Read Soapmaking%20from%20Coconut%20Oil%20by%20Cold%20Processes.pdf text version

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Soapmaking from Coconut Oil

by Cold Process

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APPROP

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lATE TECHNOWGY

IN SMALL INDUSTRY

DEVELOPMENT

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tAR TfCHUOLOG9 R PROG-SERIES NO. 17

TECJo/NC~gf;~. CENTER AM PESlJURCE

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8"C~W'k AVE. £X7. MAKA M~TRO- MAlILA fr.

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Technonet Asia

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U.P.Institute for Small-Scale Industries

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I. WHATIS SOAP?

Common hard soapis the sodium salt of a

fatty acid which results from the chemical

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3. Builder- sodium silicate. Thische~ical

is,available the ChemicalPhilipat

pIne Mfg. Corp.

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reaction of fats and alkali. Fats and oil are primarily triglycerides.This meansthat a moleculeof glycerol haslinked up with three moleculesof fatty acids.During saponification with alkali, the triglyceri~e is ?roken down to glycerol and fatty acidswith the

a er com rnrng Wi e so ium rn tea ai to form soap molecules. Coconut oil soap is a well-known commercially established product. Coconut oil is known to be an ideal raw material for soapmaking due to its hardness, ready stability and free lathering properties of the sodium soaps made with it. Furthermore, because

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4, Perfume- essentialoils suchascitro1\ella oil, ilang-ilang,etc. \ ' \ EQUIPMENT/TOOLS In the courseof making soapby cold

Process simple equipmen These tools are:

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soap mixer moulder cu~te~(guitar string) w~ghrng scale pall p~rcolator

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this oil i~ easily sa~oni.ried e~en at roo~ temperature, soapmakrng is applIcable. This saponification of coconut oil at room tem-

7. 011storage tank 8. hydrometer. 9. graduated cylInders

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peratureis popularly known assoapmaking by cold process.This simpleprocess adapis table in the farm or in rural coconut communities. The cold process soapmaking of involves the reaction of the oil with a quantity of strong causticalkali solution almost equivalent to that theoretically required for complete saponification.This processneedsvery siml?le equipment. IV. ll.

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I O. bea~eFS other measuring and equipment The equipmentlisted aboveare those usedby the ICRDP-NISTgroup in developing the soapmaking technology. A contraption, however,of any of theseequipment may be done aslong asthe formulation is madeconstant. FORMULAnON Basis: 5 kg soap Oil- 3.57 kg (3.88 liters)

Lye or caustic soda solution (35° Be)

MATERIALS/INGREDIENTS REQUIRED Basis: 5 kg soap.

The following materials are used in making

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soapby cold process: I. Fat - coc~nut oil preparedby.wet processrng other conventionalmethor ods. This is readily availableat Philippine Refining Companyand other oil millers. 2. Lye - causticsodasolution (35°Be**).

(sodiumhydroxide) 1.77 liters Sodiumsilicate- 0.14liter Essential - 0.04liter oil

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*Based

To get 35° Be, weigh 399 grams of sodium hydroxide flakes or pellets tap water. Check the density by

means ofa hydrometer.

and then dissolvethis in one liter of

(.14LITER)

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on Industrial Otemicai Researchand Development Program (ICRI:>P)- National Institute of Science& Technology

SODIUM

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SODIUM SILICATE

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expenrnent. .*Baume - A calibration sc~e for liquids that is reducible to speciiK: gravity by the following formulas: for liquids heavier than water. specific gravity = 145 - 145 -l1(at 60"F); for liquids lighter than water - specific gravity = 140 - 130 + 11 60~; 11 the (at is r~ding on the Baume Scalein degreesBaume.Baume is abbreVlatedBe.

PERFUME

COPRA OIL (3.88 liters)

HYDROXIDE (1.77 liters)

(.04 liTER)

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PREPARAllON OF THE SOAPBY COLD

PROCESS 1. Measure or weigh carefully the required quantity of coconut oil, then transfer to

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container of the soapmixer equipment. 2. Measure lye required and add this the

slowly to the oil while stirring using the manually-operated (pedal type) soap mixer equipment as shown in Figures 1 and 2. This step, based on the ICRDP-NIST experiment, should be done at the range

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3. Add measured amountof sodiumsilicate

(builder) and essential oil (perfume). Stir continuously for 5-10 minutes. The ideal time required for steps 2

of 15-20minutes of continuousstirring to get the ideal result.

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and 3 to be completedshould be 30-35

minutes. Less than this time would not

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an ideal preparationfor the saponification process while more than this time would hardenthe mixture, thereby making the molding process difficult to accomplish. 4. Pour the homogenous viscoussoapmix-

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ture into the moulder. Allow to standat

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5. Cut the soap into barsof suitable sizes

with a string or wire.

room temperaturefor 72 hours (three days) to enablecompletesapoJ}ification.

FIG. 1

PROCESS FLOW CHART

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VII. ADV ANT AGES/LIMIT A TIONS

Advantages

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Coco-j oil

Caustic--7 soda

~Perfume of essential oil

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Low productIon cost Adaptable to rural areas No skill required Simple process involved Minimal maintenance req uired

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Inspection Moulding . Inspection

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Limitations/Disadvantages 1. Lesser foaming ability than other commercially available soap. Commercially produced soaps contain chemicals to in-

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crease their foaming ability. Thisproduct

producedby cold process not mixed is

with other chemicals.

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Storage

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2. Glycerine which can be sold to confectioners cannot be extracted, thereby lessening probableprofit of the the . project.

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PRODUCTIONCOSTOF SOAPMAKING BY COLD PROCESS \ Basis: 100 barsof soap* Raw Materials

1. Oil (copra:

32.46 kg Plll.99 \ . P3.45/kg)

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2. Sodium Hydroxide: 6.3 kg (P6.00/kg) 3. Sodium hydroxide: 0.94 kg. (P4.29/kg)

37.80

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4. Essentialoil:

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0.117 kg.

(PI 25.00/kg)

14.60

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Direct2 workers at @ Labor

Pl8/day Utilities

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Water: nil Total

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production

cost Unit cost: 2q~~2 Mark-upprice of 30% Commercialprice of one soap bar

P204.42 P2.04 P2.65 P4.00

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SOURCE For further inquiries about soapmaking by cold process, contact Mrs. Antonia Gonzales ICRDP-NIST,NSTA Compound, of Bicutan, Tagig,Metro Manila.

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*Pricesasof April 1983

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