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Thinking and Language

Chapter 10

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Thinking and Language

Thinking

§ Concepts § Solving Problems § Making Decisions and Forming Judgments § Belief Bias

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Thinking and Language

Language

§ Language Structure § Language Development

Thinking & Language

§ Language Influences Thinking § Thinking in Images

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Thinking and Language

Animal Thinking and Language

§ Do Animals Think? § Do Animals Exhibit Language? § The Case of the Apes

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Thinking

Thinking or cognition refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering and communicating.

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Cognitive Psychologists

Thinking involve a number of mental activities listed below, and cognitive psychologists study them with great detail. § § § § Concepts Problem solving Decision making Judgment formation

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Concepts

Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of chair.

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Category Hierarchies

We organize concepts into category hierarchies.

Courtesy of Christine Brune

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Development of Concepts

We form some concepts by definitions, e.g., triangle has three side. But mostly we form concepts by a mental image or a best example (prototype), e.g., robin is a prototype of a bird but penguin is not.

J. Messerschmidt/ The Picture Cube

Daniel J. Cox/ Getty Images

Triangle (definition)

Bird (mental image)

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Categories

Once we place an item in a category our memory shifts toward the category prototype.

Courtesy of Oliver Corneille

A computer generated face that was 70 percent Caucasian, lead people to classify it as Caucasian.

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Problem Solving

There are two ways to solve problems:

Algorithms: Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

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OBJECTIVE 3| Compare algorithms and heuristics as problem-solving strategies, and explain how insight differs from both of them.

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Algorithms

Algorithms exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Take long time. Computers use algorithms.

SPLOYOCHYG

If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word, using an algorithm approach would take 907,208 possibilities.

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Heuristics

Are simple thinking strategies that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Speedier but more errorprone than algorithms.

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B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images

Heuristics

Heuristics make it easy for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems.

SPLOYOCHYG PPLCY OLH S S Y O HO C O G Y

Try putting Y at the end and see if the word starts to make sense.

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Insight

Insight involves sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Insight is in humans and animals.

Grande using boxes to obtain food

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Insight

Brain imaging and EEG studies suggest that when an insight strikes ("Aha" experience) it activates the right temporal cortex (JungBeeman, 2004). The time between not knowing the solution to knowing it is 0.3 seconds.

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From Mark Jung- Beekman , Northwestern University and John Kounios , Drexel University

Obstacles in Solving Problems

Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias.

2­4­6

Rule: Any ascending series of numbers. 1 ­ 2 ­ 3 would comply. Ss had difficulty figuring out the rule due to confirmation bias (Wason, 1960).

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Fixation

Fixation: Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. Impediment to problem solving. Two examples are mental set and functional fixedness.

From "Problem Solving" by M. Scheerer Copyright © 1963 by . Scientific American, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?

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Candle-Mounting Problem

Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?

From "Problem Solving" by M. Scheerer Copyright © 1963 by . Scientific American, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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From "Problem Solving" by M. Scheerer Copyright © 1963 by . Scientific American, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Candle-Mounting Problem: Solution

The Matchstick Problem: Solution

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Mental Set

A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way especially a way that has been successful in the past.

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Functional Fixedness

A tendency to think of the only familiar functions for objects.

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Problem: Tie the two ropes together. Use a screw driver, cotton balls and a matchbox.

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Functional Fixedness

Use screwdriver as weight, tie it to one rope's end swing it toward the other rope to tie the knot.

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The inability to think about screwdriver as weight is functional fixedness about the object.

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Using and Misusing Heuristics

Two kinds of heuristics have been identified by cognitive psychologists. Representative and availability heuristics.

Courtesy of Greymeyer Award, University of Louisville and the Tversky family

Courtesy of Greymeyer Award, University of Louisville and Daniel Kahneman

Amos Tversky

Daniel Kahneman

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Representativeness Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match a particular prototype.

If you were to meet a man, slim, short, wears glasses and Probability that that person is a truck driver is far greater likes poetry. What do you think would his profession than an ivy would be? league professor just because there are more truck drivers than such professors. An Ivy league professor or a truck driver?

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Availability Heuristic

Why does our availability heuristic lead us astray? Whatever increases the ease of retrieving information increases its perceived availability.

How is retrieval facilitated? § How recently we have heard about the event. § How distinct it is. § How correct it is.

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Making Decision & Forming Judgments

Each day we make hundreds of judgments and decisions based on our intuition seldom using systematic reasoning.

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Overconfidence

Intuitive heuristics, confirmation of beliefs, and knack of explaining failures increases our overconfidence. It is a tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.

At a stock market both the seller and buyer may be confident about their decisions on a stock.

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Exaggerated Fear

Opposed to overconfidence is our tendency for exaggerated fear about how things may happen. Such fears may be ill-founded. 9/11 crashes led to decline in air travel due to fear.

AP/ Wide World Photos

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Framing Decisions

How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.

Example: What is the best way to market ground beef -- as 25% fat or 75% lean?

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Belief Bias

The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions. God is love. Love is blind Ray Charles is blind. Ray Charles is God.

Anonymous graffiti

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Belief Perseverance

Our tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence is called belief perseverance.

Once you see a country as hostile, you are likely to interpret ambiguous actions on their part as signifying their hostility (Jervis, 1985).

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Perils & Powers of Intuition

Where Intuition can be perilous if unchecked, it is extremely efficient and adaptive.

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Perils & Powers of Intuition

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Language

Our spoken, written, or gestured work, it is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others.

M. & E. Bernheim/ Woodfin Camp & Associates

Language transmits culture.

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Language Structure

Phonemes: The smallest distinctive sound unit in a spoken language. For example: bat, has three phonemes b · a · t chat, has three phonemes ch · a · t

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Language Structure

Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word. For example: Milk = milk Pumpkin = pump . kin Unforgettable = un · for · get · table

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Structuring Language

Phonemes Morphemes Words Phrase Sentence

Basic sounds (about 40) ... ea, sh. Smallest meaningful units (100,000) ... un, for. Meaningful units (290,500) ... meat, pumpkin. Composed of two or more words (326,000) ... meat eater. Composed of many words (infinite) ... She opened the jewelry box.

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Grammar

A system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Grammar Semantics Syntax

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Semantics

Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. For example:

Semantic rule tells us that adding ­ed to the word laugh means that it happened in the past.

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Syntax

The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences. For example:

In English syntactical rule is that adjectives come before nouns; white house. In Spanish it is reversed; casa blanca.

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Language Development

Children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2. We learn on average (after age 1) 3,500 words a year, amassing 60,000 words by the time we graduate high school.

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Time Life Pictures/ Getty Images

When do we learn language?

Babbling Stage: beginning at 4 months the infant spontaneously utters various sounds, like ah-goo. Babbling is not imitation of adult speech.

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When do we learn language?

One-Word Stage: Beginning at or around the first birthday, a child starts to speak one-word and makes family adults understand him. The word doggy may mean look at the dog out there.

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When do we learn language?

Two-Word Stage: Before the 2nd year a child starts to speak in two-word sentences. This form of speech is called telegraphic speech in which the child speaks like a telegram --"go car," means that, I would like to go for a ride in the car.

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When do we learn language?

Longer phrases: After telegraphic speech children start uttering longer phrases (Mommy get ball), with syntactical sense and by early elementary school they are enjoying humor. You never starve in the desert because of all the sand-which-is there.

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When do we learn language?

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Explaining Language Development

· Operant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development can be explained on the basis of learning principles, such as association, imitation and reinforcement.

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Explaining Language Development

2. Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinners ideas and suggested that rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it was inborn.

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Explaining Language Development

3. Statistical Learning and Critical periods: Well before our first birthday, our brains are discerning word breaks by statistically analyzing which syllables in hap-py-ba-by go together. These statistical analysis are learned during critical periods of child development.

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Genes, Brain & Language

Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience modifies the brain.

Michael Newman/ Photo Edit, Inc. David Hume Kennerly / Getty Images

Eye of Science/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

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Language & Age

New language learning gets harder with age.

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Language & Thinking

Thinking and language intricately intertwine.

Language influences Thinking

Linguistic Determinism: Whorf's (1956) suggested that language determines the way we think, e.g., Hopi, he noted, did not have past tense for verbs therefore Hopis could not think readily about the past.

Rubber Ball/ Almay

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Language influences Thinking

When a language provides words for objects or events we can think about these objects more clearly and retain them. It is easier to think about two colors with two different names (A) than colors with the same name (B) (Özgen, 2004).

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Word Power

Increasing word power pays its dividends. It pays for speakers and deaf who learn a sign language.

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Linguistic Determinism Questioned

People from Papua New Guinea without our words for colors and shapes still perceived them as we do (Rosch, 1974).

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Thinking in Images

To a large extent thinking is language based. Like when alone we talk to ourselves. However, we also think in images.

We don't think in words, when: 1. When we open the hot water tap. 2. When we are riding our bicycle.

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Images and Brain

Imagining about a physical activity activates the same brain regions as when actually performing the activity.

Jean Duffy Decety, September 2003

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Language and Thinking

Traffic runs both ways between thinking and language.

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Animals & Language

Do animals have a language?

Honey bees communicate by dancing. The dance moves clearly indicate the direction of the nectar.

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Do animals think?

Common cognitive skills in humans and apes. · Concept formation. · · · · Insight Problem Solving Culture Mind?

William Munoz

African grey parrot assorts red blocks from green balls.

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Insight

Chimpanzees show insightful behaviors when solving problems.

Sultan uses sticks to get food.

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Problem Solving

Apes are famous for solving problems much like us.

Courtesy of Jennifer Byrne, c/o Richard Byrne, Department of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland

Chimpanzee fishing for ants.

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Animal Culture

Animals display custom and culture learnt and transmitted over generations.

Michael Nichols/ National Geographic Society

Copyright Amanda K Coakes

Dolphins using sponges as forging tools.

Chimpanzee mother using and teaching a young how to use a stone hammer. 67

Mental States

Can animals infer mental states in themselves and others? To some extent. Chimps and orangutans (and dolphins) have used mirrors to inspect themselves if a researcher has put a paint spot on their face or bodies.

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Do Animals Exhibit Language?

There is no doubt that animals communicate. Vervet monkeys, whales and even honey bees communicate with members of their specie and other species.

Rico (collie) has a 200-word vocabulary

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Copyright Baus/ Kreslowski

The Case of Apes

Chimps do not have vocal apparatus for human-like speech (Hayes & Hayes,1951). Gardner and Gardner (1969) therefore used American Sign Language (ASL) to train Washoe (a chimp), who learnt 182 signs by age 32.

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Gestured Communication

Animals show communication through gestures as do humans. It is possible that vocal speech developed from gestures during evolution.

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Sign Language

American Sign Language (ASL) has been instrumental in teaching a communication form to chimpanzees.

Paul Fusco/ Magnum Photos

When asked, chimpanzee uses a sign to say it is a baby

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Computer Assisted Language

Others have shown that bonobo pygmy chimpanzees can learn even larger vocabularies and perhaps semantic nuances in learning language (SavageRumbaugh, 1991). Kanzi and Panbanish developed vocabulary for hundreds of words and phrases.

Copyright of Great Ape Trust of Iowa

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Criticism

· Apes gain their limited vocabularies with great deal of difficulty unlike children who develop vocabularies at amazing rates. Chimpanzees can make signs to get rewards, just as pigeon pecks at the key gets reward. But pigeon has not learnt a language. Chimpanzees use signs meaningfully but lack syntax. Presented with ambiguous information people tend to see what they want to see.

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Conclusions

If we say that animals can use meaningful sequences of signs to communicate means language, our understanding would be naive... Steven Pinker (1995) concludes, "chimps do not develop language."

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