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FARMS

South Hadley was primarily an agricultural community at first with many farms and small gristmills and sawmills on the streams. The first land grants were in the Falls Woods area, the area north of the falls and along the river up to Stony Brook. Some of the farms were large, others small. Through the years they passed through many owners. Most of the large farms have been broken up into smaller units or house lots. Space does not permit mentioning all of them, but it is interesting to note how gradually, as the population grew and industries were developed, residents went to work in other occupations. Many continued to raise some vegetables and fruit for their own use, but it is no longer a main source of income. There is only one dairy farm in South Hadley, the McCray farm. At first, the residents were pretty self sufficient, able to raise most of their needs except for items such as sugar, molasses, salt and metal goods. In the Falls, Major John Pynchon of Springfield had in 1662 purchased from three natives ­ Wequogon, Awonunsk and Squomp ­ about 500 acres that included most of South Hadley Falls. In 1726, Pynchon's heir, William Pynchon, sold two-thirds of the grant to John Taylor who soon acquired the rest and it became known as Taylor's Field. Taylor gave each of his five sons part of the land, and in time most of it was subdivided.

Lamb's grandson, Alonzo, was a successful farmer and businessman. He built a handsome home at 85 N. Main Street. in 1834, the lumber for which was brought down the Connecticut River in canal boats. After he died June 29, 1853, his son, George E. Lamb, inherited the homestead and continued to operate the farm with his sons, William and Louis. After his father's death in 1913, William ran the dairy part of the operation, raised vegetables, hay and apples that were sent to Connecticut for shipping to England. Louis was an accomplished horticulturist and became a flower wholesaler.

Klepacki Farm on Alvord Street that is now part of Stonegate by the River development

William died in 1937 and Louis in 1945. Their nieces, Millie and Hazel Judd, inherited the farm and lived there until 1958 when the property was taken by the state by eminent domain for the relocation of Route 202 in connection with the construction of the Mueller Bridge.

Lamb Farm on North Main Street taken by eminent domain in connection with construction of Mueller Bridge

Daniel Lamb, Jr., who came to South Hadley in 1776, bought for two hundred pounds, one hundred-forty acres of Taylor's Field on which John Pooler had established a farm, and within a few years acquired the rest of Taylor's Field and other large tracts.Ultimately he owned all the land between Buttery Brook and the Springfield line (now the Chicopee line) and from the river to the Springfield Road, about 987 acres in all. Lamb died Dec. 27, 1819. Legal proceedings about his will dragged on, so that finally, it was the grandchildren who inherited the estate since his wife and children had died.

Newton Smith had a large farm above the old Tannery Road (Gaylord St.) that he inherited from his father who died in 1868. Newton acquired additional land until the farm comprised 155 acres and was one of the largest in town. He made numerous improvements and used scientific methods of fertilization and cultivation. He became known for great crops of hay, corn and other products and developed one of the largest dairies in Hampshire County. He died April 2, 1915 and his nephews inherited the property which was subsequently broken up. Charles Boynton had a farm above Smith's that extended to the lower end of College Street. It was through both farms that Newton Street was cut in 1875-6 to provide a direct route between the Falls

Howes farm, large dairy farm,was located where Ledges Golf Course is now. 1864 Joseph Carew and his wife built Congregational Church on North Main St. 1862 After Battle for Antietam Lincoln issues "Emancipation Proclamation" 1867 St. Patrick's Church established on North Main St. 1865 Lee surrenders

1863 Union wins Battle of Gettysburg

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four children. The family continued to operate the farm until 1892 when one son, Earl, acquired the shares of his siblings. He and his sons operated the farm until his death in 1946. The heirs deeded their shares to two of the sons, Millard and Malcolm D. In addition to farming, Millard had begun driving a school bus for the town in the 1930s. In 1954, he and his brother organized the Bagg Bros. Co. and carried on school busing for the town. They stopped farming. In 1995, Malcolm donated to the town 25 acres of his land along the Connecticut River to be preserved as conservation land for passive recreational purposes in memory of his wife, Margaret, and her mother, Ida Pierce, to be called the Margaret H. Bagg and Ada Pierce Wildlife Sanctuary. The Klepacki farm was located at the present site of the Stonegate by the River development. The farm can be traced back to 1800 when Ruggles Woodbridge sold 170 acres with buildings at this location for $2,000 to Jesse Brewster. Brewster sold 60 acres with house and barns for $1,000 to his son, Asabel, in 1816. Asabel bought an added 40 acres, and in 1839 sold his farm to Arba Stacy for $3,000. The farm changed hands a number of times, the last being when Walter Klepacki purchased it from the Armory Square Realty Trust on November 4, 1920. Klepacki had previously owned a farm on Pearl Street.

Bagg farm was a large dairy farm on Alvord Street until about 1946.

This farm on Alvord St. was owned by Alvord family till 1892 and then other owners including Quincy Bagg who sold it to Normand LeBlanc who developed it into Alvord Place Community. (photo c. 1890-1900)

and Center. Before that one had to go up North Main Street and Brainerd Street to College Street or along Alvord and Ferry Streets. to reach the Center. In the Center Byron Smith (1825-1922), who was active in town activities for more than seventy-five years, devoted his life to farming and acquired a great deal of property including what is now the Mount Holyoke College south campus and Prospect Hill. He also owned property towards the Notch. He carried on dairying, raised vegetables, especially corn, and supplied the college with milk for over fifty years. Smith was very interested in the development of Mount Holyoke College. He knew Mary Lyon, was a good friend of the students and was an honorary member of a number of classes. After the disastrous seminary fire in 1896, he sold most of his farm to Mount Holyoke College, and his house was moved to what is now 9 Morgan Street Rockefeller Hall, Mead and other dormitories as well as Mary Woolley Hall are now located on what was his farm. Another big farm in the Center was the Brockway farm. It included horse, carriage, cow, hay and horse barns. In 1866, Wilson B. Brockway bought the Titus Clark farm with a frontage of 759 feet on College Street and brought his family from Southampton. He sold most of the frontage before 1900. It was subdivided and houses built. Brockway, then his son and grandson, carried on the dairy farm. They supplied milk to Mount Holyoke College for many years until regulations required that it be pasteurized, and they sold it to a milk dealer or LaRose's Dairy. A big fire in 1936 destroyed the big barn, but dairying was continued on a smaller scale until the 1950s. Horace T. Brockway II, in addition to running the farm, worked as superintendent of the Water Department in Fire District 2 from 1953-1972 when he retired. The farm still has 60 acres and is owned by H. T. Brockway III. Conditions changed as the population and town grew. During the first half of the nineteenth century as factories were built along the river and in the Pearl City area, people began to work in the mills rather than farm. This trend increased during the last half of the SH 1868 Evergreen Cemetery established in Center US

1865 Lincoln assassinated

Leodor Pin Christmas tree farm on North Main Street now part of Loomis Village.

nineteenth century when numerous paper and textile mills were built in Holyoke. Construction of the County Bridge in 1872 facilitated commuting between the two towns, making it easy for South Hadley residents to work in Holyoke and South Hadley farmers to sell their milk and produce in Holyoke. As the population increased, the demand for housing grew, especially after World War II. During the war many farmers went to work in the factories and gave up farming. After the war many of the younger generation were not interested in farming and went into other occupations which often meant commuting to other cities in the area. New technologies and competition made dairy farming costly and unprofitable. Farmers with large tracts of land sold much of it to developers, tempted by attractive prices. Some farmers converted to market gardening, but most of those are gone. The Olesiuk-Weinack farm on Pearl Lane is still active in market gardening. There were a number of big farms on Alvord Street that are gone or are used for residences with the owners working elsewhere and only raising vegetables and fruit for their own needs. Hiram Abiff Bagg bought the James Eaton farm of 89 acres at 8 Alvord Street in 1853 and ran a dairy business. He purchased additional land until he owned more than 200 acres, some of it on Hadley Street. After his death in 1879, the property was distributed among his wife and

Orszak and Ludwig Winiarski and also acquired adjacent land until the farm consisted of 150 acres. He developed a dairy business with a herd of Guernsey cows and raised chickens and vegetables. After Whiting died in 1933, his son Samuel, Jr. operated the farm until 1943 when he sold it to Frederick G. and Newton H. Howes who also operated stores and a bakery in Holyoke. In 1955 Newton transferred his interest in the farm, by then 180 acres, to Frederick. Actual day-to-day running of the farm was done by Frank R. Jesionowski who started working there about 1931 and continued to run it after it was sold to Howes. His son, Frank, Jr. also worked on the farm. In March 1958, both Jesionowskis bought 29 acres of the farm from the Howes and continued to operate the dairy business, renting the rest of the Howes farm and acres on other farms to grow hay. On May 13, 1965 the Jesionowskis sold their farm to Plastic Coating Corporation. Howes, who had retired to Florida, had sold his holdings to the company earlier that month. Plastic Coating Corp. later merged with the Scott Paper Co. which went through several owners and became part of Rexam Graphics, now Intelicoat.

Charles Todt, one of the first florists in South Hadley, with daughter Louise, wife Pauline, daughter Hattie and son Charles,

Klepacki ran a milk business with about 75 cattle, raised hay and corn, and did some truck farming. He worked the farm till his death in 1958. His heirs sold the farm to the Renkowicz Trust for $116,000 in February, 1980. In 1987 the trustees sold it to two Springfield attorneys, Stephen P. Reilly and Joseph Turek, for $650,000. After some preliminary site preparation, it was sold to the South Hadley Group for $1.6 million. The farmhouse was demolished and large houses have been built in the Stonegate development along San Souci Drive. The Howes farm was one of the large dairy farms. It was located where the Rexam Research Center is located. In 1919 Samuel R. Whiting, a Holyoke industrialist, bought 90 acres from John

1870 Nine district schools abolished, system graded schools begun 1869 Attempt to impeach President Andrew Johnson fails

In June 1945 Louis and Leontyne Scheinost bought four parcels of land on Alvord Street that amounted to close to 100 acres. Their farm in Southampton had been burned down by vandals. He ran a dairy business until about 1957 when ill health made him limit his activities. They had bought the plans and material for their house from a Montgomery Ward catalog. Their sons Frank and Edmund established Scheinost Bros. Dairy Inc. and had a milk route in Holyoke. They remodeled an old garage on Route 202 in 1952 for $16,500 to serve as a dairy bar, the Green Pine Dairy. In 1962 the Green Pine Dairy was sold to Joseph Goepfert and his son. After Louis's death, Mrs. Scheinost sold four parcels of land, and after her death, the house was sold. In 1995, Jean Lauzier ended one of the last active dairy farms in South Hadley. The farmhouse (73 Alvord Street), one of the oldest homes in South Hadley, was built by Josiah Gaylord in the early 1800s. It stayed in the family until 1904 when it was sold to

Large Ciolek farm on Lathrop Street. Later sold for home lots.

1869 First graded school, Center School, built on College St. 1867 Reconstruction Acts

1870 Mount Holyoke Seminary built first library

1865 13th Amendment passed ending slavery

1869 Ulysses Grant becomes President

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Adelard Paul who sold it to Emile Chouinard who sold it in 1919 to Victor P. Levreault, who operated a feed store on Bridge Street. He and his son operated a dairy business until Levreault died Aug. 17, 1940. His widow sold the farm April 27, 1942 to Walter Lauzier and his father Martial.

use by the family. The Quincy Bagg farm on Alvord Street was sold by his heirs in 1988-89 to Normand LeBlanc and developed into 150 condominiums as Alvord Place Community.

John Lukasik purchased 25 acres Lauzier acquired adjoining land at 60 Pine Street about 1913 from Louis Scheinost, and expanded and started a dairy farm. During the farm from the original 107 acres the depression he worked nights to 203 acres. Walter Lauzier ran the at a paper mill in Holyoke to dairy farm until his death in 1988. Lauzier Farm in 1978 as seen from the river side (photo by Jim Armstrong) supplement the dairy business. His son, Jean, continued to operate The children all helped work the the farm alone, but operating costs were high and constantly farm. In the 1930s and 1940s they held Polish picnics in a tree grove increasing. It became increasingly difficult to operate the farm alone abutting Brainerd Street that attracted people from a large area. The so in 1995 he sold his cattle and discontinued his dairy business. He dairy farm was turned into a market garden business, and Lukasik uses the farm to raise hay. peddled vegetables and fruit in South Hadley and Holyoke. Five of

All the work was done manually with two horses to help with the plowing. While the son Frank was in the service during World War II, his mother and two sisters ran the farm. Mrs. Obremski sold part of the land in the 1950s, and her son developed the rest. It is now the site of homes in the Parkview Drive, Blueberry Bend, Ashton Lane and St. Theresa's Church area. Frank's house was on the site of St. Theresa's Church and was moved to Brainerd Street.

the land was sold to developers. The property included land now in the Park Avenue, Fairlawn, Berwyn and Viviani St. area.

Among the large farms that have been broken up into home sites was the Ciolek farm that was located on Lathrop Street a little below the intersection of Lathrop and Brainerd Street Members of the Judd family originally owned land on both sides of the street. Charles A. An amusement ride at McCray's farm on Alvord Street ( JQS photo ) Judd had a farm of about 70 One of the oldest farms and farmhouses in South Hadley was that at acres that he had acquired in 1882 from Andrew T. Judd who had 153 Lyman Street Silas Smith's son, Hiram, (1793-1873) inherited acquired it from Willard Judd. On the east side of the street, Otis A. it and after his death, his son Edwin ran the large dairy business. Judd and his son operated a market garden business. Edwin had built a house at 165 Lyman Street. The house at 153

McCray Farm as seen from the River Side ( JQS photo )

Lyman Street was inherited by Hiram's daughter, Julia Lyman, and then by her son who also inherited part of the farm. In 1920 Leonard Titus bought six tracts of land that included 153 Lyman Street and Titus Pond. He was a banker in Holyoke and was a gentleman farmer. He raised Holstein cattle and was a milk dealer. Fire destroyed the barn in 1948 and Titus gave up farming. The land was sold to developers and cut up into small house lots. Edwin's son, Ellis, inherited the house at 165 Lyman Street and ran a large dairy farm at the corner of Lyman and Brainerd Streets that he later converted to a vegetable farm. After his death in 1943

1873 Carew Mfg. Co. wooden mill destroyed by fire

Once a dairy farm, the Lauzier Farm is no longer in operation (JQS photo)

Otis's farm was owned before by Wells Lathrop, an owner of the Howard & Lathrop Co. paper mill that went bankrupt. Wells retired to his farm and joined his brother, Paoli, in breeding Durham pureblooded cattle. Paoli was an authority on raising pure-bred cattle and shipped them to all parts of the country. Charles Judd operated his farm until Feb. 1, 1919 when he sold it to Anthony Ciolek for $7,200. Ciolek had come from Poland to Holyoke about 1888, and had acquired and operated a meat and grocery store. He moved his family to the farm where he raised cattle and produced milk that he sold to Beattie's Dairy. He also raised corn, vegetables and fruit and enlarged his farm to over 100 acres.

In 1914 Joseph Stefanelli bought a farm of 13 acres at 69 Alvord Street from Lucy Smith. He raised and sold vegetables until his death Oct. 22, 1962. His son, Rebello, continued to run the farm but also worked at the Westinghouse Corp. and then Digital Equipment Co. He died in 1997, but the farm is still in the family, the fifth generation. It is used as a residence. Produce is raised for

the children built homes on the homestead, and the farmhouse was sold about 1960. About ten or fifteen years later part of the land was sold and developed into Skyline Drive and Meadowood Drive. Another dairy farm that is now homes was the Obremski farm. It was a 150-acre dairy farm acquired by Frank Obremski in 1934.

1872 County bridge South Hadley-Holyoke built

SH 1872 Waterworks system introduced (Buttery Brook, Leaping Well reservoirs) US

1871 Chicago Fire kills 250 and leaves over 98,000 people homeless.

1874 Precious Blood Cemetery established

1872 Congress creates Yellowstone National Park

1874 Massachusetts enacts first law limiting women to 10 hour work day. 1874 Start of Chautauqua Movement educating public on public issues

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Ciolek died Jan. 23, 1942. His wife, who inherited the property, continued to live there until about 1960, but began to sell parts of the land. After she died in 1961, the rest of the land was sold to a Holyoke developer. The farmhouse was burned in 1965 as an exercise for the fire department. Lathrop Street is completely lined with houses now and busy with traffic taking a short route to the McCray Farm as seen from Alvord Street in the foreground and Stonegate Mueller Bridge. development in the background (formerly Klepacki Farm) (JQS photo)

living units and 36 independent living apartments. Phase 3, which is in progress, will add ten free standing cottages, 60 apartments and additional amenities, including an indoor swimming pool, fitness and wellness center and 200-seat auditorium which it is anticipated will be made available to town groups as well. Some of the acreage of the Strong farm on North Main Street, that

divided among the heirs until 1986 when Frederick Wallace Strong bought out the remaining owners for $70,000. He died in 1999 and the farm was sold to Normand LeBlanc. The Oertel farm is now the site of the South Hadley Square retail center on Willimansett Street with a Big Y supermarket that was dedicated June 21, 1997. The last owner, August L. Oertel, operated the farm with his father, Leonard, until his father's death in 1946. He then ran it single-handedly until his own death in 1993. His father had purchased the house and farm of 40 acres from Ann Royston in 1888 and had added about 32 acres. It had passed through various owners before that. Leonard raised cows and pigs, had horses and grew hay and vegetables. August raised produce and

With the dedication of Westover Air Force Base April 6, 1940, there was a great increase in population and demand for housing. Much of the farmland was sold, and Willimansett Street today is lined with houses and businesses serving the residential community that evolved. One of the first florists in South Hadley was Charles Todt whose business grew out of his love of farming. He worked for some years in mills in Holyoke, but wanted to live on a farm. In 1905 he bought a farm in Granby in partnership with Leo Fugler, but two years later sold his share, and bought a seven acre farm on the Granby Road. While still working in Holyoke, he and his family worked the farm raising vegetables that he peddled to stores in Holyoke.

Aerial view of San Souci Drive in Stonegate by the River development. (aerial JQS photo)

Donald McCray, owner of the only active dairy farm. McCray was the Grand Marshall in the 250th Anniversary Parade. ( JQS photo)

The former Christmas tree farm of Leodor Pin at 246 North Main Street was purchased in 1988 by the Loomis Communities and has been developed into Loomis Village, a non-profit continuing care retirement community of attractive cottage style villas and buildings overlooking the Connecticut River. The farmhouse, which is believed to have been built in the 1780s, has been converted into offices that serve as headquarters of the Loomis Corporate offices. The 27 acre farm was owned during most of the 19th century by Willard Judd, and was in the Pin family for two generations. Loomis Village has been going through three phases. Phase 1 opened in 1992 and consisted of 28 cottage-style villas. Phase 2 opened in 1996 and included a Village Center which incorporated 25 assisted SH 1875 Jan. 17 Meetinghouse in Center (3rd) burned US

was next to Loomis Village, are now being developed by Normand LeBlanc into seventeen large condos. The rest has been acquired by Loomis Village. Back in the early 19th century, it was a dairy farm that was later converted to market gardening. In 1827, Willard and Levi Judd purchased fifty acres from Hiram Williston for $1,800, and in 1831 Asaph Judd bought twenty-two acres from his father. Freeman Nutting in 1831 purchased the twenty-two acres at auction from Asaph's estate for $1,325. Two years later he sold it for $2,800 to John H. Johnson. In 1864 Henry Strong of Easthampton purchased the farm for $2,650. Chester Strong acquired it from Henry in 1891 for $5,000. He died intestate a few years later and one of the heirs, Frederick Strong, bought out the other owners. He died in 1950 and ownership was

sold it all over the region. Other farms on Willimansett Street were the Nyzio farm next to the Oertel farm, and the Popielarz farm. Wicenty Nyzio purchased a farm in 1915 and ran a dairy business. Josef Popielarz purchased the farm next to Nyzio in 1922 and added to it. His son, Carl, inherited it, started an excavating business and raises produce and animals for his own use. Across the road was the Baker farm that extended to Abbey Street. Baker's farm originally comprised 21 acres, but he bought more land until it included over 70 acres. He operated a profitable dairy business until his death. His children inherited it, and over the years, parts of the land were sold, houses built and businesses established.

He opened a market garden stand, and as business increased, he stopped working in the mill in Holyoke and became a full-time market gardener. He acquired more land, and also raised flowers. He built a greenhouse and developed a profitable florist business. As the business continued to grow, he built four more greenhouses. He died Feb. 12, 1939 at age 68, and his son, Charles, Jr., carried on the business. Like his father, he was active in business and civic organizations. He died suddenly of a heart attack May 28, 1953. His son Edwin bought the property, which included the house, five greenhouses, barn, garage, fruit stand and two coops, but unfortunately was not able to operate the business successfully. In 1958, the Mechanics Savings Bank foreclosed on the property which was sold and broken up. Since then a number of businesses have

1876 Fire at Center destroyed hotel, Gridley's, post office, etc 1875 Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone

1876 Newton Street cut through Newton Smith and Boynton farms 1876 Fourth meetinghouse dedicated 1880 Lynch Family Brickyard started 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 1876 Johns Hopkins University first Graduate School degree 1880 George Eastman camera invented

1875 Labor unrest leads to violence and rise of Molly Maguires

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been located there, among them Buttonwood Realty, Heidi's, Adelfia, the Bobbin Shoppe, and Time to Teach. There were a number of farms on Hadley Street. The house at 78 Hadley Street was once part of the Samuel W. Young farm of 57 acres and a wooded lot. After Young's death in 1939, everything was divided among his five children, and the property was later sold to developers. Joseph Skinner, who owned the mansion on Woodbridge Street, also operated a farm as his property ran all the way down to Hadley Street. He was a gentleman farmer and raised cattle, chickens and produce. Skinner sold the land along Hadley Street, and it is now the site of homes. The big barn burned in 1948. A large farm at 383 Hadley Street was operated as a dairy farm by the Lyman family who got it through a land grant from the King. The house was struck by lightning in 1918 and burned.

one-room schoolhouse of School District 5. Alfred Bock bought it in 1915 from Anders Kjoller and enlarged it to two rooms and a porch. In 1919, Michael Lecca, Sr. and his wife bought it with five acres. He added five acres and lived in it until 1932 when he had it renovated, added a second story and enclosed the porch. He had a few cows and raised produce. His son, Michael Lecca, Jr. and wife Beverly, took over the farm in 1966. Lecca worked at Mount Holyoke College, and in 1986 started to sell off the cows and stopped the dairy farm. He died in 1991. The farm is used to raise hay. The Lukasik Game Farm on Pearl Street started as a 40 acre farm that John Skwarlo and his wife bought about 1910. They had cows and sold milk to a dairy. They also raised produce that they sold in Holyoke. In 1942 his wife died, and his daughter and son-in-law, Henry Lukasik, moved to the farm to carry it on. Lukasik also worked in a paper mill in Holyoke.

farm at 101 Amherst Street. Irving Boynton and Howard Wilkinson purchased it in May 1910 from the Mechanics Savings Bank for $2,900. Henry E. Bennett had defaulted on the mortgage on the farm that was formerly the C. Newton Montague farm. They had operated Boynton & Wilkinson Livery and Express at the Center from the 1890s until the early 1900s when competition from the trolley lines made it unprofitable. The farm had seventy-five acres and thirty cattle. Boynton and Wilkinson sold the milk to the Holyoke Producers Dairy Co. In 1917 Wilkinson sold his share to Boynton who continued to run it but also served as a rural mail carrier for thirty years, beginning in 1903. He retired in 1934 and died five years later. The farm was run by his daughter Laurel and her husband, J. Sidney Croke, until 1942. In 1969 it was sold to developers who erected homes in the development known as "The Meadows." The only active dairy farm in South Hadley is the McCray farm

Lukasik Game Farm

( JQS photo )

ownerships. Donnellan ran a working dairy farm until 1971 when the house was sold and farming ceased. South Hadley is now a suburban community and a charming college town, although there is some industry and attempts are made to attract more. It is an attractive community to live in, but the residents do not depend on farming for their livelihood. Many work in small service businesses in town. With the explosion in population and technology, many work in diverse occupations and commute to work in cities in the area. An interesting footnote to the history of farms in South Hadley is the fact that in 1802 Pliny Moody, who was plowing on his father's farm at Moody Corner, discovered the first known specimens of dinosaur tracks. They were presented to Amherst College. The Connecticut Valley is one of the best places to observe dinosaur tracks preserved in shaley sandstone. The largest number have been found in the vicinity of South Hadley and Turners Falls.

Olesiuk-Weinack Farm on Pearl Lane (aerial JQS photo)

Spring Meadow development houses This land was once used for farming. (aerial JQS photo )

at 55 Alvord Street. Donald McCray bought the 110-acre farm in 1955 from Norbert Bonneville. Six years ago, he acquired the Cournoyer farm. Bonneville had acquired the farm from Arthur Donnellan about 1945. Donnellan had operated the farm as Bonnielea. McCray owns and rents about 260 acres. He uses modern methods in order to operate as efficiently as possible. The cows are fed a strict diet of high moisture corn, silage and grain. With strong competition and the costs of feed and equipment high and ever increasing, McCray has had to be innovative to survive. In April 1987, he started a dairy bar, McCray's Creamery, where ice cream is made on site and light lunches are sold. He introduced a petting farm, hay rides, sleigh rides, Spooky Farm, Hay House, and tours for school children. The farm has become a popular tourist attraction, a fun place to take the children. After selling Bonnielea, Arthur Donnellan in 1949 acquired the home and farm at 4 East Street. It had been in the Church family for generations and then gone through several brief

The Ledges Golf Course, former farm field, and Stonegate Housing Development (aerial JQS photo) 1888 South Hadley Falls Electric Light Co. privately established

Farming was discontinued. Several members of the family now have residences on the property. Among the ten or eleven small farms on Ferry Street was the one owned by Henry Blain. He owned a twelve-acre farm. His granddaughter recalls that he had six or seven cows, a horse and raised vegetables, apples and berries. He also worked at the American Writing Paper Co. in Holyoke to supplement his income. He sold his surplus produce to the Holyoke City Market. The other farms on the street had one or two cows and raised vegetables, but the owners also worked at jobs off the farms. The Lecca farmhouse at 175 Morgan Street was originally the SH 1884 St. Rose Cemetery established by St. Patrick's Church US

1883 Congress passes Civil Service reform

Skwarlo died in 1950, and all except three of the cows were sold. Lukasik was a sportsman and began to raise pheasants. In 1962, he started the game farm and raised quail, partridge, guinea hens, and turkeys in addition to pheasants. He also established a deli where he sells the fowl and sandwiches. Lukasik died in 1983. His son carries on the game farm, but also has a full-time job. John Olesiuk purchased a fifty-acre farm at 10 Pearl Lane in 1925 where he ran a dairy farm until his death. His daughter, Olga, and husband, John Weinack, now operate a market garden business there, raising vegetables, corn, hay, blueberries and fruit. Another farm with an interesting history is the Irving Boynton

1885 Mount Holyoke Paper Co. built at Pearl City 1886 Statue of Liberty dedicated in N.Y.C. harbor

1888 Mount Holyoke Seminary became Mount Holyoke Seminary and College

1886 American Federation of Labor organized

1887 Interstate Commerce Act passed 1888 Blizzrd of `88 hits U.S. eastern seaboard 1889 Johnstown dam breaks, flood kills over 2000 people

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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Although South Hadley began as an agricultural community with small grist and sawmills along the streams, other businesses were developed as the population increased. Information about the first mills is scarce, at times dependent on old maps. In 1699, four men had permission to erect a sawmill at the falls of Bachelor Brook, but it is not known what mills were erected under these grants. In 1771, Josiah Snow had a grist mill on the north side of Bachelor Brook east of the bridge over which the road from South Hadley to Moody Corner currently passes. An 1831 map shows the Moodys had a sawmill and then a gristmill near there. Before 1830 Alonzo Blodgett had a forge at Bachelor Falls where the road running from the South Hadley meetinghouse crosses the brook. He bought waste iron and hammered it into bars of any size customers might require. Snow also owned a water privilege west of the highway at Pearl City and had a "bark mill" in which he ground hemlock bark for his tannery on Silver Street. After his death, his son, Spencer, carried on the business, but after his death the bark mill was bought by Ezra Allen toward the end of 1854. By 1857, Allen had acquired all the land around the lower falls of the brook. That year, he and his son, Ezra Augustus Allen, built what was for that day a first class mill for making Manila paper. In January 1865 this mill was sold for $15,000 to Samuel Converse, who a year later sold the plant for $18,000 to George M. Stearns and some other Chicopee men and Frederick Taylor and S. Mills Cook of Granby. The Chicopee owners sold their interests to the Granby men who became sole owners. Under the firm name of Taylor, Cook & Co. and then Taylor & Co., the business prospered for some years until a fire ended it, as happened to many mills. In October 1832, Israel Lyman sold a little more than an acre on the east side of the brook on what is now Pearl Street and northeast of the Broom Handle Factory, to Sidney Smith and his son, Benjamin Franklin (usually called Franklin), of Granby. Franklin had invented machinery and tools for manufacturing pearl buttons. They built a mill, and their pearl button business flourished for about ten years, giving Pearl City its name. According to R. O. Dwight in his historical essay, Franklin Smith was the inventor of the first machinery in America to make buttons from oyster shells, and the first pearl buttons in the country were made here. The shells came from Manila, India and the Sandwich islands. Things began to go badly. Franklin died suddenly and the mill closed. The property changed hands a few times, and in 1853 was bought by John Louis Faber of Charleston, S.C. who installed machinery for producing chasing on metals. In 1862, Faber sold the mill to Martin W. Burnett, a prominent South Hadley resident, who sold it to the Agawam Woolen Co. It used the mill to card, spin and weave woolen fabrics that were then taken to their Agawam plant for fulling and finishing. The mill was sold when the company transferred the operation to their enlarged Agawam plant. SH 1889 Firehouse built by town on North Main St. US

1890 Sherman Anti -Trust Act

An 1873 map shows the Agawam Woolen Mills, the Kenworthy Bros. Woolen Mills and the F. Taylor & Co. paper mill. The property eventually was sold to the Kenworthy Bros. who used the mill to spin woolen yarns. By 1889, the property was in use by the Pearl City Paper Co. which made colored tissue paper. B. F. Perkins and Son, a Holyoke firm, bought a half interest in the company and later became sole owners. Ten years later the son, John Lewis Perkins, incorporated the Japanese Tissue Mills, a consolidation of several paper interests including the South Hadley mills at Pearl City and Stony Brook. In 1920 these became the American Tissue Mills which went bankrupt in 1950 and became the American Mills. Pearl City was a thriving center of industry when the mills were in working order. There were boarding houses to accommodate the

sheet by hand separately. He also made other pioneering inventions. They made book, news and writing paper, and it was claimed the Ames mills produced one-half to two-thirds of the fine paper produced in the country. Unfortunately a bitter rivalry developed between the two companies that led to seven years of litigation that was a financial drain on both companies. The Panic of 1837 contributed to the financial problems, and both companies went bankrupt in March 1846. Shortly after, both mills were destroyed by fire. Joseph Carew, who had worked for Howard & Lathrop in their dry-goods store in Springfield, was put in charge of the general store connected with the mill. He became superintendent, and

The main building was brick, two hundred by one hundred feet with six stories, and with six other buildings was used for dye-house, cloth room, storage and office purposes. At its peak, the company employed about 400 to 450 men and women, with a payroll of $10,000 a month. A fire on July 3, 1855 destroyed the top two floors of the mill, but the lower ones, which housed heavy machinery, were saved through the efforts of the Holyoke and Canal Village firemen and the Glasgow and Carew force pumps. The mill was rebuilt, new and improved machinery installed, and the company prospered. The ginghams produced by Glasgow, which in 1854 was one of two gingham mills in the United States, maintained such a reputation and market that the company earned enormous profits and declared big dividends. Although the years 1878-93 were prosperous ones in the cotton manufacturing industry, the Glasgow mill was allowed to run down, apparently bled for dividends, so that it was ill-prepared to cope with the depression of the `90s. Much of the machinery was antiquated; competition was growing; industry conditions were changing. Conditions continued to deteriorate. In April 1896, the mill shut down. In 1903, the Hadley Mills took over the Glasgow Co. and continued to produce textiles until about 1930 when it went into bankruptcy. The property was bought by the Holyoke Water Power Co., and the mill was demolished. About 1864, the Glasgow Co. bought land adjoining it and below the Carew mill, and built a mill that produced paper of excellent quality that was sold by Lewis Powers of Springfield, the leading paper dealer in the valley. In April 1866, the mill was sold to Edward, Wells and John Southworth, previous stockholders in the Glasgow Co., who organized the Hampshire Paper Co. Hampshire Paper was managed by the Southworth family until late 1935 when the Hampshire mill machines were shut down. Production of Old Hampshire Bond and other well-established lines was carried on by the Carew Manufacturing Co., using some of Hampshire Paper's facilities. On Jan. 24, 1940, the Stevens Paper Mills, Inc. of Windsor, Ct. took over the Hampshire Paper Co., including mill power rights. The Stevens Co. manufactured special papers for the electrical trade including a special insulation paper. About 1968, the company consolidated all its operations in its Westfield plant, and the South Hadley plant was closed. The mill was demolished about 1970. An important industry along the river during the last half of the eighteenth century and first half of the nineteenth was shad and salmon fishing. At first the fisheries were considered common property and were used by all, but when the fish became more scarce, owners of land bordering the river took advantage of a law giving them the exclusive right of fishing there and limited access to themselves. They built fishing wharves that were artificial islands in the river and sold the right to use them. They were given names. Stories were told that the river was so full of fish that in rowing the oars would strike the fish. Hauls of from three thousand to thirtyfive hundred were reported by the fishermen. The use of gill nets at the mouth of the river and closing of the gap in the Enfield dam that for years allowed passage for the fish led to the demise of the fisheries.

1893 Lower College St. paper mill sold to B. Perkins & Son

The brick Carew mill that replaced the wooden one destroyed by fire in 1873. Original wood building of the Carew Manufacturing Co. established in 1848 (The drawing is not an accurate representation of the site)

many employees at the mills. In August 1955, a hurricane caused heavy flooding and damage. The bridges at Pearl City and Moody Corner were washed out. The dam went out, and the raceway beneath the Pearl City mill could not carry the force of the water which caused part of the brick walls to buckle and tore off a corner of the building. The mill stood vacant until the mid-1960s when it was destroyed by a suspicious winter fire. The remnants were torn down. In the Falls, Josiah Bardwell had bought a strip of land between the canal and the river. He sold part of the land in 1824 to Charles Howard and Wells Lathrop who had run a general store in Springfield. They built a mill to make book, news and writing paper. It was the first paper mill erected in Hampshire County. The paper was of such good quality that in 1830 the Government Printing Office was using it, and the Congressional Globe was being printed on it. Lathrop ran the mill for twenty years while Howard managed things in Springfield. In 1831, David and John Ames, the sons of David Ames, Sr., the first superintendent of the Springfield Armory, bought land from Josiah Bardwell and built a paper mill near that of Howard Lathrop. John, a mechanical genius, originated the idea of running a continuous sheet of paper through the sizing process instead of dipping each

1892 Notre Dame Cemetery established

being an enterprising young man, after fire destroyed the mill, he bought the damaged stock, making some $2,000 to $3,000 profit. The following year, 1848, he, Francis Carew and James B. Rumrill incorporated the Carew Manufacturing Co. to produce paper with a capital not to exceed $75,000. Joseph Carew became agent and treasurer and had the controlling interest. The business prospered. In 1873, the wooden mill burned and was replaced by a more costly one of brick, 150 by 40 feet with marble facings and trimmings. After Carew died in 1881, the company was managed by C. W. Gardner until 1886 when Edward Southworth became treasurer, and Charles Southworth, secretary. In the early 1940s, Carew manufacturing operations were phased out. In 1948, it was sold to Texon which made fiber impregnated materials for the shoe, luggage and automotive industries. Texon was sold to the Holyoke Water Power Co. in 1988. It stood vacant for about a decade and was acquired by the Holyoke Gas & Electric Co as part of its purchase of the Holyoke dam. After the Ames and Howard & Lathrop fires, another mill was built on the site of the Howard & Lathrop mill. The Glasgow Co. was incorporated by George M. Atwater, Charles Peck and William Bowdoin on Feb. 16, 1848 to manufacture cotton, woolen, worsted or silk goods although the intention was to produce mainly Scotch ginghams, hence the name Glasgow Co. The capital originally was $200,000 but was increased three times, finally being $350,000.

1893 Mt. Holyoke Seminary and College became Mount Holyoke College 1893 Grover Cleveland begins second term

1891 Plains School built (wooden)

1891 Thomas Edison invents motion pictures

1892 Carnegie Steel Homestead Strike

1893 Panic of 1893 leads to depression of 1895

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Glasgow Company was established in 1848 and at its peak employed 400-450. In 1854 was one ot two gingham mills in the United States.

The original Cowan Block was a one-story wood building that housed the drug store and several other stores. It was replaced around 1915 by a four-story brick building that included apartments.

Stony Brook has been the site of various small mills. The upper part, which consists of Upper Lake and Lower Lake, furnished the power to operate sawmills, gristmills, the Kellogg button factory, and cotton and paper mills. In 1794, there was a gristmill at the upper end of Upper Lake, and in 1831 the Ingraham and Kellogg button factory was located there. By 1847, A. Ingraham owned a sawmill on the site of the button factory, and in 1865 Otis Kellogg had a box factory there and a cider mill. In 1771, the Ruggles Woodbridge sawmill was in operation at the lower end of Upper Lake, and in 1794 a gristmill was located there. Joseph Strong, a nephew of Woodbridge, managed the gristmill until his brother, Maltby Strong, purchased it in 1829 and converted it into the Woodbridge Manufacturing Co. to manufacture cotton cloth. Five years later Maltby exchanged the mill for property owned by Erastus Smith in Rochester, N.Y. Strong's mill burned before Smith could move his family to South Hadley, but he built a brick paper mill on the site. About ten years later he sold it to his brother, C. A. Smith, who subsequently sold it to Salathiel Judd. Judd and his sons managed the mill until one of the sons died about 1893. Mount Holyoke College bought the property and demolished the mill in 1895. At the lower end of Lower Lake, there were at various times a sawmill, corn mill, fulling mill, and grist mill. The falls on Stony Brook at the foot of College Street, where The Mill and Chap de Laine's are now located, were also used for power by various businesses that flourished, failed or burned. In 1770, a fulling mill and dye house occupied the site and went through various owners until Josiah Bardwell became the owner in 1829. He sold it to Stephen White who added more than three acres and two houses to the property, replaced the old fulling mill on the east side of the brook with a satinet factory and a batting mill on the west side. The business became insolvent in 1854, and the property was sold to Ellery T. Taber of Fairhaven. SH 1894 March 4 First Congregational Church in Center (4th) burned US

1894 Pullman strike reflects continuing labor unrest

In January 1865, Luther H. Arnold of Palmer bought the houses, mills, water privilege and more land, and in 1880 sold the property, except for the Dunklee Farm, to the South Hadley Woolen Co. Five years later the factory buildings were destroyed by fire, and the woolen company sold the land and water privilege to Kate Shannon. She and her husband erected a small brick mill on the site, and April 15, 1891 sold it to the Holyoke firm, B. F. Perkins & Son. Perkins used the mill to manufacture calendar roll paper and then crepe and tissue paper. Perkins died in 1900, and his son carried on the business. In 1917, he consolidated several paper interests into the American Tissue Mills, including the mill at Stony Brook. The company flourished for a number of years but ran into difficulties in the 1940s. By 1950, the company was bankrupt. In 1953, Aaron Krok of North Brookfield took it over, and two years later sold the Stony Brook mill to the Marcalus Manufacturing Co.

The company, which later changed its name to Marcal Paper Mills Inc., operated the mill until 1976 when it was sold to the Stony Brook Paper Corp. The company was not successful, and in 1981 the property was sold to the Stony Brook Mill Ltd. Partnership. The mill was converted into twenty-nine very attractive condominiums called The Mill. The Howard, Gaylord & Co. sash and blind factory was located where Chap de Laine's is now. The property was acquired from Peter Allen in 1834 by John Hastings and Alonzo Cutter who owned patents for sash-making machinery. They erected buildings and began making sash tools and sashes. There were a few changes in ownership, and in 1853 the business was sold to Eleazar Howard and Moses Gaylord. They and their descendants operated the business till the death of Lewis Gaylord in 1929. The mill was not used for some years. The property was bought in 1963 from Donald D. Benson for $18,000 and remodeled by Chap de Laine's Interiors to serve as a furniture store

and interior decorating business. Chap de Laine's has expanded, and a complex of buildings has developed next to it. These include a variety of small businesses ­ South Hadley Wellness Center, Curves for Women, American Express Financial Consultants, Bail's Custom Footcare, Baker-Waite Realty Inc., Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine Services of New England, Gunther Associates, Town Reminder, Pet Companion, Pronowicz Therapy and Lander's Dance Studio. In the last decades of the nineteenth century and the first part of the twentieth, brick making was the second major industry of South Hadley. It became an important lucrative business because of the enormous deposits of clay and sand in this region. Much of the brick for the mills and tenements of Holyoke and the vicinity were made in South Hadley. Asabel Robinson, who lived in a building on Gaylord Street called the "tannery," owned a large tract on both sides of the street. On the east side of the street he had a brickyard where the barn and sheds of the Lynch Brothers Brick Co. later stood. The Robinson brickyard flourished during the early 1800s. Since there was no machinery to do the work, a laborious method was followed, using hand frames containing four or eight molds. When 40,000 or 50,000 bricks had been struck from the molds and hardened in the sun, they were piled up and baked in the kiln. In 1867, Ebenezer T. Richards, a Holyoke brick maker, purchased from Joel Miller and George W. Bolton some fifteen acres at the south end of South Hadley Falls where he established a brickyard that did a large business for many years. He died in 1882. His son continued the business until 1895 when the yard was closed because of the exhaustion of the supply of sand and clay.

The Howard, Gaylord & Co. sash and blind factory was located where Chap de Laine's is now and was operated by Howard and Gaylord and their descendants till 1929.

The Howard, Gaylord & Co. building was remodeled by Chap de Laine's Interiors to serve as a furniture store and decorating business. 1896 Sept. 27 Mount Holyoke Seminary building destroyed by fire

1896 Sept. 23 Dedication of Soldier's Monument on town common

1896 First electric trolley cars began to run to South Hadley Center 1896 William Jennings Bryan gives "Cross of Gold" speech

1894 Eugene Debs sentenced to prison for his part in Railway Strike

1896 Supreme Court holds that "separate but equal" public facilities are legal

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natural tracing papers and then photo imaging papers. In 1949, a sister company, Tecnifax Corp., was founded in Holyoke. It specialized in diazo sensitized papers and cloths, diazo sensitized films for overhead projection and microfilm duplication and zinc oxide reader/printer papers. The Scott Paper Co. purchased both the Plastic Coating Corp. and Tecnifax Corp. and in 1965 formed Scott Graphics, Inc. located in the plant on Gaylord Street. Two years later, it opened a 45,000 square foot Research and Development Center off Alvord Street in South Hadley. In the next ten years, the company added new products to its line, among them organic photoconductive film for transparent electrophotographic systems, vesicular films for microfilm duplication, and translucent papers for electrostatic plotters.

The Lynch brothers and their descendents ran their brickyard from 1880 until about 1954. .

Schiffner's newsroom on Main Street before it was destroyed by the 1936 flood

Fernandes blacksmith and livery stables

The biggest brickyard was the one established by Maurice Lynch and his brothers Michael and John. Maurice had come to the United States in 1845, attended schools in Holyoke, learned bricklaying, and being enterprising, took contracts in masonry and became a big contractor. In 1880, he and his brothers bought from Charles A. Bardwell his mowing lot of ten acres on the west side of Lamb Street, including the old Robinson brickyard. They bought from the Goepel heirs land on the opposite side of Lamb Street for its clay and sand, and later purchased the Suhanek lot on the Granby Road that was a solid bank of clay. The brothers did a large business in brick making. After they died, the sons carried on the business. By then electric mixers and brick forming machinery were used. The company went out of existence about 1954. In 1880, Charles Rannenberg bought the share of his tenant in common, John Gaylord, in the pasture on the east side of Lamb Street, opposite the new yard of the Lynches, and set up a brickyard. Rannenberg had come to the Falls in 1849 to act as overseer in the new Glasgow mill. Although new to the brick making business, he prospered. In 1882, however, an offer of $15,000 tempted him and he sold the yard to D. J. and P. J. Landers of Holyoke. The Landers Brothers greatly enlarged the yard and business. Foreseeing the

exhaustion of the clay at their yard in 1892, they bought from Mary Kilkelly twenty-two and a half acres on the east side of Newton Street, and a few years later moved their plant to this site. The business done by these yards was enormous during the last decades of the nineteenth century and first decades of the twentieth when Holyoke was building mills and blocks. These yards turned out 19,000,000 bricks in more than one year. As the supply of clay and sand decreased, the companies gradually went out of existence.

1932. Over the years the company has gone through name changes and introduced many new products that have had significant impact on a variety of diverse markets. The plant has been expanded several times. The company is one of the largest employers in South Hadley with approximately 330 employees. The company began with the founding of Beveridge-Marvellum Co. on Gaylord Street in South Hadley. It produced metallic lacquercoated decorative paper, and in 1934 also made translucent tracing paper. In 1938 the company name was changed to Plastic Coating Corp., and it produced plastic-coated decorative papers, Gateway

In 1978, Scott Graphics, Inc. was purchased by James River Corp., and James River Graphics, Inc. was formed. Again, new products were introduced, among them Polaroid flat cell battery components, clear and matte films for electrostatic plotters, papers and films for pen plotters and acid-free aqueous vellum. The company acquired the Portland Paper Coating Mill in Portland, Oregon in 1986, and later two companies in England. A management led buyout in 1991 from James River Corp. led to the formation of Graphics Technology International, Inc. as part of Specialty Coatings International Inc. In April 1993, it became Rexham Graphics with sale to Rexham PLC, U.K. Two years later, a new business development facility was constructed, and in 1997, the "h" was dropped from the name, making it Rexam Graphics.

Businesses after 1953

During the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st, South Hadley has had a substantial amount of commercial and industrial development. In 1953, there were thirteen manufacturers listed in the Assessors' Office. Of the thirteen, three are still operating but under other names. Beveridge-Marvellum Company is now InteliCoat Technologies; Hadley Metal Stamping is now Tech Fab, Inc.; and All Star Dairy Foods is the result of the merging of Sawyer's Riverside Dairy, Beattie's Dairy and the LaRose Dairy Company. The history of InteliCoat Technologies began with its founding in

Intersection of Main and Bridge Streets during the town's celebration of its 200th Anniversary in 1953. Note banner and decorations.

On the site of a former brickyard, InteliCoat Technologies has evolved since 1932 from Beveridge-Marvellum, Plastic Coating, Scott Graphics, James River, Rexam and other corporate identities into a global leader in the manufacture and distribution of precision coated paper, film and specialty substrates for imaging, optical, medical and electronic components. (JQS aerial photo) 1898 Fifteen from South Hadley served in Spanish-American War 1899 President McKinley visits Mount Holyoke College 1898 Admiral Dewey defeats Spanish navy in Manila Bay

SH 1897 Town established South Hadley Public Library US

1897 McKinley inaugurated president

1897 High school classes at Center School consolidated with those at School Street School

1897 Gold found in Klondike, Alaska

1898 Sinking of the battleship "Maine" leads to Spanish/American War

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There was another name change in 1999 when it became Rexam Image Products through the merger of Rexam Graphics with Rexam Custom. That year they launched the Magic brand Grand Format media line of digital imaging products. In 2002, it became InteliCoat Technologies with sale to Sun Capital Partners, Boca Raton, FL. Tech Fab, Inc., formerly called Hadley Metal Stamping, has been a family owned business in South Hadley since 1946. It was started in a three-car garage on Berwyn Street by Wayne Cordes, Sr.. The need for more space led to a move in 1953 to the current location, a fourstory mill on West Main Street in South Hadley Falls. His son, also named Wayne Cordes, has been owner and President of Tech Fab since 1985. The success and growth of the company is due to the owner's remaining open to new manufacturing technologies and a staff of 20 skilled employees. Tech Fab is a custom metal fabrication business with customers in the fields of telecommunications, lighting, electronics, and instrumentation. The equipment is mainly computer-numerically-controlled and includes robotic welding and laser cutting. In 1953, Ed Klepacki, a South Hadley native, went to work for Paul Adams, owner of John Stark Laboratories on Pearl Street, which manufactured ball grain plates for the printing industry. In about

A C-5A cargo plane prepares to land at Westover Air Force Base. Precision Lithograining is the building in the forground.

(aerial JQS photo )

on the corner of Lyman and Newton Streets where the Food Mart (now Big Y plaza) was located. Sawyer moved his dairy business to Holyoke in the late 1940s, changing the name to Riverside Dairy. The company both manufactured and delivered dairy products. The business returned to South Hadley in 1960 when Riverside Dairy merged with Beattie's Dairy and LaRose Dairy to form All Star Dairy Foods, moving into the LaRose Dairy building at 456 Newton St. They formed a buying group. As the owners of Beattie's Dairy and LaRose's Dairy retired, Sawyer's two sons, Russell

The above TechFab building (2003) may have been built with bricks from the nearby brickyard. ( JQS photo )

four years the company, in conjunction with the Fuller Brush Co. and Alcoa Aluminum, began a new system that would revolutionize the newspaper printing process with "brush grained" plates. The process was very successful, and John Stark moved to larger quarters on Main Street in Holyoke. After some years, Stark Laboratories closed and Klepacki started his own business, known as Precision Lithograining, Inc. in South Hadley in 1987. It occupies two adjacent buildings on New Ludlow Road and is run by Ed's sons, President Ed Klepacki, Jr., Dwight Klepacki, vice president and Andrew Klepacki. The company supplies offset plate products to a number of OEM partners as well as through their own international distribution network. A goal of the company is to bring environmentally favorable processes to the industry. Sawyer's Dairy was started by Ray Sawyer in the 1930s in a barn SH 1900 Old Carew Street School built US

1900 Jan. 5 Stone dam completed

LaRose's Diary (above) was bought out by Russell and Robert Sawyer of All Star Diary 1900 Mary Woolley installed President of Mount Holyoke College

1898 Teddy Roosevelt leads charge up San Juan Hill

1898 Puerto Rico becomes U. S. territory 1899-1902 U. S. fights Philippine insurrection

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