSi regularulad aisaxeba yvela mniSvnelovani siaxle politikuri, sazogadoebrivi Tu kulturuli mimarTulebiT. mowveuli iqnebian saerTaSoriso eqspertebi, Sesabamisi dargebis sazRvargareTeli mecnierebi, diplomatiur misiaTa warmomadgenlebi axali informaciisa da gamocdilebis gasaziareblad. warmodgenili xedva aris mxolod safuZvlebriv principTa mimoxilva, ris niadagzec SesaZlebelia am mimarTulebiT muSaobas bevrad ufro mravalmxrivi da farTo saxe mieces, miTumetes, rom arsebobs am samuSaos gavrcobis konkretuli da realuri perspeqtivebi. vimedovnebT, aRwerili proeqtis ganxorcieleba garkveul rols Seasrulebs dRevandeli saxelmwifoebrivi politikis ganxorcielebisa da qveynis politikuri stabilurobis Camoyalibebis saqmeSi.

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istoria, politikuri mecnierebani = History, Political Sciences

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

TAMAR PAICHADZE, NINO MINDIASHVILI

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

ACADEMIC COLLABORATION AGAINST CONFLICTS: REALITY AND PERSPECTIVES

The most painful item of Georgian newest history mainly is the regulation of political situation in the regions of conflict - Abkhazia and Samachablo. Every representative of international friendship or organizations pay particular interest towards the policy in the regions of conflict. The majority of carried out projects showed the strategic support to the rehabilitation of the former-conflicts in these two regions. The fields of support and help contains mainly every important brunch: economy, energetic, health care, environmental protection, help of the refugees etc. It is known for the population, that in the modern policy the most important way of solving problems and conflict regulation is diplomacy, economic support, and the new initiative based upon the international collaboration, which will help to destroy the precipice, which was made artificially due to the recent years incorrect policy that lasted for a long time. And the most significant part of above mentioned international collaboration and national diplomacy is the carrying out the cultural-cognitive project, that will be the result of the joint work in acquainting and sharing the religious, intellectual or material values. As the cultural dialogue was always made for the international collaboration, favor and identical opinions of the members of society. According the to above-mentioned items the most significant is Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, that was always regarded not only as cultural-cognitive center but as the intellectual political basis and the place where the new initiatives in the fields of education were always carried out. According to this it is also natural that in conflict regulation issues the initiation about cultural-cognitive relationship comes from Tbilisi State University and it turns out to be the basis in the regulation of conflicts between Georgia, Ossetia and Abkhazia. Taking into consideration these conditions there can be found the source of making the joint cognitive project, the aim of which is establishing the so-called cultural-humanitarian relationship center, on the base of Tbilisi State university, and aim of which will be to provide the relation of the university's students and professors with the colleges in the conflict regions. (Abkhazia, Samachablo). In the direction of the cultural-humanitarian relations some studying plans are worked out but only in the form of the project, that consists of the programs of master's degree, bachelor degree's and the program of general qualification, and after making these steps it is planned to work out the programs to receive doctor's degree. Those students and master class students who will chose the subjects in the field of cultural-humanitarian specialization (compulsory or selective) will receive the knowledge in

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the fields of conflict regulation, cultural-literary relations, social-humanitarian norms, joint work on making projects and achieving collaboration. It is also possible to make another plan of the secondary program (so-called "miner-program") for the specialists of the culturalhumanitarian relations. According to the different levels of studying in universities the separate programs must be made paying attention upon the subjects which will be taught during the studies. These subjects will be made as the separate studying term and according to syllabus will be delivered in Tbilisi State University as required by the studying methods and labour legislation. In the beginning the above mentioned relation will get areal form in the region of Samachablo, in Tskhinvali university, as workers of Tskhinvali University and of the other fields of education approved this steps and showed the wish of collaboration, and this desire of partnership must be regarded not as the wish of joint scientific work but at first as the attempt to resume human relations. The aim of this project at the beginning is- the invitation of the scientists and other representatives of the field of culture and education from so-called conflict regions, in order to deliver lectures. Then active participation in studying process of students from Samachablo; in the terms of invitation or as the exchange programs. The students and master class students from Samachablo must be invited. For this reason it's compulsory to make aware about this news the population of Samachablo and Tskhinvali University, the news must be written in web-sites, and in other mass-informational centres, in order to give the opportunity of making own decision not only for the students of State university but mainly for the students of Samachablo. In order to deliver lectures it can be possible to invite the lectures as from the state's also from other international studying centres, and mainly from Tskhinvali and Sokhumi Universities, whose field of specialization will be regulation of conflicts, international relation and justice, social relations, and history and philology, and contract will be made especially for the invited lecturers who deliver the lectures (and will receive the salary according to number of delivered lectures). The public lectures will be delivered in regions of Georgia and especially in the villages of Samachablo. The representatives of this project will take active part in the scientific forums of international and inner importance, concerning the issues about the conflict regulation, international relations, justice and law, social relations, history and philology. From time to time (approximately once in a year) students, and scientific-pedagogical conferences will be held and the best scientific works will be published. Also some publication will be printed in magazines or internet, and quite separately the new and actual information delivered during the studying year will be published as well. In the studying program of conflict regulation and cultural-humanitarian relations, the innovations in political, social or cultural point of view will be showed. The international experts, the foreign scientist of the corresponding fields, the representatives of diplomatic corps will be invited to share the new information and experiences. Fulfilment of the above described project will be helpful in carrying out the existing state policy and establishing political stability and entity.

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filologia = Philology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

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, , (., ., ., ., . .). , . 50-60- . . 1987-1990 . ` » , [. , . , . , . ], « » [. , . , . , . ], 1990 , , . « » [« », 27], «» . , XX : , non-fiction ( ). 1991 . , , . . , «» «». , Internet, . , , . , , . - , , , [« » . « » . . , « » ]. «-» - «» - ( , ). . « , , , « » » (1, . 3). , ; . . : 1. 60- - 70- . - . 2. 70- - 80- . - ,

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« () » . 3. 80- - 90- . - . «» . (1938-1990) - , , (1956-1957), . , , . (, , -, . .). , - , . 1962 «» (« ») . « », . « - » 1970 ., , . " ­ " , , , , (" , , - <...> , ?"). , , : "" (, . " ": ", ! , , !...- "" " " , , "). , . " - ", . " ", " ": "... : ; " (2). , , , , - " ." - . «» . . , . , . , . .. ,, "(1991),

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,,", - ( , - ), . , , . , , , ( ). , - , , - . , : : ,,- , , , ? - - . , ( ). . . . , ?" - . . -, , , , . , , . . , : , , , . . 1960-1980- , , , «» - , . , : computer user, , , , , , . , , , - ( , ) - . , , «Generation » , , , . , , , . « »: - «Generation », , , , « ,

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« , , « ». «» « » , , , . , , «», . , - « - , , , - », , . , 1 . , , ., - , . , . , , . 1 - , . : . . 1995: . . ( ). - ., 1995. 1992: . , // . 1992, 8. ..1990: .. . ., 1990.

LILIANA JANASHIA

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

POSTMODERNISM IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

Postmodernism has become dominant in some literatures throughout the world. Its place has been much more modest in others and there are literatures, where it did not appear at all. Postmodernism has proved to become common mostly in dynamically developing literatures with rich and diverse experience of modernism. Although postmodernist literature emerged in the United States and reached Europe's postindustrial societies from there, it is noteworthy that it emerged in advance in the literatures of some countries, where the postmodernist era had not started yet. These are, for example, the Russian, Polish, and Macedonian literatures, which showed trends of cultural openness and cosmopolitism and early stages of new thinking. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish between Western (American and West European) and Eastern (East European and Russian) modifications of

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postmodernism. It is known that postmodernist aesthetics is based on the poststructuralist thesis "world (consciousness) as a text". Its characteristic feature is to unite in one work styles, figurative motives, and methods borrowed from various epochs, regions, and subcultures. Authors use the allegoric language of the classics and baroque, and symbols of ancient cultures. Postmodernist works are a playing space with the free movement of meanings. However, inserting the experience of the world artistic culture in their orbit, postmodernists did it through jokes, grotesque, and parody, extensively using methods of artistic quoting, collage, and repetition. Taking the path of free borrowings from various artistic systems, postmodernism seems to equalise them, creating a united world cultural space. Postmodernism emerged in the Russian literature later than in the West, which can be explained by the fact that all kinds of artistic creation, which violated laws of Socialist realism, were actively suppressed in the Soviet society. Another explanation is the attempt of cultural isolation, which hindered the adoption of foreign literary experience. Unlike the West, postmodernism in the Russian literature was created by representatives of unofficial art, who were not only deprived of the opportunity to publish works at home, but were also persecuted by the authorities. However, postmodernists occupied a particular place even in the unofficial culture, as they rejected authors, who regarded literature as an instrument, not an aim in itself, placed aesthetics under politics, and did not pursue the aim of renovating art, including literature, aesthetically. Modernism, which was restored in the underground in the post-Stalin years (I. Brodsky, V. Sosnor, G. Aygi, L. Gubanov, Y. Kharitonov, and others), essentially prepared grounds for Russian postmodernists' negative attitude towards official literature. It was from modernists of the new generation that postmodernists borrowed the idea of art being valuable by itself and inherited heightened interest in their attitude towards the language. The experience of neo-avant-gardism of the 1950s and 1960s proved to be particularly important for them. Poet A. Voznesenski dubbed the period from 1987 to 1990 as the "printed renaissance" in the Russian literature, which started from the publication of authors, who were prohibited or semi-prohibited previously (O. Mandelstam, B. Pasternak, A. Akhmatova, and M. Bulgakov), and continued with the publication of works from "the Russian literature abroad" (A. Solzhenitsyn, S. Dovlatov, V. Voinovich, I. Brodsky, and others). The period ended, when V. Yerofeyev's article named "Commemoration of the Soviet literature" appeared in Literaturnaya Gazeta (No 27) in 1990, which was called Solzhenitsyn's year. The author declared an end to "Solzhenisation" and the start of a new era in the Russian literature. Since that moment, it started developing in a completely different direction. Three main trends can be identified in the new Russian prose at the end of the 20th century: postmodernism, postrealism, and non-fiction prose (literature of existence). Postmodernism acquired its final shape and occupied its place in the Russian literature by 1991. It is characterised by the eschatological frame of mind, total irony, and playing principles. Literary theorist V. Kuritsyn describes "interactivity" and "virtuality" as

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characteristic features of the Russian postmodernism. With the emergence of the Internet and the increased role of computers in human life, it became possible to replace the real world with computer illusions. In this manner, human beings get more or less in touch with virtual reality, whose existence sometimes calls into question the existence of true reality. All works written in the postmodernist aesthetics are based precisely on this question. Remakes, palimpsests, and the aesthetics of someone else's words are among other features of this trend. Many postmodernist works have been created in this manner ("Life of Insects" by V. Pelevin on the one hand and "Dragonfly and Ant" by I. Krylov and "Pictures from the Insects' Life" by Karel and Josef Capek on the other). "Rus-art" and the "re-reading" of well-known texts from the classic Russian literature aimed at destroying their stereotype perception became two of the brightest postmodernist methods (V. Sorokin and Y. Popov). The following three periods are identified in the development of postmodernism in the 20th-century Russian literature: 1. From the late 1960s to the 1970 - period of formation; 2. From the late 1970s to the 1980s - formation as a literary trend with aesthetics based on the poststructuralist thesis "world (consciousness) as a text" and the artistic practice based on deconstructing cultural intertext; 3. From the late 1980s to the 1990s - period of legalisation. Postmodernist literature of the period from the late 1960s to the 1980s is in many respects a compensation for the forcibly interrupted path of Russian modernism, but Makanin, Sharov, and Pelevin are no longer linked to modernist arrangements for self-expression and their "ego" of authors acquires features that are not linked to personalities and, correspondingly, have no style. The metaphor often elaborated by Pelevin seems to be most precise in this case. The author is like a computer user, who operates characters in a computer game. However, both the player and virtual characters obey the same albeit plastic rules and the player is not so much in command of the characters but rather identifies himself with them almost completely. The rules, which can be seen in every text by Pelevin, Makanin, and Sharov, make it increasingly obvious that any imagination (even most hermetic, fantastical, and individual) is ritual and mythological in nature and is thus dialogically linked to conceptualism. The rapprochement of conceptualism and neo-baroque, which can be seen in the Russian postmodernist literature of the last decade of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, is linked to the development of the latest crisis, which is a crisis of not only within each of the trends or individual artistic features of Pelevin, Sorokin, Makanin, and others, but that in the entire historical and cultural environment, in which Russian postmodernism developed. Everything happened not like in the dreams ten years ago. The strategies of spiritual liberation turned into mean-spirited methods for deceiving people, culture decreased in value, which was transformed into a fashionable necessity. Postmodernism in the Russian literature of the early 21st century shows the defeat of the entire post-Communist and democratic process in Russia.

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filologia = Philology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Tamila zviadaZe

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

zogierTi andazis gaazrebisaTvis

andaza aris aRmzrdelobiTi xasiaTis alegoriuli gamonaTqvami, romelic erT winadadebaSia moqceuli da romelSic damrigeblobiTi Sinaarsi miniSnebiT gveZleva [erTeliSvili 1957: 102]. igi zepirsityvierebis Janrebs Soris im saintereso TviTmyofad movlenad ganixileba, romelic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi myari verbaluri formiT fiqsirdeba yvela enaSi da Tavisi funqciiT mudam pasuxobs da asaxavs arsebuli sazogadoebis cnobierebas. andaza eris kulturis standartia, mravalmxriv aprobirebul xalxur sibrZneze dafuZnebuli. andazebi, maTi erTi SexedviT martivi da daxvewili formis miuxedavad, sakmaod rTuli specifikis paremiebs warmoadgenen. mecnierebi maT erTdroulad sami mecnierebis ­ enis, logikuri filosofiisa da folkloris Seswavlis sagnad miiCneven. albaT, aman ganapiroba, rom praqtikulad arcerTi verbaluri forma ar gamxdara mecnierebis imdeni dargis kvlevis obieqti sxvadasxva TvalsazrisiT, ramdenisac - andaza. andazebis gavrcelebas xels uwyobs moxdenili mxatvruli forma, iumori, frazis moqniloba da simokle. SeuZlebelia azris imaze ufro mokled gamoTqma, vidre andazebSia: `andaza umTavresad erTi winadadebis CarCoSia moqceuli, erT sintaqsur mTlianobas warmoadgens. saukuneTa manZilze enaSi SemuSavebulia garkveuli yalibi andazis sisxartisa da moqnilobis misaRwevad. andazebSi warmodgenili mxatvruli gamosaxvis saSualebani xalxis poeturi ostatobisa da mxatvruli gemovnebis maCvenebelia~ [WumburiZe 1987: 209]. andaza uZvirfasesi masalaa adamianuri metyvelebis kanonebisa da xasiaTis, leqsikuri mniSvnelobisa da gramatikuli formebis cvlilebebis Sesaswavlad. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania maTi stili, romelic imaze migviTiTebs, rom andazebi iqmneboda xalxis sxvadasxva fenebSi da moxmarebis, gamoyenebis sferoebic gansxvavdeboda. andaza enis, azrovnebisa da xelovnebis movlenaa anu erTdroulad arsebobs azrsa da enaSi, Semdeg xorcs isxams literaturaSi. uZiriTadesi mainc enaa, radganac enaSi vlindeba da gamoixateba am enaze molaparakeTa mTeli istoria. enas aqvs unari, asaxos ara mxolod garkveuli movlena, aramed damokidebulebac am movlenis mimarT, maT Sorisaa is zneobriv-eTikuri Rirebulebebi, rac gamoxatulia andazebiT. konkretuli cnebis gamomxatvel gamonaTqvamebs, romlebic ganzogadebuli mniSvnelobis matarebel formebad gvevlineba, xSirad ekargeba pirvandeli semantika da droTa ganmavlobaSi iRebs

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gadataniT mniSvnelobas. rogorc cnobilia, saukuneebis manZilze ena aqtiurad iTvisebs yofa-cxovrebiTi siaxleebis amsaxvel leqsikas. adamianTa sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis mobiluroba da sxvadasxva eqstralingvisturi faqtorebis zemoqmedebiT gamowveuli semantikuri cvalebadoba saSualebas gvaZlevs, davakvirdeT andazebSi Semaval sityvaTa sicocxlisunarianobas. andazebSi xSirad icvleba sayrdeni sityva an sxva romelime komponenti. SeiZleba cvlileba ar moxdes, magram leqsikuri erTeulis arqaulobisa Tu dialeqturi warmoSobis gamo gabundovandes azri. aseTi andazebi qarTulSi sakmaod gvaqvs. mag. andazaSi: `av mezobels cecxlic saciqveli egonao~, saciqveli arqauli sityvaa, romlis Ziria ciqv. saciqueli, saciquehli, samociqulo: mosaxmarebeli, saTxovneli, saxmarTa, saTxovari [orbeliani 1993: 68]. ciqua ­ oxa, gina mociquloba. mociquli... `ars kacman vinme amxanagsa anu uaRressa miagzavnos saqmesa risme zeda~. s. menTeSaSvilis mixedviT, saciqveli aris `mezoblis mier mezoblisaTvis miTxovebuli raime ajaTi ­ culi, bari, weraqvi, agreTve qvabi da misT.~ [menTeSaSvili, 1943]; dasturdeba svanurSi: saciq ­ yvelaferi, yvela saxis wvrilmani, rac ki SeiZleba sTxovo mezobels. (mag. mawvnis Ziri, mWadis fqvili, kvercxi...) sacqvi lihudi ­ saciqvelis mimcemi. Zunwi qalebis mier unda iyos dadgenili sacuqvis nauhuedi ­ (saciqvelis miucemloba) orSabaTs, xuTSabaTs, SabaTs; miT umetes, Tuki ojaxs hyavs ska. (am dReebSi Tu gasca saciqu, wvela dauSreba, ska daexoceba). aRniSnul sityvas imerulSi daviwroebuli aqvs mniSvneloba da aRniSnavs mealiloeTaTvis micemul saCuqarsac (kvercxi, xili, nazuqi...) ­ [gaCeCilaZe 1976: 123]. zemoTxsenebuli andazis azria: av mezobels cecxlic saTxovrad, saCuqrad undodao. arqauli sityvebi dasturdeba agreTve andazaSi: `beberi bebli ki ara, monaxuliao~ [leJava 1959:]. bebli ganmartebuli aqvs sulxan-sabas: bebli _ grZnebis moqmedi, kudiani, artavazi[orbeliani 1991: 91]; artavazi ­ beblT ufrosi [orbeliani 1991: 66]; qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonic sulxan-sabas imowmebs: bebli ­ Zv. grZneuli, jadoqari [qegl 1950: 1010]; monaxuli ­ gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT: gamocdili, Wkviani (CubinaSvili 1887: 826). andazis azria: beberi (moxuci) kudiani ki ar aris, aramed gamocdilia, Wkviani, bevris mnaxveli. `Tu Wirisufali ar tiris, motirali visi abuCi movaglaxeao~

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sulxan-sabas leqsikonis mixedviT, sityva `abuC~ niSnavs uxams, daupatiJebel stumars [orbeliani 1991: 38]. dRes gvxvdeba gamoTqmaSi: abuCad agdeba ­ arad miCneva, damcireba [qegl 1950: 84]. abuCi pirvandeli mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebuli aqvs daviT guramiSvils: `ar vgvandiT abuC stumarTa~ [guramiSvili 1931: 122]; am andazaSi abuCi niSnavs imas, vinc ar mouwveviaT, ar daupatiJebiaT. movaglaxea is, vinc vaglaxebs, vaglaxi ­ vais Zaxili, vaeba, godeba; vaglaxebs ­ moTqvams, tiriliT Civis, godebs, vaebs [qegl: 1955. 1]. andazis azria: Tu Wirisufali ar tiris, daupatiJebeli motirlis godeba uadgiloa. `diba rom daixeva, fexzec ar daixveva~ diba qarTuli sityva ar aris, debagi hqviano, miTiTebulia sulxan-sabasTan [orbeliani 1991: 220]; debagi ­ naqsovi [orbeliani 1991: 214]; sityva dasturdeba sxva andazaSi: diba- stavra Cioda: vaiTu ujilagom gamomWras, uileTom Semkeros da ujiSom gamcviToso~. Zvel qarTulSi diba-stavra ixmareboda zogadad Zvirfasi qsovilis aRsaniSnavad [qegl: 1953 1165]. andazebSi SemorCenili xmarebidan gasuli sityvebis arsebobas xels uwyobs andazis ganzogadebuli da narTauli, qaragmuli buneba. sityva `diba~ dResac gamoiyeneba imerulSi: `simdidrec me var da oqromkerdiT naqsovi diba ­ atlasicao~ [ioseliani 1989: 233]. `ciba gareT ar gavida, kurdReli Sin ar Sevida~ sityva ciba // cibac arqaulia. sulxan-saba uwodebs `asakmcire~ ZaRls [orbeliani 1993: 336]. cibaki ­ finia [orbeliani 1993: 351]; dialeqtebis mixedviT, ciba yvela jiSis ZaRlis saerTo saxelia [Rlonti 1974: 673]. Sdr. megr: ciba, ciba (ci / bas) zool: kata; Sdr.: cibunia ­ kninobiT moferebiT ­ katuna. cib! cib! ­ Sorisd. SeZaxili katis mosaxmobad [qajaia 2001]. andazaSi vlindeba mizezSedegobrivi kavSiri: Tu ZaRli zarmacia, sanadirod ar gamodgeba. gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT: saqme garjis, Sromis, moZiebis gareSe ar keTdeba. garda arqauli sityvebisa, andazebSi gamoyenebulia dialeqturi leqsikuri erTeulebic. kuTxuri sityvebis dadastureba gamoTqmebSi saSualebaa andazis warmoSobis adgilis misakvlevad. `gideli iwvoda da RaRvi icinodao~ gideli skivria dawnuli [orbeliani 1991: 159). sityva gamoiyeneba dialeqtebSi (gur., imer., lex., aWar.), aRniSnavs yurZnis sakref godors, romelic TavfarTo da boloviwroa, maRlari yurZnis sakrefad gamoiyeneba [Rlonti 1974: 153]. RaRvi // RaRvili (gur.) ­ godlis dasakidi kauWi, kavi, godlis kavsaviT mokauWebuli sakideli [Rlonti 1974: 584].

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gasaTvaliswinebelia ama Tu im kuTxis yofa-cxovrebis specifikac, magaliTad amave Sinaarsisaa andaza: `Zna iwveboda, ulo icinodao~, romelic aRmosavleT saqarTveloSia gavrcelebuli da warmoadgens warmoSobis adgilisaTvis damaxasiaTebel realiebs. sityva `ulo~ niSnavs Znis Sesakravs [orbeliani 1993: 160]. dialeqtebSi (qarT., mox., kax.) dResac ixmareba. es aris Znis Sesakravi dagrexili, sveli an dambali puris Reroebi [Rlonti 1974: 523]. mocemul andazebSi eqsplicitur doneze miRebuli informaciiT mosaubreTa cnobierebaSi aqtualizdeba codna bunebaSi arsebuli kanonzomierebisa, ris fonzec xdeba azris ageba: arc gideli, romelic RaRvze hkidia da arc Zna, romlis Sesakravic iwvis, ar unda mxiarulobdes. andaza ironiuli xasiaTisaa. aRniSnuli azris ganzogadeba ganapirobebs implicituri Sinaarsis dekodirebas, anu gveZleva gadataniTi mniSvneloba: razec (an viszec) xar damokidebuli, imis ubedureba, Wiri ar unda gaxarebdes, radgan es Sens ubedurebasac moaswavebs. `jiSsa da jilags kaci jinjiliT uWiravs~ jinjili dialeqturi leqsikuri erTeulia. ganmartebulia qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis konaSi, aRniSnavs jaWvs. es aris ZaRlis rkinis kbilebiani sayeluri, romelic nadirTan brZolaSi ZaRls Svelis: nadiri yelSi ver avlebs pirs, amasTanave jinjilis wveTebi nadirs Cxvlets TavpirSi (780); sityvis mniSvneloba gadaazrebulia. jinjili aRniSnavs yelze gamokidebul liTonis samkaulebs, Cin-medlebs (imer.) Sdr: dajinjilebuli ­ samkaulebiT uxvad asxmuli. mocemuli andazis gaanalizebis safuZvelze vlindeba misi arsebiTi datvirTva: kacis qcevas gansazRvravs warmoSoba, genetika. kargi jiSis, warmomavlobis adamiani misTvis Seuferebel saqciels ver Caidens anu andazis konkretuli Sinaarsobrivi formiT warmodgenili azri ganzogadebuli sibrZne xdeba. `erTi buki futkari erT uRel xarad Rirso~ sityva `buki~ sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba. aRniSnavs: 1) did kunZs, romelsac zamTarSi Suacecxls daudeben cali mxriT da iwvis nel-nela; 2) ska (Rlonti, 1974: 91). Sdr: buki ­ 1) didi mrgvali kunZi, mori; 2) kuTxuri (gur. imer.) igivea, rac ska (gamoTlili morisa, geja): `baRSi mouwyviaT safutkre da dgas asamde buki~ [qegl 1950: 1164]. buki skas aRniSnavs megrulSic: `buki qigedig-da, ska muSit miTilencia~: ska Tu gidgas, futkari TavisiT Sevao [qajaia 2001: 263]. dialeqturi sityvebi gvxvdeba sxva andazebSic. mag. `arnadi da fiwalio, Sen verafers iswavlio~. arnadi aRniSnavs xis niCabs, romelsac iyeneben kaloze xorblis gasaniaveblad an Tovlis gadasayrelad [Rlonti 1974: 40]; fiwali ­ (gur., z. aWar.) orTiTi, Tivis asaRebi [Rlonti 1974: 545]. `ueklo kvrinCxs sul fexiT gasTelaveno~

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kvrinCxi zogierT dialeqtSi (leCx.) nayofian xes aRniSnavs: kvrinCxi ­ Rortyemala [mayaSvili 1961: 39]. am mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba `daviTianSi~: `aTi dRis mSiers momerTva sadili sakvexuria, mouwevari kvrinCxi da mkvaxe kowaxuria~ [guramiSvili 1979: 287]. ganmartebulia sulxan sabasTan: kvnCxi ­ erTgvari xe (ekliani) ­ [orbeliani 1991: 401]. dasturdeba andazis sxva variantebic: `kvrinCxs rom ekali ar esxas, masac fexs daadgameno~. `kvrinCxs Tavisi ekali icavso~. andazis SinaarsSi aRebulia misi implicituri Sinaarsi: mSvidi, uwyinari adamiani daucvelia. zepirsityvierebis nimuSTa Seswavla enaTmecnierTaTvis gansakuTrebuli Rirebulebisaa. andaza mkafio individualobis mqone xatovani gamonaTqvamia, romelsac sinamdvilis asaxvis individualuri forma aqvs. masSi koncentrirebulia adamianis mier sinamdvilis Semecnebis, azrovnebis, movlenaTa arsSi wvdomis procesi da daskvnebi, amitomac andazaTa gaazreba-gaanalizeba metad saintereso da mniSvnelovani procesia. literatura: afridoniZe 2004: S. afridoniZe. andazebis enis ramdenime Tavisebureba. XXIV resp. dialeqt. samecn. sesia. 2004. gaCeCilaZe 1976: p. gaCeCilaZe. imeruli dialeqtis saleqsikono masala. Tbilisi. 1976. guramiSvili 1931: d. guramiSvili. `daviTiani~. Tbilisi. 1931. erTeliSvili 1957: f. erTeliSvili. andazis cnebis sakiTxisaTvis: `mnaTobi~. 3 Tbilisi. 1957. ioseliani 1989: o. ioseliani. Txzulebani 2 tomad t. I. Tb. 1989. ioseliani 1991: o. ioseliani. Txzulebani 2 tomad t. II 1991. leJava 1959: l. leJava, qarTuli andazebis ena: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi. I. Tbilisi. 1959. mayaSvili 1961: a. mayaSvili. botanikuri leqsikoni. Tbilisi. 1961. menTeSaSvili 1943: st. menTeSaSvili. qiziyuri leqsikoni. Tbilisi. 1943. orbeliani 1991: sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, t. I ­ 1991. orbeliani 1993: sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, t. II ­ 1993. qarTuli andazebi. Tbilisi. 1965. qegli 1950: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. I. Tbilisi. 1950. qegli 1953: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. III. Tbilisi. 1953. qegli 1955: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. IV. Tbilisi. 1955. Rlonti 1974: qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis kona, Tbilisi 1974. CubinaSvili 1887: d. CubinaSvili. qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni. Tbilisi. 1887. WumburiZe 1987: z. WumburiZe. dedaena qarTuli. Tbilisi. 1987. qajaia 2001: o. qajaia. qarTul-megruli leqsikoni. I. Tbilisi. 2001.

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filologia = Philology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

TAMILA ZVIADADZE

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

DEFINITION OF SOME PROVERBS

The proverb is considered one of the interesting original phenomena among the folklore genres, which is fixed in every language in hard verbal form during the centuries, and always answers and reflects the consciousness of the existing society. The proverb is a standard of the nation's culture based on multilaterally approved folk wisdom. The proverb is the phenomenon of the language, thought and art; to be precise it exists simultaneously in thought and language and then is comprehended in literature. The main is still the language, as the whole history of talkers is revealed and expressed in this language. The language has the ability to reflect not only the certain phenomenon but also the attitude towards this phenomenon; among which are those moral-ethical values that are expressed through proverbs. The expressions, reflecting the concrete notion which has the generalized meaning forms, often lose the initial semantics and acquire the figurative meaning from time to time. Some components may be changed or the thought may become obscure because of the archaism of lexical item. We have such proverbs in Georgian in quite a large quantity. Proverbs preserve the out-of-use words, the existence of which is supported by the generalized and allegorical nature of the proverb. In the expression "Av mezobels tsetskhlic satsikveli egonao" (The wicked neighbor considered the fire also satsikveli). Satsikveli is an archaic word and its root is tsikv, satsik eli, satsik ehli, samotsikulo: request. According to Menteshashvili, satsikveli is an axe, a spade, a pick, a pan and similar items that a neighbor usually lends to another neighbor. It is proved in Svani Language: Satsik ­ all kinds of small things which you can borrow from the neighbor (For Example, flour of maized-bread, an egg .....) Archaic words are also tested in the following proverb: "Beberi bebli ki ra, monaxuliao". According to the dictionaries Bebli means a magicion; monakhuli ­ experienced. An archaic word is "Tsiba" in the proverb: :TSiiba garet ar gava, kurdgeli shin ar shevida" (the dog didn't go out, the rabbit didn't enter home). Sulkhan-Saba calls Tsiba "a young dog". Besides the archaic words, dialectic lexical units are also used in proverbs. Confirmation of provincial words in the expressions is the means for finding origin of the proverb. "Gideli itsvoda da gagvi icinodao? Gideli means the basket for picking the grapes; gagvi is the hook of the basket. The same meaning has the proverb: "dzna itscevoda, ulo itsinodao" (the sheaf was burning, ulo was laughing). It is spread in the Eastern Georgia. The word ulo means the

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tie of the sheaf. It is used in the dialect even today. It is the tie of the sheaf ­ the stalks of wet, moistened bread. In the given proverbs the knowledge about the regulatory is actualized in the speakers' mentality, and on its basis the thinking is being developed. The figurative meaning is given: You mustn't be happy about the misfortune of the people (or things), on whom you are dependent, because it will mean your own misfortune. In the expression: "jishsa da jilags kaci jinjilit uchiravs" "jinjili" is the dialectical lexical item and means the chain of the dog which helps the dog in the fight with the beast. On the basis of the analysis of the given word, its real meaning is revealed: origins and genetics define the human's behavior. The human with good ancestors can't behave in an inappropriate manner. The thought given in the concrete contextual form of the proverb becomes a generalized wisdom. Thus, studying the example of the folklore has an important value for linguists. The proverb is a figurative expression which has a distinct individual form of reflection of the reality. There is concentrated cognition of the reality, the process of apprehending the essence of the phenomena, thinking and conclusions by the human. That's why, thinking and analyzing the proverbs is rather interesting and important process.

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sociologia = Sociology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

nestan lomaia

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

globalizaciis genderuli aspeqtebi

XXI saukunis dasawyisSi sityva ,,globalizacia"erT-erTi yvelaze farTod gavrcelebuli cnebaa. dRevandel samyaros uwodeben globalur samyaros, globalizaciis epoqas. termini ,,globalizacia" pirvelad gamoiyena amerikelma mecnierma t. levitma 1983 wels. am terminiT aRiniSna calkeul produqtTa bazrebis Serwymis fenomeni. xolo globalizacia farTo mniSvnelobiT, gulisxmobs erTiani msoflio sazogadoebis Camoyalibebas da erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi sazRvrebisa da SezRudvebis gauqmebas. globalizacia aseTi gagebiT 1990 wlidan gamoiyeneba, roca gamoqveynda harvardis biznes skolis iaponeli konsultantis k. omes wigni ,,msoflio sazRvrebis gareSe" da krebuli ,,globalizacia: Semecneba da sazogadoeba", romlis SesavalSi m. elbroum am terminSi gaaerTiana yvela is procesi, romelTa wyalobiT msoflios xalxebi erTian msoflio sazogadoebaSi erTvebian. amgvarad, Tu dasawyisSi globalizacia wminda ekonomikuri Sinaarsis termini iyo Zalian male farTo (globaluri) mniSvneloba SeiZina da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sfero (politika, socialuri mxare, kultura, mentaliteti) moicva [daviTaSvili 2005: 6]. msoflio erTiani kulturis, ekonomikis enisa da TviT erTiani msoflio saxelmwifos idea axali ar aris. yovel istoriul periodSi SeiZleba moiZebnos raime ideologia an moZraoba, romelic am miznebs emsaxureboda (mag. msoflio religiebi), magram maT globalizaciad ar miiCnevdnen. globalizacia dRevandeli fenomenia da amiT aris ganpirobebuli misi swrafi gavrceleba. globalizacia Zalze farTo da mravalmxrivi cnebaa, romelic safuZvlianad cvlis Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis Sinaars. globalizacia, rogorc sayovelTao da uaRresad mravalmxrivi movlena yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi Tavs mravali formiT iCens: komunikaciebis TvalsazrisiT globalizacia warmoCnideba kompiuteruli qselis, telefonebis, eleqtrofostis, fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis da sxva msgavsi saSualebebis uprecendento gavrcelebiT da raodenobrivi zrdiT. yovelive es saSualebas aZlevs individebs uSualod momentalurad daukavSirdnen erTmaneTs miuxedavad maTi adgilmdebareobisa da saxelmwifo sazRvrebisa. drom da manZilma Tavisi adrindeli mniSvneloba faqtobrivad dakarga. organizaciebis TvalsazrisiT globalizacia gamomJRavnda kompaniebis, asociaciebis Tu saagentoebis swrafi zrdiT, romlebic funqcionireben, rogorc transnacionaluri subieqtebi. ekologiurad globalizacia Tavs iCens globaluri ekologiuri prob-

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lemebis saxiT, rogoricaa planetis klimatis cvlileba (,,globaluri daTboba"), ozonis xvrelebi, atmosferos gabinZureba, dedamiwis biologiuri mravalferovnebis daqveiTeba, gaudabnoeba da a.S. arc erTi es problema ar SeiZleba SeizRudos calkeuli qveynebis sazRvrebiT da calke aRebul arc erT qveyanas ar SeuZlia maTi gadaWra. ekologiuri problemebi msoflios rogorc erTiani mTlianisa da ganuyofelis globaluri problemaa. produqtebis TvalsazrisiT globalizaciis gamovlinebaa e.w. ,,globaluri qarxnebi" (mag. orifleimi) romlebic farTod gavrceldnen ekonomikis sxvadasxva dargebSi da gansakuTrebiT mikroeleqtronikul mrewvelobaSi (mag. samsungi, boSi). aq mTeli rigi sawarmoebi ar Sedian erovnuli ekonomikis farglebSi, aramed sxvadasxva qveynebSi mdebareobis miuxedavad erT sawarmoo xazs qmnian. aseve finansur urTierTobebSi globalizaciis Sedegia sakredito baraTebis sayovelTao gavrceleba da zogierTi valutis (dolari, evro) faqtiurad yvelgan mimoqceva. samxedro sferoSi globalizaciis gamovlinebad miiCneva globaluri iaraRi- kontinentSorisi balistikuri raketebi da sadazvervo satelitebi. globalizaciasTan aris dakavSirebuli mTeli rigi normebi, romlebic marTaven Cvens cxovrebas, maT Soris aTasobiT teqnikuri standarti da adamianis uflebebi. es da sxva mudmivad mzardi normebi da wesebi pirvel rigSi sayovelTao, da naklebad emorCileba saxelmwifo-erovnul interesebs. cxovrebaSi globalizacia Tavs iCens Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. XXI saukunis dasawyisSi mcxovreb adamians gacnobierebuli aqvs msoflio, rogorc erTiani da mTliani gacilebiT ufro metad, vidre es mis wina Taobebs hqondaT, aqedan gamomdinare, igi sul ufro da ufro uaxlovdeba msoflio moqalaqis statuss. globalizaciis mraval maxasiaTebels Soris erT-erTi ZiriTadi da gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani misi deteritorizaciaa, anu saxelmwifo da erovnuli sazRvrebis moSla [daviTaSvili 2005: 27]. Tanamedrove socialuri cxovreba asocirdeba saxelmwifosTan. sazogadoebrivi qmedebebis faqtiurad yvela formis ganmsazRvrelad saxelmwifo gvesaxeba, rogorc yvelgan myofi da mudam arsebuli fenomeni, romelic aregulirebs cxovrebis pirobebs icavs wesrigs, uzrunvelyofs ekonomikur, socialur da kulturul ganviTarebas. amdenad saxelmwifo adamianis cxovrebaSi, raRac xelSeuxebeli da mfarveli fenomenis saxiT warmogvidgeba. globalizaciis sxvadasxva gamoxatulebas Soris kulturis globalizacia erT-erTi yvelaze ufro TvalsaCino, farTod gavrcelebuli da winaaRmdegobrivia. saukuneebis manZilze xalxebi TavianTi TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebas sakuTari erovnuli kulturis SenarCunebis fasad axerxebdnen. swored erovnuli kultura da erovnuli ena iyo is ganmasxvavebeli niSani, romelic ama Tu im xalxs sxvisgan gamoarCevda da erovnuli identifikaciis saSualebas iZleoda. kulturis globalizacia axali fenomenia da ramdenime aTwleuls moicavs. kulturebis urTierTSerwyma yovelTvis mimdinareobda da am pro-

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cesis gareSe nebismieri erovnuli kulturis ganviTareba SeuZlebelia. kulturuli globalizacia kulturaTa Serwymas ki ara, aramed erTiani zenacionaluri, globaluri kulturis Camoyalibebas gulisxmobs, globaluri kultura, drois gareSe kulturaa. ase gansazRvravs entoni smiti kulturis globalizacias da dasZens mas ara aqvs istoriuli foni, ganviTarebis ritmi, ara aqvs droisa da Tanmimdevrobis grZnoba [kodua 2001: 105]. Tanamedrove kulturaTa globalizacia, rogorc rTuli da mravalmxrivi procesi Tavs iCens sxvadasxva formiT. misi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia: uprecendento masStabis axali globaluri infrastruqturebi; kulturuli gacvla-gamocvlis gazrda da daCqareba; dasavluri masobrivi kulturis rolis zrda globalur kulturul urTierTobebSi. kulturuli produqciis warmoebaSi multinacionaluri kompaniebis rolis zrda; globaluri kulturuli urTierTmoqmedebebis geografiis cvlileba [naTaZe 2003: 22]. globalizacia gardauvali procesia, romelic ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobs da misi SeCereba yovlad SeuZlebelia. kulturuli globalizacia gulisxmobs kulturebis transformacias da isini globalizaciis pirobebSi seriozul cvlilebebs ganicdian. magram ra urTierTdamokidebuleba arsebobs gendersa da kulturas Soris globalizaciis periodSi? 80-iani wlebis genderologebma daiwyes genderuli sistemebis analizi, e.i. sxvadasxva socialuri kulturebis ganxilva genderul ganzomilebaSi. genderis qveS igulisxmeba urTierTobebis sistema, romelic aris ZiriTadi sazogadoebis stratifikaciis da sqesis ganmsazRvreli. imis magivrad, rom gaeanalizebinaT genderuli asimetriisa da diskriminaciis fesvebi genderologebma daiwyes meta-Teoriis Seqmna, romelic exeboda mecnierebis, xelisuflebisa da genderis urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxebs. 80-iani wlebis radikaluri mimarTulebis feministebi gamodiodnen ,,cru genderuli Teoriis" winaaRmdeg. mecnierTa nawili, ar iziarebda feministur Sexedulebebs. diskusiebma da kamaTma gamoiwvia azrTa polarizacia. feministebsa da liberalur feministebs Soris. azrTa sxvadasxvaoba ase Camoyalibda: feministuri Tanasworoba (qalisa da mamakacis msgavseba) da feministuri gansxvaveba, (qalisa da mamakacis subieqturoba da identuroba). am Sexedulebebma absoluturad urTierTsawinaaRmdego gaxada amerikuli mecniereba, evropuli mecnierebisagan. amerikeli genderologebi aRiarebdnen feministur Tanasworobas xolo evropelebi feministur gansxvavebas. bolo dros genderuli kvlevebi aqtualuri gaxda ara marto amerikaSi, evropasa da afrikisa da aziis qveynebSi, aramed moicva aRmosavleT evropa, ruseTi da yofili sabWoTa kavSiris respublikebi. es yuradReba ukavSirdeba qalis rolis zrdas sazogadoebaSi, romelic saerTaSoriso xasiaTs atarebs. regularulad imarTeba saerTaSoriso konferenciebi, kongresebi, romlis programebic orientirebulia qalTa diskriminaciis problemebze [sanikiZe, kiRuraZe 2001: 32-33]. miuxedavad imisa, rom ar arsebobs erTiani ideologiuri pozicia, rome-

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lic gaaerTianebda msoflios an evropel genderologebs, sul ufro did mniSvnelobas iZens saerTaSoriso genderuli kvlevis qseli. siebi, misamarTebi, eleqtronuli gzavnilebi, romelic saSualebas aZlevs mTel msoflios mkvlevarebs gaerTiandnen, erTi konkretuli gansazRvruli Temis an proeqtis garSemo. erT-erTi aseTi yvelaze cnobili qseli gaxlavT aRmosavleT evropaSi, romlis fondis mxardamWeri jorj sorosi amuSavebs programas ,,genderi da kultura" budapeStis universitetSi. yvelaze didi da mZlavri qseli gaxlavT londonis genderis instituti, romelic Seiqmna 1996 wels londonis ekonomikis skolis bazaze. am skolis amocanebi gansazRvrulia: mxardaWera aRmouCinon genderuli kvlevis proeqtebs, ganaviTaron eTikis Teoria da demokratiis Tavisufleba genderuli faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, gaafarToon socialuri politikis perspeqtivebi im TvalsazrisiTac, rasac iTvaliswinebs, ara marto genderuli politika, aramed seqsualur umciresobaTa interesebic [Said 1995:27]. genderuli kvlevebis londonis saerTaSoriso qselis proeqtebia ,,genderi da socialuri filosofia", ,,koleqtiuri identoba da genderi", ,,Tanabari SesaZleblobebi da ganaTleba mTeli cxovrebis manZilze". Tanamedrove genderuli kvlevebis principi dafuZnebulia mecnieris dainteresebaze genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebiT; XXI saukunis genderuli gaerTianebis ZiriTadi da gavleniani nawili fiqrobs, rom arsebobs feministuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. is amocanebi, romlebic isaxeba socialuri movlenis, genderuli midgomis safuZvelze Semdegia: 1) adrocentrizmis gadalaxva, kategoriuli uaryofa mamakacisa da qalisa narativebis Serwymis calkeuli eTnosebis cxovrebis rekonstruqciisas; 2) genderuli sxvaobis mamakacisa da qalis araformaluri damokidebuleba cxovrebiseuli praqtikisadmi; 3) mamakacisa da qalis cxovrebis cal-calke dokumentireba da praqtikaSi sxadasxva eTnosis cxovrebis wesis analizi; 4) specialuri kvleva yvela saxeobis socialur sakiTxebSi, qalebis gaerTianeba da pozicia, rogorc ZiriTadi informatorebisa; 5) mTavari yuradReba mieqces qalisa da mamakacis cxovrebiseuli praqtikis gamocdilebas; 6) qalisa da mamakacis qcevis konceptualizacia da maTi gavlena sxvadasxva socialur da istoriul konteqstebze; 7) codna imisa Tu rogor akontroleb sakuTar emociebs da sakuTar cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas, rogor ukavSireb informatoris gamocdilebas; 8) im aspeqtebis fiqsacia, romlebic yovelTvis tradiciuli kvleviT ar miiRweva (ojaxi, qaluri daavadebebi biseqsualebi, lesbiankebi, geebi da sxva); 9) mizanswrafva, optimisturi perspeqtivisken (mag. nazi mamakaci an kacuri Tvisebebis mqone qali); 10) swavleba, sakuTari cxovrebis magaliTze da warsuli cxovrebis analizi im pirebisa, romlebic kvlevis (eqsperimentis) procesSi TviTon arian Seswavlis obieqtebi, da im naklovanebebis aRmofvra, romelic arRvevs Tanasworobas. 11) tradiciuli kvlevis standartebis msxvreva [ 2005: 9-10]. saboloo jamSi genderulma kvlevebma ganapiroba is, rom amerikaSi ofi-

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cialuri wreebi, Zalian seriozulad dainteresdnen genderuli Tanasworobis principebiT xelisuflebaSi, swored amitom Seiqmna federalur da centralur xelisuflebaSi genderuli eqspertiza. globalizaciis genderuli aspeqtebi xasiaTdeba 4 TvisebiT: 1) ekonomikaSi integrirebuli qalebis ricxvis zrdiT da ufro mZime pirobebiT, vidre mamakacebi; 2) qalebis samuSao Zalis mkacri gamoyenebiT; 3) qalebis datvirTva mZime samuSaoTi; 4) qalebis monawileoba politikuri da socialuri cxovrebis sferoSi, romelic farTovdeba, magram Tavidanve SezRudulia. globalizacia adidebs gansxvavebas TviT qalebs Sorisac. es damokidebulia imaze, Tu ganviTarebis rogor safexurze imyofeba qveyana, ra profesiisa da kvalifikaciisaa qali da im nacionaluri tradiciebiT, romlebSic maT uxdebaT moRvaweoba. xelfasis zrda TavisTavad gulisxmobs qalis mdgomareobis amaRlebas sazogadoebaSi, magram maTi samsaxuriT dakmayofileba, gansazRvrul CarCoebSia moqceuli, vinaidan igi mainc iTvleba arakvalificirebul muSakad. qals Tavidanve aqvs gansazRvruli statusi, vinaidan pirveli misi damabrkolebeli aris ojaxi, qmari, Svili. qalis miRebas samsaxurSi gansakuTrebiT gaurbian kerZo firmebi, romlebsac ar surT gadaixadon dekretis Tanxa, radgan es maT azaralebT, meorec SeiZleba, ojaxSi bavSvi gaxdes avad, esec mxolod qalis problemaa. arafers vambobT sxva, wvrilmanebze (sadilis momzadeba, dalageba-dasufTaveba, recxva da a.S.), Tumca aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom qalebi kargi muSakebi da bunebiT ufro damTmobi da momTmenni arian. miTumetes qali, romelic damokidebulia samsaxurze an sulac ojaxis marCenalia. miuxedavad amisa kerZo firmebi cdiloben samsaxurSi miiRon gauTxovari an martoxela qali. aqedan gamomdinare daskvna: qalebis dasaqmeba kerZo seqtorSi gansakuTrebul kontrols eqvemdebareba da rac Seexeba anazRaurebas aqac upiratesoba mamakacebs eZlevaT, anu maTi Sroma ufro maRalanazRaurebadia. riTac absoluturad irRveva genderuli asimetria. globaluri cvlilebebi dasaqmebis sferoSi, qals aiZulebs, ufro iafad miyidos Tavisi Sroma damqiravebels. es procesi rTulia TavisTavad, imdenad ramdenadac qalisaTvis ormagi tvirTia da autanelia mZime yofa. ra suraTia am mxriv saqarTveloSi? globalizaciam xeli Seuwyo adamianTa gadaadgilebis procesebis gaadvilebas, ramac gamoiwvia is rom mZime ekonomiuri mdgomareobis pirobebSi qarTveli qalebi gamosavals sazRvargareT eZeben. anu xdeba intensiuri denadoba samuSaos saZebnelad gansakuTrebiT amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, romelic evropis qveynebTan SedarebiT maRalanazRaurebadia. qarTveli qalebi, miuxedavad maTi ganaTlebisa da inteleqtisa, ar Takiloben moxucebis movla-patronobas, saxlis dalageba-dasufTavebas, bavSvebis aRmzdelebad yofnas, rac Tavis Tavad did pasuxismgeblobas aniWebs adamians da moiTxovs did fsiqologiur datvirTvas. es mZime saqmianoba sul raRac 1000-1500 dolariT ganisazRvreba, magram qarTveli qali, romelsac akisria ojaxis rCenis statusi iZulebulia daTanxmdes nebismier pirobebs. roca adgilobrivi moqalaqisaTvis igive Sromis safasuri orjer an

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samjer metia. evropaSi ki aseTi Sroma 500 evrodan 700 evromde meryeobs. sad ar ipoviT qarTvel qalebs, espaneTi, italia, germania, saberZneTi, TurqeTi da a.S. es is mcire CamonaTvalia sadac qarTveli qalebi cxovreben da Sromoben, raTa saqarTveloSi ojaxebi Seinaxon. es absoluturad ar gamoricxavs imas, rom mxolod qalebi arian sazRvargareT samuSaod, rasakvirvelia mamakacebic midian bedis saZebnelad, magram maTi ricxvi ufro mcirea vidre qalebis. [Huntington 1993: 3-5]. globaluri finansuri problemebi, romelic mTels planetas moedo, ekonomikur sferoSi kidev ufro aZlierebs qalisa da mamakacis statusis diferenciacias. aRiniSneba 4 forma genderuli aRrevisa (Serevisa) globalur finansur sferoSi. 1)qalis ugulebelyofa finansur sferoSi da mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebis miRebisas; 2) genderuli urTierTobebis gavlena finansuri bazris arastabilurobaze; 3) mzardi genderuli uTanasworoba qalisa da mamakacis ekonomikur statuss Soris. 4) genderuli diskriminaciis zemoqmedeba finansur resursebze. globaluri finansuri bazari negatiurad zemoqmedebs ufro qalebis socialur jgufze videre mamakacebze. mag. msoflio banki upiratesobas kreditebis gacemis SemTxvevaSi aniWebs mamakacebs, riTac irRveva genderuli Tanasworoba [ 2003: 13]. Semcirebebi, saxelmwifo seqtorSi, disproporciulia da uaryofiTad moqmedebs qalebis dasaqmebis sferoze. warmoqmnili siZneleebi socialur sferoSi isedac mZime tvirTia qalebisTvis, romelsac emateba ojaxuri saqmianoba da fsiqologiuri datvirTva, ramac misi roli ojaxSi daaknina. sul ufro izrdeba ojaxuri Zaladoba da irRveva genderuli Tanasworoba. arastabilur pirobebSi ojaxi mainc rCeba erTaderT TavSesafrad RaribebisTvis. TviTgadarCenisaTvis brZolaSi Raribi ojaxebi cdiloben ipovon gamosavali. aseT situaciaSi qalebi midian ukiduresobamde, kerZod siRaribe maT aiZulebT, gaxdnen kriminaluri sindikatebis msxverpli (qalebiT vaWroba) [Bill. Spingborg 1990: 29]. negatiur gavlenas axdens qalebis mdgomareobaze samuSao bazrebis globalizacia, muSaxelis raodenoba izrdeba xolo moTxovnileba klebulobs. amdenad, ramdenadac qalebze modis didi ekonomiuri datvirTva, xolo maTi ojaxuri saqmianoba ar iTvleba, radgan es misi movaleobaa da arc anazRaurebadia. qalis Sroma ojaxSi Seucvlelia. qalebis diskriminacia samuSao birJaze ganpirobebulia Semdegi faqtorebiT: 1)sqesebs Soris gansxvaveba, qalebs zRudavs gamoavlinon TavianTi potenciali biznes saqmianobaSi, radgan mamakacebs urCevniaT saqme hqondeT, mamakac biznesmenTan vidre qalTan, qali am SemTxvevaSi ar moiazreba seriozul figurad. 2)qalebis fizikuri, gonebrivi da finansuri SesaZleblobebi mamakacebis mier aRiqmeba araobieqturad, kerZod maT miaCniaT rom, qali fizikurad sustia, gonebrivi monacemebiT CamorCeba mamakacs, rac Seexeba finansur mxares, qals saqmis dasawyebad an saqmeSi fulis dasabandeblad mamakacebis azriT, Zalian didi Tanxa esaWiroeba, maSin roca kacebisTvis ufro

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mcire Tanxac sakmarisia. 3) garemo pirobebi qalebs aiZulebs TavisTavze aiRos pasuxismgebloba, rac gamoixateba meuRlis movlaSi da ojaxis ufrosi Taobis warmomadgenlebze zrunvaSi. finansuri krizisebi, romelmac globaluri saxe miiRo da Searyia msoflio bazris ekonomika aseve uaryofiTad pirvel rigSi moqmedebs qalebis mdgomareobaze. Sromis ganawilebis genderuli Tanasworoba irRveva, mimdinareobs masiuri ganTavisufleba samsaxuridan, exla ara marto kerZo warmoebidan, aramed sajaro-saxelisuflebo struqturebidanac. umuSevrobis xvedriTi wili qalebze ufro modis vidre mamakacebze. globalizaciis periods axasiaTebs teqnikuri progresi, romlis Sedegadac upiratesoba eniWeba, ufro momzadebul specialistebs, visi kvalifikaciac ufro maRalia. es ki kidev ufro aRrmavebs anazRaurebis gansxvavebas qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris. am SemTxvevaSi qali SeiZleba gadaarCinos, mxolod codnam da maRalma kvalifikaciam. am pirobebSi myof qals TavisTavad TviTon SeuZlia SemdgomSi gadawyvitos Tavisi bedi, vis gayves da ramdeni Svili iyolios. maTi Svilebic Sesabamisad ukeTes pirobebSi imyofebian, ukeT ikvebebian da ukeTes ganaTlebas Rebuloben. Tumca aq mxedvelobaSia ganviTarebuli qveynebi sadac qalebs, mainc aqvT garkveuli statusi, rogorc ojaxSi aseve saxelmwifoSi [Agnev Corbridge 1995:57]. qalebi rCebian samuSao Zalad, magram maTi umetesoba moklebulni arian iseT uflebebs, rogoricaa bankebidan didi kreditebis gamotana, miwebis mflobeloba, memkvideroba. (mag. saqarTveloSi memkvidred ojaxSi, mxolod mamakaci moiazreba da araviTar SemTxvevaSi qali). qalebis Sroma saTanadod ar anazRaurdeba da ar moqmedebs waxalisebis meTodi, maTi moTxovnebi ar aris prioritetuli, gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas maTi monawileoba SezRudulia ara marto qveyanaSi, aramed ojaxSic ki. kvlevebi gviCveneben, rom yvela sazogadoebaSi, ra saxelmwifoebrivi wyobac ar unda iyos saerTo jamSi qalebisTvisac da kacebisTvisac umjobesia, rom qalebsac hqondeT nawilobriv mainc centraluri roli. kerZod, saxelmwifo strategiis SemuSavebisas qals SeuZlia daareguliros konfliqturi situaciebi, qali mogvevlinos rogorc mediatori, Semrigebeli da qals daekisros samSvidobo misiebis Sesruleba. qali unda iyos ara marto planetis nawili, aramed man unda gansazRvros misi momavali. arc Tu ise Soreuli istoriuli warsuli cxadyofs, rom TandaTan imsxvreva, tradiciuli stereotipebi, romelic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi ganapirobebda qalis socialur rols sazogadoebaSi. dasavleTis qveynebis ganaTlebis centrebma SesaZlebeli gaxada qalebisTvisac maRali politikuri mwvervalebis dapyroba, romelTac maT miaRwies TavianT karieraSi. mag. indira gandi, benazir bhuto, golda meieri, margaret teCeri, kondoliza raizi, hilari klintoni da a.S. maT SeZles da moaxerxes aratradiciuli arCevani gaekeTebinaT da eCvenebinaT qalis saxe politikaSi. aqedan gamomdinare migvaCnia, rom mTavaria, kargi ganaTleba da sakuTari Tavis Semecneba qalisaTvis da ara is ubralod miekuTvnebi Tu ara mamakacTa sqess.

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globalizaciis procesebi Rrmad obieqturia da misi SeCereba yovlad SeuZlebelia, radgan es aris epoqis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-Tviseba, sakiTxi mxolod imaSi mdgomareobs, ramdenad pozitiur gavlenas moaxdens igi samyaroze, vinaidan globalizacias da saerTod ganviTarebis yovel movlenas axasiaTebs rogorc pozitiuri aseve negatiuri movlenebi. mTavaria negatiurma momentebma ar iqonion cudi gavlena xalxebze, qveynebze da regionebze. amitomac sazogadoebis, saxelmwifos da mTavrobis amocanaa gaaerTianon TavianTi qmedebebi da efeqturad warmarTon sociodemografiuli da eTnodemografiuli problemebi.

literatura: daviTaSvili 2003: z. daviTaSvili, nacionalizmi da globalizacia, Tb., mecniereba, 2003. kodua 2001: e. kodua kulturis sociologia, Tb., 2001. naTaZe 2003: n. naTaZe, eri da erovnuli kultura. ,,mecniereba", Tb. 2003. sanikiZe, kiRuraZe 2001: giorgi sanikiZe, nino kiRuraZe, Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi, Tb., 2001. 2005: , . , 2005. 2003: , , , 2003. Agnev Corbridge 1995: J. Agnev, and St. Corbridge, Masretring Space: Hegemony, territory, and international political-economy (London: Routledge, 1995). Bill, Spingborg 1990: J. Bill, and R. Spingborg, Politics in the Middle East (London: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown, 1990). Huntington 1993 :S.P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations, Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993) Said 1995: E.W. Said, Orientalism: Western conceptions of Orient (London: Penguin, 1995)

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sociologia = Sociology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

NESTAN LOMAIA

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

GENDER ASPECTS OF GLOBALIZATION

In the article there is discussed the issue of globalization, how the term globalization came into practice, and what form it has received later. The article also defines the aspects of globalization in the history: how globalization is characterized today and what place it takes in our everyday life. Lots of norms, related to globalization, manage our life; among which are thousands of technical standards and human rights. These and other continually developing norms and rules less subordinate to the nation-state interests. However, globalization appears in our everyday life. The human, living in the beginning of the 21st century, perceives the world as the united and the whole considerably more than the previous generations did. Based on this, he/she is more and more approaching to the status of a world citizen. Cultural globalization is a new phenomenon and comprises several decades. Confluence of cultures has always been an ongoing process and the development of any national culture is impossible without it. Cultural globalization doesn't mean the convergence of cultures but the formation of the united super-national global culture. Global culture is culture without time. According to Anthony Smith the cultural globalization "has no historical background, development rhythm, is has no feeling of time and sequence". Gender researches recently have become actual not only in America and Europe, in the countries of Africa and Asia, but also comprise Eastern Europe, Russia and the former Soviet republics. Such attention is related to the growth of a woman's role in the society that has an international character. International conferences and congresses are held regularly and their programs are oriented towards women's discrimination problems. Despite the fact that there is no unified ideology that could bring together the world's gender specialists, international gender research network gradually acquires more and more importance. Lists, addresses, e-mails help researchers all over the world unify around the concrete definite topic or project. One of the most famous networks in the East Europe is funded by George Soros, who elaborates the program "Gender and Culture" at Budapest University. One of the biggest and strongest networks is the Gender Institute in London that was created in 1996 on the base of London's School of Economics. The aims of this school are the following: to support gender research projects, to develop ethics theory and freedom of democracy, taking into account gender factors, to broaden social policy perspectives from the point of view of a gender policy and the interests of sexual minorities. Gender research projects of London's international network are: "Gender and Social Philosophy", "Collective Identity and Gender", Equal Possibilities and Sustainable Education". Gender aspects of globalization are differentiated by four features:1) increase in

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number of women integrated in economics and under much heavier conditions than men; 2) harsh usage of women's labour force; 3) women's heavy work-load; 4) women's participation in the sphere of political and social life. Global changes in the employment sphere force a woman sell her labour cheaper. It's a difficult process itself as far as such heavy existence is physically tough for a woman. What is the situation in this regard in Georgia? Globalization has promoted the facilitation of the people's movement process that caused the situation, whereas due to the heavy economic conditions Georgian women try to solve their problems abroad. In other words, there is an on-going intensive labour emigration, especially to the United States of America that offers the emigrants higher salaries in comparison with the European countries. Despite of the higher education and skills, Georgian women don't contempt taking care of the old, cleaning houses, baby-sitting that require a great psychological load. Such work costs 1000-1500 US dollars, but a Georgian woman who has a status of a family supporter is obliged to accept any conditions, whereas for the local citizen the fare of the same work is twice or three times higher. And in Europe such work is fluctuating between 500 - 700 Euros. You can find Georgian women everywhere ­ in Italy, Spain, Germany, Greece, Turkey and so on. It is a small list of the countries where Georgian women live and work in order to support their families in Georgia. However, this does not mean that only women go abroad; of course, Georgian men also go to work abroad, but their number is much less . Financial crisis, which has received a global character and highly affected the world market economy, first of all negatively influences women's situation. Today, gender equality of labour distribution is being abolished; the process of massive job dismissal is taking place not only in private sectors, but also in public organizations. The rate of unemployment is higher among the women than men. Globalization processes as being the main features characterizing the epoch are deeply objective, and are impossible to prevent. The major issue is how it will impact the world, because globalization and generally every phenomenon of the development are characterized with both positive and negative events. The main point is that negative moments should not influence people, countries and regions. That's why, the main task of the society, state or government is to unify activities and effectively deal with socialdemographic and ethno-demographic problems.

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sociologia = Sociology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

Tamar SinjiaSvili

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

ganaTleba da uTanasworoba

ganaTleba mTels msoflioSi samarTlianad aris miCneuli, rogorc socialuri mdgomareobis Secvlis mTavari saSualeba, rogorc wesi, mas mivyavarT did SemosavlebTan da prestiJTan. ganaTlebis saSualebiT klasobrivi struqtura xdeba ufro Ria, socialuri struqtura _ ufro egalituri, xolo arasasiamovno gansxvavebani sxvadasxva socialuri jgufebis ganviTarebaSi realurad susteba. ganaTleba pirovnebas saSualebas aZlevs ganaviTaros Tavisi unarebi da SesaZleblobebi. garda amisa, xSir SemTxvevaSi ganaTleba ganixileba rogorc Tanasworobis uzrunvelyofis saSuleba. universaluria ganaTleba, romelic axalgazrdebs codniT aiaraRebs da exmareba maT daikavon sazogadoebaSi Rirseuli adgili. mas SeuZlia Searbilos materialuri keTildReobis donesa da socialur mdgomareobaSi arsebuli kontrastebi. ramdenad realuria es? am sakiTxis gamokvlevas mravali sociologiuri kvleva mieZRvna. gamokvlevis Sedegebi aSkarad aCveneben, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi ganaTlebas SeuZlia asaxos da daadasturos arsebuli uTanasworoba, vidre xeli Seuwyos mis aRmofxvras. mTel rig qveynebSi Catarda gamokvlevebi, romlebmac aCvenes, rom saskolo ganaTlebis Sedegebze udides gavlenas axdens socialuri da ojaxuri garemo, rac SemdegSi gansazRvravs Semosavlebis dones. erT-erTi aseTi klasikuri gamokvleva Catarda aSS-Si XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi. 1964 wlis kanoni moqalaqeobis uflebebis Sesaxeb moiTxovda, rom ganaTlebis erovnul komisias warmoedgina moxseneba ganaTlebis sferoSi arsebuli uTanasworobis Sesaxeb, rac ganpirobebuli iyo sxvadasxva ekonomikuri, religiuri da nacionaluri xasiaTiT. sociologi jeims koulmani dainiSna aRniSnuli kvleviTi programis xelmZRvanelad. naxevari milioni adamianis Sesaxeb moipoves informacia. maT Seavses testebi verbaluri da araverbaluri unarebis Sesafaseblad, maTi nakiTxobis donis da maTematikis unaris gamosavlenad. 4 aTasi skolidan 60 aTasi maswavlebeli gamoikiTxa. miRebuli Sedegebis mixedviT qveyanaSi skolebSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis Sesaxeb zogadi suraTi daixata. zogierTi Sedegi moulodneli aRmoCnda da didi mniSvneloba hqonda ganaTlebis sferoSi politikis Semdgomi formirebisaTvis. gamokvlevis SedegebSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom skolaSi garkveulwilad xdeboda bavSvebis dayofa kanis feris mixedviT. skolebSi (skolebis 80 %), sadac TeTri bavSvebi swavlobdnen, mxolod 10 da naklebi procenti Savkaniani moswavleebi dadiodnen. TeTri amerikelebi da aziis qveynis warmomadgeneli

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moswavleebi ufro maRal niSnebs iRebdnen, vidre maTi Savkaniani Tanatolebi. koulmani varaudobda, rom gamokvleva aCvenebda Savkaniani mosaxleobis skolebis cud materialur teqnikur uzrunvelyofas da Senobebis cud mdgomareobas im skolebTan SedarebiT, sadac ZiriTadad TeTrkaniani bavSvebi swavlobdnen, Tumca Sedegebma ufro mokrZalebuli gansxvaveba aCvena. koulmanis daskvnis mixedviT, saswavlo procesis efeqturobaze skolis materialuri resursebiT uzrunvelyofis done did gavlenas ver axdens. gadamwyveti mniSvneloba am skolebis moswavleTa socialurma kuTvnilebam iqonia. rogorc koulmani aRniSnavda, uTanasworoba, romelSic bavSvebi imyofebian TavianT saxlSi da saxls gareT, momdevno periodSic, skolis damTavrebis Semdegac Tan sdevT. Tumca bolomde ver daveTanxmebiT koulmans, radgan aseve cnobilia iseTi magaliTebic, roca dabali socialuri fenidan gamosuli moswavleebi, romlebsac mWidro megobruli urTierToba gaaCniaT sxva socialuri fenis TanatolebTan, swavlaSi SeZlebul TanaklaselebTan SedarebiT ufro mets aRweven. koulmanis gamokvleva drois gansazRvrul moments exeboda, is ver iZleoda momxdari cvlilebebis analizis saSualebas. maikl rateris gamokvlevaSi, romelic londonSi Catarda, ganxiluli iyo biWebis jgufis ganviTareba ramdenime wlis manZilze. bavSvebi pirvelad dawyebiTi skolis damTavrebisas gamoikvlies. gamokvleva biWebis saSualo skolaSi swavlebis sami wlis Semdeg ganaxlda. gamosakvlev jgufSi ramodenime skola ufro detaluri Seswavlis mizniT gamoyves. gamoikiTxnen moswavleebi da maswavleblebi, aseve akvirdebodnen klasebSi muSaobis process. Sedegebma aCvena, rom skolis SerCeva namdvilad gavlenas axdens bavSvis swavlis Sedegebze. aseve zogierTi faqtorebi, romlebsac rateris azriT, didi mniSvneloba hqondaT, koulmanis gamokvlevis CarCoebs gascda. magaliTad is, rom skolebi, romlebic swavlisTvis saukeTeso pirobebs sTavazobdnen, sruliadac ar iyo ukeTesi sxva materialurad uzrunvelyofil skolebze. rateris gamokvlevis Sedegebi gvexmareba gavigoT, Tu ratom cdiloben skolebi uTanasworobis SenarCunebas. iqmneba STabeWdileba, TiTqos iseTi garemoebaa Seqmnili, rom arsebobs Caketili cikli, sadac SedarebiT privilegirebuli ojaxis warmomadgenlebi dadian kerZo skolebSi da iReben maRali xarisxis codnas. xdeba kargi maswavleblebis mizidva da maTi saqmianobis motivaciis uzrunvelyofa. skola yovelive amas Tavisi interebisTvis iyenebs. skolebma, sadac ZiriTadad Raribi ojaxis Svilebi swavloben meti unda imuSaon aseTive Sedegebis misaRwevad. rateris daskvnaSi naTqvamia, rom skolebis organizebasa da maT mikroklimats Soris gansxvaveba SeiZleba winaaRmdegobaSi movides bavSvebis akademiur moswrebasTan. uTanasworoba socialuri mobilurobis SesaZleblobaSi adrec arsebobda sxvadasxva mizezis gamo. saganmanaTleblo sferoSi socialur uTanasworobas bavSvobis asakidan dawyebuli mivyavarT im adamianTa socialur segregaciamde, romlebsac ar gaaCniaT SesaZlebloba miiRon xarisxiani saSu-

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alo, xolo Semdeg umaRlesi ganaTleba. mniSvnelovania garkveuli qonebrivi fenisadmi kuTvnileba skolis damTavrebis Semdegac. mSoblebis qonebrivi SesaZleblobebi umaRlesSi misaRebi gamocdebis xarisxze da umaRlesSi Cabarebis strategiis arCevanze did gavlenas axdens. naklenad SeZlebuli fenis warmomadgenlebs naklebi SesaZlebloba aqvT miiRon specialuri momzadeba misaRebi gamocdebisTvis, isini damoukideblad swavloben specialur literaturas. SeZlebuli ojaxis warmomadgenlebi umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sefasebisas ufro pragmatulad arian ganwyobilni vidre sxva jgufis warmomadgeneli abiturientebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi ganaTlebis mizani ori ram xdeba: saxelmwifo angaJirebuli elitis Camoyalibeba, romelic qmnis saxelmwifo meqanizmis funqcionalur blokebs da saxelmwifoebriv-loialuri masebis Camoyalibeba, romelic am meqanizmis dasayrdens warmoadgens [, , , , 2004. 106-108]. skolaSi moswavleebs Soris konfliqtebis ganviTareba ganaTlebis sistemisa da aRzrdis garkveul xarvezebs mowmobs. aucilebelia sxvadasxva kulturisa da socialuri fenis bavSvebisaTvis Tanabari SesaZleblobebis micema. socializacia, ojaxi, skola, Cxubi, Zaladoba, terori mWidrodaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli. siRaribe da ojaxebis dabali kultura arc Tu ise uvnebelia, rogorc Soridan Cans. es xSirad urTierTobis maxinj formebs, usamarTlobasa da Zaladobas warmoSobs. sxvadasxva socialuri fenis warmomadgenel moswavleebs Soris xSirad xdeba skolaSi Cxubi da garCevebi. ojaxSi, sazogadoebasa da saxelmwifoSi Zaladobis aRmofxvra unda warmoadgends saxelmwifo ganaTlebis umniSvnelovanes mizans. saganmanmaTleblo sistemaSi mkveTrad aris gamoxatuli aseve genderuli uTanasworoba. skola aris socialuri samarTlianobis sawindari, uflebaTa garanti, sadac orive sqesis warmomadgenlebs Tanabari SesaZleblobebi aqvT miniWebuli. Tumca latenturad mainc arsebobs genderuli uTanasworoba [, , , , 2004: 109-111]. genderul uTanasworobaze amjerad ar SevCerdebiT. saerTod amerikelebi yovelgvari warmatebis safuZvlad ganaTlebas miiCneven. arsebobs mWidro kavSiri ganaTlebis donesa da samsaxurSi warmatebis miRwevas Soris. Tumca warmatebis SesaZleblobas sxva faqtorebic ganapirobeben, magaliTad, mSoblebis socialur-ekonomiuri statusi. sociologebis nawili miiCnevs, rom klasobrivi kuTvnileba ufro didad moqmedebs warmatebaze karieraSi, vidre ganaTlebis xarisxi [ 1993: 110]. es mosazreba sakmaod aqtualuria yvela droSi. ra Tqma socialuri uTanasworobis aRmofxvra SesaZlebeli gaxdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saganmanaTleblo sistemis muSaoba mimarTuli iqneba iqiTken, rom moxdes naklebad SeZlebulebis, Raribebis da privilegirebuli adamianebis integracia. skolebSi da umaRles saswavleblebSi janmrTeli socialuri klimatis Seqmna SesaZlebels gaxdis aRniSnuls. ganaTleba Tu ver mospobs uTanasworobas sxvadasxva

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socilaur fenas Soris, mniSvnelovnad mainc unda Seasustos materialur keTildReobis donesa da socialur mdgomareobaSi arsebuli kontrastebi.

literatura: , , , , 2004: , , , , , , , 2004. 1993: . . , // , 1993. 2008: . . . // . 2008. 7;

TAMAR SHINJIASHVILI

Sokhumi State University , Georgia

EDUCATION AND INEQUALITY

All over the world education is justly considered as the main tool for changing social status that as a rule leads us towards high incomes and status. With its help the social structure becomes more egalitarian, and unpleasant differences in the development of various social groups are truly weakened. Education gives the person the possibilities to develop his/her abilities. Besides, education is often considered as the way to guarantee certain equality. Education is universal; it gives the youth knowledge and helps them to occupy the deserving place in the society. It can soften the contrast existing in the level of material welfare and social condition. How real is it? Many sociological studies are dedicated to this research. The results of the research show that in many cases, education can reflect and prove existing inequality, rather than support its eradication. Social researches, held in many countries, showed that social and family circumstances impact the results of school education, that later defines the level of incomes. Due to different reasons, inequality in the possibilities of social mobility also existed before. Social inequalities in educational sphere begun since childhood lead us to social segregation of the people who have no possibilities to receive qualitative secondary and then higher education. Belonging to a certain property stratum is also very important after leaving school. The representatives of less wealthy stratum have fewer possibilities to get special preparation for the entrance exams, they independently acquire special literature. The representatives of rich stratum are more pragmatically disposed than the entrants of other group representatives. In this case, the aims of education are: formation of state-committed elite which creates functioning blocks of the state mechanism, and formation of state-loyal masses that represents the base of this mechanism. The development of conflicts among pupils at school proves certain gaps in the

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education system and training. It is necessary to give equal possibilities to the children of different cultures and social stratum. Socialization, family, fight, violence, terror ­ are strongly connected with each other. Moreover, poverty and low family culture may be quite harmful. This often causes injustice and violence. The pupils of different social stratum often quarrel. Eradication of violence in the family, society and state must be the most important goal of state education. Gender inequalities are also sharply expressed in the educational system. School is the guarantee of social justice and rights, where both sex representatives have equal rights. Nonetheless, gender inequalities exist latently. There exists a tight connection between education level and achievement of success at work. Though, the possibility of success is conditioned by the other factors, for example, social-economic status of the parents. Some sociologists think that the class belonging more greatly impacts the success in career than the education level. Of course, eradication of social inequalities will be possible, if the integration of less wealthy people, the poor and privilege people is reachable. The formation of healthy social climate at schools and higher institutions will make it possible. If education can't eradicate inequality among different social stratums, it must greatly soften the contrast existing in the level of material welfare and social condition.

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sociologia = Sociology

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ #1, 2009 Journal "Education"

koba noniaSvili

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti

ganaTlebis sociologiis sakiTxebi da sociologiuri gamokvlevebis SesaZleblobebi

ganaTleba, rogorc socialuri instituti, sul ufro da ufro mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs Cvens cxovrebaSi. mis gareSe SeuZlebelia socializaciis Tanamedrove procesi, ekonomikuri da politikuri cxovreba, kulturisa da mecnierebis ganviTareba. ganaTleba Seexeba Tanamedrove sazogadoebis yvela adamians; Zalian mniSvnelovania misi roli pirovnebis formirebaSi, adamianis piradi bedic ki sul ufro metad xdeba damokidebuli ganaTlebis miRebis xarisxze [ 1993: 14-27]. ganaTlebis sociologiis obieqts warmoadgens ganaTleba, romelic ixmareba ori mniSvnelobiT: a) igi aris socialuri instituti, romelic asrulebs pirovnebis momzadebis da sazogadobis sxvadasxva sferos saqmianobaSi misi CarTvis funqcias, amzadebs adamians cxovrebisa da SromiTi saqmianobisaTvis; b) aris procesi da Sedegi sistematizirebuli codnis, unarebis, Cvevebis dauflebisa, romelsac individebi damoukideblad an saswavlo dawesebulebebSi swavlebis procesSi SeiZenen. zogjer ganaTlebis sociologiis obieqtad ganixilaven saxalxo ganaTlebis sistemas, magram pedagogikisagan gansxvavebiT, ganaTlebis sociologias gaaCnia Tavisi sagani. igi Seiswavlis: 1. ganaTlebis, rogorc socialuri institutis warmoSobis, funqcionirebisa da ganviTarebis sazogadoebriv pirobebs, mis kavSirs sxva socialur institutebTan; 2. ganaTlebis funqciebs da mis adgils sazogadoebis socio-kulturul kvlavwarmoebaSi, sazogadoebis interesebsa da moTxovnilebebs ganaTlebis sferoSi (socialuri SekveTa); 3. ganaTlebis doneze socialuri migraciis damokidebulebas da mTeli sazogadoebis ganviTarebis damokidebulebas ganaTlebis sistemaze; 4. ganaTlebis sistemebsa da qvesistemebs, socialur saganmanaTleblo organizaciebs (skolamdeli saswavlo-aRmzrdelobiTi dawesebulebebi, skolebi, umaRlesi saswavleblebi, saxelmwifo da kerZo dawesebulebebi, sajaro da specializirebuli, mudmivi da droebiTi, grZelvadiani, moklevadiani), ganaTlebis mTel infrastruqturas. 5. ganaTlebis obieqtebs da subieqtebs, rogorc socialur jgufebs, maT urTierTdamokidebulebas; 6. saswavlo procesis struqturas, arssa da Sinaarss; 7. ganaTlebisa da saganmanaTleblo politikis marTvis process, rogorc

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saerTo saxelmwifoebriv, ise regionalur doneze, socialur dagegmarebasa da prognozirebas; 8. ganaTlebis rols socializaciaSi, Tanamedrove adamianis formirebasa da ganviTarebaSi; maSasadame, ganaTlebis sociologiis sagani aris sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi misi struqturisa da dinamikis Seswavla sociologiuri meTodebiT [ 1998: 31-39, 44-56]. studentTa da moswavleTa urTierTdamokidebulebis problemebs pedagogebTan. ganaTlebis marTvasa da Sinaarss, socialur mobilobaSi ganaTlebis rols, mis mniSvnelobas socialuri kontrolis sistemaSi, axalgazrdobis, momavali Taobis socializaciaSi mis gavlenas sul ufro da ufro meti yuradReba eqceoda msoflios yvela qveynis sociologebis mier, magram am mimarTulebiT lideris poziciebi daikaves amerikelma sociologebma. 1960 wels amerikul sociologiur asociaciaSi Seqmna ganaTlebis sociologiis seqcia, romelic 1963 wlidan gamoscemda Jurnals `ganaTlebis sociologia~. mecnierTagan yvelaze mniSvnelovan warmatebas miaRwia talkont parsonsma, romelic iTvleba moqmedebisa da sistemur-funqcionaluri skolis fuZemdeblad sociologiaSi. man gamoiyena Tavisi struqturuli meTodi pirovnebisa da misi saqmianobis motivaciis, saswavlo koleqtivis, ganaTlebis sistemisa da qvesistemis, mTeli ganaTlebis socialuri institutebis analizisaTvis [ 1998: 74-83]. parsonsi imdenad did mniSvlebobas aniWebda ganaTlebis faqtors, rom man `samrewvelo revoluciisa~ da `demokratiuli revoluciis~ gverdiT daayena `saganmanaTleblo revolucia~. aRsaniSnavia, rom am faqtorebma xeli Seuwyo industriuli qveynebis Camoyalibebas da swraf ganviTarebas [ 1998: 74-83; 1997: 19-30]. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTveloSi ganaTlebis sociologiis skola faqtiurad ar arsebobs. ukanasknel wlebSi SeimCneva ganaTlebis sferos Seswavlis mcdelobebi, ucxoeli specailistebis mier SemuSavebuli meTodikebiT, Tumca mniSvnelovani sargebeli mas ganaTlebis sistemisaTvis ar moutania. amitomac aris, rom ganaTlebis reforma saqarTveloSi arc Tu ise warmatebiT mimdinareobs. Cven ar vapirebT ganaTlebis reformebis problemebze saubars. igi calke ganxilvis Temaa, magarm xazs vusvamT imas, rom reformis dawyebamde da misi mimdinareobis procesSi saTanadod unda iyos gamoyenebuli sociologiuri gamokvlevebi, Seswavlili da gaTvaliswinebuli sazogadoebrivi azri. socialuri sinamdilis sul ufro da ufro meti mxare Seiswavleba sociologiuri gamokvlevebis saSualebiT, xolo am gamokvlevis Sedegebi xSirad mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens sazogadoebaze. sociologiur gamokvlevebs gaaCniaT Semdegi SesaZleblobebi: 1)sociologiuri gamokvlevebiT SesaZlebelia ganisazRvros sazogadoebrivi azris damokidebuleba nebismieri aqtualuri mniSvnelobis mqone problemis mimarT; 2)sociologiuri gamokvlevebi aucilebelia sazogadoebis nebismier sferoSi nebismieri reformis gatarebisas [ 1998: 329-348]. igi saSualebas iZleva

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minimaluri danaxarjebiT mivaRwioT warmatebas reformis efeqturad ganxorcielebaSi, an Tavidanve xeli aviRoT reformis romelime aspeqtis ganxorcielebaze, vinaidan gamokvlevebma SeiZleba kargad dagvanaxos, rom mocemuli tipis reformis ganxorcielebas SeiZleba ukuefeqti mohyves, magaliTd, kulturis iseT sferoSi, rogoricaa _ ganaTleba. nebismieri wamowyebis warmatebiT dasrulebis sawindaria realuri socialuri situaciebis, sxvadasxva socialuri dajgufebisa Tu dainteresebul jgufTa am wamowyebisadmi damokidebulebebis obieqturi analizi; 3)sociologiuri gamokvlevebi ara mxolod swrafad da obieqturad afiqsirebs sazogadoebrivi azris mdgomareobas, aramed uSualod gamokvlevis procesSi SeuZlebelia misi garkveuli mimarTulebiT warmarTva interviuerisa da respondentis urTierTobis safuZvelze, xolo gamokvlevis Sedegebis analiziT sociologs ZaluZs ukve praqtikuli, faseuli rekomendaciebi SeimuSavos naklovanebaTa aRmofxrisas perspeqtivebisa da SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb; 4) sociologebs SefasebiTi gamokvlevebis meSveobiT SeuZliaT winaswar gansazRvron, Tu rogori warmateba eqneba ama Tu im socialur-politikuri programis ganxorcielebas realur sinamdvileSi [ 1996: 11-19]. dRes kargad unda vacnobierebdeT im faqts, rom cxovrebaSi romelime socialuri programis gatarebisas SeiZleba araTu sasurvel, aramed piriqiT, damangrevel Sedegamdec ki mivideT. amitom aucilebelia imis mudmivi kontroli, Tu rogor xorcildeba realuri procesi, vTqvaT, ganaTlebis sistemaSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom aseTi SefasebiTi gamokvlevebi socialuri programebis ganxorcielebis aucilebel atributad iqca. sxvagvarad warmoudgenelic kia, rameTu didi socialuri proeqtebis ganxorcielebisas aucilebelia bunebrivsa Tu socialur garemoze misi zemoqmedebis Sedegebis Sefaseba. SefasebiTi gamokvlevebis gareSe warmoudgenelia Tanamedrove civilur saxelmwifoTa warmatebuli saSinao da sagareo politikis gatareba. magram unda gaviTvaliswinoT erTi umTavresi piroba. am gamokvlevebiT dainteresebuli unda iyos sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo. Tu sazogadoebas da mis politikur sistemas ara aqvs sakuTar Tavze obieqturi informaciis miRebis moTxovnileba, maSin yovelgvari sociologiuri kvleva, sazogadoebrivi azri fuWia. sociologiuri gamokvlevis Sedegebsa da rekomendaciebs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs swori socialuri Tu erovnuli politikis gatarebis saqmeSi. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis nebismieri sfero Cvenive sazogadoebis sakeTildReod rom warimarTos, maSin sociologiur informacias fasdaudebeli mniSvneloba aqvs. sociologiuri gamokvlevebi avlens im farul meqanizmebs wyalqveSa dinebebsa Tu meCeCebs, romelTa gauTvaliswineblobas SeuZlia sazogadoebis daRupva. amitom sociologiur gamokiTxvas maSin aqvs azri da didi sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba, rodesac Tavad sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo erTnairad aris dainteresebuli sakuTari Tavisa da saqmianobis Sesaxeb obieqturi informaciis mopovebis safuZvelze warmarTos sazogadoebis ekonomikuri, politikuri, socialuri da kulturuli cxovreba.

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SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTveloSi amJamad mimdinare ganaTlebis reformis warmatebiT dasruleba mniSvnelovanwiladaa damokidebuli sociologiur gamokvlevebze, sazogadoebrivi azris Seswavlasa da praqtikul rekomendaciebze. garda amisa, aucilebelia, rom es gamokvlevebi kompetenturad da profesionalurad iyos Catarebuli. literatura: 1993: . : . ., 1993. 1998: . . XXI . ., 1998. 1998: . . //. . 1998 11. 1998: . . . ., - , 1998. 1996: . . , ., 1996. 1994: : / . . . ., 1994. 1998: . . //. . ., , 1998. , . ., . . 1997: . ., . ., . . : . ., , 1997.

KOBA NONIASHVILI

Sokhumi State University, Georgia

ISSUES OF EDUCATION OF SOCIOLOGY AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCHES

Building of democratic state is going in Georgia. It's a difficult process and it means carrying out deep reforms in all sphere of social life. The reform also touched education system, its role in social life is the most important. Without it it's impossible the person's development process, it impacts on economy and politics, on the development of culture and science. The United States of America and Western countries have paid great attentions to education development since 60s of the 20th century, that greatly stipulated their progress. The leading from these countries is the USA where since 1960 has existed sociological section of education. Many famous scientists worked on education issues. It should be especially indicated Talkon Parsons which paid so great importance to education in the development of the society, that he put "education revolution" at the level of "industrial" and "democratic" revolutions. Sociological school of education does not exist in Georgia. One of the reasons that the current reform in the education system of Georgia is not successful is also that. The reform began without preparation. Before its beginning and in the process of its course, democratic institute was not properly used. With the help of sociological researches the population opinion was not showed and studied, education field specialists and experts'

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opinions, remarks, advices and recommendations were not took into consideration. Many sides of social reality are studied with the help of sociological researches, and the results of these researches have significant influence on the society. Sociological researches are necessary for carrying out any reform in any sphere of the society. The guarantee of ending successfully of any initiator is objective analyze of the attitude towards this initiator of real social situations, various social and interested groups. Sociological researches fix the situation of public opinion fast and with the results of the researches the sociologists can work out practical, valuable recommendations about the perspectives of eradication of imperfectness and possibilities. Today we must realize the fact that in life while carrying out some social program we may come not to the desirable but on the contrary to the destructive results. That's why it is necessary a permanent control how to realize a real process, for example, of education system. But sociological researches have great social importance only when if both Georgian society itself and the state are interested in leading the society's economic, political, social and cultural work based on the receiving of objective information about itself and the activity. It can be said that it's impossible carrying out successive interior and exterior policy of modern civilized countries without sociological researches. That's why the successive ending of current education reform in Georgia is greatly dependent on studying the of public opinions _ sociological researches, on the consideration of the views, remarks, advices and recommendation found out at the result of them. Herewith it's necessary that these researches should be conducted with great competency and professionally.

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Cveni interviu

Jurnali `ganaTleba~ yovel nomerSi rubrikiT `Cveni interviu~ SemogTavazebT informacias dRevandel qarTul saganmanaTleblo sivrceSi mimdinare reformebis Sesaxeb. saganmanTleblo siaxleebsa da evropul sivrceSi integraciis problemebs ZiriTadad intervius saxiT SemogTavazebT. rubrikas uZRveba profesori rusudan fifia. amjerad Cveni stumaria Tanamedrove qarTuli saganmanaTleblo reformis erT-erTi aqtiuri warmomadgeneli, ganaTlebis liderTa ligis damfuZnebeli, Jurnal `qarTuli sityvis~ redaqtori filologiis doqtori batoni gia murRulia. - batono gia, mogesalmebiT Jurnal `ganaTlebis~ saxeliT da ramdenime kiTxviT mogmarTavT ganaTlebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. saqarTveloSi mimdinare saganmanaTleblo reformis pirobebSi rogor warmogidgeniaT pedagogTa profesiuli momzadebis da ganviTarebis saqmeSi universitetis roli. Tqveni azriT, ra unda gaakeTon umaRlesma sawavleblebma imisaTvis, rom srul SesabamisobaSi iyos skolis moTxovnebi sauniversiteto standartTan? - pedagogTa momzadebis saqmeSi universitetis funqcia da daniSnuleba umTavresia. misi seriozuli konkurenti am mimarTulebiT ar arsebobs. rac Seexeba profesiul ganviTarebas, universitetebis paralelurad muSaoben: kvalifikaciis amaRlebisa da gadamzadebis institutebi, pedagogTa profesiuli ganviTarebis centrebi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi. swored axlaxan Catarda Sesabamisi programebis akreditacia da yvela es subieqti aqtiurad monawileobda masSi. universitetma pedagogis momzadebisas ori umTavresi sareformo dokumentis ­ erovnuli saswavlo gegmisa da zogadi ganaTlebis erovnuli miznebis ­ moTxovnebi unda gaiTvaliswinos. reformam Tvisebrivad axali maswavleblis momzadeba daayena dRis wesrigSi, rasac Cveni universitetebi, aqtiuri mcdelobebis miuxedavad, jer-jerobiT srulfasovnad ver upasuxeben. umaRlesi saswavleblebi skolis moTxovnebs an mis Sesabamisobas sauniversiteto standartTan naklebad gansazRvraven ­ aq mTavari ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros poziciaa. Cemi azriT, arsebiTia bunebrivi korelacia iyos zogadi ganaTlebis programasa da erTiani erovnuli gamocdebis moTxovnebs Soris. es TavisTavad niSnavs skolis kursdamTavrebulis mzaobas, aiTvisos umaRlesi saswavleblis standartiT gaTvaliswinebuli kursi.

- batono gia, Tqven erTgan aRniSnavT, rom umaRlesi sawavleblebi saerTod ar fiqroben, rogor aswavlon momaval pedagogebs aRmzrdelobiTi funqciis Sesruleba. ras gvirCevdiT am mimarTulebiT da rogor warmogidgeniaT am problemebis gadaWris gzebi? - Tu skolas aRzrdis sakuTari sistema ar aqvs, is ar varga. yvela amgvar

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saswavlebels Zalian zustad unda hqondes gansazRvruli da gacnobierebuli, rogor aRwevs zogadi ganaTlebis erovnul miznebs. aq bevri amocanaa: patriotis aRzrda, kacobriuli kulturis Rirseuli memkvidris Camoyalibeba, samoqalaqo da saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis ganviTareba ­ es erTi mxriv. meore mxriv ­ nebisyofis, mizanswrafvis, Seupovrobis, codnis moZiebisa da praqtikuli gamoyenebis, adamianebTan urTierTobis kulturis Camoyalibeba. gesmodes, rogor aswavlo es yvelaferi moswavles ­ mTeli mecnierebaa, ris saswavlo procesSi adekvatur realizebasac Sesabamisi meTodologia da teqnologia sWirdeba. aswavlian amas dRevandel universitetebSi? me amis sruli gancda ar maqvs. erTi magaliTi, rac dawyebiT klasebSi moswavleTa wignierebis saerTaSoriso kvlevam gvaCvena: saqarTvelos skolebis dawyebiT klasebSi aswavlian pedagogebi, romelTa 95%-s umaRlesi ganaTleba aqvs, magram arc erTi maTganisTvis universitetSi ar uswavlebiaT, rogor unda ganaviTaron maT moswavleTa wigniereba. umaRlesma skolebma, gavimeoreb, sakuTari programebisa da aqtivobebis gaazrebisas, aucileblad unda gaiTavaliswinon Tanamedrove skolis Tvisebrivad Secvlili miznebi da amocanebi. - am kiTxvas gavagrZelebdi... Tqven erT-erT adreul interviuSi aRniSnavdiT, rom SedarebiTi pedagogikis armcodne maswavlebels ucxoeTis skolaSi ar SeuSvebeno. CvenTan rogoraa am mxriv saqme da xom ar gicdiaT am tipis saxelmZRvanelos Targmna - gamocema? - SedarebiTi pedagogika Tanamedrove saganmanaTleblo filosofiisa da praqtikis erT-erTi fundamentia ­ am kursis swavlebis gareSe dRes bevrgan verc ki warmoidgenen pedagogis, miTumetes ­ skolis xelmZRvanelis momzadebasa da profesiul ganviTarebas. am kursis codna xels uwyobs - sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT - ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso gamocdilebis gacnobierebas, sakuTari Teoriuli Tu praqtikuli saqmianobis obieqtur gaazrebasa da Sefasebas. gana ar unda ainteresebdes, magaliTad, literaturis maswavlebels, rogor aswavlian am sagans sxvadasxva qveyanaSi ­ ra safuZvlebiTa da ragvari SedegebiT? rogoria saswavlo programebSi Zveli da Tanamedrove literaturuli masalis balansi? an rogor unda gaviazroT Cven yvelam, gadatvirTulia Tu ara Cveni saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo standartebi da programebi, Tu ar SevadareT Cveni da ucxouri gamocdileba? vin ityvis, ramdenad adekvaturi saxelmZRvaneloebi gvaqvs, Tuki Sefasebis saerTaSorisod aprobirebuli kriteriumebi ar gavacnobiereT? aseve, sxvadasxva qveynis gamocdilebis (warmatebebisa Tu Secdomebis) specialuri Seswavlis gareSe Zalian gaWirdeba skolebis akreditaciisa da maswavlebelTa sertificirebis, sazogadod ­ skolis marTvis sakiTxebis marTebuli gadawyveta. vfiqrob, SedarebiTi pedagogikis kursi operatiulad unda Sevides Cveni umaRlesi saswavleblebis programebSi. me minaxavs ramdenime aseTi saxelmZRvanelo umaRlesi skolebisaTvis da ramdenjerme sajarod davsvi maTi qarTuli adekvatis Seqmnis (an - Targmnis) sakiTxi, magram, samwuxarod ­ uSedegod. calkeuli

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mcdelobebi am mimarTulebiT Cvens saganmanaTleblo sivrceSi aris, magram, ramdenadac vici, kursi jer ver Seiqmna.

- am bolo dros moswavleTa wignierebis Semowmebam saxarbielo Sedegi ar gviCvena. Tqven xarT adamiani, romelic gamudmebiT zrunavs Tavisi aRsazrdelebis da saerTod, axalgazrda Taobis wignierebaze, amas is `rCeuli moTxrobebis~ eqvsi tomic gvidasturebs, romelsac ufrosi Taobac siamovnebiT kiTxulobs. kidev ra gaqvT dagegmili axlo xanebSi? - gamomcemloba `triasTan~ erTad movamzade ori wigni ­ `sibrZne simcirisa~ da `msoflio da qarTuli literaturuli Sedevrebis mokle Sinaarsebi~. orive es gamocema agvistoSi mzad iqneba. pirveli wigni ­ es aris msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis Zveli da Tanamedrove filosofiuri igavebis krebuli. ramdenime aTasi aseTi igavis gacnobis Semdeg am krebulisTvis SevarCie 145 miniatura. isini Zalian momwons, radgan maTSi esTetikurad aris gadmocemuli sibrZne. am mcire teqstebSi axalgazrda Taoba (ufro xandazmulebic) bevr sasargeblo rames ipovis sulisa da gonebisTvis. rac mTavaria, es patara gamocema fiqris didi impulsi iqneba nebismieri mkiTxvelisTvis. sxvaTa Soris, es wigni mxatvrulad gaaforma Cvenma didma kinoreJisorma rezo esaZem, romelic SesaniSnavi mxatvaricaa da gamocemas konceptualuri saxe da xasiaTi SesZina. Zalian mniSvnelovnad meCveneba mokle Sinaarsebis gamocemac. pirvel rigSi, es saerTaSoriso literaturuli kulturaa da Cven mis miRma ar unda davrCeT. meore mxriv ki, mokle Sinaarsis Seqmna (specialurad viyeneb sityva `Seqmnas~) mxatvruli nawarmoebis arsebaSi, mis gulisgulSi SeRwevas gulisxmobs da mkiTxvels masTan miaxlebas uadvilebs. es teqstebi, cxadia, ar da ver cvlis originalur mxatvrul nawarmoebebs, magram maT TavianTi kanonieri adgili aqvT literaturul cxovrebaSi. literaturuli fiqris, sazogadod weriTi metyvelebis kulturis amaRlebis mizniT, kvlav vgegmav, Cavataro konkursi `vwer Tavisufal Temas~, romelmac ukve didi interesi gamoiwvia da masSi monawileoben skolis moswavleebi saqarTvelos praqtikulad yvela regionidan. - Tqven rogor fiqrobT, maswavleblebs aucileblad unda hqondeT kiTxvis swavlebis specialuri programa gavlili Tu amas isedac mivaRwevT, Cveni mondomebiTa da aqtiurobiT? mondomeba da aqtiuroba yovelTvis saWiroa ­ individis pirovnuli Zalisxmevis gareSe `ara saqme ar iqmnebis~, magram arasdros unda vTqvaT uari kargad gaazrebul da aprobirebul sistemaze ­ sistema xSir SemTxvevaSi aRemateba erTi adamianis SesaZleblobebsac da gamocdilebasac. amasTan erTad, aucileblad unda aRvniSno, rom kiTxvis swavleba samecniero da meTodikuri amocanaa, rac masobriobis konteqstSi praqtikulad gamoricxavs seriozul warmatebas ­ yvelas ar xelewifeba iyos mecnieri.

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- batono gia, Tqven brZandebiT `qarTuli sityvis~ mTavari redaqtori. unda giTxraT, rom es Jurnali saintereso da samagidoa ara mxolod qarTuli enisa da literaturis maswavleblebisaTvis. me da Cemi studentebi ramdenjerme mivubrundiT meore nomerSi gamoqveynebul axalgazrda maswavleblis dRiurebs da sasiamovnod unda aRvniSno, rom mas magaliTis Zala hqonda momavali pedagogebisTvis. Jurnali `ganaTleba" soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis ganaTlebis fakultetis iniciativiT daarsda. mas ukve aqvs saerTaSoriso kavSirebi: yvela statia recenzirebas gadis an respublikis masStabiT an sarecenzio sabWoSi Semaval sazRvargareTel recenzentTan. vfiqrobT, rom seriozuli Jurnali gamova. ras usurvebdiT soxumis universitets da Jurnal `ganaTlebas"? - didi madloba `qarTuli sityvis~ SefasebisTvis. es axali Jurnalia da jer-jerobiT mxolod imkvidrebs Tavis adgils. saredaqcio kolegiaSi SesaniSnavi adamianebi TanamSromloben da imedi maqvs, araerT saintereso publikacias SevTavazebT Cvens mkiTxvels. soxumis universitetsa da Tqvens Jurnal `ganaTlebas" vusurveb imas, rac nebismieri CvenganisTvis arsebiTia ­ profesiul warmatebas. xolo, amaze uwinares ki imas, rac sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani da yvelaze mTavaria ­ mSobliur kuTxeSi Rirseul dabrunebas. gmadlobT, b-no gia saintereso interviusTvis da Cveni Jurnalis saxeliT gisurvebT warmatebebs.

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Zvirfaso avtorebo, Jurnali `ganaTleba~ aris recenzirebadi da referirebadi samecniero perioduli gamocema, romelic warmoadgens samecniero azrovnebis forums mecnierebis sxvadasxva dargSi: ganaTlebis reformis, pedagogikis, meToduri kvlevebisa da fsiqologiis, samarTlis, ekonomikisa da sociologiis, istoriis, politikuri mecnierebebisa da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis, aseve filologiur disciplinebSi. gansakuTrebuli adgili daeTmoba saganmanaTleblo reformebs, rogorc Cvens qveyanaSi, aseve qveynis farglebs gareT, mniSvnelovania evropisa da boloniis procesSi CarTuli qveynebis gamocdileba zemoTaRniSnuli dargebis swavlebisa da mecnieruli kvlevebis ganviTarebis procesSi. recenzireba yvela statia ganixileba recenzentis mier, romelic warmoadgens eqsperts aRniSnul dargSi. sarecenzio sabWoSi Sedis, rogorc qarTveli, aseve ucxoeli eqspertebi. recenzireba anonimuria, magram recenzentis survilis SemTxvevaSi SeuZlia gamoamJRavnos vinaoba. redaqtorebs ufleba aqvT uari Tqvan statiis dabeWdvaze Tu meore recenzirebac aradamakmayofilebelad Sefasda. statiebis SerCeva Jurnal `ganaTlebaSi~ mxolod recenzire-

bas efuZneba.

teqnikuri mxare statiis avtorebisTvis

stili statia (naSromi) dawerili unda iyos saerTaSoriso mkiTxvelisaTvis gasagebi, mokle stiliT. nacnobi teqnikuri terminologiis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia axsna - ganmartebis gareSe. akronimebisa da abreviaturebis ganmarteba aucilebelia. Sinaarsi miiReba samecniero kvleva an proeqtis Sedegebi, angariSi, Tematuri kvleva an kvleviTi saqmianobis Sesaxeb moxsenebebi Semdeg mimarTulebebSi: saganmanaTleblo reformebi: mimdinareoba, perspeqtivebi, gamowvevebi; ganaTlebis filosofia, pedagogika, kerZo meTodikebi da fsiqologia; kvlevebi samarTlis, ekonomikisa da sociologiis, istoriis, politologiisa da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis, aseve filologiuri disciplinebis mimarTulebebiT. yvela masalas Tan unda axldes wyaro. naSromis specifika statia Jurnal `ganaTlebisTvis~ warmodgenili unda iyos qarTul da inglisur enebze. avtorebma unda daicvan naSromis momzadebis eTika (Tavidan aicilon publikaciis dublireba, citatebSi uzustoba, plagiatizmi da TviTplagiatizmi). avtorebi pasuxismgeblebi arian TavianTi statiis faqtiur sizusteze. saTauri zustad, magram mokled unda asaxavdes statiis Sinaarss. statiis sigrZe ar unda aRematebodes 1500 sityvas. cxrilebi, naxazebi, diagramebi da grafikebi gasagebi saTauriT unda iyos warmodgenili A4 formatis calke furcelze da danomrili iyos arabuli cifrebiT. sqolio (footnote) miTiTebuli unda iyos teqstSi kvadratul frCxilebSi, romelic sruli saxiT warmodgenili iqneba naSromis teqstis bolos. anu sqolios miTiTeba moxdeba e. w. turabianis meTodiT. gamoyenebuli literatura anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT unda dalagdes statiis bolos.

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statiis (naSromis) warmodgena avtorebs SeuZliaT statiebi (naSromebi) warmoadginon eleqtronuli saxiT Word-is tipis standartuli dokumentis saxiT: qarTuli versia Acadnusx Sriftis, xolo inglisur enaze Times New Roman SriftiT. Sriftis zoma 12, intervali erTi. naSroms calke furcelze unda daerTos avtoris sakontaqto rekvizitebi: misamarTi, saxlis an samsaxuris, samecniero xarisxi, wodeba, telefonis nomeri, faqsi, el-fosta; eleqtronuli werili unda moicavdes srul sakontaqto informacias (el. fostis CaTvliT), Jurnalis saxels, visac ugzavniT statias da statiis saTaurs. TiToeul naSroms Tan unda axldes gancxadeba, rom es naSromi arsad ar gamoqveynebula da amave dros ar aris wardgenili sxva JurnalSi dasabeWdad. avtorebi miiReben gamocemuli Jurnalis im egzempliars, romelSic maTi statia (naSromi) aris dabeWdili. yvela statia da korespondencia Semdeg misamarTze unda gaigzavnos: Jurnal `ganaTlebis~ mTavari redaqtori: lia axalaZe redaqtorebi: Tamar zarandia, Tamar SinjiaSvili, rusudan fifia soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti Tbilisi, 0186, jiqias q. 9 telefoni: +99532541423; 893-36-11- 86; el. fosta: [email protected] [email protected]

Dear Authors, Journal `Education" is a peer-reviewed and referred scientific periodical edition, which represents a scientific thinking forum in different branches of science: in education reform, pedagogics, methodical researches and psychology, law, economics and sociology, history, political sciences and international relations, philological disciplines. Special attention will be paid to the education reforms both in Georgia and abroad. In the process of teaching of the above-mentioned branches and the development of scientific researches, the experience of the European countries and the countries participating in Bologna process, is quite important. Refereeing All articles are reviewed by the referee who is an expert in the indicated field. The referee board consists of Georgian and foreign experts. Refereeing is anonymous unless a referee chooses otherwise. The editors have the right to reject the manuscript if after the first review it is submitted repeatedly with unsatisfactory corrections. The selection

of the articles for inclusion in the journal `Education" is based only on these reviews.

Specifications for authors

Style Papers should be written in a clear, concise style appropriate to an international readership. Familiar technical terms may be used without explanation. Acronyms and abbreviations are likely to need full presentation. Content Research or project results, reports, case studies or action research reports will be accepted. Scientific research works should include a description of theoretical and practical applications of ideas tested in the following direc-

231

tions: educational reforms: tendency, perspectives, challenges; pedagogics, private methodologies and psychology; researches in law, economics and sociology, history, political sciences and international relations, philological disciplines. All material should be clearly referenced to its sources.

Manuscript specification Articles for the journal `Education" must be submitted in Georgian and English languages. Authors should observe the ethics of manuscript preparation (avoiding duplicate publication, inaccuracy of citations, plagiarism and selfplagiarism). Authors are responsible for the factual accuracy of their papers. The title should indicate exactly but briefly the subject of the article. Manuscript may be up to 3500 words in length. An abstract is to be provided on a separate sheet, no longer than 150 words. At the end of the abstract a minimum of five key words for referencing of papers should be supplied. Tables, drawings, diagrams and charts with a clear title should be presented on separate sheets of A4 paper and numbered by Arabic numerals. Scholium (footnote) should be indicated in the text in squares, which will be presented in complete version at the end of the text. Indication of the scholium should be done according to the Turabian method. The references in alphabetical order should be listed at the end of the paper. Submission of manuscripts The authors are encouraged to submit papers electronically in a standard document format type Word: Georgian version in the Acadnusx font, and in English in the font of the Times New Roman. Font size ­ 12, interval ­ 1 (single). On a separate sheet, the paper should include the author's contact details: home or work address, scientific degree, position, telephone, fax, e-mail; the email letter must include full contact details (including e-mail), the title of the journal to which you are submitting, and the title of the article. Each manuscript must be accompanied by a statement that it has not been published elsewhere and is not submitted simultaneously for publication in another journal. Authors will receive a copy of the journal issue in which their paper is published.

All papers and correspondence should be addressed to: Editor-in-chief of the journal `Education": Lia Akhaladze Editors: Tamar Zarandia, Tamar Shinjiashvili, Rusudan Pipia Sokhumi State University 9 Jikia Str., 0186, Tbilisi, Georgia Telephone: +99532541423; 893-36-11-86; Email: [email protected] [email protected]

dizaineri: mxatvari zurab Wedia Dezigner: a painter Zurab Chedia

daibeWda: gamomcemloba `meridiani~, al. yazbegis gamz. #47 E ­ mail: [email protected] t. 39-15-22

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